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Runes are an ancient Germanic alphabet, used for writing, divination and magick.

They were used throughout northern Europe, Scandinavia, the British sles, and celand from about !"" B.#.E. to !$"" #.E. Runic inscriptions of great age have even been found in %orth &merica, supporting stories that the 'ikings arrived in the &mericas long before #olumbus. Tacitus, in #hapter ( of his Germania, describes a form of divination used by Germanic tribes) *To divination and casting of lots, they pay attention beyond any other people. Their method of casting lots is a simple one) they cut a branch from a fruit+bearing tree and divide it into small pieces which they mark with certain distinctive signs and scatter at random onto a white cloth. Then, the priest of the community if the lots are consulted publicly, or the father of the family if it is done privately, after invoking the gods and with eyes raised to heaven, picks up three pieces, one at a time, and interprets them according to the signs previously marked upon them.* ,ve been working with Runes since !--., when was introduced to their use at a family reunion. ,m of %orse heritage. believe that this is why found a natural affinity to runes, although one certainly does not need to be Scandinavian to use them. Runes are an oracle from which one seeks advice. They work best if you detail your current circumstances and then ask a specific /uestion. Rune readings are sometimes obscure. They hint toward answers, but you have to figure out the details. This is when the rune casters

intuition becomes paramount. Some times the Runes *sing* to me, and their meaning becomes instantly clear. Runic divination or *rune casting* is not *fortunetelling* in the sense that one actually sees the future. nstead, runes give one a means of analy0ing the path that one is on and a likely outcome. The future is not fi1ed. t changes with everything one does. f one does not like the prediction, one can always change paths. Since ancient times, runes have been used for divination and magic, in addition to writing. The word *rune* actually means mystery, secret or whisper. Each rune has esoteric meanings and properties associated with it, beyond its mundane meaning and phonetic value. Each translates into a word or a phrase signifying concepts important to the early peoples who used them, representing the forces of nature and mind. Each rune has a story attached to it, a relationship to a %orse God. 2din, the %orse 3igh God of the &esir, hung from the world tree, 4ggdrasil, impaled on his own spear, for nine days and nights in order to gain the knowledge of runes. 5hen the runes appeared below him, he reached down and took them up, and the runic knowledge gave him power . 3e later passed on this knowledge to the 'anir goddess 6reya. She, in turn, taught him the magic of seidr. 3eimdall, the god who guarded the Rainbow Bridge, taught the runes to mankind. Runic alphabets first appeared among German tribes in central and eastern Europe. Some runes symbols are likely to have been ac/uired from other alphabets, such as the Greek, Etruscan, and the Early Roman. The runes were made of straight lines to make the characters suitable for cutting into wood or stone. The earliest runic inscriptions on stone are dated to the late 7rd century &8, although it is probable that runic alphabets had been in use for some centuries before. The 2ld Germanic Runic alphabet or *Elder 6uthark* contains 9. runes. The first si1 runes of the alphabet spell out the word *6:T3&R;*. &s the runes spread northwards into Scandinavia, some rune symbols were dropped and the alphabet was reduced to only !$ runes. Between ."" and $"" &8, three Germanic tribes, the &ngles, the Sa1ons and the <utes, invaded Britain. They brought the runes with them. The forms of several of the runes changed, notably the runes for &=2, #=;, 3, <, S, and %g. &lso, changes in the language led to nine runes being added to the alphabet to compensate for the e1tra sounds, and several runes were given different corresponding letters.

This alphabet, e1panded to 77 symbols, has become known as the &nglo+Sa1on 6uthorc. The rune names themselves have been passed down relatively intact. &lthough no manuscript e1ists listing the names of the older, Germanic runes, the &nglo+Sa1on and Scandinavian rune poems agree to such an e1tent that their common origin can be deduced. 3ere you can see number of Runic Scripts. The Runes are divided into three &ettir or groups of eight. 8. <. #ooper discusses the significance of the &ettir in understanding the runes and using them in magick. 2n the other pages of this website you,ll find information on rune casting, making a rune set, rune magick, recommended reading, etc. These pages are directed to the curious, the beginning runester, and the runemaster. 2ne who aspires to become adept with runes must have some knowledge of the mythology, history, and culture of ancient Europe and Scandinavia. The kenning of runelore is ine1tricably dependent upon these. >uch of what you find here will merely point you in the right direction. The rest is up to you. 8elve as lightly or as deeply as you wish. hope you fall in love with runes as have.

& reader directed me to a wonderful website called *2mniglot, a guide to writing systems*, which illustrates e1amples of various alphabets of the world. By e1amining some of these we can begin to see the

influences which may have led to development of the Germanic=%orse rune alphabets. t is commonly thought that the Etruscan and ?atin alphabets were sources, but as you will see below, there may have been others, also. &ll of the data that follows are from the information and graphics from the 2mniglot website. 6irst, let,s look at the ma@or runic alphabets Acalled *futharks* based upon the first si1 symbolsB. There are many other variants, but the Elder, &nglo+Sa1on, and 4ounger 6utharks are the most well+known. Runes were used to write many languages including, Gothic, German, 6risian, English, 8anish, Swedish, %orwegian, celandic, ?ithuanian, Russian, 3ebrew and other Semitic languages Adue to trade relations with the ;ha0ars, a Semitic tribe of traders of the Silk RoadB. The runes might be read from left to right or from right to left, even on the same artifact. Translation of runic inscriptions is therefore e1tremely difficult, and complicated by the fact that rune masters sometimes wrote cryptic pu00les or in secret script.

*The Elder 6uthark is thought to be the oldest version of the runic alphabet, and was used in the parts of Europe which were home to Germanic peoples, including Scandinavia. 2ther versions probably developed from it. The names of the letters are shown in #ommon Germanic, the reconstructed ancestor of all Germanic languages.*

*& number of e1tra letters were added to the runic alphabet to write &nglo+Sa1on=2ld English. Runes were probably bought to Britain in the Cth century by the &ngles, Sa1ons, <utes and 6risians Acollectively known as the &nglo+Sa1onsB, and were used until about the !!th century. Runic inscriptions are mostly found on @ewelry, weapons, stones and other ob@ects. 'ery few e1amples of runic writing on manuscripts have survived. * DThe chart that follows is incomplete. There are additional &+S runes, which you can see here.E

*This version of the runic alphabet was used sporadically in Scandinavia, in particular in 8enmark and Sweden, until about the !Fth century .* DThere are variants of the 4ounger 6uthark also, which you can see here.E

The commonality of symbols of all of the following alphabets makes sense when one considers the migration of ancient peoples from the east to the west. The people and languages of northern Europe are considered * ndo+European* because of this migration. t,s not unreasonable that customs, languages, alphabets, mythology, etc. share common origins. Staggering, isn,t itG

*The Etruscan alphabet is thought to have been developed from the Greek alphabet by Greek colonists in taly. The earliest known inscription dates from the middle of the $th century B#. >ore than !",""" Etruscan inscriptions have been found on tombstones, vases, statues, mirrors and @ewelry. 6ragments of a Etruscan book made of linen have also been found. >ost Etruscan inscriptions are written in hori0ontal lines from left to right, but some are boustrophedon Arunning alternately left to right then right to leftB. :sed to write) Etruscan, a language spoken by the Etruscans, who lived in Etruria ATuscany and :mbriaB between about the Hth century B# and the !st century &8. ?ittle is known about the Etruscans or their language.* &rchaic Etruscan alphabet AFth+Cth centuries B#B

%eo+Etruscan alphabet A.th+7rd centuries B#B

*The 2ld talic alphabets developed from the west Greek alphabet, which came to taly via the Greek colonies on Sicily and along the west coast of taly. The Etruscans adapted the Greek alphabet to write Etruscan sometime during the $th century B#, or possibly earlier. >ost of the other alphabets used in taly are thought to have derived from the Etruscan alphabet.*

*The earliest known inscriptions in the ?atin alphabet date from the $th century B#. t was adapted from the Etruscan alphabet during the Fth century B#. The letters 4 and I were taken from the Greek alphabet to write Greek loan words. 2ther letters were added from time to time as the ?atin alphabet was adapted for other languages.*

*The >essapic alphabet is thought to have derived directly from the Greek alphabet, rather than developing from the Etruscan alphabet. The only known inscriptions in the >essapic alphabet date from the 9nd and !st centuries B#. The >essapic language was not related to other languages of taly.*

*The Romans used @ust 97 letters to write ?atin. There were no lower case letters, and ;, (, 4 and I used only for writing words of Greek origin. The letters <, : and 5 were added to the alphabet at a later stage to write languages other than ?atin. < is a variant of , : is a variant of ', and 5 was introduced as a ,double+v, to make a distinction between the sounds we know as ,v, and ,w, which was unnecessary in ?atin.*

But what other alphabets may have influenced runesJ Remember that over the millennia there was a great migration of people, spreading from the birthplace of mankind, in the *middle east* to what are now Europe and northern &frica. &ncient people did travel++a lot++and long before the 'ikings became known as e1plorers and traders.

*3ungarian runes AS0Kkely RovLsMrLsB are descended from the ;Nk Turki script used in #entral &sia. They were used by the S0Kkler >agyars in 3ungary before stvLn, the first #hristian king of 3ungary, ordered all pre+#hristian writings to be destroyed. n remote parts of Transylvania however, the runes were still used up until the !HC"s. 3ungarian runes were usually written on sticks in boustrophedon style Aalternating direction right to left then left to rightB. The runes include separate letters for all the phonemes of 3ungarian and are in this respect better suited to written 3ungarian than the ?atin alphabet. *

The upper rune rows are the Elder 6uthark variants. The lower rune row shows the Turkish Runes and their phonetic e/uivalents.

*The Tifinagh or Tifinigh ab@ad is thought to have derived from the ancient Berber script. DBerbers were mountain people, who lived in northwestern &frica, in what is now >orocco.E The name Tifinagh means ,the Ohoenician letters,, or possibly comes from the Greek word for writing tablet, ,pMnaks,. t is not taught in schools, but is still used occasionally by the Tuareg for private notes, love letters and in decoration. 6or public purposes, the &rabic alphabet is used.*

*The South &rabian alphabet is known from inscriptions found in southern &rabia dating from between $"" B# and $"" &8. ts origins are not known. The South &rabian alphabet, like &rabic and 3ebrew, includes only consonants. t was written from right to left in hori0ontal lines. The top row of letters are written in monumental style, while the bottom row of letters are in cursive style. *

*The Sabaean or Sabaic alphabet is one of the south &rabian alphabets. The oldest known inscriptions in this alphabet date from about C"" B#. ts origins are not known, though one theory is that it developed from the Byblos alphabet. The Sabaean alphabet, like &rabic and 3ebrew, includes only consonants. :nlike &rabic and 3ebrew, Sabaean has no system for vowel indication. n most inscriptions it is written from right to left, in some it is written in boustrophedon style Aalternating right to left and left to rightB. t was used to write Sabaean, an e1tinct Semitic language spoken in Saba, the biblical Sheba, in southwestern &rabia. The Sabaeans managed to unite southern &rabia into a single state by the 7rd century &8, but were con/uered by the &byssinians in C9C &8. *

work with the *Elder 6uthark*, the runic alphabet which is a composite of the runic symbols most commonly used in northern Europe. The names of the runes of the Elder 6uthark are speculative recreations of what linguists call *proto+Germanic*, which stems from *proto+ ndo+European*. There are many versions of the runic alphabets. Each has variations in names, shapes, esoteric meanings and magical uses. 2ne should not mi1 futharks, or the intent or meaning becomes confused. The Elder 6uthark, the &nglo+Sa1on 6uthorc, and the 4ounger Aor ScandinavianB 6uthark are the most fre/uently seen versions of the runic alphabets in use today. The runes are broken into three sections or groups of eight, called aett Aaettir, pluralB. This helps one to remember their order, and later, you will see, has significance in magical uses. 6irst the rune name is given, then its phonetic value, its symbolic image, and finally the esoteric meaning used in divination. Rune users disagree on whether or not to place a different meaning on a rune that falls in an inverted or reversed position. Some runes look the same upside down and right side up. These cannot be *reversed*. %evertheless, any of the runes may appear as a *merkstave* Awhich literally means *dark stick* and implies a *dark* meaningB, depending on how the runes are cast. %ote that a *reversed* or *merkstave* meaning is not the opposite of its primary meaning, but usually has a more negative connotation.

6ehu A6) 8omestic cattle, wealth.B Oossessions won or earned, earned income, luck. &bundance, financial strength in the present or near future. Sign of hope and plenty, success and happiness. Social success. Energy, foresight, fertility, creation=destruction AbecomingB. 6ehu Reversed or >erkstave) ?oss of personal property, esteem, or something that you put in effort to keep. t indicates some sort of failure. Greed, burnout, atrophy, discord. #owardice, stupidity, dullness, poverty, slavery, bondage. :ru0) A:) &uroch, a wild o1.B Ohysical strength and speed, untamed potential. & time of great energy and health. 6reedom, energy, action, courage, strength, tenacity, understanding, wisdom. Sudden or une1pected changes Ausually for the betterB. Se1ual desire, masculine potency. The shaping of power and pattern, formulation of the self. :ru0 Reversed or >erkstave) 5eakness, obsession, misdirected force, domination by others. Sickness, inconsistency, ignorance. ?ust, brutality, rashness, callousness, violence. Thurisa0) AT3) Thorn or a Giant.B Reactive force, directed force of destruction and defense, conflict. nstinctual will, vital eroticism, regenerative catalyst. & tendency toward change. #atharsis, purging, cleansing fire. >ale se1uality, fertili0ation. AThorr, the Thunder god, was of Giant stock.BThurisa0 Reversed or >erkstave) 8anger,

defenselessness, compulsion, betrayal, dullness. Evil, malice, hatred, torment, spite, lies. & bad man or woman. RapeJ &nsu0) A&) The &s, ancestral god, i.e. 2din.B & revealing message or insight, communication. Signals, inspiration, enthusiasm, speech, true vision, power of words and naming. Blessings, the taking of advice. Good health, harmony, truth, wisdom. &nsu0 Reversed or >erkstave) >isunderstanding, delusion, manipulation by others, boredom. 'anity and grandilo/uence. A2din is a mighty, but duplicitous god. 3e always has his own agenda.B Raidho) AR) 5agon or chariot.B Travel, both in physical terms and those of lifestyle direction. & @ourney, vacation, relocation, evolution, change of place or setting. Seeing a larger perspective. Seeing the right move for you to make and deciding upon it. Oersonal rhythm, world rhythm, dance of life. Raidho Reversed or >erkstave) #risis, rigidity, stasis, in@ustice, irrationality. 8isruption, dislocation, demotion, delusion, possibly a death. ;ena0) A;) Beacon or torch.B 'ision, revelation, knowledge, creativity, inspiration, technical ability. 'ital fire of life, harnessed power, fire of transformation and regeneration. Oower to create your own reality, the power of light. 2pen to new strength, energy, and power now. Oassion, se1ual love. ;ena0 Reversed or >erkstave) 8isease, breakup, instability, lack of creativity. %akedness, e1posure, loss of illusion and false hope. Gebo) AG) Gift.B Gifts, both in the sense of sacrifice and of generosity, indicating balance. &ll matters in relation to e1changes, including contracts, personal relationships and partnerships. Gebo >erkstave AGebo cannot be reversed, but may lie in oppositionB) Greed, loneliness, dependence, over+sacrifice. 2bligation, toll, privation, bribery. 5un@o) A5 or ') <oy.B <oy, comfort, pleasure. 6ellowship, harmony, prosperity. Ecstasy, glory, spiritual reward, but also the possibility of going *over the top*. f restrained, the meaning is general success and recognition of worth. 5un@o Reversed or >erkstave) Stultification, sorrow, strife, alienation. 8elirium,

into1ication, possession by higher forces, impractical enthusiasm. Raging fren0y, ber0erker.

3agala0) A3) 3ail.B 5rath of nature, destructive, uncontrolled forces, especially the weather, or within the unconscious. Tempering, testing, trial. #ontrolled crisis, leading to completion, inner harmony. 3agala0 >erkstave A3agala0 cannot be reversed, but may lie in oppositionB) %atural disaster, catastrophe. Stagnation, loss of power. Oain, loss, suffering, hardship, sickness, crisis. %authi0) A%) %eed.B 8elays, restriction. Resistance leading to strength, innovation, need+fire Aself+relianceB. 8istress, confusion, conflict, and the power of will to overcome them. Endurance, survival, determination. & time to e1ercise patience. Recognition of one,s fate. >a@or self+initiated change. 6ace your fears. %authi0 Reversed or >erkstave) #onstraint of freedom, distress, toil, drudgery, la1ity. %ecessity, e1tremity, want, deprivation, starvation, need, poverty, emotional hunger. sa) A ) ce.B & challenge or frustration. Osychological blocks to thought or activity, including grievances. Standstill, or a time to turn inward and wait for what is to come, or to seek clarity. This rune reinforces runes around it. sa >erkstave A sa cannot be reversed, but may lie in oppositionB) Ego+mania, dullness, blindness, dissipation. Treachery, illusion, deceit, betrayal, guile, stealth, ambush, plots. <era) A< or 4) & year, a good harvest.B The results of earlier efforts are reali0ed. & time of peace and happiness, fruitful season. t can break through stagnancy. 3opes and e1pectations of peace and prosperity. The promise of success earned. ?ife cycle, cyclical pattern of the universe. Everything changes, in its own time. <era >erkstave A<era cannot be reversed, but may lie in oppositionB) Sudden setback, reversals. & ma@or change, repetition, bad timing, poverty, conflict. Eihwa0) AE ) 4ew tree.B Strength, reliability, dependability, trustworthiness. Enlightenment, endurance. 8efense, protection. The driving force to ac/uire, providing motivation and a sense of purpose.

ndicates that you have set your sights on a reasonable target and can achieve your goals. &n honest man who can be relied upon. Eihwa0 Reversed or >erkstave) #onfusion, destruction, dissatisfaction, weakness. Oerthro) AO) ?ot cup, vagina.B :ncertain meaning, a secret matter, a mystery, hidden things and occult abilities. nitiation, knowledge of one,s destiny, knowledge of future matters, determining the future or your path. Oertaining to things feminine, feminine mysteries including female fertility, and vagina. Good lot, fellowship and @oy. Evolutionary change. Oerthro Reversed or >erkstave) &ddiction, stagnation, loneliness, malaise. &lgi0) AI or +R) Elk, protection.B Orotection, a shield. The protective urge to shelter oneself or others. 8efense, warding off of evil, shield, guardian. #onnection with the gods, awakening, higher life. t can be used to channel energies appropriately. 6ollow your instincts. ;eep hold of success or maintain a position won or earned. &lgi0 Reversed) or >erkstave) 3idden danger, consumption by divine forces, loss of divine link. Taboo, warning, turning away, that which repels. Sowilo) AS) The sun.B Success, goals achieved, honor. The life+ force, health. & time when power will be available to you for positive changes in your life, victory, health, and success. #ontact between the higher self and the unconscious. 5holeness, power, elemental force, sword of flame, cleansing fire. Sowilo >erkstave ASowilo cannot be reversed, but may lie in oppositionB) 6alse goals, bad counsel, false success, gullibility, loss of goals. 8estruction, retribution, @ustice, casting down of vanity. 5rath of god.

Tiwa0) AT) Tyr, the sky god.B 3onor, @ustice, leadership and authority. &nalysis, rationality. ;nowing where one,s true strengths lie. 5illingness to self+sacrifice. 'ictory and success in any competition or in legal matters. Tiwa0 Reversed or >erkstave) 2ne,s energy and creative flow are blocked. >ental paralysis, over+analysis, over+ sacrifice, in@ustice, imbalance. Strife, war, conflict, failure in

competition. 8windling passion, difficulties in communication, and possibly separation. Berkano) AB) Berchta, the birch+goddess.B Birth, general fertility, both mental and physical and personal growth, liberation. Regenerative power and light of spring, renewal, promise of new beginnings, new growth. &rousal of desire. & love affair or new birth. The prospering of an enterprise or venture. Berkano Reversed or >erkstave) 6amily problems and or domestic troubles. &n1iety about someone close to you. #arelessness, abandon, loss of control. Blurring of consciousness, deceit, sterility, stagnation. Ehwa0) AE) 3orse, two horses.B Transportation. >ay represent a horse, car, plane, boat or other vehicle. >ovement and change for the better. Gradual development and steady progress are indicated. 3armony, teamwork, trust, loyalty. &n ideal marriage or partnership. #onfirmation beyond doubt the meanings of the runes around it. Ehwa0 Reversed or >erkstave) This is not really a negative rune. & change is perhaps craved. 6eeling restless or confined in a situation. Reckless haste, disharmony, mistrust, betrayal. >anna0) A>) >an, mankind.B The SelfP the individual or the human race. 4our attitude toward others and their attitudes towards you. 6riends and enemies, social order. ntelligence, forethought, create, skill, ability. 8ivine structure, intelligence, awareness. E1pect to receive some sort of aid or cooperation now. >anna0 Reversed or >erkstave) 8epression, mortality, blindness, self+delusion. #unning, slyness, manipulation, craftiness, calculation. E1pect no help now. ?agu0) A?) 5ater, or a leek.B 6low, water, sea, a fertility source, the healing power of renewal. ?ife energy and organic growth. magination and psychic matters. 8reams, fantasies, mysteries, the unknown, the hidden, the deep, the underworld. Success in travel or ac/uisition, but with the possibility of loss. ?agu0 Reversed or >erkstave) &n indication of a period of confusion in your life. 4ou may be making wrong decisions and poor @udgements. ?ack of creativity and feelings of being in a rut. 6ear, circular motion, avoidance, withering. >adness, obsession, despair, perversity, sickness, suicide.

ngwa0) A%G) ng, the earth god.B >ale fertility, gestation, internal growth. #ommon virtues, common sense, simple strengths, family love, caring, human warmth, the home. Rest stage, a time of relief, of no an1iety. & time when all loose strings are tied and you are free to move in a new direction. ?isten to yourself. ngwa0 >erkstave A ngwa0 cannot be reversed, but may lie in oppositionB) mpotence, movement without change. Oroduction, toil, labor, work. 8aga0) A8) 8ay or dawn.B Breakthrough, awakening, awareness. 8aylight clarity as opposed to nighttime uncertainty. & time to plan or embark upon an enterprise. The power of change directed by your own will, transformation. 3ope=happiness, the ideal. Security and certainty. Growth and release. Balance point, the place where opposites meet. 8aga0 >erkstave A8aga0 cannot be reversed, but may lie in oppositionB) & completion, ending, limit, coming full circle. Blindness, hopelessness. 2thala) A2) &ncestral property.B nherited property or possessions, a house, a home. 5hat is truly important to one. Group order, group prosperity. ?and of birth, spiritual heritage, e1perience and fundamental values. &id in spiritual and physical @ourneys. Source of safety, increase and abundance. 2thala Reversed or >erkstave) ?ack of customary order, totalitarianism, slavery, poverty, homelessness. Bad karma, pre@udice, clannishness, provincialism. 5hat a man is bound to. Blank Rune) There is no historical support for a *Blank Rune* in runic divination. t was invented in the !-H",s. t should not be used in a rune casting. f you bought a rune set with a blank piece, save it in case you lose another rune piece, but don,t use it in rune casting.

*8ivination + regardless of the tools + works because in the system one is using the individual card=he1agram=rune etc. represent the whole in some unified way. &t the moment of ,random, mi1ing, because of intent, the cards order themselves to mirror the reality of the /uerier.*

Runic divination, *runecasting*, is not *fortune telling*. Runecasting works deeply with the subconscious. The rune pouch with its runic symbols represents the entire universe. &s one poses a /uestion, one,s entire conscious and unconscious mind is focused toward that /uestion, so that the runelots selected are not truly random selections, but rather choices made by the subconscious. Runecraft operates on an ancient form of psychology. Even back in 'iking times, there was a remarkable understanding of the human psyche. They recogni0ed cause and effect, and the interconnectedness of all things. The word to describe this interconnectedness was *wyrd*, which was eventually perverted into the modern meaning of *weird*. t did not originally mean something unusual or strange. Rather, it referred to the far+reaching effects of that which one does. The concept of *fate* was also not as we know it now. nstead of a helpless

predestination, *fate* meant a destiny created by one,s earlier actions. 5yrd was pictured as a web, like that of a spider. The symbology is e1cellent. 5hen the spider steps onto a thread Aa pathB the vibrations affect the entire web and that which is contained within the web, @ust as our actions affect our immediate world and those around us, and the actions of others affect our lives. 5hen one does a runic reading, one usually addresses a particular issue, and e1amines the past, the present and the *future*, or rather *what will be if one follows the path one appears to be on*. The future is always perceived as mutable, changeable. The runic reading is done as an evaluation process, not as fortunetelling. 2ne has an opportunity to look at what has occurred in the past Aregarding the issue being /uestionedB, what is occurring right now, and what direction one is headed. & runecaster does not see the future. 3e=she e1amines cause and effect and points out a likely outcome. %ot e1actly occult, is itJ t,s not supernatural and it,s not very mysterious++although the uninitiated considered it a delving into mystery, much like a patient of a psychiatrist might. t,s certainly not magical or demonic. nstead it is a methodology for e1amining the path one is on and what the effects might be, by making use of one,s subconscious Ai.e. an *intuitive perception*B, unfettered by limited conscious belief systems. 8owsing, or *divination* by bent stick or pendulum is similar. t is not supernatural. t is, again, a manifestation of one,s subconscious. &ll *intuitive perception* is such. %othing magical about it, merely a means of awakening one,s right+brain.

6ind a suitable place to do the reading. 4ou do not want to be disturbed. Try to sit facing %orth if possible, the direction of the Gods in %orse mythology. Olace a small white cloth on the surface in front of you. 4ou work with the runes on this cloth. This cloth protects them from getting dirty and also forms the boundary for the casting. #arefully form a /uestion in your mind. Take your time doing this, as it is very important that you do not change the /uestion midway through the reading. 2nce you have the /uestion firmly fi1ed in your mind begin to gently mi1 the runes in their bag or container. #ontinue to

mi1 the runes until you feel compelled to take up certain rune lots. AThis is why it is important that the rune lots be of the same shape and si0e) so that you can,t identify each rune by shape.B #ontinue to stir and select lots until you have the correct number of runes in front of you for the layout you will be using. ;eep track of the order in which the runes were pulled, laying them in their proper position in the layout as you pull them. 4ou can use any Tarot layout, or one of the methods described below. Runes are oracles, and oracles are often obscure. Each rune can mean many different things. t is up to the runecaster to decide how these meanings apply to the /uestion at hand. 4ou may get even deeper interpretations through your own *gut* reactions to the rune,s definition. 3owever, don,t delude yourself in thinking that you have a completely different understanding of the cast than indicated by the traditional interpretations. Stick to the recogni0ed interpretations, but learn to e1pand on their meanings through insight and meditation.

3ere is one way do a rune casting. reach into my rune bag, stir them around a bit and pick up a bunch. *cast* them onto a white cloth, and see how the symbols land. Some will be face down and ignore them. f a rune is upright, it has a certain meaning. f a rune is upside down, it has a different meaning. The combination of the visible runes affects the interpretation. Sometimes the runes *sing* to me and the answer to the /uestion is instantly clear. 3ere are the three non+ structured castings use most fre/uently. 2n another page ,ll describe some formal *layouts* to be used for runecasting.

The %orns are the %orse goddesses of fate. :rdh was the goddess of the past, or what has been. 'erdhandi is the goddess of the present, what is. Skuld is the goddess of the future, or what shall be. 6ate or wyrd was a very important factor in the psychology of the ancients. & %orns cast is very simple, consisting of three runes, drawn one at a time from the rune pouch and laid in a row. f face down, flip them over as if turning the pages of a book. The first rune represents the past of the situation in /uestion. The second indicates the present, the

path that the /uerier is currently on. The third suggests the future, a likely outcome if one continues on the present path.

This lovely representation of the %orns was created by Oaul 8empsey. :sed with permission of the artist. Q !--., Oaul 8empsey. &ll rights reserved.

*This method will give a detailed overview of a person,s situation, providing insight into where they are in terms of their spiritual path, and clarifying the options and possible outcomes available to them. %ine is a magical number in %orse mythology. Oick nine runes at random from the pouch. 3old them between your hands for a moment, and focus on your /uestion Aif you have oneB. Then scatter the runes on the table, floor, or cloth if you have one. Read the runes which land face up first. These will relate to the current situation and the circumstances which led to it. 3ow the runes are read is largely sub@ective, but in general, runes lying in the center are the most immediately relevant, while those lying around the edges are less important, or represent more general influences. *Runes that are close together or even touching often compliment each other, or may even represent a single thing, while runes which fall on opposite sides of the pattern fre/uently represent opposing influences. 2ccasionally, a rune will land completely off the cloth or fall off the table. Some people consider such runes to be particularly significant, while others ignore them completely. *2nce you have looked at the runes which landed face up Aand remembered which ones they areB, turn over the rest of the runes without moving them from their positions. These represent outside or

future influences, and will point to possible outcomes. t is up to you to decide what the various positions and patterns in a reading mean, but once you have come up with a few general rules, try to stick with them. &s have said before, consistency is very important. 3owever, rune readings by their nature are very fluid, sub@ective things. Try not to impose too much order on your readings by inventing set meanings for every triangle, s/uare and tetrahedron. Runes are like people + you never know how they will get along together until you introduce them. ?ook at the patterns and relationships that appear in each reading and see what interpretations make sense to you.* from Runic <ourney by <ennifer Smith.

Rune+tines Asuch as twigs or popsicle sticks on which the rune symbols are inscribedB work best for casting on the ground. use these simply by tossing all 9. onto the ground and read the runes which land upright, in the positions in which they land. Their relative positions give their relations. 6or e1ample, if two upright runes are close or touching and lying nearly parallel, then the runes are related. f they cross, then they are in opposition. There are obviously many degrees of this, and you also have to consider groups of runes, and ones which are far away, and the general direction. This techni/ue relies heavily on intuition, since it doesn,t have a spread to lay the runes in, like tarot would use. Between . and H runes generally land upright, which is about right for most in/uiries.

Rune

%ame ?etter 6ehu F *fay+who* :ru0 U *ooo+ roo0e* Thurisa0 TH *thoor+ee+ saws* &nsu0 A *awn+ soo0e Raidho R *rye+ though ;ena0 K or *kane+ C aw0e Gebo G *gay+boe* or *yee+ boe* 5un@o W or *woon+yo*

Ohonetic 'alue f as in *fire* oo as in *boo0e* Amight be pronounced) oo as in *book*B unvoiced th as in *thorn* Anever th as in *the*B a as in *awning*, *call* or *law*

r as in *ride*

k as in *kick*, or hard c as in *cane*.

hard g as in *gift* , y as in *yes*, or silent

V 3agala0 H *haw+gaw+
laws* %authi0 *now+ these*

w as in *warm*, with lips close together, almost like a *v*. h as in *hail*, aspirate *h* as in modern English n as in *need*

sa *ee+saw* <era *yare+ awe* Eihwa0 *eye+ waw0* Oerthro *perth+ row* &lgi0 *all+yeese* or Elha0 *ale+haw0* Sowilo *soe+wee+ low* Tiwa0 *tea+ waw0* Berkano *bear+ kawn+oh* Ehwa0 *ay+waw0* or Ehwo *ay+woh* >anna0 *mawn+ naw0* ?agu0 *law+ goo0e* ngwa0 *eeeng+ waw0* 8aga0 *thaw+ gau0e*

I J or Y EI P Z or -R S T B E M L NG D

ee as in *sleep* y as in *year* or @ as in *@aw*.

i as in *pride*, possibly short i as in *pick*

p as in *poem*

0 or final R

s as in *sun*

t as in *Tuesday*

b as in *birch*

a as in *day*

m as in *mankind*

l as in *life*

nasal sound as ng in *singer*

voiced th as in *the* Anever unvoiced th as in *thick*B or d as in *dog*

2thala *oath+ awe+law*

o as in *oath*

Since the &lgi0 symbol can represent a final rolling +R rather than a I, one might substitute that sound wherever a I appears above. There are as many different pronunciations of the Elder 6uthark rune sounds as there are runic authors. Since the names are modern re+ creations of what is referred to as *proto+ ndo+European*, which no longer e1ists Aor perhaps never e1istedB, your guess is as good as the ne1t person,s. The 5oden,s 3arrow website contains Real &udio sound files of the Elder 6uthark.

3ere are various layouts that can be used for runecasting in order of increasing comple1ity. The first two can be done /uite /uickly. The others take great deliberation. often spend several days on the more comple1 layouts. & description of each position on the layout follows the diagram. 6ive Rune ?ayout Seven Rune ?ayout

6uthark ?ayout Eight+fold 5heel 5orldstead ?ayout

Oeschel, & Oractical Guide to the Runes. Select five runes one at a time and lay them face down on the rune cloth. DThree runes are placed side by side. 2ne is placed above the center and the final one is placed below the center.E The three hori0ontal runes represent your past, present, and future. t is usually best to turn over the center rune A!B first. This is the rune of the present and will show your problem as it is now. t can also show your state of mind. & negative rune in this position that does not seem to be in synch with the /uestion can often show that you Aor your /uerantB are of a very troubled and agitated state of mind. The rune in position to left of the center A9B signifies the past and will tell you what was in the past that caused you to be in your current position. %e1t read the rune laying above the center A7B. This indicates the help that you can e1pect to receive in the problem at hand. f there is a negative rune here, it can indicate an unwillingness to accept the advice given by the runes or another person, or it can indicate delays or slight problems that may impede the speedy resolution of the matter in /uestion.

The rune below center A.B indicates what aspects of the problem must be accepted and cannot be changed. Oositive runes here show a lack of troublesome influences and oppositions, while negative runes show the obstacles to your success. The rune to the right of center ACB is the result rune. This rune indicates the final outcome, given the other factors in the runecast. This runecast indicates recent future happenings, usually within three months.

Oeschel, & Oractical Guide to the Runes This runecast gives a bit more detail with more information on how to deal with your problem and on what lead you to your present dilemma in the first place. t usually speaks of events three months into the future and into the past. f you wish to use this layout but want information on happenings more current than three months, be certain to concentrate on your time frame as well when you are concentrating on your /uestion. The /uestions you can answer with this layout can be much broader in scope than with some other runecasts. nstead of asking *yes* or *no* or *what about my relationshipJ*, you can ask /uestions like *3ow will my @ob progress if take this new business courseJ* or * f started seeing other people, how would my current lover accept itJ* Through /uestions like these, you can certainly get enough information to solve all but the most comple1 problems.

Select seven runes and lay them out in a row of $ with the final one below the row and centered as shown. n this reading, you will have to be interpreting two runes at a time. The first two runes are the problem. Runes 7 and . are read ne1t. These show the factors in the past which have led up to the situations at present. Runes C and $ are the two most important runes in this runecast. They represent the advise the runes are giving you, and e1tra special care must be taken to interpret their meanings as they relate to one another. They can indicate a need to wait and not act or a need to act immediately. They also may indicate a total shift of emphasis to new realms totally unrelated to the problem in /uestion. The final position, rune F, is the result position. ;eep in mind that a positive rune in this place Aor a negative one, for that matterB will only be truly positive Aor negativeB if the preceding runes indicate such an outcome. This is a challenging runecast and certainly worth the time it takes to master it.

Edred Thorsson, Runecaster,s 3andbook. 6ehu) >oney matters. Osychic energies. :ru0) Ohysical health. 'ital energies. Thurisa0) 5hat opposed you Aperhaps physicalB.

&nsu0) Sources of inspiration and intellectual e1pression. Raidho) TravelsRemdashPinner or outer. ;ena0) #reativity. Erotic relationships. Gebo) 5hat will be given to you. 5un@o) Relationships, friends. 5hat will give you happiness. 3agala0) &rea of possible crisis leading to transformation. %authi0) 5hat resists you ApsychicallyB. Source of discontent. sa) 5hat is constraining you. <era) 5here rewards can be e1pected. Relationship with the natural environment. Eihwa0) 3idden influences, state of whole being. Relationship with the numinous environment. Oerthro) 3ow you will find @oy. &lgi0) Thing that needs attention. 5ay to the gods. Sowilo) 5hat will guide you. Tiwa0) #ognitive state. ?egal matters. deals. Berkano) 5hat provides growth and beauty. Ehwa0) 5ith what or whom you should work. Erotic relations. >anna0) 2verall psychic state. &ttitude toward death. ?agu0) State of emotional Balance. 5hat will test you. ngwa0) 5hat you should contemplate. 8aga0) &rea of une1pected synchronicity. 2thala) Greater family matters. %ational or community issues.

&swynn, %orthern >ysteries The &irt ASttB of 6reya is primarily related to practical and mundane matters. 2ne selects the runes unseen and places them in the area ne1t to the runes already there. These meanings are very simple and on the most basic level serve as the background for a strait forward reading, in which /uestions of a practical nature can be answered. 6ehu + 6inancial strength and prosperity of the present and near future. :ru0 + 3ealth matters. Thurisa0 + #onflicts and comple1ities of an aggressive natureP psychological problems. &nsu0 + #ommunications and transmissionsP points things back to sources in the past. Raidho + 5hat is right or not rightP what move to makeP decisionsP returns. ;ena0 + 2pening up of new waysP opportunitiesP information. Gebo + &ll matters of an e1changing natureP contractsP personal relationships. 5un@o + GainP accomplishmentsP that which is wished for.

The second airt, of 3agala0, principally corresponds to emotional matters and the psychological conditions present within the individual. 3agala0 + The uncontrolled forces in the unconscious, which are usually of a disruptive nature and which usually originate in the past. %authi0 + Restrictive forces in the unconsciousP fears, an1ietiesP feelings of guilt. sa + BlocksP stultified conditionsP grievancesP anything that the individual is not prepared to let go ofP the formation of the personalityP conditioning. <era + 3opes and e1pectationsP turning pointsP gradual changesP results of earlier actions. Eihwa0 + The driving forces in the unconsciousP motivationP sense of purpose. Oerthro + The deepest creative part of the unconsciousP the hidden realm of higher material that is waiting to come to fruition and birthP hidden talentsP occult or psychic abilities. &lgi0 + The strong protective side in the unconsciousP the influence which will protect youP religious aspirations. Sowilo + Oosition of the higher self in relations to the unconsciousP the direction in which you will be guided by the higher selfP the ability to establish contact between the higher self and the unconscious.

The third airt transcends the two others, in that it largely relates to relationships with other people, and also to the se1ual side of life. 5hereas the first Ttt is largely concerned with the outer world, and the second mainly deals with the inner world, the third Ttt synthesi0ed both the inner and outer world, and most of the runes in this Ttt contain a dual meaning involving both aspects. Tiwa0 + #reative energies in the martial senseP where your strengths lieP where to direct your energies in taking initiativesP honor and @ustice, leadership and authority. Berkano + 6ertilityP birth, rebirthP growthP maternityP family lifeP feminine mysteries. Ehwa0 + &daptabilityP relationships with othersP @oint effortsP cooperationP se1uality. >anna0 + Oeople at largeP attitude toward othersP other people,s attitudes towards youP legal matters, friends and enemiesP intellect. ?agu0 + EmotionsP stabilityP imaginationP psychic mattersP affections. ngwa0 + ntegrationP gestationP e1pectationsP progeny. 8aga0 + TransmissionP oppositesP position between light and darknessP initiationP balance between the worlds outside time and spaceP cosmic consciousnessP change from one thing into its oppositeP new beginnings. 2thala + 3ome lifeP countryP spiritual heritageP e1perienceP foundationP fundamental valuesP establishing.

Thorsson, Runecaster,s 3andbook. &swynn, %orthern >ysteries The pattern of the %orse Sttir of the 3eavens Awhich points out %orth, South, East and 5est, and the /uadrants betweenB is combined with the other most obvious division of *space*, that of the nine worlds of 4ggdrasil, to form the 5orldstead design used to divide the casting cloth into fields of meaning. n reality, this figure represents the *collapsing* of multidimensional space into a two+dimensional modelRemdashPas do many sacred symbols of all kinds. The fields are names for the nine worlds of 4ggdrasil and derive their meanings from these concepts. AThe actual cloth should not have the names of the worlds on it.B The lots falling within the inner circles made up of >idhgardr+ Usgardhr+3el+?@VssLlfheimr+SvartLlfheimr Awhich in the three+ dimensional model make up the vertical columnB give a reading of the sub@ective or psychological state of, or influences on, the person. Those of ?@VssLlfheimr and SvartLlfheimr are more *personal*. while those of Usgardhr and 3el are more *transpersonal*. The lots coming down in the outer fields of %iflheimr+>uspellsheimr+'anaheimr+ <Ntunheimr Awhich together with >idhgardhr form the hori0ontal plane in the 4ggdrasil modelB clarify the state of the ob@ective universe and how it affects the person in /uestion. %ote carefully the special synthesi0ing function of >idhgardhrRemdashPthe centerRemdashPwhere all potentialities are Aor can beB manifested. The runes are cast blindly upon the cloth and are read as they lie on the cloth in their steads of meaning. &ccording to personal custom,

lots which land face down may be read as murk+staves or they may be removed from the cloth and set aside. * nverted* runes cannot be read as such operations of this kind. Those that fall off the cloth altogether should be disregarded. A%ote, however, what these lots areRemdashPthey may be significant by their absenceGB 2nce a final configuration has been established, a comple1 picture may appear. This kind of casting is sometimes so comple1 that it cannot be fully interpreted in one sitting Aespecially by beginning runecastersB. Therefore, be sure and draw out a record of the casting. 2ften the direction a lot is facingRemdashPit may seem to be *pointing to* another lotRemdashPgives subtle clues which reveal nuances in the lot,s interpretation. 6or this reason a sketched record is preferred. The true significance of the casting may not be reali0ed until sometime later when your are contemplating the working record. #ontinued ne1t page. The pattern resulting from a casting upon the airts can be read in several ways. 4ou may start from what is now manifesting itself in >idhgardhr and work out to the more remotely influential realms, e.g., from >idhgardhr to ?@VssLlfheimr and SvartLlfheimr, and from this pairing to Usgardhr and 3el, and from there to the outermost realms of 'anaheimr. 2r, you might reverse this process working from %iflheimr and >uspellsheimr back to >idhgardhr. :ltimately, no linear progression is really inherent in this patternRemdashPit is rather an ultra dimensional model. Therefore, intuition may be each runester,s best guide. %iflheim) %ordhr A%orthB. That which resists you. Oassive or restrictive influences from the outside. Things tending toward dormancy. The deepest part of the shadow in the unconscious. %ifelhel of %iflheim means literally *fog world*. 6og is an intangible, insidious state between water and air. &ll the re@ects of the conscious get deposited here. t is the place from which conflicts originate. <otunheim) &ustr AEastB. That which confuses you. That which may be left to chance. 6orces pressing for change. Realm of crisis. 8isruptive, raw masculine forces of the unconsciousP the destructive male urgeP the chaotic part of the self. Wsgard) ?andnordhr A%ortheastB. 3igher influences. %ature of relationships with the divinities. The veiled branches of the /uestion. >atters of honor, positive AactiveB influence from past states of

e1istence A*incarnations)B++XrlNg. ndividuality. 3ighest plane. 3igher self. Spirituality. 'anaheim) 'estr A5estB. Oromotes growth. Erotic relationships. Oersons of the opposite se1. Balancing influences. 6orces of continuity, structure, and well being. 6eeling A5aterB. ?@VssLlfheim) :tnordhr A%orthwestB. >ental influences. 6amily matters. >essages of 3uginnRemdashPdirections in which you should plan. 5hat will help you. Oaths to help you reali0e influences from Usgardhr. A&irB. Olants, elves, tree spirits and birds are ruled over by 6reyr, ?ord of the 'anir. >idgard) #enter. The way people come together to manifest themselves in life. The outcome in life. Ego consciousness. The Oersonality, Ego #onsciousness or ?ower self. 3el) :tsudhr ASouthwestB. 3idden or suppressed instinctual desires. %ature of automatic functions or behaviors. The hidden route of the /uestion. %egative Apassive, restrictiveB influence from pasts states of e1istenceRemdashPXrlNg. 8estructive part of the 6eminine, hidden fourth aspect of the moonP the devouring part of the motherP the half+ alive half+dead daughter of ?oki, half black, half white. SvartLlfheim) ?andsudhr ASoutheastB. #reative emotional influences. >oney matters. >essages from >uninnRemdashPthings you should reflect on. Oaths to reali0e influence from 3el. Sensation AEarthB. The 8ark Elves are smiths, like 'olund, working with minerals, taking base materials from the earth and transmuting them into higher materials. >uspellsheim) Sudhr ASouthB. State of vial energies, that which vitali0es you. &ctive influences from outside. Things tending toward activity.

5hen should one give a *reversed* meaning to a rune during a divinationJ f drawing runes one by one from the rune bag, those that upside+down are typically given a *reversed* meaning. 3owever, there are those who feel that the direction of the rune is not relevant and makes no difference in a reading. f one is literally casting the rune lots onto the ground or onto a layout cloth or board, the lay of the rune becomes much more significant. Edred Thorsson discusses runecasting aspects in Runecaster,s 3andbook, &t the 5ell of 5yrd. use only the first method, but if you are an e1perienced runester, you may find the other methods useful. This is pretty high+end stuff.

*2ne matter crucial to rune reading is determining what aspect of a rune is to be interpreted. Should a lot be read as a bright+stave or as a murk+staveJ That the negative aspects of the runes were used in magic is beyond /uestion. Some of the *positive* manifestations of the runes can be said to often have detrimental or dangerous conse/uences, especially . There is no shortage of dark aspects in the rune row. Remember, the runes are your inner advisors, and they must be able to warn youRemdashPbefore it becomes too late to overcome the force of 5yrd.

*&spects are determined in essentially DthreeE ways) A!B by the position a runelot falls in a casting Ae.g., face up or face downP A9B inside or outside a certain fieldB, and A7B by the angle at which one runelot is @u1taposed to another. * t should also be noted that there is a certain /uestion of *aspect* with regard to the relationship of a given stave to the stead in which it falls or is laid. To a great e1tent intuition must guide the runester in these matters. *The determination of aspect is one of the finer points of the runecaster,s skill and craft, and it is one that must be learned through personal e1perience because the runes will interact differently with different people. 6ortunately or unfortunately, it is not a simple matter of reading reversed staves as *bad*. *A!B n casting, if a rune lands face up it is to be read as a bright+ staveP if it lands face down it may either be disregarded in the reading or read as a murk+stave. The decision on how these lots are to be interpreted must be made before every casting. &lso, each runester is encouraged to be consistent in this regard. The usual practice is to disregard them, however. A9B n some casting, runes that fall outside the fields of meaning or off the white cloth also may be read as murk+ staves. &gain, you must determine how these are to be read beforehand.*

*>ost of the runestaves are constructed with acute or obtuse angle combinations, and there are very few right angles in the shapes.

2btuse angles are known to have a dynami0ing effect on the mind, while right angles generally have the opposite effect. n the runic tradition obtuse or acute angles promote active, positive interaction between and among runes. Right angles create static, negative interaction or they can block the flow of runic force altogether. They actually cross it. *5hen using angular aspects in castings, the runester must measure Aat least appro1imatelyB the angle at which any two lots in /uestion are @u1taposed. This is done by mentally drawing lines from the two lots through the center point of the cloth, then determining the angle at which they are @u1taposed. See e1ample diagram. f the result is between CY and .CYAclearly acuteB, or between !7CY and 7$"Y Aclearly obtuseB they are read as bright staves. f they fall between .CY and !7CY Aan appro1imation of a -"Y right angleB they are read as murk+ staves. E1act measurements are unnecessary.*

*Orobably the easiest way to see the angle aspects is by imagining a circle over the cloth that is divided into /uarters and bisected by a third line that you will use to orient the rune in /uestion to the others. Runes falling the same /uarter or in the /uarter directly opposite are brightly aspected, while those in the /uadrants on either side tend to be murky. *The closer a lot is to the bright angle, the more positively it is to be read. 2nly those close to a -"Y relationship should be read as *blockages*. <u1tapositions approaching !H"Y also have a dark aspect, but one which will lead eventually to a positive outcome. n castings these aspects only refine what is already apparent in the reading of the rune and its field.

*&spects of this kind are much more useful and easier to determine when using a rune layout method. To determine the relationship among runes in a layout, the runester can refer to this diagram which works on the same principals as the &spect &ngles diagram. *E1ample using 6ehu) Runes belonging to the same triad Ae.g., 6ehu, 3agala0, Tiwa0 B, or to triads on either side, or to the triads on the same a1es as those ad@acent to the *home triad* of 6ehu are to be read as bright+staves. Those in the opposite triad are read as murk+ staves, but with a positive ultimate outcome. Those runes in triads at a -"Y angle, those that cross the a1is of the triad in /uestion, are read as murk+staves, usually of a blocking variety.*

have found that Runes usually give a compatible reading when done concurrently with a Tarot reading. There is a theory, among certain circles, that the runes were the inspiration for Tarot. ?ook, for e1ample, at the 3anged >an. 3e hangs upside down, @ust as 2din hung from 4ggdrasil. ,m inclined to believe that there are some correlations between Tarot and Runes, but they are far from identical. The corrlations below are from Edred Thorsson,s book, 6uthark, a 3andbook of Rune >agic. & controversy over this book centers on these alleged correspondences between Runes, Tarot and &strology. The critics say that this is *new age pandering* and that there is no historical support for such correspondences. %evertheless, this book is highly regarded in most other aspects.

Rune

T ro!

A"!ro#o$%

Go&'W($)!

Co#or

Tree

Her*

6ehu

Tower

&ries

&esir

?ight Red

Elder

%ettle

:ru0

3igh Oriestess

Taurus

'anir

8ark Green

Birch

Sphagnum >oss

Thurisa0

Emperor

>ars

Thor

Bright Red

2a

3ouse leek

&s &nsu0 8eath 'enus 2din 8ark Blue h 6ly &goric

Raidho

3ierophant Sagittarius

6orseti

Bright Red

2a

>ugwort

;ena0

#hariot

'enus

6reya=8warves

?ight Red

Oine

#owslip

Gebo

?overs

Oisces

2din=6reya

8eep Blue

&s h=Elm 3eartsease

5un@o

Strength

?eo

6reyr=Elves

4ellow

&s

6la1

3agala0

5orld

&/uarius

4mir

?ight Blue

4e ?ily of w=&sh the 'alley

%authi0

8evil

#apricorn

%ornir=Etins

Black

Beech

Bistort

sa

3ermit

>oon

Rime Thurses

Black

&lder

3enbane

<era

6ool

Sun

6reyr

?ight Blue

2a Rosemary

4e Eihwa0 3anged >an Scorpio dhunna=:llr 8ark Blue w >andrake

Oerthro

5heel 2f 6ortune

Saturn

%ornir

Black

Beech

&conite

4e &lgi0 >oon #ancer 'alkyr@ur Gold w &ngelica

Sowilo

Sun

Sun

Sol

5hite=Silver

<uniper

>istletoe

Tiwa0

<ustice

?ibra

Tyr=>ani

Bright Red

2a

Sage ?ady,s >antle

Berkano

Empress

'irgo

6rigg=%erthus=3el 8ark Green

Birch

Ehwa0

?overs

Gemini

6reya=6reyr=&clis

5hite

2ak=&sh

Ragwort

3o >anna0 >agician <upiter 3eimdall=2din 8eep Red lly >adder

?agu0

Star

>oon

%@ord=Balder

8eep Green

5illow

?eek

ngwa0

<udgment

%ew >oon

ng=6reyr

4ellow

ple

&p

Selfheal

8aga0

Temperance 3alf >oon

2din=2stara

?ight Blue

Spruce

#lary

2thala

>oon

6ull >oon

2din=Thor

8eep 4ellow 3awthorn Goldthread