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Annotated Bibliography Primary Sources Hojo Shigetoki. A Samurai Instructs His Son.

In Documents in World History, Volume 1, 6th Edition, edited by Peter N. Stearns, Stephen S. Gosch, Erwin P. Grieshaber, and Allison Scardino Belzer, 207-8. California: Longman, 2003. This source is a record of the advice Hojo Shigetoki offered his son when he was appointed to an important position. Thus, Shigetokis tips will give us an idea of how to be the ideal samurai. Minoru Shinoda. Establishment of Relationship Between Lord and Vassals (Gokenin), 1184, in The Founding of the Kamakura Shogunate, 1180-1185, edited by Lu David J., Japan : A Documentary History VOL. I: The Dawn of History to the Late Tokugawa Period. New York: New York Sharp, 1997. Sok, Yamaga. The Way of the Samurai. 1638. Columbia University Press. Wm. Theodore de Bary, Carol Gluck, and Arthur L. Tiedemann, ed. Accessed 7 January 2014. http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/japan/soko_samurai.pdf Yamaga Soks book discusses the Way of the samurai. His account will provide us with a better understanding of the duties of a samurai and how he maintains a good relationship with the people he knows. Secondary Sources Asia for Educators. The Age of the Samurai: 1185-1868. Columbia University. Accessed January 17th, 2014. http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/special/japan_1000ce_samurai.htm This timeline was very helpful in providing an outline of the different samurai governments, including their time periods and a brief description of each one. It will be useful in comparing and contrasting the Kamakura Period and Tokugawa Period.

Dunn, Charles J. Everyday Life in Traditional Japan. Tokyo: Tuttle, 1972 This book provides the necessary information on the day to day life of a samurai, as well as background information on the samurai culture and establishment of the shogunates.

Encyclopedia Britannica. Buke Shohatto. Accessed on January 20th, 2014. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/83935/Buke-Shohatto This provided a very useful explanation of the Buke Shohatto, or the Laws for the

Military Houses. Encyclopedia Britannica. Bushido. Accessed on January 20th, 2014. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/86168/Bushido This website was helpful in giving trustworthy information on Thee Way of the Samurai. It showed what values were appreciated in the ideal samurai. Encyclopedia Britannica. Samurai. Accessed January 12th, 2014. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/520850/samurai This article summarized how the significance and power of the samurai changed throughout several periods of Japanese history, which will ultimately help us with seeing how the samurai have progressed. Hane, Mikiso. Japan: A Short History. England: Oneworld Publications, 2000. This book was very helpful in the development of our thesis statement. We also used it to learn more about samurai and their masters as well as how they should act theoretically. Harold Stewart, Muryoko: Journal of Shin Buddhism: Jodo Shu and Shin Shu. Accessed on January 20, 2014. http://www.nembutsu.info/jotoshin.htm This journal was very helpful because it explained Buddhism in the Kamakura Period. Buddhism was very important because it provided a salvation for those who seeked it, especially the samurai. History. Tokugawa Period and Meiji Restoration. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Accessed January 19th, 2014. http://www.history.com/topics/meiji-restoration This summary of the background, rise, and fall of the Tokugawa Period was very useful in explaining the decline of the samurai in this era. It also explained the alternatives the samurai had to take in order to survive. Honbu, Jinenkan. Laws Governing Samurai: The Buke Shohatto. Accessed January 20th, 2014. http://jinenkanhonbu.blogspot.com/2011/10/laws-governing-samurai-bukeshohatto.html This was a very useful explanation of the Buke Shohatto. It helped us understand the laws of the Tokugawa Period and also to see how the power of the samurai/daimyo changed. Japan Society. Japan's Medieval Age: The Kamakura & Muromachi Periods. Accessed on January 20th, 2014. http://aboutjapan.japansociety.org/content.cfm/japans_medieval_age_the_kamakura__mur omachi_periods This website was useful because it gave an overview of the the Kamakura period. There were different sections that described samurai, the politics, economy, and culture.

Kasulis, Thomas P. 6 Neo-Confucianism, the Samurai Code and Tokugawa Society. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (1998). http://www.rep.routledge.com/article/G100SECT6 This article was helpful because it showed how the decline in samurais power was connected to the change in education. It explained how Neo-Confucianism education was mixed with warrior values which was useful in our Code of the Warrior section of our website. Kure, Mitsuo. Samurai: An Illustrated History. Boston: Tuttle Publishing, 2002. This book will serve as a helpful source for our research because of its visual representations of the samurai. Mitsuo Kure includes illustrations of their weapons and armor as well as explanations of their customs, which will ultimately provide us with a more insightful view of the samurai. Lu, David J. Japan : A Documentary History VOL. I: The Dawn of History to the Late Tokugawa Period. New York: New York Sharp 1997. This is a book from which we can obtain information about the Tokugawa Period and the role of the samurai in the big picture. Nishikawa, Yukiko. Japans Changing Role in Humanitarian Crises. New York: Routledge, 2005. This online book was useful in understanding the relationship between a samurai and his master, particularly in the Tokugawa Period. Public Broadcasting Service. Samurai. Japan: Memoirs of a Secret Empire. Accessed January 17th, 2014. http://www.pbs.org/empires/japan/enteredo_8.html This brief explanation of the history of the samurai clearly portrayed the change of the samurais power over time. It is useful in observing how their roles shifted throughout different periods. Public Broadcasting Service. Welcome to Edo. Japan: Memoirs of a Secret Empire. Accessed January 19th, 2014. http://www.pbs.org/empires/japan/enteredo.html This brief summary of the Tokugawa Period provided us with a quick background of this period as well as explaining how much the Japanese Empire changed at this time. Rickard, John. Genko War, 1331-33. History of War. Accessed January 18th, 2014. http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_genko.html This description of the Genko War was useful because it gave us a brief summary of the cause of the war, which further helped our understanding of certain famous battles. Rickard, John. Siege of Kamakura, 30 June-4 July 1333. History of War. Accessed January

18th, 2014. http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/siege_kamakura.html This summary of the Siege of Kamakura was helpful in identifying important battles in ancient Japan. Many details were provided such as battle tactics and key dates. Seal, F.W. Kusunoki Masashige. The Samurai Archives. Accessed January 18th, 2014. http://www.samurai-archives.com/masashige.html This website was very useful to understand why Kusunoki Masashige was such a legendary samurai. Through his actions, we also learned more about the ideal samurai. Storry, Richard and Werner Forman. The Way of the Samurai. New York: Putnam c1978. Accessed January 2nd, 2014. http://dest1.hccs.hunter.cuny.edu/cataloging/servlet/presenttitledetailform.do?siteTypeID =2&siteID=&includeLibrary=true&includeMedia=false&mediaSiteID=&bibID=976&wal kerID=1388712916295. This will be an useful source for our research project because it is about the foundation of the samurai: The Bushido. This gives us access to the expectations of a samurai and his responsibilities. The American Legion. Divine Wind Wrecks Mongol Invasion Fleet Threatening Japan. The American Legion. Accessed January 18th, 2014. http://burnpit.legion.org/2012/08/divinewind-wrecks-mongol-invasion-fleet-threatening-japan This article was helpful in learning about the samurais role in the Mongol invasion of 1274 and 1281. University of Colorado Boulder. Samurai Life in Medieval Japan. Accessed on January 20th, 2014. http://www.colorado.edu/cas/tea/curriculum/imaging-japanesehistory/medieval/pdfs/handout-M2.pdf This document was very helpful in obtaining a well rounded view of a samurais life, duty, and expectations. Vaporis, Constantine N. Samurai and Merchant in Mid-Tokugawa Japan: Tani Tannais Record of Daily Necessities (1748-54). Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 60 (June 2000): 205227. This journal provided us with an explanation of why the samurai declined in power during the Tokugawa Period. It showed clearly how dependent the samurai were. Williams, Matt. Warrior Puppets: The Samurai of the Tokugawa Shogunate. Accessed on January 20th, 2014. http://www.samurai-archives.com/wap.html This website provided information on the samurai of the Tokugawa Shogunate. We were

able to see how these samurai were different from those of the Kamakura period. Zen Buddhism from the Metropolitan Museum of Art website. Accessed on January 20th, 2014. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/zen/hd_zen.htm This provided us with a deep understanding of Zen Buddhism and why it was so appealing to the samurai in Japanese history. Multimedia http://www.kiku.com/electric_samurai/cobweb_castle/samurai_gallery/tadaaki_e.html This image of Abe Tadaaki gave us an understanding of the resilience of the warriors in the Tokugawa Period. Bunya no Watamoro. Image. Kikutaki Yuji. Accessed January 19th, 2014. http://www.kiku.com/electric_samurai/cobweb_castle/samurai_gallery/watamaro_e.html This image gave us a visual representation of a warrior in the Heian Period. Chef Momentum: Bushido. Image. Accessed on January 20th, 2014. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/UGCsuhBkGow/T02xjvCnV6I/AAAAAAAAAM8/hvt3fmQEVTA/s1600/The_virtues_o f_Bushido_by_Bushido_Le_Samurai.png This picture depicted the seven virtues of bushido as well as their Japanese characters, serving as a very useful visual representation. Emperor Godaigo. Image. Asahi Shinbun-sha. Accessed January 19th, 2014. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/59/Emperor_Godaigo.jpg/600p x-Emperor_Godaigo.jpg This image provided us with a visual representation of Emperor Go-Daigo, who was the leader of the rebels in the Genko War of the Kamakura Period. Honda Tadakatsu. Image. Kikutaki Yuji. http://www.kiku.com/electric_samurai/cobweb_castle/samurai_gallery/tadakatsu_e.html This image provided a visual representation of Honda Tadakatsu, a daimyo of the Tokugawa Period. Ii Naomasa. Image. Kikutaki Yuji. http://www.kiku.com/electric_samurai/cobweb_castle/samurai_gallery/naomasa_e.html This image provided a visual representation of Ii Naomasa, a daimyo of the Tokugawa Period. He is depicted as a very fierce warrior in this image, representing the militaristic strength of the samurai.

Image of Buke Shohatto. Accessed on January 20th, 2014. http://tamutamu2011.kuronowish.com/bukesyohatto.files/image002.jpg This image was an example of Japanese calligraphy. Japan News Today. Samurai Statue of Kusunoki Masashige. Tokyo. Accessed January 18th, 2014. http://www.japannewstoday.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/cimg33081024x768.jpg This photograph allowed us to give the viewers a visual representation of the famous Kusunoki Masashige. Japanese Sword Training Basics. Image. Sword Buyers. Accessed January 19th, 2014. http://www.sword-buyers-guide.com/images/Yoko-giri.jpg This image was useful because it showed a very basic technique that the samurai used with their swords. It gave us a glimpse of how the training may have been like. Japanese Traditional Music - Samurai. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EBVymrw4rxU This music was helpful in setting the Japanese samurai atmosphere for our website. Kumagaya Naozane. Image. Kikutaki Yuji. http://www.kiku.com/electric_samurai/cobweb_castle/samurai_gallery/naozane_e.html This image provided a visual representation of Kumagaya Naozane, a general of the Kamakura Period. This particular picture displays a more moral side of the samurai, since Naozane is mourning an arrested enemy because that man reminded him of his son. Kusunoki Masashige. Image. Accessed January 20th, 2014. http://s3.amazonaws.com/estock/fspid10/11/77/76/4/samurai-shogun-japan-1177764o.jpg This photo is taken of a statue of Kusunoki Masashige. Nasu no Yoichi. Image. Kikutaki Yuji. http://www.kiku.com/electric_samurai/cobweb_castle/samurai_gallery/yoichi_e.html This image provided a visual representation of Nasu no Yoichi, a general of the Kamakura Period. It shows the resilience of the samurai as he is fighting in water. Night Attack on the Sanj Palace, from the Illustrated Scrolls of the Events of the Heiji Era (Heiji monogatari emaki). Japanese, Kamakura period, second half of the thirteenth century. Handscroll. Accessed on January 18th, 2014. http://www.mfa.org/collections/object/night-attack-on-the-sanj-palace-from-theillustrated-scrolls-of-the-events-of-the-heiji-era-heiji-monogatari-emaki-24523. This was a depiction of an event of the Heiji Era. This is also an example of a handscroll.

Nitta Yoshisada. Image. Kikutaki Yuji. Accessed January 19th, 2014. http://www.kiku.com/electric_samurai/cobweb_castle/samurai_gallery/yoshisada_e.html This image of the famous Nitta Yoshisada gave us an insight of his strength and bravery as a samurai of the Kamakura Period. Ota Dokan. Image. Kikutaki Yuji. Accessed January 19th, 2014. http://www.kiku.com/electric_samurai/cobweb_castle/samurai_gallery/dokan_e.html This image of Ota Dokan provided us with a sense of the samurai in the Muromachi Period. Samurai. From The History Channel. 94 sec. http://www.history.com/videos/samurai This video was a very beneficial summary of the samurais bushido. It also provided visual depictions of the samurai. Seppuku. Image. J.M.W. Silver. Accessed January 19th, 2014. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bb/SeppukuJ._M._W._Silver.jpg/800px-Seppuku-J._M._W._Silver.jpg This image was helpful in showing how a seppuku would look like. This is most likely a seppuku in the form of capital punishment. Suenaga, Takezaki. Scrolls of the Mongol Invasions of Japan. Illustration. From Bowdoin College. http://www.bowdoin.edu/mongol-scrolls/ (accessed January 18th, 2014). These scrolls were commissioned by Takezaki Suenaga in 1274. This source is a digital copy of the restored scrolls. It was helpful in providing an eyewitness account of the Mongol invasions. The Caste System of Feudal Japan. Image. Scipii. Accessed January 19th, 2014. http://shogun2.heavengames.com/galleries/25/0000/0937/SocialClassesofJapan_1__446x 422.jpg This picture was helpful in providing a visual representation of the social classes of Japan. The Forty-Seven Samurai. Accessed on January 19th, 2014. http://thereforeigeek.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/kuniyoshi_chushingura_act_11.jpg?5 0&h=252 This picture provided us with an idea of how chaotic a battlefield could potentially appear. The Seven Virtues of Bushido. Image. Traditional Karate Center. Accessed January 19th, 2014. http://img.docstoccdn.com/thumb/orig/14715293.png This image was useful because it showed all of the seven virtues of bushido as envisioned

by Japanese educator Nitobe Inazo. It gave us an insight of what the samurai values were. Tokugawa Ieyasu. Image. Kikutaki Yuji. http://www.kiku.com/electric_samurai/cobweb_castle/samurai_gallery/ieyasu_e.html This image provided a visual representation of Tokugawa Ieyasu, who was the first Shogun of the Tokugawa Period. He is depicted as a very peaceful man in this particular image. Tokugawa Shogunate. Image. Castilleja Faculty. http://castinet.castilleja.org/users/pmckee/historyjapan/tokugawa.htm These images were useful in depicting what life was like during the Tokugawa Shogunate. Yabusame. Image. Accessed on January 20th, 2014. http://www.kenfuderyu.co.za/images/martialarts/JapanOkinawa/Yabusame/yabusame%2 0man.gif This image was very useful because it was a diagram of what the samurai wore. It further broadened our knowledge of the clothing worn at this time.