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INTRODUCTION Now a days only those students who only have the highest percentage of marks are not

respected in modern day society. Because it is not necessary that they are equally competent in expressing their ideas and adjust well in their day to day life. In the modern day society there is a major place only for those individuals who are able to adjust and manage their behavior in a balanced manner. Some degree of aggression is inherent in every one of us but the need here is to reduce and manage it in a effective way. Most of the researches in the field of aggression find out the fact that aggression is at the top primarily in the younger age of life basically in the adolescent period. So if we want our country to progress, our society to change then we have to make attempts in reducing aggression among high school students.But it is not easy for the teachers and the parents to develop adjustment abilities among their children who are passing through the adolescent age because a large number of changes in this period of stress and strain are being broken out that they are not ready to follow the path shown by their parents and teachers. These changes specially physical, emotional, social, intellectual etc. cannot be handled by them in a proper way and they feel themselves neglected and maladjusted in the society consequently they show aggressiveness in their behaviour in order to save themselves from the pressure that the society is imposing upon them. This kind of aggressive behaviour or aggression that the adolescents show cause a real destruction to their creative abilities and mental peace because they are not able to adjust adequately. There is close relationship between the adjustment abilities and the level of aggression that the individual possess or in better words we can say that there is a negative correlation between these two in general. If there is less adjustment ability they will show more aggression amcng individuals. So there is a need and the prime duty of the parents and the teachers develop adjustment abilities to lower the level of aggression and to guide them in a proper way so they are able to do something good in life. 1

AGGRESSION Aggression is a phenomenon that most see through the lens of verbal or physical attacks. However there are many subtleties in aggression that have to gone unnoticed by many researches. To view aggression as simply direct attacks on a person is very limiting in understanding aggression. However aggression is predominantly understood by many direct physical and verbal attacks instead of these covert methods. Youth who display overt style aggression have been given most attention by researchers. Everyone has a common sense notion that aggression involves one person injuring another. The injury may result from a physical attack such as assault, rape or murder. The attack may be psychological involving ridicule, disparagement and similar assault on other feelings about themselves. Economic attacks include being fired or denied a promotion without justification. According to Bandura (1973), Aggression at least among human is strangely affected by learning and situational factor. According to Chauhan and Tiwari (1972), Aggression may be defined in operationally in terms mode answering to elders, frequently quarrelling, broken engagement, impulses of take revenge and reactionary attitudes to traditions and beliefs. According to Filler (1952), the Yale group of theory frustration, Aggression asserts the occurrence of aggression always presupposes the existence of frustration always leads to some forms of aggression. According to Hilgard (1962), Aggression means violent attacking. According to Hinsie and Compbell (1960), Action carried out in a forceful way.

According to Moore and Fine (1968), Aggression may be defined as more or less violent physical or verbal behaviour directed against a person or object. In short, Aggression is threats or harmful action directed towards other individuals. Aggression is defined as behaviour aimed at causing harm or pain, psychological harm, or personal injury or physical distraction. ADJUSTMENT The concept of adjustment is as old as human race on earth. The process of adjustment starts right from the birth of the child and continues till his death. Adjustment is generally the relationship that any organism establishes with respect to its environment. Its is the ability of an individual to satisfy the demand of his surroundings as well as his own needs. Originally the meaning of adjustment was borrowed from the concept of adaptation in biology. Adaptation refers to the biological change that facilitates the survival of species. At the psychological level adjustment means the individuals struggle to survive in his or her surroundings. The emphasis is on the functional or learned changes that the individual must make to achieve as harmonious relationship with the environment. It is an active, two way relationship between the individual and his or her environment. The Dictionary meaning of the word adjustment is to fit, make suitable adapt, an'ange, modify and harmonize. Adjustment is learnt and acquired. As we have to learn how to drive a car so we have to learn how to deal with a friend, when to eat and to teach, when to wear and how to wear. All these modes of behaviour are to be learnt. Adjustment means how well a person gets along in a situation. This suggests that individual learns to direct his energies is ways of gratifying

both to himself and society. (Skinner, Charles). In our life proper adjustment means harmony within and without. According to Crow and Crow (1973), An individuals adjustment is adequate whole some or healthful to the extent that he has established hannonious relationship between himself and the conditions, situation and persons who comprise his physical and social environment. According to Eysenck (1972), Adjustment is a state in which the needs of the individual on one hand and the claims of the environment on the other hand are fully satised of the process by which this harmonious relationship can be attained. Dunn (1963): Adjustment is a continuous process of maintaining harmony with the attributes of the individual and the environment conditions which surround him. Skinner (1963):Adjustment means how well a person gets along in a situation. This suggests that the individual learns to direct his energies in ways that gratifying and the society. Poduska (1980): Adjustment is the ability to select appropriate and effective measures to meet the demands of the environment while maintaining a healthy attitude, towards the circumstances. In short, a person is said to be adjusted when he is so related to a reasonably adequate environment that he is relatively happy, efficient and has a proper degree of social feeling. It is generally accepted that the progress in life depends upon the ability to adjust to new situations. A well adjusted individual is more likely to be highly motivated, realistic, reasonably adventurous, competitive, emotionally balanced and mentally alert with the result that he holds wholesome and positive attitude.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The review of related literature involves, locating, reacting to and evaluating the researches carried out earlier and also the casuals observations and opinions that are related to any research to have a thorough understanding and insight into the work already undertaken and key areas to be explored further. No research endeavour unique is descriptive research and variables under investigations are studied in different combinations for understanding the dynamics of cause and effect relationship underlying the phenomena. A lot of research work has been conducted to study the level of aggression and adjustment. Studies Related To Level of Aggression Eron et.al. (1963) in his study found that aggression in school children was positively related to punishment for aggression at home, especially maternal punishment of boys. Urberg and Labouvie-vief (1976) asked adolescents to check the adjectives that described their idea of an ideal male and female. Aggression in this study referred to those behaviours that attack or hurt others. Both males and females judged aggression and dominance to be male traits and to be more desirable in males than in females. Albert Bandura (1985) has performed studies that indicates that aggression is a learned behaviour. Using children in his studies, Bandura demonstrated that, by watching another person act aggressively and obtain desirable reward or by learning through personal experience that such behaviour yields rewards, aggression can be learned. Allen, Kashani and Reids (1998) study of 100 consecutive inpatients in a mental health centre between the age of 7 to 12 years old is that children with hostile parent are more likely to have poor social skills and are more socially incompetent than children without a hostile parent. This 5

incompetent social behaviour includes aggressive behaviour. Aggressive behaviour has been found to be related to the family and mental health as a result of family stress. Often causes a youth to disengage from the cause of the stress. Crick and Bigbee (1998) used a combination of self respect and peer nomination device with a sample of 3834th -5th graders from public school in the Midwest. This sample was 90% European-American, 9.4% AfricanAmerican and 0.5% from other ethnic groups. Findings from this study indicated that girls were more likely than boys to be the victims of relational aggression act. Arcus(2002) found that children who experience corporal punishment from their parents are more likely to be aggressive towards their parents. 40% of the mothers who used corporal punishment three or more times in the past year had been hit by their child in that year and 30% who had used corporal punishment once or twice had been hit, compared to only 13% who did not use it at all. Gershoff (2002) reviewed 88 studies that examined the relationship between corporal punishment and 11 different child and adolescent outcomes. Of the studies reviewed In the meta-analysis, 32 used childhood aggression as an outcome variable. Gershoff concluded that physical punishment has negative consequences on child adjustment in general, including aggression. The metaanalysis also suggested that the utility of physical punishment was limited to immediate compliance. However, Gershoff contended that because many children who are spanked later repeat the undesired behaviour, the overall utility of physical punishment for correcting noncompliant behaviour was not worthwhile given the negative impact on children's overall adjustment. Gershoff concluded from this meta-analysis that physical punishment was unequivocally related to child aggression across multiple contexts. Hess & Hagen (2006) have found differences in the types of aggression used by males and females, at least in children and adolescents. Boys tend 6

to use direct physical or verbal aggression, whereas girls tend to use more indirect forms of aggression that prominently feature gossip. Evolutionary theories of sex differences in indirect aggression propose selection pressures that would have acted on older teenagers and adults. Evidence for sex differences in indirect aggression in adults, however, is equivocal. Virtually all studies of adults have found a sex difference in physical aggression, but most have failed to find sex differences in the use of the more indirect forms of aggression. Almost all of these studies have measured indirect aggression using self-reports of aggressive behaviour. We investigated sex differences in the psychology of indirect aggression by exposing young adult women and men to the same aggression-evoking stimulus. As evolutionary models predict, we found that women had a stronger desire than men to aggress indirectly, even after controlling for perceptions of social norms and approval. Future work on both evolutionary and social norm models of indirect aggression is warranted. McRae (2006) studied that physical punishment is a disciplinary technique that many parents utilize and report as being effective. Nevertheless, researchers continue to debate its usefulness and impact on child adjustment. Many have argued that physical punishment is detrimental to children's socio-emotional functioning, and in particular, that it increases aggression. However, some have argued that whether parents utilize physical punishment is less important than how they use it, citing strong evidence that not all children who are spanked display abnormal levels of aggression. This has led to the theory that various parenting characteristics and techniques. may moderate the relationship between physical punishment and aggression. The current study examines parental warmth as a moderator of the relationship between physical punishment and aggression 30 months later. Results of the study yielded no evidence that this relationship exists. Several limitations are believed to have contributed to the null findings. Directions for future research are discussed.

Morris (2011) found in the studies that children subjected to corporal punishment may engage in more aggression and delinquent behaviour than those who are not. Past research, however, is limited methodologically. This is largely the result of a lack of matched corporally punished and nonpunished children. Findings indicate that (a) a large amount of selection bias exists, indicating that child and family characteristics of those subjected to corporal punishment are substantially different from characteristics of those not punished, and (b) when children exposed to corporal punishment (vs. those who are not) are matched on their propensities of being punished, the relationship between punishment and subsequent aggression and delinquency become statistically non-significant and substantively small. STUDIES RELATED TO ADJUSTMENT Rawat (1995) explored the effect of parental absence on adjustment, study habits and academic development of students of high school. Sample comprised 25 schools. He found that the parent present students differed significantly from the parent absent students on their personality adjustment while they did not differ on the study habits, except on comprehension and concentration dimensions of study habits and there is no adjustment difference between the two groups on their academic achievement. Mehta et al. (1996) studied the effect of achievement motivation, self confidence and assertiveness upon adjustment of higher secondary female students in emotional, social, educational, home, health areas and upon total adjustment. They used, the sample of 400 female students of XI and. XII grades, The measurement devices used were (i) Achievement Values and Anxiety Inventory (AVAI) by Dr. Prayag Mehta (1969) (ii) Agnihotri's Self Confidence Inventory (ASCI) by Dr. Rekha Agnihotri (1987) (iii) Sinha and Singh's (1971) Adjustment Inventory for School Students. They found that there was no significant difference between girls having high and low achievement motivation, with regard to their level of adjustment in different 8

areas. Secondly they found adjustment in all areas under study was positively affected by the self confidence. Dutta et al. (1998) studied social adjustment of adolescents. They used. a sample 200 adolescents. The tool used was the adjustment inventory for school students. They concluded that there was not much difference in adjustment aspect between the girls and the boys to social areaa. Their findings also revealed that as educationally sound, the adolescents" adjustment pattern towards their social group was good. Jain and Jandu (1998) compared school adjustment of adolescent girls and boys of employed and non employed mothers. They used a sample of 240 students. The tools used were background information and adjustment inventory for school students, They concluded that there was a difference in total adjustment between boys and girls. The girls had better adjustment than boys. They further concluded that girls were more adjustable than boys in educational area of adjustment. Kaur (1999) studied the adjustment problems of adolescents in relation to their academic achievement. She used a sample of 250 students. She concluded that adolescents face adjustment problems and boys and girls differ slightly in their adjustment problems. Bajpal (2001) studied caste belongingness and adjustment of high school girls. They used a sample of 371 students. The tool used was Sharma's Adaptation of Bell's Adjustment Inventory. They concluded that scheduled tribe girls were found to be significantly least adjusted group in home, health, social and overall adjustment. Backward class girls were lesser adjusted in above areas than general caste girls. Garber et al. (2001) examined the relations among maternal depression, family dysfunction, emotional autonomy, and adolescent adjustment. Participants 'were 145 mothers and children who were assessed in 8th grade and again in 9th grade. Results indicated that maternal

depression

significantly

moderated

the

relation

between

emotional

autonomy and adolescent adjustment. Beyers et al. (2003) examined the association between psychological separation adjustment to university in a sample of 969 late adolescents. Results indicated that both dimensions of psychological separation (independence from parents and positive separation feelings) positively predicted better adjustment to university. Kia-keating et al. (2007) examined school belonging and psychosocial adjustment among a sample of 76 Somali adolescents resettled in the United States. A greater sense of school belonging was associated with lower depression and higher self-eicacy, regardless of the level of past exposure to adversities. School belonging did not moderate the effect of exposure to adversities on psychological adjustment. These results were used in investigating ways of improving school experiences would be particularly useful in the effort towards continued development of school-based mental health programs for young refugees. Martinez et al. (2009) examined behavioural and emotional

adjustment in family contexts in which there was high versus low demand for adolescents to serve as language brokers in a sample of 73 recently immigrated Latino families with middle- school-aged adolescents. Language brokering was conceptualized as a family process rather than merely an individual phenomenon. Results indicated that those in high language brokering contexts, compared with those in low language brokering contexts, demonstrated higher levels of family stress, lower levels of parenting effectiveness and poorer adolescent adjustment in terms of academic functioning, socio emotional health and substance use. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM A STUDY OF LEVEL OF AGGRESSION AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN RELATION TO ADJUSTMENT.

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NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Today, in schools we face a major problem of in-discipline. This problem is the result of aggression and maladjustment among students. Today we see that aggression and unrest is increasing in our day to day life results into indiscipline, violence etc. The main reason of the aggression is the problem of adjustment. World of today is changing in extraordinary speed and manner. In highly changing modern society, our students find it difficult to adjust according to changing situations of life. They are facing problems in making adequate adjustment in every sphere of life like; home, school, social, emotional, occupational and financial adjustment. It has become more difficult for parents, teachers, and society at large to understand and fulfil the varied need of the students in this highly scientific and technological based society. Moreover the value pattern in this modern society is also transforming into new complex dimensions which results in maladjustment among students especially among high school students. Failure in the direction of adjustment increases aggression and aggressive behaviour among high school students towards school, home, and society. It is very true to say that no two individuals are same. Every individual has its own characteristics which make him a unique personality. These different features of his personality affect his level of aggression in society. Aggression in an individual may be affected by number of factors. One of them may be adjustment. This sensitive issue convinced the investigator to do an in depth study of aggression level among high school students in and the way they adjust themselves in their various spheres of life. The investigator will also try to provide a platform of the relationship between the aggression and adjustment of the high schools students of the Bathinda and Patiala district of Punjab. Moreover this is the most contemporary relationship which has been left unexplored.

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So, the study under investigation can be of great help in realizing the relationship between the level of aggression and adjustment among high school students with regard to certain demographic variables so that much can be done in this direction to to save our youth from the evil effects of aggression and to guide them in a proper way to show their abilities 1.6 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To study the level of aggression and adjustment among high school students. 2. To study the relationship between the level of aggression and adjustment of high school students. 3. To examine the relationship between the level of aggression and adjustment among male high school students. 4. To study the relationship between the level of aggression and adjustment among female high school students. 5. To ascertain the relationship between the level of aggression and adjustment among rural high school students. 6. To study the relationship between the level of aggression and adjustment among urban high school students. 7. To know the difference in the level of aggression between male and female high school students. 8. To find out the difference in the level of adjustment between male and female high school students. 9. To know the difference in the level of aggression between rural and urban high school students. 10. To find out the difference in the level of adjustment between rural and urban high school students. HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY 1. There will be no significant relationship between the level of aggression and adjustment among high school students. 2. There will be no significant relationship between the level of aggression and adjustment among male high school students.

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3. There will be no significant relationship between the level of aggression and adjustment among female high school students. 4. There will be no significant relationship between the level of aggression and adjustment among rural high students. 5. There will be no significant relationship between the level of aggression and adjustment among urban high school students. 6. There will be no significant difference in the level of aggression between male and female high school students. 7. There will be no significant difference in the level of adjustment between male and female high school students. 8. There will be no significant difference in the level of aggression between rural and urban high school students. 9. There will be no significant difference in the level of adjustment between rural and urban high school students. Delimitations of the study:1. The study will be delimited to analysis of data collected from 240 high school students of Bathinda and Patiala districts of Punjab. 2. Only two variables aggression and adjustment will be studied in relation to each other. OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS AGGRESSION Aggression is a threats or harmful actions directed towards other individuals. Aggression is defined as behaviour aimed at causing harm or pain, psychological harm or personal injury or physical distraction. According to Chauhan and Tiwari (1972) Aggression may be defined operationally in terms of mode answering to elders, frequent quarrelling, broken equipments, impulses of taking revenge and reactionary attitudes to traditions and beliefs.

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For the present study the variable aggression stands for the score of high school students on aggression scale constructed at standardized by Km. Roma Pal and Dr.(Smt.) Tasneem Naqvi (1983). Adjustment:Adjustment is dynamic rather than static in quality. We change, our environment change too. Some key ideas in understanding adjustment are motive, frustration, conflict, anxiety and learning etc. According to Shaffer (1961) Adjustment is the process by which a living organism maintains the balance between its needs and the circumstances that influence the satisfaction of these needs. For the present study the variable adjustment stands for the scores of high school students on test of adjustment constructed and standardized by Dr Penni Jain. METHOD AND PROCEDURE This chapter deals with the sample, method, tools used, procedure of data collection and statistical techniques of analysis employed for testing the hypotheses. METHOD OF THE STUDY The present study will be constructed by following the quantitative approach in educational research in the following manner:Design :- The present investigation will be designed to study the aggression among male and female high school students residing in rural and urban areas in relation to their adjustment. The significance of difference will also be worked out between:Aggression of male and female rural high school students, male and female urban high school students, rural male and urban male high school students ,rural female and urban female high school students. 14

Sample: - The sample of the study will consist of 240 high school students of Bathinda and Patiala districts Of Punjab. Male and female, rural and urban high school students will be selected from different schools in the areas as per the shown follow:240 HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF PUNJAB BATHINDA 120 60 Male 30 30
Rural Urban

PATIALA 120 60 female 30


Rural

60 male 30
Rural

60 female 30
Rural

30
Urban

30
Urban

30
Urban

Fig:1 Showing details of sample

TOOLS OF STUDY The following tools will be used in the present study to collect the data:1. Aggression Scale by Km. Roma Pal and Mrs. Tasneem Naqvi (1983). 2. An Adjustment Inventory by Dr. Penni Jain(1999). STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA The following techniques will be used in the present study to make the data meaningful:1. Descriptive statistics i.e. mean, standard deviation will be used to describe the nature of sample. 2. r Pearson Product Moment Coefficient of Co-relation will be used to find out the relationship between the aggression and adjustment of male and female, rural and urban high school students.

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3. Differential statistics i.e. t-test will be used to find out the significance of difference between male and female, rural and urban high school students on the basis of their mean aggression and adjustment score. CHAPTER SCHEME The dissertation will be divided into seven chapters:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction. Review of related literature. Method and procedure. Analysis and interpretation of data. Conclusion, Educational implications and suggestions for further research. 6. 7. Summary. Bibliography.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Albert Bandura (1985). A study of relationship vetween leved of Aggression and Creativity among adolescents in relation to demographic vatiables by Rani, Pooja (2008) M.ED, Dissertation, G.R.D. B.Ed colleage Jalabad (W). Arunima (1989). Aggression among children:socio psychdogical

appraisal, in NCERT FIFTH Survey of Educational Research vd. II, 865. Allen.et.al.(1949). A Study of Relationship between level of Aggression and Creativity among adolescents in relation to demographic variables by Rani, Pooja (2008) M.ED. Dissertation, G.R.D. B.Ed. College Jalabad (W) Best, J.W. and kahn, J.V. (2006). Research in Deucation (9Th edd.). New Delhi. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited. Dollard et. Al. (1939). Frustration and Aggression Yale: university press. Garrett H.E. (2005). Statistics in psychology and Education (12Th Addi) New Delhi: Paragon International. Koul, Lokesh (2009). Methodology of Educational Tesearch (4Th Edition) New Delhi: vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd. Magal, S.K.(2004). Advanced Educational psychologis New Delhi: Prntice Hall of India Pvt Ltd., New Delhi. Mandira (2010) A study of adjustment in relation to temperament among college students. M.Ed Dissertation, G.H.G Harparkash College e of education for women, Sidhwan khurd. N.C.E.R (1997). Fifth survey of Educational research, 1988-92, vol:-I, NCERT, New Delhi.

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Puneth, D., (1982). Socialization of a aggression in children in a Tribal society in NCERT Routth sutveu of Teseatch in Resarch in Education, volume-I 419. Rani, Pooja (2009). A study of relationship between level of Aggression and Creativity among adolescents in relation to Demographic veriables, M.Ed Dissertation. G.R.D.B.Ed. college, Jalabad(W). Singh Parampal et. Al. (2006). Educating parents About violence and Aggression promoted Through Television in Research Tendem Amritsar: Macros Printers. Sumeet Khurana (2009). Adjustment Problem of adolescent in relation to their academic climate. M.Ed Dissertation, Punjabi University Patiala. Monia (2013). Attitude of Aggressive and non aggressive student towards corporal punishment in schools. M.Ed Dissertation, Punjabi University Patiala.

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