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Millennium Development Goals India Country Report 2014

Social Statistics Division Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation Government of India !mospi!nic!in

Millennium Developm Development ent Goals India Country Report 2014

Social Statistics Division Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation Government of India !mospi!nic!in

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"#R$#RD This Report, titled Millennium Development Goals India Country Report -2014 is the latest issue o! the Millennium Development Goals India Country Report" #in$e the last Country Report %hi$h %as &rou'ht out in 2012, some &oo(lets) &ro$hures have &een &rou'ht out !rom time to time %ith updated data to supplement the earlier Report, the present Report is the latest !ull !led'ed issue in the series" India s MDGs !rame%or( is &ased on the 200* +nited ,ations Development Goals -+,DGs. 'uidelines on $on$epts, de!inition and methodolo'y o! MDGs indi$ators" This !rame%or( re$o'ni/es 0* indi$ators -41 &asi$ and 0 alternatives." 2ut the 200* +,DG !rame%or( !or MDGs is not !ollo%ed in toto" The !rame %or( has &een $onte3tuali/ed !or India" 4ll the 1 Millennium Development Goals, 12 o! the 11 tar'ets, namely tar'et 1 to tar'et 11 and tar'et 11 are relevant !or India" These 12 tar'ets and *0 indi$ators under the 1 Goals $onstitute the instrument !or statisti$al tra$(in' o! the MDGs in India" #ome o! the indi$ators in lieu o! those spe$i!ied under MDGs %ere !ound &etter suited to the Indian $onte3t and in some $ases, the non-availa&ility o! su!!i$iently relia&le data is the reason !or droppin' them" Important amon' those indi$ators are proportion o! population &elo% 51 -666. per day, proportion o! population &elo% minimum level o! dilatory ener'y $onsumption, ratio o! s$hool attendan$e o! orphans to s$hool attendan$e o! none orphans a'ed 10 to 14 years, proportion o! population %ith a$$ess to se$ure tenure, unemployment rate o! youn' people a'ed 10 - 24 years and proportion o! population %ith a$$ess to a!!orda&le essential dru's on a sustaina&le &asis" It needs to &e appre$iated that the national statisti$al system does not have independent statisti$al ma$hinery e3$lusively !o$used on 7uantitative monitorin' o! the MDGs" The statisti$s used in this report as %ell as in the earlier issues are &ased on pie$in' to'ether, !rom the variety o! sour$es in$ludin' administrative re$ords, data $ompiled &y Central Ministries) Departments) 8r'ani/ations and in!ormation 'athered !rom periodi$ national surveys and $ensuses $arried out &y the Government o! India" I %ish to pla$e on re$ord my appre$iation !or the valua&le servi$es rendered &y the o!!i$ers o! the #o$ial #tatisti$s Division o! the C#8 !or &rin'in' out this Report"

-T"C"4 4,4,T. Chie! #tatisti$ian o! India 9 #e$retary


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PR%"&C% This Report entitled Millennium Development Goals -MDG. India Country Report2014 $aptures the a$hievements in India as o! today under the ei'ht MDGs %hi$h are to &e a$hieved &y 2010" The year 2014, &ein' the penultimate year !or the MDGs, a$7uires si'ni!i$an$e in assessin' realisti$ally India s pro'ress in meetin' the various tar'ets under the MDG# as %ell as to ta(e a sto$( o! the areas %here the pro'ress is not up to the e3pe$ted level" Ministry o! #tatisti$s and 6ro'ramme Implementation -M8#6I. is en'a'ed in the tas( o! statisti$ally tra$(in' the MDGs on the &asis o! a data-sets 'enerated &y the line ministries)Departments" ;o%ever, statisti$al tra$(in' o! the MDGs is not easy as there e3ists several data 'aps in the system %hi$h hamper smooth #tatisti$al tra$(in' o! MDGs" <hile !or one indi$ator data are not availa&le at all -indi$ator 22, under Tar'et 1., !or others data are availa&le over various time points %ith lon' 'aps, 6opulation Censuses are $ondu$ted on$e in every 10 years" Consumer =3penditure #urveys are usually $ondu$ted every 0 years, and ,ational !amily ;ealth #urveys are usually $ondu$ted a!ter 0- > years" Conse7uently in!ormation !or inter $ensus or inter survey years are not availa&le" Data availa&le on so$ial indi$ators !rom administrative re$ords su!!er !rom in$omplete $overa'e" #ome pro&lems relate to methodolo'i$al issues li(e the estimation o! population &elo% the poverty line" The $on$ept o! poverty and the items in the &as(et o! $onsumption that de!ine the poverty line is revised !rom time to time ma(in' the later estimates not stri$tly $ompara&le %ith the earlier ones" 4nother $ase is the estimation o! Maternal Mortality Ratio -MMR." 4s maternal deaths are rare event, it re7uires a lar'e sample si/e to provide ro&ust estimates o! MMR? MMR estimates are not availa&le !or smaller #tates ) +Ts" More over data !or many indi$ators are not availa&le at su& state -Distri$t. level" In spite o! the a&ove pro&lems and $onstraints, every e!!ort has &een ta(en to ma(e the present Report as $omprehensive as possi&le" The latest availa&le data have &een in$orporated to re!le$t India s $ommenda&le a$hievements in respe$t o! several Millennium Development Goals" <e e3pe$t this Report %ill &e very use!ul !or the data users" #u''estions !or !urther improvement o! the Report are al%ays %el$ome"

#mt" #" @eyala(shmi Dire$tor General -C#8.

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#fficers associated it' t'is report

Dr!G!M! (oopat'y &dditional Director General

S!Maitra Deputy Director General

Sunit'a ('as)ar Director

Ram Pratap &ssistant Director

*+ate, R!S'anti Senior Statistical #fficer

-ansra. Statistical #fficer

C#/0%/0S
Sr!no 1 2 4 4 3 Description I/0R#D1C0I#/ -IG-+IG-0S "IG-0I/G P#5%R06 &/D -1/G%R &C-I%5I/G 1/I5%RS&+ %D1C&0I#/ 0#$&RDS G%/D%R %71&+I06 &/D %MP#$%RM%/0 #" $#M%/ 8 R%D1CI/G C-I+D M#R0&+I06 9 IMPR#5I/G M&0%R/&+ -%&+0Pg no! 124 3212 14244 43243 48238 39299 9:2;4 ;42123 1282134 1342181 i2vi vii2< <i2 <iv <v2 <vii <viii2<<i <<ii2 l<<v

: "IG-0 &G&I/S0 D%&D+6 DIS%&S%S ; PR#0%C0I/G 0-% %/5IR#/M%/0 10 (##MI/G S%C0#RS #" 0%+%C#M &/D I0 &ppendi< 1= MDG2 Progress &c'ieved >y India ?Summary 0a>le &ppendi< 2= Met'odology note on MDG trac)ing &ppendi< 4= &ddressing MDGs in 12t' Plan &ppendi< 4= MDG indicators2 data@ Programme Sources &ppendi< 3= &>>reviations &ppendi< 8= Detailed data ta>les

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C'apter 1 I/0R#D1C0I#/
The millennium de$laration adopted &y the 'eneral assem&ly o! the +nited ,ations in #eptem&er 2000 rea!!irmed its $ommitment to the ri'ht to development, se$urity and 'ender e7uality, eradi$ation o! myriad dimensions o! poverty, improved health et$" The millennium De$laration adopted ei'ht development 'oals %hi$h areA Goal 1A =radi$ate =3treme 6overty and ;un'er Goal 2A 4$hieve +niversal 6rimary =du$ation Goal *A6romote Gender =7uality and =mpo%er <omen Goal 4A Redu$e Child Mortality Goal 0A Improve Maternal ;ealth Goal >A Com&at ;I:)4ID#, Malaria and T2 Goal BA=nsure =nvironmental #ustaina&ility Goal 1ADevelop Glo&al 6artnership !or Development

4ll the ei'ht 'oals, 12 out o! the 11 Tar'ets and *0 indi$ators relatin' to these Tar'ets $onstitute India s #tatisti$al tra$(in' instrument !or the MDGs" 2" India !ollo%s the MDGs !rame%or( a$$epted &y the Government o! India

%hi$h is on the &asis o! 200* +,DG -+nited ,ations Development Group. 'uidelines" Ministry o! #tatisti$s and 6ro'ramme implementation -M8#6I. tra$(s the MDGs on the &asis o! data-sets 'enerated &y the line Ministries )Departments" Currently the monitorin' is limited to the national and #tate ) +T level" The statisti$al monitorin' o! MDGs is presently not done at su&- #tate) Distri$t level" * 4lthou'h the MDGs !rame%or( adopted &y India is &ased on the Glo&al

!rame%or( su''ested &y +,DG 200* 'uidelines, some o! the indi$ators %hi$h %ere !ound &etter suited to the Indian $onte3t %ere used in lieu o! the spe$i!ied indi$ators under MDGs as per +,DG !rame%or( 200*" Cor e3ample under tar'et -2, indi$ator 4, prevalen$e o! under%ei'ht $hildren under * years, -instead o! under 0 years. is $onsidered" +nder tar'et 4, indi$ator D, !or ratio o! 'irls to &oys in primary, se$ondary and tertiary edu$ation, 'ender parity inde3 -G6I o! Gross =nrolment Ratio. has &een
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$onsidered, under tar'et B, indi$ator 1D, $ondom use to overall $ontra$eptive use amon' $urrently married %omen 10-4D years is $onsidered, the $orrespondin' +,DG indi$ator is irrespe$tive o! a'e, se3 or marital status" Ei(e %ise there are a !e% indi$ators %hi$h have &een modi!ied to suit Indian $onte3t" 4 In $ase o! some o! the indi$ators non- availa&ility o! su!!i$iently relia&le data is

the reason !or droppin' them li(e Tar'et 1, indi$ator 1, proportion o! population &elo% 51 -666. per day, Tar'et 2, indi$ator 0, proportion o! population &elo% minimum level o! dietary ener'y $onsumption" Tar'ets 12 to 1B appearin' in the +,DG !rame%or( have &een dropped as these are not relevant !or India" 0 <hile the Goals are spelt out in 'eneral terms, the tar'ets under these Goals

spe$i!i$ally outline the %ay to a$hieve the Goals in a spe$i!i$ time !rame, and the indi$ators under ea$h Tar'ets are more !o$used and tell in $on$rete terms the e3pe$ted level o! a$hievements in %ell de!ined areas to &e a$hieved in the 'iven time !rame" #ome o! the MDGs tar'ets are relative to the &ase year -1DD0. value -Tar'et1,2,0,>,10. and the levels o! a$hievement &y 2010 !or most o! the indi$ators under these tar'ets are !airly spe$i!i$, and are in tune %ith the 'lo&al tar'ets" The other tar'ets -Tar'et-*,4,B,1,D,11,12. envisa'es either !ull -100F. attainment or reversal o! trend, or a 'eneral improvement in livin' standards" >" MDGs have helped in &rin'in' a mu$h needed !o$us and pressure on &asi$ development issues, %hi$h in turn led the 'overnments at national and su& national levels to do &etter plannin' and implement more intensive poli$ies and pro'rammes" In India the various development pro'rammes ) s$hems are !ormulated and implemented under the Cive year 6lans -CG6." The 12th CG6 -2012-201B. 'oal is to a$hieve Caster, More In$lusive and #ustaina&le Gro%thH %hi$h is in $on!ormity %ith the MDGs" B" The 12th 6lan has identi!ied 20 $ore indi$ators %hi$h re!le$t the vision o! rapid , sustaina&le and more in$lusive 'ro%th and some o! the indi$ators o! 12th 6lan are more strin'ent than the MDGs" The 12th 6lan aims to redu$e the 6overty ;ead Count Ratio -6;CR. &y 10 per$enta'e points over the pre$edin' estimates &y the end o! 12th 6lan, that is 6;R to &e redu$ed to 11"DF &y 201B , the $orrespondin' MDG indi$ator is to redu$e 6;R to 20"B4F &y 2010"The 12th 6lan aims to redu$e
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under-nutrition amon' $hildren a'ed 0-* years to hal! o! the ,C;# -* level - that is !rom 40F to 20F. &y the end o! 12th 6lan , %hi$h means &y 201B" The $orrespondin' MDG indi$ator is to redu$e prevalen$e o! under nutrition amon' $hildren &elo% * years to 2>F &y 2010" The 12th plan envisa'es to redu$e IMR to 20 per 1,000 live &irths, and redu$e MMR to 100 per 100,000 live &irths &y 201B, the $orrespondin' MDG indi$ators are to redu$e IMR to 2B per 1,000 live &irths and to redu$e MMR to 10D per 100,000 live &irths &y 2010"

1"

Comin' to India s a$hievement in respe$t o! the MDGs , it is a mi3ed &a'" Cor

some indi$ators India is !ast, that is, it has already a$hieved the tar'et level %ell ahead o! the dead line, li(e halvin' the per$enta'e o! population &elo% the poverty line -indi$ator 14." ,et =nrolment Ratio in primary edu$ation -indi$ator >. proportion o! people %ith sustaina&le a$$ess to an improved %ater sour$es, ur&an and rural -indi$ator *0." Tar'et B and Tar'et 1, %hi$h are o! the trend reversal type have also &een reali/ed as India has su$$ess!ully halted the spread o! ;I:) 4ids and reversed the spread o! ;I:) 4ids" India has halted spread o! Malaria and T2 and has ensured reversal o! spread o! Malaria and T2" D" In respe$t o! some indi$ators, India is e3pe$ted to rea$h $lose to the tar'et

level &y 2010 i! not a$tually meet the tar'et level li(e Ratio o! 'irls to &oys in primary and se$ondary edu$ation and tertiary edu$ation -indi$ator D., at primary level this Tar'et has &een met already, at the se$ondary level India %ill &e $lose to a$hievin' 'ender parity &y 2010, &ut at the tertiary level it is unli(ely to a$hieve Gender parity &y 2010" In $ase o! redu$in' &y t%o-thirds the +nder Cive Mortality Rate -indi$ator 1*. the +0MR is estimated at 02 per 000 live &irths in 2012" To meet the Tar'et India has to redu$e it to 42 per 000 live &irths &y 2010" Ieepin' in mind the sharp de$line in +0MR %itnessed durin' the last !e% years -annual redu$tion &y * per$enta'e points durin' the last *-4 years. India is e3pe$ted to rea$h very $lose to the tar'et level &y 2010" In the e3tremely $ru$ial !ield o! Jimprovin' maternal health &et%een 1DD0 and 2010 India is supposed to redu$e &y three 7uarters the Maternal Mortality Ratio -MMR." The latest estimate o! MMR &rou'ht &y the 8!!i$e o! RGI puts the MMR at 1B1 per 100,000 live &irths in 2012" This is a su&stantial improvement
*

!rom an estimated MMR level o! 4*B per 100 000 live &irths in 1DD0-D1" 2ut India is unli(ely to rea$h the tar'eted level o! 10D per 100000 live &irths &y 2010" 10" The areas o! $on$ern are the rest o! the Indi$ators espe$ially those relatin'

to share o! %omen in %a'e employment in the non K a'ri$ultural se$tor - indi$ator 11., proportion o! seats held &y %omen in ,ational 6arliament -indi$ator 12., proportion o! population %ith a$$ess to improved sanitation, ur&an and rural indi$ator *1., mar'in" 11" The a&ove three paras &rie!ly 'ive an overvie% o! a$hievements under various in respe$t o! these indi$ators India is la''in' &ehind &y a hu'e

MDGs in India" In su&se7uent $hapters, a more ela&orate analysis has &een attempted hi'hli'htin' the stron' points o! various &ene!i$iary oriented pro'rammes and their e3pe$ted impa$t !or the &ene!it o! tar'et populations" <hile providin' outlines o! the various development plans %hi$h inter-alia envisa'ed attainment o! the MDG tar'ets, this Report also ta(es a $lose loo( at the pro'ramme $omponents and their per!orman$e in produ$in' desired results" ;o%ever su$h an assessment is hampered in the a&sen$e o! disa''re'ated data at su& state levels and also !or di!!erent 'roups o! the population" To the e3tent the disa''re'ated data !or ruralur&an and male-!emale &rea(-ups are availa&le, nature and pattern o! $han'es o&served a$ross the states are 7uite revealin'" LLLL

C'apter 2 -IG-+IG-0S

MDG 1= %radicate e<treme poverty and 'unger


The all-India 6overty -ead Count Ratio *P-CR 2 per$enta'e &elo% the national poverty line, has de$lined &y 10 per$enta'e points !rom *B"2F in 2004-00 to 21"DF in 2011-12" #i'ni!i$ant de$line in 6overty ;ead Count Ratio has &een o&served in &oth rural and ur&an areas durin' this period as the rural poverty head $ount ratio de$lined &y 1> per$enta'e points !rom 41"1F to 20"BF and ur&an poverty de$linin' &y 12 per$enta'e points !rom 20"BF to 1*"BF" The percentage of people >elo t'e national poverty line has already narro%ed

do%n to a level less than hal! o! its position in 1DD0, in 2011-12 itsel!, at all India level and !or rural and ur&an areas, ahead o! the MDG tar'et year o! 2010" Durin' 2004-00 to 2011-12, the Poverty Gap Ratio -estimated !rom monthly per $apita $onsumption e3penditure data &ased on Mi3ed Re$all 6eriod -MR6.. has sho%n de$line in rural and ur&an areas" In rural areas, 6GR de$lined !rom D"22 in 2004-00 to 0"00 in 2011-12, %hile in ur&an areas the de$line %as !rom >"01 to 2"B durin' this period" The s'are of t'e poorest 20A population in terms of t'e mont'ly per capita consumption e<penditure in total consumption -i"e $onsumption a$$ounted !or &y the poorest one !i!th o! the population. in the rural areas has sli'htly in$reased !rom D">F in 1DD*-D4 -&ased on +ni!orm Re!eren$e 6eriod K +R6 method. to D"1F in 200D-10" In the ur&an areas the share o! the poorest 20F population, de$lined !rom 1F in 1DD*-D4 to B"1 F in 200D-10" Crom estimated 02F in 1DD0, t'e proportion of under eig't c'ildren >elo 4 years is re7uired to &e redu$ed to 2>F &y 2010" The proportion o! under%ei'ht $hildren has de$lined &y * per$enta'e points durin' 1DD1-DD -,C;# -2. to 2000-0> -,C;#-*., !rom a&out 4*F to a&out 40F and at this

histori$al rate o! de$line, it is e3pe$ted to $ome do%n to a&out **F only &y 2010"

MDG 2= &c'ieve 1niversal Primary %ducation


2y the measure o! /et %nrolment Ratio */%R, the $ountry had $rossed in 200B-01 itsel!, the D0F $ut-o!! line re'arded as the mar(er value !or a$hievin' 2010 tar'et o! universal primary edu$ation !or all $hildren a'ed >-10 years" The DI#=1 data !urther sho%s the $ountry has a$hieved $ent per$ent primary edu$ation !or $hildren in the primary s$hoolin' a'e o! >-10 years ahead o! 2010 as the 2010-11 results sho%s ,=R o! DD"1DF in 2010-11" The results !rom DI#= report 2011-12, sho%s a steady in$reasin' trend over the years in the estimate o! the indi$ator Bratio of enrolment of Grade 5 to Grade I !rom B1"01 in 200D-10 to 1>"00 in 2011-12" 4$$ordin' to the trend e3hi&ited durin' 1DD1 -2001, 6out' *13 224 years old, literacy in$reased &et%een 1DD1 and 2001- !rom >1"DF to B>"4 F and the trend sho%s India is li(ely to a$hieve 100F youth litera$y &y 2010" The youth litera$y rate amon' ur&an persons %as 1BF in 2001 a'ainst B2F !or rural persons in 2001" The youth litera$y amon' males %as 14F in 2001 a'ainst >1F !or !emales" ,## 200B-01 sho%ed male youth litera$y as D1F and !emale youth litera$y as 10F" The rural-ur&an 'ap in youth litera$y also has si'ni!i$antly redu$ed"

MDG 4= Promote Gender %Cuality and %mpo er $omen


In primary edu$ation, the Gender Parity Inde< -GPI of G%R, has 'one up !rom 0"B> in 1DD0-D1 to 1"01 in 2010-11 sho%in' **F in$rease, in se$ondary edu$ation the in$rease is !rom 0">0 in 1DD0-D1 to 0"11 in 2010-11 there&y sho%in' 4BF in$rease, and in hi'her edu$ation, it is in$reased !rom 0"04 in 1DD0-D1 to 0"1> in 2010-11 re'isterin' an in$rease o! 0DF"

Distri$t In!ormation #ystem on =du$ation


>

The litera$y rate amon' males -10 -24 years old. %as 14 in 2001 a'ainst >1 !or !emales -10 -24 years old. and ,## 200B-01 sho%ed the litera$y rates as D1 and 10 respe$tively" The ratio of "emale literacy rate to Male literacy rate !or 10-24 years in$reased !rom 0">B in 1DD1 to 0"10 in 2001 and stood at 0"11 in 200B-01" The ratio o! !emale litera$y rate to male litera$y rate in the a'e 'roup 10-24 years tends to e3$eed 1 &y 2010, implyin' hi'her litera$y rate amon' !emale youths than their male $ounterparts"

In 2011-12, the >1th round ,## results had estimated the percentage s'are of females in age employment in t'e non2 agricultural sector as 1D"*F %ith

the share in rural and ur&an areas as 1D"DF and 11"BF respe$tively" It is proMe$ted that at this rate o! pro'ress, the share o! %omen in %a'e employment $an at &est rea$h a level o! a&out 22"21F &y 2010" 4s on De$em&er 201*, India, the %orldNs lar'est demo$ra$y, has only >2 %omen representatives out o! 04* mem&ers in Eo( #a&ha, %hile there are 21 !emale M6s in the 242-mem&er RaMya #a&ha" ;en$e the proportion of seats 'eld >y omen in national parliament is 11"4>F"

MDG 4= Reduce c'ild mortality


In India, 1nder "ive Mortality Rate -13MR, has de$lined !rom an estimated level o! 120 per 1000 live &irths in 1DD0 to 02 in 2012" Given to redu$e +0MR to 42 per thousand live &irths &y 2010, India tends to rea$h 4D &y 2010 as per the histori$al trend, missin' the tar'et &y B per$enta'e points" ;o%ever, $onsiderin' the $ontinuan$e o! the sharper annual rate o! de$line %itnessed in the re$ent years, India is li(ely to a$hieve the tar'et" In India, the Infant Mortality Rate *IMR, has redu$ed &y nearly 00F durin' 1DD0- 2012 and the present level is at 42" 4s per the histori$al trend, the IMR is li(ely to rea$h 40 deaths per 1000 live &irths, missin' the MDG tar'et o! 2B %ith a $onsidera&le mar'in" ;o%ever, as IMR is de$linin' at a sharper rate in the re$ent years, the 'ap &et%een the li(ely a$hievement and MDG tar'et 2010 is set to redu$e"

The national level coverage of t'e proportion of one2year old *12224 mont's, c'ildren immunised against measles has re'istered an in$rease !rom 42"2F in 1DD2-D* to B4"1F in 200D -+,IC=C 9G8I- Covera'e =valuation #urvey 200D." 4t the histori$al rate o! in$rease, India is e3pe$ted $over a&out 1DF $hildren in the a'e 'roup 12-2* months !or immunisation a'ainst measles &y 2010" Thus India is li(ely to !all short o! universal immunisation o! one-year olds a'ainst measles &y a&out 11 per$enta'e points in 2010"

MDG 3= Improve Maternal -ealt'


Crom an estimated Maternal Mortality Ratio *MMR, level o! 4*B per 100,000 live &irths in 1DD0, India is re7uired to redu$e the MMR to 10D per 100,000 live &irths &y 2010" 4t the histori$al pa$e o! de$rease, India tends to rea$h MMR o! 140 per 100,000 live &irths &y 2010, !allin' short &y *1 points" ;o%ever, the &ri'ht line in the trend is the sharper de$line ie" 1>F durin' 200D-12, 1BF durin' 200>-0D and 1>F durin' 2004-0> $ompared to 1 F de$line durin' 2001200*" 4s per Covera'e =valuation #urvey -C=#., 200D, delivery attended >y s)illed personnel is B>"2F %hi$h %as 4B">F as per Distri$t level ;ousehold #urvey -DE;#-2002-04." <ith the e3istin' rate o! in$rease in deliveries &y s(illed personnel, the li(ely a$hievement !or 2010 is only to BB"2DF, %hi$h is !ar short o! the tar'eted universal $overa'e"

MDG 8= Com>at -I5@&IDSD Malaria and ot'er Diseases


The prevalence of -I5 among Pregnant omen aged 13224 years is sho%in' a de$linin' trend !rom 2000 and it has de$lined !rom 0"1D F in 2000 to 0"*DF in 2010-11" 4$$ordin' to ,C;# KIII -,ational Camily ;ealth #urvey, 2000-0>., Condom use rate of t'e contraceptive prevalence rate -Condom use to overall $ontra$eptive use amon' $urrently married %omen, 10-4D years, per$ent. %as only 0"2 F at all India level"
1

4s per the JCondom 6romotion Impa$t #urvey 2010 , the national estimate !or Condom use at last 'ig'2ris) se< is B4F"

4$$ordin' to 2ehavioural #urveillan$e #urvey, the national estimate !or proportion o! population a'ed 10-24 years %ith compre'ensive correct Eno ledge of -I5@&IDS -F. in 200> %as *2"DF reportin' &etterment !rom 2001 -22"2F."

The malaria $ases %ere &rou'ht do%n !rom 2,0*1,BD0 $ases in 2000 to 1,11>,0>D $ases in 2000 and !urther &rou'ht do%n to 1,0>B,124 $ases in 2012" The annual incidence rate -$ases o! malaria)1000 population. o! Malaria has $ome do%n !rom 2"0B per thousand in 1DD0 to 1"10 per thousand in 2011, and to 0"11 $ases -provisional. per 1000 population in 2012" The malaria deat' rate in the $ountry %as 0"0D deaths per la(h population in 2000 %hi$h has $ome do%n to 0"04 deaths per la(h population in 2012"

4s per the J<;8 Report 2012 Glo&al Tu&er$ulosis Control the prevalence2 rate of 0( in India has $ome do%n !rom 4>0 per 100,000 population in 1DD0 to 24D in 2011 per 100, 000 population" The Mortality due to 0( has redu$ed !rom *1 per la(h population in 1DD0 to 24 in 2011"

The Ministry o! ;ealth and Camily <el!are has reported that, the latest status o! treatment o! T2 under D8T# -Dire$tly 8&served Treatment #hort $ourse. reveals that, the proportion of 0( cases detected is B0F and cured is 10F under D#0S"

MDG 9= %nsure %nvironmental Sustaina>ility


4s per 2011 assessment, the Country has a forest cover o! >D202B (m2 %hi$h is 21"00F o! the Country s 'eo'raphi$al area" The !orest $over -revised. estimate !or 200D sho%s total !orest $over o! >D2*D4(m2%hi$h indi$ates a de$line o! *>B (m2 in 2011" 4 net%or( o! >1D 6rote$ted 4reas -64s. has &een esta&lished -as on *1)12)1*., e3tendin' over 1,>>,*02">* s7" (ms $omprisin' 102 ,ational 6ar(s, 02>
2

Prevalence is a measurement of all individuals affected by the disease at a particular time, whereas incidence is a measurement of the number of new individuals who contract a disease during a particular period of time. D

<ildli!e #an$tuaries, 0B Conservation Reserves and 4 Community Reserves -0"0>F o! total 'eo'raphi$al area." There is a positive $han'e in the net or) of protected areas in the Country as in 2011, the net%or( in$luded >>1 6rote$ted 4reas -64s., e3tendin' over 1,>1,221"0B s7" (ms -4"D0F o! total 'eo'raphi$al area." The Per2capita %nergy Consumption -6=C. -the ratio o! the estimate o! total ener'y $onsumption durin' the year to the estimated mid-year population o! that year. in$reased !rom 22*2"0 I<h in 1DD0-D1 to >,200"20 I<h in 2011-12" The annual in$rease in 6=C !rom 2010-11 to 2011-12 %as B"1DF" The =ner'y Intensity -amount o! ener'y $onsumed !or 'eneratin' one unit o! Gross Domesti$ 6rodu$t, at 1DDD-2000 pri$es.has de$lined !rom 0"10D4 I<h in 1DD0D1 to 0"140 I<h-at 2004-00 pri$es. in 2011-12" In India, the per capita C#2 emission -MT. in$reased steadily durin' 1DD0 to 201*" 4s per the Iey <orld =ner'y #tatisti$s 201*, &y International =ner'y 4'en$y, the per $apita C82 emission -MT. o! India is 1"41-MT." The consumption of C"C *C'loro "luro Car>ons, is estimated at DD1 8D6 tones -200B., do%n !rom 0>14 8D6 tones in 2000" 4s per Census 2011, >B"*F 'ouse'olds are using solid fuels -!ire %ood ) $rop residue, $o% dun' $a(e) $o(e et$. !or $oo(in' a'ainst B4"*F in 2001" Durin' 2012, in rural India, 11"0F households had improved source of drin)ing ater %hile in ur&an India D0"*F households had improved sour$e o! drin(in' %ater" The prevailin' trend over time, su''ests attaina&ility o! nearly $ent per$ent $overa'e &y 2010, in$ludin' &oth rural and ur&an se$tors" In other %ords, halvin' the proportion o! households %ithout a$$ess to sa!e drin(in' %ater sour$es !rom its 1DD0 level to &e rea$hed &y 2010, has already a$hieved in &oth rural and ur&an areas" The ,## 2012 revealed 0D"4 per$ent households in rural India and 1"1 per$ent households in ur&an India respe$tively had no latrine facilities" This has rea!!irmed the $ensus 2011 results that, more than 00F o! the households o! the Country are not havin' latrine !a$ility, thou'h an improvement o! 10 per$enta'e points $ompared to the $orrespondin' per$enta'e re$orded durin'
10

the last de$ade"

In 2011, the per$enta'e o! households %ith no latrine

redu$ed to 0*"1F !rom >*">F in 2001 at all India level" 4s per ,## 2012, at all-India level, only 10"1 per$ent o! ur&an d%ellin' units %ere situated in slum" ;o%ever, Census 2011 reported that 1B"2F o! ur>an 'ouse'olds are located in slums" Census re$orded a *B"14F de$adal 'ro%th in the num&er o! slum households" Census !urther reveals that in 2011, 1B"*>F o! the ur&an population lives in slums"

MDG := Develop a glo>al partners'ip for development


8verall tele2density -num&er o! telephones per 100 population., in the $ountry has rea$hed B*"0F in 201* !rom D"01F in 2000" The internet su>scri>ers per 100 population a$$essin' internet only throu'h %ireline &road&and $onne$tions is 1"2 and the $orrespondin' !i'ure in$ludin' those a$$essin' internet throu'h %ireless $onne$tions is 1*"0 in 201*"

MDGs and 0argets ?Summary of Progress ac'ieved >y India G#&+ 1= %R&DIC&0% %F0R%M% P#5%R06 &/D -1/G%R 0&RG%0 1= -alveD >et een 1;;0 and 2013D t'e proportion of people 'ose income is less t'an one dollar a day #n 2trac) 0&RG%0 2= -alveD >et een 1;;0 and 2013D t'e proportion of people 'o suffer from 'unger Slo or almost off2trac) MDG 2= &C-I%5% 1/I5%RS&+ PRIM&R6 %D1C&0I#/ 0&RG%0 4= %nsure t'atD >y 2013D c'ildren every 'ereD >oys and girls ali)eD ill >e a>le to complete a full course of primary sc'ooling #n2trac) MDG 4= PR#M#0% G%/D%R %71&+I06 &/D %MP#$%R $#M%/ 0&RG%0 4 = %liminate gender disparity in primary and secondary educationD prefera>ly >y 2003D and in all levels of education no later t'an 2013 #n2trac)

11

MDGs and 0argets ?Summary of Progress ac'ieved >y India MDG 4= R%D1C% C-I+D M#R0&+I06 TARGET 5 : Reduce >y t o2t'irdsD >et een 1;;0 and 2013D t'e 1nder2 "ive Morality Rate Moderately on ? trac) due to t'e s'arp decline in recent years MDG3 3= IMPR#5% M&0%R/&+ -%&+00&RG%0 8 = Reduce >y t'ree CuartersD >et een 1;;0 and 2013D t'e maternal mortality ratio Slo or off2trac) MDG 8= C#M(&0 -I5@&IDSD M&+&RI& &/D #0-%R DIS%&S%S 0&RG%0 9 = -ave 'alted >y 2013 and >egun to reverse t'e spread of -I5@&IDS #n2trac) as trend reversal in -I5 prevalence 'as >een ac'ieved 0&RG%0 := -ave 'alted >y 2013 and >egun to reverse t'e incidence of malaria and ot'er ma.or diseases Moderately on2trac) as trend reversal 'as >een ac'ieved for &nnual Parasite Incidence of Malaria and for prevalence of 0( MDG 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY TARGET 9: Integrate t'e principle of sustaina>le development into country policies and programmes and reverse t'e loss of environmental resources! Moderately on2trac) 0&RG%0 10= -alveD >y 2013D t'e proportion of people it'out sustaina>le access to safe drin)ing ater and >asic sanitation #n2trac) for t'e indicator of drin)ing ater >ut slo for t'e indicator of Sanitation 0&RG%0 11= (y 2020D to 'ave ac'ieved a significant improvement in t'e lives of at least 100 million slum d ellers 0'e pattern not statistically discerni>le MDG := D%5%+#P & G+#(&+ P&R0/%RS-IP "#R D%5%+#PM%/0 0&RG%0 1: = In cooperation it' t'e private sectorD ma)e availa>le t'e >enefits of ne tec'nologiesD especially information and communications #n2trac) Indicator ise detailed data status is at appendi< 1! GGGG

12

C'apter 4 "IG-0I/G P#5%R06 &/D -1/G%R


MDG 1= %radicate e<treme poverty and 'unger 0arget 1= -alveD >et een 1;;0 and 2013D t'e proportion of people 'ose income is less t'an one dollar a day
Indicators 6overty ;ead$ount Ratio -per$enta'e o! population &elo% the national poverty line. 6overty Gap ratio #hare o! poorest 7uintile in national $onsumption

0arget 2= -alveD >et een 1;;0 and 2013D t'e proportion of people 'o suffer from 'unger
Indicator

6revalen$e o! under%ei'ht $hildren under


three years o! a'e"

"aster decline in povertyH!


Indicator= Poverty -eadcount Ratio *percentage of population >elo t'e national poverty line,

India, the %orld s se$ond most populous $ountry is home to 1"2 &illion people, %hi$h is 1BF o! the %orld population" In this $ountry o! hu'e diversities, poverty has al%ays &een a $ause o! 'reat $on$ern al%ays"

1*

;o%ever, as the #tatisti$s reveals, over the years, India has made si'ni!i$ant pro'ress in poverty redu$tion"

The o!!i$ial poverty estimates released &y 6lannin' Commission -Tendul(ar methodolo'y. &ased on ,##8 #urvey on ;ousehold Consumer =3penditure 2011-12 reveals that, the all-India 6overty ;ead Count Ratio -6;CR. has de$lined &y 10 per$enta'e points !rom *B"2F in 2004-00 to 21"DF in 2011-12" #i'ni!i$ant de$line in poverty ratio has &een o&served in &oth rural and ur&an areas durin' this period as the rural poverty head $ount ratio de$lined &y 1> per$enta'e points !rom 41"1F to 20"BF and ur&an poverty de$linin' &y 12 per$enta'e points !rom 20"BF to 1*"BF" Thou'h, the nation sho%s $onsidera&le improvement in poverty redu$tion, it is alarmin' that, still, 1 in every 0persons in India is &elo% the national poverty line"

<hile $onsiderin' the pro'ress to%ards MDG tar'et 1, the estimate o! 6;CR at the national level %as at 4B"1F !or 1DD0* and the Country is re7uired to a$hieve a 6;CR level o! 2*"DF &y 2010 in order to meet the MDG tar'et" <ith a !aster de$line in 6;CR i"e annual de$line o! 1"D per$enta'e points durin' 2004-12, $ompared to 0"B per$enta'e points durin' 1DD*-2004, the Country has already a$hieved the MDG tar'et, %hi$h is a nota&le a$hievement" "ig!4!1 Poverty -ead Count Ratio
>0 00 40 *0 20 10 0 1DD0 1DD* -D4 2004-00 2011-12 2010 4B"1 40"* *B"2 21"D 2*"D 20"B4

Tar'et 6ath ;istori$al 6ath Ei(ely 4$hievement 6ath

#our$eA 6lannin' Commission o! India

=stimated on the &asis o! estimates o! ;CR !or the year 1DD*-D4, 2004-00, 2011-12&ased on Tendul(ar methodolo'y 14

"ig 4!2= 0rend in Poverty -ead Count Ratio 21r>an India


*0"4B *0 *0 20 20 10 10 0 0 *1"1 20"B 1*"B

"ig 4!4= 0rend in Poverty -ead Count Ratio 2Rural India >0
02">4 00"1 41"1

1>"10 12"D0

00 40 *0 20 10

20"B

2>"*2
24"44

Tar'et 6ath ;istori$al 6ath Ei(ely 4$hievement 6ath

#our$eA 6lannin' Commission o! India

4s per Census 2011, in India, >DF o! its population is in rural areas, and thus maMority o! the poor people &elon's to rural India" The Census 2011 6opulation results and the latest poverty head $ount ratio -2011-12. points out that, out o! the 2B0 million poor people o! India, 11F -21B millions. are !rom rural India" The trend o! de$line in poverty ratio is evident in &oth rural and ur&an areas and the de$line %as !rom 6;CR !rom 20"B in 2004-00 to 1*"B in 2011-12 in ur&an areas and !rom 41"1 to 20"B in rural areas" <ith the re$ent sharper de$line in 6;CR, the MDG tar'et has already &een a$hieved in &oth rural and ur&an areas"

The Rural K+r&an 'ap in poverty ratio has $ome do%n !rom 11 per$enta'e points in1DD*-D4 to 12 per$enta'e points, in 2011-12and this persistin' %ide 'ap in Rural +r&an 6overty Ratio is a $ause o! $on$ern"In all #tates, e3$ept 6unMa& -RuralA B">>, +r&anA D"24., rural poverty ratio %as hi'her and the rural K ur&an 'ap in 6;CR varied !rom 1 per$enta'e point -+ttar 6radesh - RuralA 11">2, +r&anA 10"41. to 2D per$enta'e points -Mi/oram RuralA*0"4*, +r&anA >"*>."

4s per the 6;CR estimates o! 2011-12, the lo%est 6;CR is !or the #tate o! Goa -0"0DF. !ollo%ed &y Ierala -B"00F." The hi'hest 6;CR is !or the #tate o! Chattis'arh

10

-*D"D*F. !ollo%ed &y @har(hand -*>"D>F. and Manipur -*>"1DF." The poverty ratios o! 2004-00 and 2011-12, in the as$endin' order o! 6;CR are presented at Ta&le *"1"
0a>le 4!1= Poverty -ead Count Ratio *P-CR, ? States arranged in t'e ascending order of P-CR Ran) 1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D *0 Goa Ierala ;ima$hal 6radesh #i((im 6unMa& 4ndhra 6radesh 6ondi$herry Delhi @ammu 9 Iashmir ;aryana +ttar 6radesh Tamil ,adu Me'halaya Tripura RaMasthan GuMarat Maharashtra ,a'aland <est 2en'al Mi/oram Iarnata(a +ttara(hand Madhya 6radesh 4ssam 8disha 2ihar 4runa$hal 6radesh Manipur @har(hand Chhattis'arh &ll India P-CR 2011212 0"0D B"00 1"0> 1"1D 1"2> D"2 D">D D"D1 10"*0 11"1> 11"2> 11"21 11"1B 14"00 14"B1 1>">* 1B"*0 11"11 1D"D1 20"4 20"D1 2D"4* *1">0 *1"D1 *2"0D **"B4 *4">B *>"1D *>"D> *D"D* 21!; Ran) 1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D *0 ,a'aland Delhi @ammu 9 Iashmir 6ondi$herry Mi/oram Me'halaya Ierala 6unMa& ;ima$hal 6radesh ;aryana Goa Tamil ,adu 4ndhra 6radesh 4runa$hal 6radesh #i((im GuMarat +ttara(hand Iarnata(a <est 2en'al 4ssam RaMasthan Manipur Maharashtra Tripura +ttar 6radesh @har(hand Madhya 6radesh Chhattis'arh 2ihar 8disha &ll India P-CR 2004203 D 1*"1 1*"2 14"1 10"* 1>"1 1D"B 20"D 22"D 24"1 20 21"D 2D"D *1"1 *1"1 *1"1 *2"B **"4 *4"* *4"4 *4"4 *1 *1"1 40"> 40"D 40"* 41"> 4D"4 04"4 0B"2 49!2

Thou'h the #tates have per!ormed &etter over the years in redu$in' poverty, in 2011-12, the #tates o! +ttara(hand, Madhya 6radesh, 4ssam, 8disha, 2ihar, 4runa$hal 6radesh, Manipur, @har(hand and Chattis'arh have 6;CR a&ove the national level estimate o! 21"DF"

1>

"ig 4!4 Poverty -ead Count Ratio ? States I 10s 2011212

#our$eA 6lannin' Commission, Ci'ures in &ra$(et indi$ates the num&er o! #tates ) +Ts in ea$h $ate'ory4"

The #tate) +T %ise results o! poverty head $ount ratio -anne3ure. re!le$ts the e3tent o! poverty in #tate) +Ts and the pro'ress over the years in redu$in' poverty" Durin' 2011-12, the 6overty ratio in +ttar 6radesh, Tripura, #i((im, Maharashtra, and 2ihar, has de$lined &y a&out 20 per$enta'e points or more in $omparison to 2004-00" In 4runa$hal 6radesh, Mi/oram and ,a'aland, 6;CR has in$reased durin' 2004-12" Durin' this period, the #tates o! Goa, #i((im, +ttar 6radesh, 4ndhra 6radesh, Tripura, ;ima$hal 6radesh, Ierala, Tamil ,adu, 6unMa&, RaMasthan, Maharashtra and ;aryana re$orded more than 00F redu$tion in 6;CR" Performance of States in ac'ieving MDG target
4

Map $reated throu'h DevIn!o


1B

In 2011-12, the #tates o! +ttara(hand, Madhya 6radesh, 4ssam, 8disha, 2ihar, 4runa$hal 6radesh, Manipur, @har(hand and Chhattis'arh have 6;CR a&ove the national level estimate -21"DF. and the remainin' 21 #tates have 6;CR &elo% the national level estimate" 4ll #tates, e3$ept 4ssam, 4runa$hal 6radesh, +ttara(hand, Manipur, Madhya 6radesh, 8disha, 2ihar, @har(hand and Chhattis'arh are li(ely to a$hieve the national level MDG tar'et &y 2010" The per!orman$e o! #tates vis Ka K vis, their respe$tive MDG tar'et is si'ni!i$ant to assess the pro'ress %ith respe$t to the respe$tive MDG &ase year ie 1DD0"
"ig 4!3= Poverty -ead Count Ratio 2+i)ely ac'ievement of States vis 2a 2vis MDG target 2013

4ndhra 6radesh <est 2en'al40 4runa$hal 6radesh +ttara(hand 4ssam +ttar 6radesh 2ihar Tripura Tamil ,adu #i((im RaMasthan

*0 20 10 0

Chhattis'arh Delhi Goa GuMarat ;aryana ;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir @har(hand

6unMa& 6ondi$herry 8disha ,a'aland

Mi/oram Iarnata(a Me'halaya Ierala Manipur Madhya 6radesh Maharashtra

2011-12

Ei(ely a$hievement 2010

#tate tar'et 2010

4s per the histori$al trend, 2* #tates are li(ely to a$hieve their respe$tive MDG tar'et &y 2010" Delhi, 2ihar and 8disha are li(ely to miss their MDG tar'et narro%ly, and the #tates o! Madhya 6radesh, +ttara(hand, Chattis'arh and Mi/oram are li(ely to miss their MDG tar'ets &y hu'e mar'in"

Measuring dept' of povertyH


11

Indicator= Poverty Gap ratio Improve the lot o! the poorest o! the poor, is e7ually important as redu$in' the 7uantum o! poverty" The indi$ator o! Poverty Gap Ratio *PGR, re!le$ts the de'ree to %hi$h mean $onsumption o! the poor !alls short o! the esta&lished poverty line, indi$atin' the depth o! poverty" Durin' 2004-00 to 2011-12, the 6overty Gap Ratio -estimated !rom monthly per $apita $onsumption e3penditure data &ased on Mi3ed Re$all 6eriod -MR6.. has sho%n de$line in rural and ur&an areas" In rural areas, 6GR de$lined !rom D"22 in 2004-00 to 0"00 in 2011-12, %hile in ur&an areas the de$line %as !rom >"01 to 2"B durin' this period"

6overty Gap Ratio helps to provide an overall assessment o! a re'ionNs pro'ress in poverty alleviation and the evaluation o! spe$i!i$ pu&li$ poli$ies or private initiatives" The #tate %ise trend in 6GR in Rural areas -in as$endin' order o! 6GR in 2011-12. is depi$ted in Ci'ure *">" In 2011-12, 6overty Gap Ratio in rural areas %as a&ove the $orrespondin' all India !i'ure in the #tates o! +ttar 6radesh, 4ssam, 2ihar, Manipur, @har(hand, 8disha, Mi/oram, Madhya 6radesh, Chattis'arh and 4runa$hal 6radesh" The #tates o! ,a'aland, Mi/oram, Me'halaya, Manipur, and 4runa$hal 6radeshhad sho%n in$rease in 6GR in rural areas durin' 2004-00 to 2011-12, %hereas other #tates sho%ed de$line in 6GR durin' this period, and $onsidera&le de$line %as o&served in the #tates o! 8disha, Tripura, Maharashtra, 2ihar and GuMarat"
1D

"ig 4!8= 0rend in Poverty Gap Ratio 2Rural India


20"00 10"00 10"00 0"00 0"00
Goa #i((im ;ima$hal 6radesh 6unMa& +ttara(hand Me'halaya Ierala 4ndhra 6radesh Delhi @ammu 9 Iashmir ;aryana Tripura Tamil ,adu RaMasthan Iarnata(a GuMarat <est 2en'al 6ondi$herry ,a'aland Maharashtra 4ll India +ttar 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Manipur @har(hand 8disha Mi/oram Madhya 6radesh Chhattis'arh 4runa$hal 6radesh 2004-00 2011-12

#our$eA 6lannin' Commission

The #tate %ise trend in 6GR in +r&an areas -in as$endin' order o! 6GR in 2011-12. is depi$ted in Ci' *">" In 2011-12, the #tates o! Iarnata(a, 8disha, 4ssam, Madhya 6radesh, @har(hand, 4runa$hal 6radesh, Chattis'arh, +ttar 6radesh, Manipur and 2ihar have 6GR in ur&an areas a&ove the $orrespondin' national level estimate" Durin' 2004-00 to 2011-12, 6GR in ur&an areas has in$reased in ,a'aland, 4runa$hal 6radesh and Manipur, %hereas the remainin' #tates sho%ed redu$tion"

"ig 4!9= 0rend in Poverty Gap Ratio 2 1r>an India


12"00 10"00 1"00 >"00 4"00 2"00 0"00
#i((im Mi/oram Goa ;ima$hal 6radesh Ierala 6ondi$herry 4ndhra 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir Tamil ,adu Me'halaya Maharashtra +ttara(hand 6unMa& RaMasthan Delhi GuMarat Tripura ;aryana ,a'aland <est 2en'al 4ll India Iarnata(a 8dhisha 4ssam Madhya 6radesh @har(hand 4runa$hal 6radesh Chhattis'arh +ttar 6radesh Manipur 2ihar

2004-00 2011-12

#our$eA 6lannin' Commission

The re$ent trend o! in$rease in poverty head $ount ratio as %ell as poverty 'ap ratio in some #tates i"e 4runa$hal 6radesh, Mi/oram and ,a'aland is 7uite %orryin', indi$atin' ur'ent need !or more intensive and e!!e$tive measures o! poverty alleviation"
20

Indicator= S'are of poorest Cuintile in national consumption The share o! the poorest 20F population in terms o! the monthly per $apita $onsumption e3penditure in total $onsumption -i"e $onsumption a$$ounted !or &y the poorest one !i!th o! the population. in the rural areas de$lined !rom D">F in 1DD*-D4 to D"0F in 2004-00 &ased on -+ni!orm Re!eren$e 6eriod K +R6 method. and ,## 200D-10 -Modi!ied Re!eren$e period K MR6 method. reported a sli'htly in$reased level i"e" D"1F" In the ur&an areas the share o! the poorest 20F

population, de$lined !rom 1F in 1DD*-D4 to B"*F in 2004-00 and to B"1F in 200D-10" This de$rease in the share o! $onsumption e3penditure !or the poorest 7uintile is indi$ative o! 'ro%in' ine7uities, parti$ularly in the ur&an areas"
0a>le 4!2S'are of poorest Cuintile in national consumption 1;;42;4 200422003 *1RP, *1RP, Rural D"> +r&an 1"0 200;210 *MRP, D"0 B"* 9.8 7.1

#our$eA ,## report 0*1A Eevel and 6attern o! Consumer =3penditure

(etter /utrition for allH!


The persistin' lo% levels o! anthropometri$ indi$ators o! nutrition in India, !or &oth adults and $hildren even in the midst o! intensi!ied initiatives !or poverty alleviation, is a $ause o! 'reat $on$ern" Inta(e o! dietary ener'y per person $ontinues to &e the most %idely used indi$ator o! the level o! nutrition o! a population"

The ,##8 surveys held durin' 1DD*-2010, to study nutritional inta(e in India, revealed that, estimated per $apita $alorie inta(e %as more in rural areas than ur&an areas in all the rounds, e3$ept 1DDD-2000, in %hi$h the estimated per $apita $alorie inta(e !or ur&an areas %as sli'htly more than rural areas" In &oth ur&an and rural areas, de$linin' trend has &een o&served in the estimated per $apita $alorie inta(e per day durin' this period and there %as nearly >F de$line in 200D-10 in &oth rural and ur&an areas $ompared to 1DD*-D4"

21

"ig 4!:= 0rend in estimated per capita calorie inta)e 2&ll India
2200 2000 1100 1DD*-D4 1DDD-2000 2004-00 200D-10 210* 20B1 214D 210> 204B 2020 2020 1D4> 4ll India- Rural 4ll India-+r&an

#our$eA ,## report 040, ,utritional inta(e in India

Curther, the trend o! de$line in per $apita $alorie inta(e per day durin' 200400 to 200D-10, reveals that, thou'h the de$line %as reported &oth in rural and ur&an areas, the e3tent o! de$line %as more in ur&an areas"

4mon' the maMor #tates, estimated per $apita $alorie inta(e -I$al. per day in rural areas %as hi'hest in 6unMa& -222* I$al. and lo%est in @har(hand -1D00 I$al. in 200D-10 and in ur&an areas, the hi'hest per $apita $alorie inta(e -I$al. per day %as reported in 8disha -20D> I$al. and lo%est in <est 2en'al -1101 I$al." Durin' 200400 to 200D-10, in rural areas, 1 maMor #tates i"e" 4ndhra 6radesh, GuMarat, Iarnata(a, Maharashtra, 8rissa, RaMasthan, Tamil ,adu and +ttara(hand, reported a rise in estimated per $apita $alorie inta(e per day, %hile, the remainin' maMor #tates reported a de$line" In the +r&an areas, only three maMor #tates i"e" Iarnata(a, Maharashtra and Tamil ,adu reported a rise in estimated per $apita $alorie inta(e -I$al. per day durin' this period, %hile the rest o! the maMor #tates reported de$line"
0a>le 4!4 %stimated per capita calorie inta)e *Ecal, per day in ma.or States
Rural 2004203 4ndhra 6radesh 1DD0 4ssam 20>B 2ihar 204D Chhattis'arh 1D42 GuMarat 1D2* ;aryana 222> @har(hand 1D>1 Iarnata(a 1140 Ierala 2014 Madhya 6radesh 1D2D Maharashtra 1D** 8rissa 202* 6unMa& 2240 RaMasthan 2110 Tamil ,adu 1142 +ttar 6radesh 2200 +ttara(hand 21>0 <est 2en'al 20B0 #our$eA ,## report 040, ,utritional inta(e in India 200;210 204B 1DB4 1D*1 1D2> 1D12 2110 1D00 1D0* 1D>4 1D*D 2001 212> 222* 21D1 1D20 20>4 21BD 1D2B 2004203 2000 214* 21D0 201B 1DD1 20** 2401 1D44 1DD> 1D04 114B 21*D 2100 211> 1D*0 2124 2200 2011 1r>an 200;210 1DB0 200* 201* 1D4D 1D1* 1D40 204> 1D1B 1D41 1104 1D01 20D> 20>2 2014 1D>* 1D2* 1D14 1101

22

The de$line in per $apita $alorie inta(e per day in most o! the #tates in spite o! the e$onomi$ development and on'oin' initiatives to%ards poverty alleviation is a matter o! $on$ern"

Malnutrition among c'ildren still loomsH! Indicator= Prevalence of under eig't c'ildren under t'ree years of age! Children are the %orst su!!erers o! poverty and malnourishment amon' $hildren is a si'ni!i$ant indi$ator o! !ood inse$urity" The indi$ator JPrevalence of under eig't c'ildren is the per$enta'e o! $hildren under three years o! a'e %hose %ei'ht !or a'e is less than minus t%o standard deviations !rom the median !or the re!eren$e population a'ed 0-*0 months0" 4ll-India trend o! the proportion of under eig't *severe and moderate, c'ildren >elo 4 years of age>sho%s India is

sho%in' a slo% pro'ress in eliminatin' the e!!e$t o! malnourishment" Crom estimated 02F in 1DD0, the proportion o! under%ei'ht $hildren &elo% * years is re7uired to &e redu$ed to 2>F &y 2010" The proportion o! under%ei'ht $hildren has de$lined &y * per$enta'e points durin' 1DD1-DD -,C;# -2. to 2000-0> -,C;#-*., !rom a&out 4*F to a&out 40F and at this histori$al rate o! de$line, it is e3pe$ted to $ome do%n to a&out **F only &y 2010" 4s per ,C;# -*, in India, one in every three $hildren in the a'e 'roup o! 0-* years is su!!erin' !rom under %ei'ht" Census 2011, reports nearly 1D million $hildren in the a'e 'roup 0-* years and %ith the 40FB prevalen$e o! under%ei'ht, *0"> million amon' them are under%ei'ht $hildren"

The indi$ator o! under%ei'ht -%ei'ht-!or-a'e -

inade7uate %ei'ht-!or-a'e

indi$ate under%ei'ht., to'ether %ith the indi$ator o! stuntin' -hei'ht-!or-a'e inade7uate hei'ht-!or-a'e indi$ate stuntin'. and %astin' -%ei'ht-!or-hei'ht -

In Indian $onte3t, data on this indi$ator !or the re!eren$e a'e 'roup -0-0 years pres$ri&ed in the MDG !rame%or( 200*. are not availa&le !or all time points" The ,ational Camily ;ealth #urvey -,C;#. $olle$ted data on the under%ei'ht $hildren &et%een 0-*0 months o! a'e in 1DD1-DD and &et%een 0-*0 months and &et%een 0-0D months o! a'e in 2000-0>, %hile in the survey $ondu$ted in 1DD2-D*, $hildren &et%een 0-*0 months and &et%een 0-4B months o! a'e %ere $onsidered" 4s su$h, results o! the surveys are $ompara&le only %ith re!eren$e to the a'e 'roup o! 0-*0 months -or less than * years o! a'e." > 2y the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare following the National Family Health Survey 2005-06 (NFHS-3) made according to standards of the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group, 2006 accepted by the Government of India in 2006. B The latest o!!i$ial estimate o! ,C;# * -2000-0>. has &een used" 2*

inade7uate %ei'ht-!or-hei'ht indi$ate %astin'. reveals a &etter pi$ture o! nutritional status o! $hildren" "ig 4!;= /utritional Status of C'ildren under t'ree years of age in India
>0 00 40 *0 20 10 0 01 44"D 1D"B 22"D ,C;# 2 -1DD1-DD. ,C;# * -2000-0>. F Children stunted -hei'ht !or a'e. F Children %asted -%ei'ht !or hei'ht. F Children under%ei'ht -%ei'ht !or a'e. 42"B 40"4

#our$eA ,ational Camily ;ealth #urvey, Ministry o! ;ealth and Camily <el!are

Durin' the period &et%een ,C;# 2 -1DD1-DD. 9 ,C;# * -2000-0>., de$line has &een o&served !or prevalen$e o! stuntin' and under%ei'ht amon' $hildren under * years o! a'e, %hereas the per$enta'e o! $hildren J%asted has in$reased" ;o%ever, it may &e noted that, the de'ree o! de$line %as very lo% !or &oth the $ases o! stuntin' and under%ei'ht $hildren -O * years. as the per year de$line %ere less than one per$enta'e point in &oth $ases" Curther, the in$rease in the Jper$enta'e o! $hildren %asted over years indi$ates a %orsenin' situation, thou'h the per year in$rease %as less than one per$enta'e point"

1nder eig't c'ildren J4 years ? Profile of States@ 10s ,utritional pro&lems are su&stantial in every #tate in India" The proportion o! $hildren under a'e !ive years %ho are under%ei'ht %as lo%est in Mi/oram -14"2F. !ollo%ed &y #i((im -1B"*F." The #tates %hi$h are a&ove the national level estimate
24

-40F. o! $hildren under three years o! a'e under%ei'ht are GuMarat -41"1F., +ttar 6radesh -41">F., Me'halaya -42"DF., Chattis'arh -4B"1F., @har(hand -04">F., 2ihar -04"DF. and Madhya 6radesh -0B"DF." "ig 4!10= Prevalence of under eig't among c'ildren J 4years *2003208,
B0"0 >0"0 00"0 40"0 *0"0 20"0 10"0 0"0

#our$eA ,ational Camily ;ealth #urvey 2000-0>, Ministry o! ;ealth and Camily <el!are

4s per ,C;# -* results, 10 #tates namely Mi/oram -14"2F., #i((im -1B"*F., Manipur -1D"0F., Ierala -21"2F., Goa -21"*F., 6unMa& -2*">F., ,a'aland -2*"BF., @ammu 9 Iashmir -24F., Delhi -24"DF., and Tamil ,adu -20"DF.have already a$hieved the all India MDG tar'et !or prevalen$e o! under%ei'ht $hildren under three years o! a'e and !our more #tates i"e" 4ndhra 6radesh, Iarnata(a, Maharashtra and +ttara(hand are li(ely to a$hieve the tar'et &y 2010" ;o%ever, as per the histori$al trend, only > #tates, namely, Maharashtra, 4ndhra 6radesh, Tamil ,adu, Delhi, @ammu 9 Iashmir and 6unMa& are li(ely to a$hieve their o%n MDG tar'ets &y 2010" "ig 4!11= Prevalence of under eig't c'ildren J4 yearsD li)ely ac'ievement of States vis 2a vis MDG target 2013 4ndhra 6radesh
<est 2en'al B0"0 +ttara(hand +ttar 6radesh Tripura Tamil ,adu #i((im RaMasthan 6unMa& 8rissa ,a'aland Mi/oram Me'halaya Manipur Maharashtra 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chhattis'arh Delhi Goa GuMarat ;aryana ;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir @har(hand Iarnata(a Ierala Madhya 6radesh

Mi/oram #i((im Manipur Ierala Goa 6unMa& ,a'aland @ammu 9P Delhi Tamil ,adu 4runa$halP 4ndhra 6radesh ;ima$halP +ttara(hand Maharashtra Iarnata(a Tripura 4ssam RaMasthan <est 2en'al ;aryana 8rissa India GuMarat +ttar 6radesh Me'halaya Chhattis'arh @har(hand 2ihar Madhya 6radesh >0"0 00"0 40"0 *0"0 20"0 10"0 0"0 2000-0> li(ely a$hievement 2010 tar'et 2010

20

The statisti$s as dis$ussed a&ove, points out that, maMority o! the #tates are $rippled %ith the pro&lem o! malnutrition and the issue invites spe$ial attention in the $onte3t o! de$linin' trend o&served in per $apita nutritional inta(e" The 'ap e3istin' in the present nutritional status amon' $hildren -measured &y prevalen$e o! under%ei'ht $hildren. !rom the MDG tar'et and the de$linin' trend in the estimate per $apita nutritional inta(e per day in maMority o! the #tates indi$ates the $omple3ity o! the issue o! malnutrition and hun'er"

Committed to ards com>ating poverty and 'ungerH!


6overty is a $omple3 and multidimensional phenomenon" The institutions addressin' the issues o! poor there!ore need to en'a'e in many se$tors and %ith several servi$e providers" The Government o! India has ta(en a num&er o! initiatives to%ards eradi$atin' poverty and hun'er as poverty remains to &e the maMor hurdle to%ards sustaina&le development in the Country"

/ational "ood Security Mission */"SM, The ,ational Development Coun$il -,DC.in its 0*rd meetin' held on 2Dth May, 200B adopted a resolution to laun$h a Cood #e$urity Mission $omprisin' ri$e, %heat

2>

and pulses to in$rease the produ$tion o! ri$e &y 10 million tons, %heat &y 1 million tons and pulses &y 2 million tons &y the end o! the =leventh 6lan -2011-12." 4$$ordin'ly, 4 Centrally #ponsored #$heme, N,ational Cood #e$urity MissionN, has &een laun$hed !rom 200B-01 to operationali/e the a&ove mentioned resolution" The ,ational Cood #e$urity Mission has * $omponents -i. Ri$e -ii. <heat 9 -iii. 6ulses"

The ,C#M o&Me$tives are in$reasin' produ$tion o! ri$e, %heat and pulses throu'h area e3pansion and produ$tivity enhan$ement in a sustaina&le manner in the identi!ied distri$ts o! the $ountry, restorin' soil !ertility and produ$tivity at the individual !arm level, $reation o! employment opportunities, and enhan$in' !arm level e$onomy -i"e" !arm pro!its. to restore $on!iden$e amon'st the !armers" +nder ,C#M, !inan$ial support %ill &e availa&le !or resear$h in the !ollo%in' areasA

Conservation o! natural resour$es -land, %ater. and their e!!i$ient use" Inte'rated nutrient mana'ement" Inte'rated disease and pest mana'ement" Inte'rated %eed mana'ement" Modi!i$ation)re!inements o! !arm ma$hines)implements !or di!!erent types o! soil)$roppin' systems"

+p s$alin' o! improved $rop varieties)hy&rids in ,C#M adopted states)a'ro-$limati$ /ones under %ater)thermal stress $onditions"

,utrient mana'ement in a$idi$) al(aline) sodi$ soils" Crop-hus&andry" Input use e!!i$ien$y" Rain-%ater harvestin' mana'ement in (hari! pulses" Re!inement o! relay $roppin' systems" 4'ronomi$ pra$ti$es !or inter$roppin' systems involvin' pulses" Quality seed stora'e studies in the humid and hot $limati$ $onditions -$oastal areas"

:alue addition in $ase o! $oarse $ereals and pulses 6re$ision !armin'-nutrient mana'er and $rop mana'er
2B

4ny other relevant areas related to $rop produ$tion

Ras'triya Eris'i 5i)as 6o.ana *RE56,

The RI:G had aimed at a$hievin' 4F annual 'ro%th in the a'ri$ulture se$tor durin' the RI 6lan period, and is $ontinuin' in the 12th 6lan, &y ensurin' a holisti$ development o! 4'ri$ulture and allied se$tors" The main o&Me$tives o! the s$heme areA -i. To in$entivise the states so as to in$rease pu&li$ investment in 4'ri$ulture and allied se$tors" -ii. To provide !le3i&ility and autonomy to states in the pro$ess o! plannin' and e3e$utin' 4'ri$ulture and allied se$tor s$hemes" -iii. To ensure the preparation o! a'ri$ulture plans !or the distri$ts and the states &ased on a'ro-$limati$ $onditions, availa&ility o! te$hnolo'y and natural resour$es" -iv. To ensure that the lo$al needs)$rops)priorities are &etter re!le$ted in the a'ri$ultural plans o! the states" -v. To a$hieve the 'oal o! redu$in' the yield 'aps in important $rops, throu'h !o$used interventions" -vi. To ma3imi/e returns to the !armers in a'ri$ulture and allied se$tors" -vii. To &rin' a&out 7uanti!ia&le $han'es in the produ$tion and produ$tivity o! various $omponents o! 4'ri$ulture and allied se$tors &y addressin' them in a holisti$ manner"

Ma'atma Gand'i /ational Rural %mployment Sc'eme *MG/R%G&,

The Mahatma Gandhi ,ational Rural =mployment Guarantee 4$t -,R=G4. %as ena$ted on 0th #eptem&er, 2000 and $ame into !or$e %"e"!" 2nd Ce&ruary, 200>" 8n *1st De$em&er, 200D, the 4$t %as renamed &y an 4mendment as the Mahatma Gandhi ,ational Rural =mployment Guarantee 4$t, 2000" The mandate o! the 4$t is to provide at least 100 days o! 'uaranteed %a'e employment in a !inan$ial year to
21

every rural household %hose adult mem&ers volunteer to do uns(illed manual %or(" It is provided in the 4$t that, %hile providin' employment, priority shall &e 'iven to %omen in su$h a %ay that, at least 1)*rd o! the &ene!i$iaries shall &e %omen, %ho have re'istered and re7uested !or %or( under the #$heme" The Goals o! MG,R=G4 are, 1" #o$ial prote$tion !or the most vulnera&le people livin' in rural India &y providin' employment opportunities 2" Eivelihood se$urity !or the poor throu'h $reation o! dura&le assets, improved %ater se$urity, soil $onservation and hi'her land produ$tivity *" Drou'ht-proo!in' and !lood mana'ement in rural India 4" =mpo%erment o! the so$ially disadvanta'ed, espe$ially %omen, #$heduled Castes -#Cs. and #$hedules Tri&es -#Ts., throu'h the pro$esses o! a ri'hts&ased le'islation 0" #tren'thenin' de$entralised, parti$ipatory plannin' throu'h $onver'en$e o! various anti-poverty and livelihoods initiatives >" Deepenin' demo$ra$y at the 'rass-roots &y stren'thenin' 6an$hayati RaM Institutions B" =!!e$tin' 'reater transparen$y and a$$ounta&ility in 'overnan$e Thus, MG,R=G4 is a po%er!ul instrument !or ensurin' in$lusive 'ro%th in rural India throu'h its impa$t on so$ial prote$tion, livelihood se$urity and demo$rati$ empo%erment"

2D

Indira & as 6o.ana *I&6, Rural housin' development has to &e seen in the $onte3t o! poverty alleviation and overall rural development" ;ousin' lays !oundation !or livin' %ith di'nity !or the rural poor &y dispellin' the 'loom o! &ein' shelter-less" Indira 4%aas GoMana -I4G. is a $entrally sponsored s$heme !or rural 26E !amilies %ho are either houseless or havin' inade7uate housin' !a$ilities !or $onstru$tin' a sa!e and dura&le shelter" I4G has the !ollo%in' $omponentsA 4ssistan$e !or $onstru$tion o! a ne% house +p'radation o! (ut$ha or dilapidated houses 6rovision o! house sites

D0F o! the total &ud'et %ould &e utili/ed !or the $omponents relatin' to ne% houses, up'radation o! houses and provision o! house sites and administrative e3penses" The remainin' 0F %ould &e reserved !or spe$ial proMe$ts o! Reha&ilitation o! 26E !amilies a!!e$ted &y natural $alamities Reha&ilitation o! 26E !amilies a!!e$ted &y violen$e and la% and order pro&lems #ettlement o! !reed &onded la&ourers and li&erated manual s$aven'ers #ettlement o! parti$ularly vulnera&le tri&al 'roups ,e% te$hnolo'y demonstration K espe$ially %ith !o$us on a!!orda&le and 'reen te$hnolo'ies"

/ational Rural +iveli'ood Mission */R+M,

The Ministry o! Rural Development has re-desi'ned and re-stru$tured the #%arnMayanti Gram #%aroM'ar GoMana -#G#G. into ,ational Eivelihood Mission -,REM. as a $ornerstone o! national poverty redu$tion strate'y" The o&Me$tive o! the Mission is to redu$e poverty amon' rural 26E &y promotin' diversi!ied and 'ain!ul sel!-employment and %a'e employment opportunities %hi$h %ould lead to an appre$ia&le in$rease in in$ome on sustaina&le &asis" In the lon' run, it %ill ensure &road &ased in$lusive 'ro%th and redu$e disparities &y spreadin' out the &ene!its
*0

!rom the islands o! 'ro%th a$ross the re'ions, se$tors and $ommunities. The $ore &elie! o! ,ational Rural Eivelihoods Mission -,REM. is that the poor have innate $apa&ilities and a stron' desire to $ome out o! poverty" They are entrepreneurial, an essential $opin' me$hanism to survive under $onditions o! poverty" The $hallen'e is to unleash their $apa&ilities to 'enerate meanin'!ul livelihoods and ena&le them to $ome out o! poverty" The !irst step in this pro$ess is motivatin' them to !orm their o%n institutions" They and their institutions need to &e provided su!!i$ient $apa$ities to a$$ess !inan$e and to e3pand their s(ills and assets and $onvert them into meanin'!ul livelihoods" This re7uires $ontinuous handholdin' support" 4n e3ternal dedi$ated, sensitive support stru$ture, !rom the national level to the su&-distri$t level, is re7uired to indu$e su$h so$ial mo&ili/ation, institution &uildin' and livelihoods promotion"

,REM implementation is in a Mission Mode" This ena&lesA -a. shi!t !rom the present allo$ation &ased strate'y to a demand driven strate'y, ena&lin' the #tates to !ormulate their o%n livelihoods-&ased poverty redu$tion a$tion plans,-&. !o$us on tar'ets, out$omes and time &ound delivery, -$. $ontinuous $apa$ity &uildin', impartin' re7uisite s(ills and $reatin' lin(a'es %ith livelihoods opportunities !or the poor, in$ludin' those emer'in' in the or'ani/ed se$tor, and -d. monitorin' a'ainst tar'ets o! poverty out$omes" 4s ,REM !ollo%s a demand driven strate'y, the #tates have the !le3i&ility to develop their livelihoods-&ased perspe$tive plans and annual a$tion plans !or poverty redu$tion" The se$ond dimension o! demand driven strate'y implies that the ultimate o&Me$tive is that the poor %ill drive the a'enda, throu'h parti$ipatory plannin' at 'rassroots level, implementation o! their o%n plans, revie%in' and 'eneratin' !urther plans &ased on their e3perien$es"

/ational 1r>an liveli'ood Mission */1+M,

The ,ational +r&an livelihood Mission -,+EM. implemented &y the Ministry o! ;ousin' and +r&an 6overty 4lleviation aims to redu$e poverty and vulnera&ility o! the ur&an poor households &y ena&lin' them to a$$ess 'ain!ul sel! employment and

*1

s(illed %a'e employment opportunities, resultin' in an appre$ia&le improvement in their livelihoods on a sustaina&le &asis, throu'h &uildin' stron' 'rassroots level institutions o! the poor" The mission %ould aim at providin' shelters e7uipped %ith essential servi$es to the ur&an homeless in a phased manner" In addition, the mission %ould also address livelihood $on$erns o! the ur&an street vendors &y !a$ilitatin' a$$ess to suita&le spa$es, institutional $redit, so$ial se$urity and s(ills to the ur&an street vendors !or a$$essin' emer'in' mar(et opportunities" The strate'y !ollo%ed in ,+EM in$ludes, 2uildin' $apa$ity o! the ur&an poor, their institutions and the ma$hinery involved in the implementation o! livelihoods development and poverty alleviation pro'rammes throu'h handholdin' support? =nhan$in' and e3pandin' e3istin' livelihoods options o! the ur&an poor? 2uildin' s(ills to ena&le a$$ess to 'ro%in' mar(et-&ased Mo& opportunities o!!ered &y emer'in' ur&an e$onomies? Trainin' !or and support to the esta&lishment o! mi$ro-enterprises &y the ur&an poor K sel! and 'roup? =nsure availa&ility and a$$ess !or the ur&an homeless population to permanent 24-hour shelters in$ludin' the &asi$ in!rastru$tural !a$ilities li(e %ater supply, sanitation, sa!ety and se$urity? Cater to the needs o! espe$ially vulnera&le se'ments o! the ur&an homeless li(e the dependent $hildren, a'ed, disa&led, mentally ill, and re$overin' patients et$", &y $reatin' spe$ial se$tions %ithin homeless shelters and provisionin' spe$ial servi$e lin(a'es !or them? To esta&lish stron' ri'hts-&ased lin(a'es %ith other pro'rammes %hi$h $over the ri'ht o! the ur&an homeless to !ood, health$are, edu$ation, et$" and ensure a$$ess !or homeless populations to various entitlements, in$ludin' to so$ial se$urity pensions, 6D#, ICD#, !eedin' pro'rammes, drin(in' %ater, sanitation, identity, !inan$ial in$lusion, s$hool admission et$", and to a!!orda&le housin'?

*2

To address livelihood $on$erns o! the ur&an street vendors &y !a$ilitatin' a$$ess to suita&le spa$es, institutional $redit, so$ial se$urity and s(ills to the ur&an street vendors !or a$$essin' emer'in' mar(et opportunities"

Ra.iv & as 6o.ana *R&6, The RaMiv 4%as GoMana envisa'es a #lum Cree IndiaH %ith in$lusive and e7uita&le $ities in %hi$h every $iti/en has a$$ess to &asi$ $ivi$ in!rastru$ture, so$ial amenities and de$ent shelter" The o&Me$tives o! the pro'ramme are, Improvin' and provisionin' o! housin', &asi$ $ivi$ in!rastru$ture and so$ial amenities in intervened slums" =na&lin' re!orms to address some o! the $auses leadin' to $reation o! slums" Ca$ilitatin' a supportive environment !or e3pandin' institutional $redit lin(a'es !or the ur&an poor" Institutionali/in' me$hanisms !or prevention o! slums in$ludin' $reation o! a!!orda&le housin' sto$(" #tren'thenin' institutional and human resour$e $apa$ities at the Muni$ipal, City and #tate levels throu'h $omprehensive $apa$ity &uildin' and stren'thenin' o! resour$e net%or(s" =mpo%erin' $ommunity &y ensurin' their parti$ipation at every sta'e o! de$ision ma(in' throu'h stren'thenin' and nurturin' #lum D%ellers 4sso$iation)Cederation" Integrated C'ild Development Services *ICDS, Sc'eme The Inte'rated Child Development #ervi$es -ICD#. #$heme, implemented &y the Ministry o! <omen and Child Development is an important pro'ramme o! the Government and is &ein' stren'thened throu'h various !ive year plans" ICD# tar'ets !i'htin' malnutrition amon' $hildren &elo% > years o! a'e and pre'nant %omen 9 la$tatin' mothers" ICD# is a $entrally sponsored #$heme &ein' implemented &y the #tate Governments)+T 4dministrations" The s$heme aims at holisti$ development o! $hildren &elo% > years o! a'e and pre'nant %omen 9 la$tatin' mothers &y providin' a pa$(a'e o! si3 servi$es $omprisin' -i. #upplementary nutrition -ii. 6re-s$hool non**

!ormal edu$ation -iii. ,utrition and health =du$ation -iv. Immuni/ation -v. ;ealth $he$(-up and -vi. Re!erral servi$es throu'h 4n'an%adi Centres at 'rassroots level" The #$heme is universal and appli$a&le to all the &ene!i$iaries irrespe$tive o! any e$onomi$ or other $riteria" The (ey !eatures o! #tren'thened and Restru$tured ICD# in 12th !ive year 6lan interalia in$lude addressin' the 'aps and $hallen'es %ith
#pe$ial !o$us on $hildren under * years and pre'nant and la$tatin' mothers #tren'thenin' and repa$(a'in' o! servi$es in$ludin', $are and nutrition $ounselin' servi$es and $are o! severely under%ei'ht $hildren 4 provision !or an additional 4n'an%adi <or(er $um ,utrition Counselor !or !o$us on $hildren under * years o! a'e and to improve the !amily $onta$t, $are and nutrition $ounselin' !or 69E Mothers in the sele$ted 200 hi'h-&urden distri$ts a$ross the $ountry, &esides havin' provision o! lin( %or(er, 0F $rS$he $um 4n'an%adi $entre Co$us on =arly Childhood Care and =du$ation -=CC=. Cor'in' stron' institutional and pro'rammati$ $onver'en$e parti$ularly, at the distri$t, &lo$( and villa'e levels, improvin' #upplementary ,utrition 6ro'ramme in$ludin' $ost revision amon' other $omponents"

The 'oals and tar'ets o! restru$tured and stren'thened ICD# are -i. to prevent and redu$e youn' $hild under nutrition &y 10F points in 0-* years and enhan$e early development and learnin' out$omes in all $hildren &elo% si3 years o! a'e -ii. improved $are and nutrition o! 'irls and %omen and redu$e anaemia prevalen$e in youn' $hildren, 'irls and %omen &y 1)0th and -iii. a$hieve time &ound 'oals and out$omes %ith results &ased monitorin' o! indi$ators at di!!erent levels"

& num>er of similar Programmes are >eing implemented >y Central as ell as State Governments to tac)le t'e >urden of poverty and 'unger in t'is Country! 0'e focused efforts to improve t'e lives of poor in all fronts need to >e continued in a sustaina>le manner so as to overcome t'e c'allenges of future too!

LLLL
*4

C'apter 4 &C-I%5I/G 1/I5%RS&+ %D1C&0I#/

Goal 2A Achieve Universal Primary Education 0&RG%0 3= %nsure t'at >y 2013D c'ildren every 'ereD >oys and girls ali)eD ill >e a>le to complete a full course of primary education"
Indicators ,et =nrolment Ratio in primary edu$ation 6roportion o! pupils startin' Grade 1 %ho rea$h Grade 0 Eitera$y rate o! 10-24 year olds

=du$ation is one o! the !irst and !oremost steppin' stones in nation &uildin'" India is $ommitted to providin' !ree and $ompulsory edu$ation to all $hildren" <ith this o&Me$tive, Indian 6arliament has ena$ted a le'islation ma(in' !ree and $ompulsory edu$ation a Ri'ht o! every $hild in the a'e 'roup >-14 years %hi$h has $ome into !or$e !rom 1st 4pril, 2010" The JRi'ht to =du$ation ena$ted &y the Government o! India aims at the ultimate tar'et o! ensurin' universalisation o! edu$ation o! all $hildren a'ed >-14 years &y ma(in' the provision o! !ree and $ompulsory edu$ation !or this a'e 'roup" The %ide ran'in' &ene!its o! elementary edu$ation !rom $ontri&ution to e$onomi$ 'ro%th, over$omin' e$onomi$ and so$ial ine7ualities,

empo%erment, redu$tion o! population 'ro%th and !ertility to

*0

$hild health via mother s s$hoolin' has %ei'hed heavily in the evolution o! a $onsensual vie% o! elementary edu$ation as a !undamental ri'ht" 1niversalisation of Primary %ducation Indicator= /et %nrolment Ratio ,et enrolment ratio -,=R.1 in primary edu$ation is the maMor indi$ator to assess %hether the $ountry is tendin' to a$hieve 2010 tar'et o! universal primary edu$ation !or all $hildren a'ed >-10 years" The estimate o! this indi$ator as revealed &y the Distri$t In!ormation #ystem on =du$ation -DI#=. data sho%s that the ,=R in 6rimary =du$ation has improved !rom 1*F in the year 2000 to over DD"1DF in 201011"

4s per administrative statisti$s o! the Ministry o! ;uman Resour$e Development -M;RD. o! the Government o! India, the G=RD-Gross =nrolment Ratio. !or Grades I-: in India has already overshot the 100F mar( and stands at 11> in 2010-12 %ith 11>"B !or 'irls and 110"4 !or &oys" G=R !or Grades I-: unli(e ,=R tends

1 D

6roportion o! pupils o! o!!i$ial s$hool a'e o! >-10 years %ho are enrolled in primary 'rades I-:" Gross =nrolment Ratio -G=R.A The total enrollment in a spe$i!i$ level o! edu$ation, re'ardless o! a'e, e3pressed as a per$enta'e o! the population in the o!!i$ial a'e 'roup $orrespondin' to this level o! edu$ation
*>

to e3$eed 100F due to enrolment o! $hildren &eyond the a'e 'roup >-10 years in the primary level edu$ation"

6rimary enrolment o! >-10 year old $hildren &y their ,=R measure has improved !rom 1*F in the year 2000 to D0"D2F in 200B-01 %hi$h in$reased steadily and stood at D1">F, D1"*F and DD"1DF in 2001-0D, 200D-10 and 2010-11 respe$tively" 2y the measure o! ,=R the $ountry had $rossed in 200B-01 itsel!, the D0F $ut-o!! line re'arded as the mar(er value !or a$hievin' 2010 tar'et o! universal primary edu$ation !or all $hildren a'ed >-10 years" The DI#=10 data !urther sho%s the $ountry has a$hieved $ent per$ent primary edu$ation !or $hildren in the primary s$hoolin' a'e o! >-10 years ahead o! 2010"

#tate-%ise de$omposition o! ,=R is availa&le !or 21 #tates)+Ts !rom DI#= &ased reports !or the re$ent years" The national series o! values only have &een used !or this report"

10

Distri$t In!ormation #ystem on =du$ation


*B

Indicator= Proportion of pupils starting Grade 1 'o reac' Grade 3

+niversalisation o! primary edu$ation addresses t%o maMor tar'et 'roups, the !irst 'roup is o! $hildren %ho remain out o! s$hool durin' the primary s$hool 'oin' a'e due to so$ial and )or e$onomi$ impediments" The other 'roup mi'ht have 'ot a $han$e to start s$hoolin' in the a'e-'roup, &ut %ere !or$ed to drop out even &e!ore $ompletion o! primary 'rade $lasses o!ten due to more or less same set o! so$ioe$onomi$ hurdles"

Ideally the proportion o! $hildren startin' Grade I %ho rea$h Grade :, the last 'rade o! primary $an &e o&tained a$$urately !rom a $ohort study, %hi$h is at present not availa&le in the o!!i$ial statisti$s o! the $ountry" #tren'thenin' the s$hool in!ormation system has &een a$$orded top priority !rom the very &e'innin' o! the #arva #hi(sha 4&hiyan -##4., as a result o! %hi$h the $overa'e o! DI#= %as e3tended to all states and distri$ts o! the $ountry, and its s$ope e3tended to the entire elementary sta'e o! edu$ation" The Clash #tatisti$sA 2011-12 is &ased on the data re$eived !rom the #tates and +Ts throu'h annual data $olle$tion under ##4 -DI#=. and as many as 1"41 million s$hools spread over >44 distri$ts a$ross *0 #tates 9 +Ts" The results !rom DI#= report 2011-12, sho%s a steady in$reasin' trend over the years in the estimate o! the indi$ator Jratio o! enrolment o! Grade : to Grade I !rom B1"01 in 200D-10 to 1>"00 in 2011-12"

"ig 4!1= &pprarent Survival Rate= Grade 5 *Ratio of enrolment of Grade 5 to I,


11 1> 14 12 10 B1 B> B4 B2 B0 1>"00 11">2 B1"01 B>

2001-0D

200D-10

2010-11

2011-12

#our$eA Distri$t In!ormation #ystem !or =du$ation, ,ational +niversity o! =du$ational 6lannin' and 4dministration -,+=64., Department o! #$hool =du$ation and Eitera$y, M)o ;RD

*1

Indicator= +iteracy rate of 13224 year olds Eitera$y is an essential $ondition !or development in various !ields" 4part !rom Mo& mar(et, %here the importan$e o! edu$ation is paramount, litera$y $an pave the %ay !or redu$tion in population 'ro%th, $hild mortality and poverty, and !a$ilitate in attainin' 'ender parity, sustaina&le and holisti$ 'ro%th" It provides !or nurturan$e o! demo$rati$ values and pea$e amon' people" Eitera$y is all the more important to those se$tions o! population, %ho have &een histori$ally ne'le$ted" 4$hievin' universal adult litera$y is a !undamental 'oal o! adult and $ontinuin' edu$ation pro'rammes that have &een envisa'ed !rom time to time" 4!ter all, the &asi$ litera$y pro'rammes are intended not only to enhan$e readin' and %ritin' $apa&ilities, &ut also to develop $omprehensive li!e s(ills to a$$ess all developmental resour$es"

4$$ordin' to the trend e3hi&ited durin' 1DD1 -2001, Gouth litera$y in$reased &et%een 1DD1 and 2001- !rom >1"DF to B>"4 F and the trend sho%s India is li(ely to a$hieve 100F youth litera$y &y 2010" The youth litera$y rate amon' ur&an persons %as 1BF in 2001 a'ainst B2F !or rural persons in 2001" The youth litera$y amon' males %as 14F in 2001 a'ainst >1F !or !emales" Eitera$y indi$ators !rom intervenin' survey results %ith post-2001 re!eren$e years also indi$ate the on-tra$( movement o! youth litera$y" The rural-ur&an 'ap in youth litera$y also has si'ni!i$antly redu$ed" Compared to males , the youth litera$y o! !emales tends to move !aster"

0a>le 4!1= 6out' +iteracy literates among yout'= Census 2001A A literates among yout'= /SS# *200920:, all female male rural ur>an all female male rural ur>an India 98 8: :4 92 :9 :8 :0 ;1 :4 ;4

#our$e o! DataA- 6opulation Census o! India, 2001? ,## Report 0*2A J 6arti$ipation and =3penditure on =du$ation in India 200B01

4s per Census 2001, the #tates %hi$h reported youth litera$y rates less than the national estimate o! B>F are 4ndhra 6radesh -B*">F., 4runa$hal 6radesh -B0"1F., 4ssam -B*"0F., 2ihar -0>"1F., @ammu 9 Iashmir ->1"2F., @har(hand
*D

->0"2F., Madhya 6radesh -B4">F., Me'halaya -B4F., ,a'aland -B0"0F., 8rissa -B0"4F., RaMasthan -B2F. and +ttar 6radesh ->>"0F." The lo% levels are due to the prevailin' hu'e 'ap in male- !emale litera$y and ur&an Krural litera$y in these #tates" Cor these #tates %ith Gouth Eitera$y less than the national level as per Census 2001, the status as per 200B-01 ,## results is as underA
0a>le 4!2= Percentage of literates among yout' for lo performing States State /ame A literates among yout'= Census 2001 all @ammu 9 Iashmir RaMasthan +ttar 6radesh 2ihar 4runa$hal 6radesh ,a'aland Me'halaya 4ssam @har(hand 8rissa Madhya 6radesh Dadra 9 ,a'ar ;aveli 4ndhra 6radesh >1 B2 >B 0B B0 B> B4 B4 >0 B0 B0 >B B4 female 0B 00 0* 4* >2 B* B4 >1 00 >> >* 41 >0 male B1 1B B1 >D B1 B1 B4 BD BD 10 10 10 12 rural >* >1 >* 0* >0 B* >D B1 0B B* >D >0 >1 ur>an 1* 14 BB 10 1> D0 D2 D0 11 1D 11 1D 1> A literates among yout'= /SS# *200920:, all 11 B1 10 >B 14 DD DB D2 B0 14 10 10 1B femal e 1* >4 B* 00 BB D1 D> D0 >2 B1 BB >* 12 male D* D0 1B BB D0 100 DB D4 1> D1 D2 DD D2 rural 1B B4 BD >4 10 100 D> D2 B0 12 12 1* 14 ur>an D4 1D 14 1> DB DB DB DB D* D0 D* DB D4

#our$eA Census 2001, ,##8 200B- 01

4s per the Census 2011 results, the all India litera$y rate has sur'ed !or%ard !rom >4"1*F in 2001 to B*F in 2011" Durin' 2001 - 2011, the litera$y rate o! males in$reased !rom B0"*F to 10"DF and !or !emales, the in$rease %as !rom0*"BF to >4">F" In this period, the litera$y rate in rural areas in$reased !rom 01"BF to >B"1F and in ur&an areas, the pro'ress %as !rom BD"DF to 14"1F" The in$rease in litera$y rates in various !ronts durin' 2001 - 2011 is $orro&oratin' the $on$lusion o! on-the tra$( movement o! youth litera$y" (rea)ing all >arriersH%ducation to all The role o! +niversal =lementary =du$ation -+==. !or stren'thenin' the so$ial !a&ri$ o! demo$ra$y throu'h provision o! e7ual opportunities to all has &een

40

a$$epted sin$e the in$eption o! our Repu&li$" 8ver the years, India initiated a %ide ran'e o! pro'rammes !or a$hievin' the 'oal o! +== throu'h several s$hemati$ and pro'ramme interventions, su$h as 8peration 2la$( 2oard, #hi(sha Iarmi 6roMe$t, Eo( @um&ish 6ro'ramme, Mahila #ama(hya, Distri$t 6rimary =du$ation 6ro'ramme et$" Currently, #arva #hi(sha 4&hiyan -##4. is implemented as IndiaNs main pro'ramme !or universalisin' elementary edu$ation" Its overall 'oals in$lude universal a$$ess and retention, &rid'in' o! 'ender and so$ial $ate'ory 'aps in edu$ation and enhan$ement o! learnin' levels o! $hildren" ##4 provides !or a variety o! interventions, in$ludin' inter alia, openin' o! ne% s$hools and alternate s$hoolin' !a$ilities, $onstru$tion o! s$hools and additional provisionin' !or tea$hers, periodi$ tea$her trainin' and a$ademi$ resour$e support, te3t&oo(s and support !or learnin' a$hievement" These provisions need to &e ali'ned %ith the le'ally mandated norms and standards and !ree entitlements mandated &y the RT= 4$t" ##4 is &ein'

implemented in partnership %ith #tate Governments to $over the entire $ountry and address the needs o! 1D2 million $hildren in 1"1 million ha&itations"

The Constitution -=i'hty-si3th 4mendment. 4$t, 2002 inserted 4rti$le 21-4 in the Constitution o! India to provide !ree and $ompulsory edu$ation o! all $hildren in the a'e 'roup o! si3 to !ourteen years as a Cundamental Ri'ht in su$h a manner as the #tate may, &y la%, determine" The Ri'ht o! Children to Cree and Compulsory =du$ation -RT=. 4$t, 200D, %hi$h represents the $onse7uential le'islation envisa'ed under 4rti$le 21-4, means that every $hild has a ri'ht to !ull time elementary edu$ation o! satis!a$tory and e7uita&le 7uality in a !ormal s$hool %hi$h satis!ies $ertain essential norms and standards" 4rti$le 21-4 and the RT= 4$t $ame into e!!e$t on 1 4pril 2010" The title o! the RT= 4$t in$orporates the %ords J!ree and $ompulsory " JCree edu$ation means that no $hild, other than a $hild %ho has &een admitted &y his or her parents to a s$hool %hi$h is not supported &y the appropriate Government, shall &e lia&le to pay any (ind o! !ee or $har'es or e3penses %hi$h may prevent him or her !rom pursuin' and $ompletin' elementary edu$ation" JCompulsory edu$ation $asts an o&li'ation on the appropriate Government and lo$al authorities to provide and ensure admission, attendan$e and $ompletion o!
41

elementary edu$ation &y all $hildren in the >-14 a'e 'roup" <ith this, India has moved !or%ard to a ri'hts &ased !rame%or( that $asts a le'al o&li'ation on the Central and #tate Governments to implement this !undamental $hild ri'ht as enshrined in the 4rti$le 214 o! the Constitution, in a$$ordan$e %ith the provisions o! the RT= 4$t"

The ##4 has &een operational sin$e 2000-2001 to provide !or a variety o! interventions !or universal a$$ess and retention, &rid'in' o! 'ender and so$ial $ate'ory 'aps in elementary edu$ation and improvin' the 7uality o! learnin'" ##4 see(s to provide 7uality elementary edu$ation in$ludin' li!e s(ills" ##4 has a spe$ial !o$us on 'irlNs edu$ation and $hildren %ith spe$ial needs" ##4 also see(s to provide $omputer edu$ation to &rid'e the di'ital divide" <ith the passa'e o! the RT= 4$t, $han'es have &een in$orporated into the ##4 approa$h, strate'ies and norms" =lementary =du$ation se$tor is e3perien$in' the drive !or Quality improvement under ##4 &y ali'nin' it %ith the provisions o! RT= 4$t"

The #arva #hi(sha 4&hiyan -##4. !rame%or( o! implementation and norms !or interventions have &een revised to $orrespond %ith the provisions o! the RT= 4$t" This in$ludes interventions, inter alia !or i" 8penin' ne% primary and upper primary s$hools as per the nei'h&ourhood norms noti!ied &y #tate Governments in the RT= Rules, and to e3pand

42

e3istin' in!rastru$ture-additional $lassrooms, toilets, drin(in' %ater !a$ilities. and provide maintenan$e 'rants and s$hool improvement 'rants ii" #upport !or residential s$hools !or $hildren in areas %hi$h are sparsely populated, or hilly or densely !orested %ith di!!i$ult terrain, and !or ur&an deprived homeless and street $hildren in di!!i$ult $ir$umstan$es, iii" #pe$ial trainin' !or admission o! out-o!-s$hool $hildren in a'e appropriate $lasses, iv" 4dditional tea$hers as per norms spe$i!ied in the RT= 4$t, and provide e3tensive trainin' and 'rants !or development !or tea$her trainin' materials and stren'thenin' the a$ademi$ support stru$ture v" T%o sets o! uni!orms !or all 'irls, and $hildren &elon'in' to #C)#T)26E !amilies, vi" #tren'thenin' o! a$ademi$ support throu'h &lo$( and $luster resour$e $entres, s$hools, et$" vii" 6rovide 7uality elementary edu$ation in$ludin' li!e s(ills %ith a spe$ial !o$us on the edu$ation o! 'irls and $hildren %ith spe$ial needs as %ell as $omputer edu$ation to &rid'e vital divide The !o$us is no more only on the 7uantitative e3pansion o! institutions and enrolment &ut e7ual emphasis is &ein' laid on the 7uality improvement" The s$hool system is &ein' revitali/ed &y introdu$in' administrative and mana'ement re!orms, $urri$ulum rene%al, tea$hin' methodolo'ies to evolve the !a$ilitatin' $onditions !or learner to remain in the s$hool !or ei'ht years and not droppin' out"

Mid Day Meal Sc'eme <ith a vie% to enhan$in' enrolment, retention and attendan$e and simultaneously improvin' nutritional levels amon' $hildren, the ,ational 6ro'ramme o! ,utritional #upport to 6rimary =du$ation -,6-,#6=. %as laun$hed as a Centrally #ponsored #$heme on 10th 4u'ust 1DD0"In 2001 MDM# &e$ame a $oo(ed Mid Day Meal #$heme under %hi$h every $hild in every Government and Government aided primary s$hool %as to &e served a prepared Mid Day Meal %ith a minimum $ontent o! *00 $alories o! ener'y and 1-12 'ram protein per day !or a minimum o! 200 days"
4*

The #$heme %as !urther e3tended in 2002 to $over not only $hildren studyin' in Government, Government aided and lo$al &ody s$hools, &ut also $hildren studyin' in =du$ation Guarantee #$heme -=G#. and 4lternative 9 Innovative =du$ation -4I=. $entres" In #eptem&er 2004 the #$heme %as revised to provide !or Central 4ssistan$e !or Coo(in' $ost T Re 1 per $hild per s$hool day to $over $ost o! pulses, ve'eta&les $oo(in' oil, $ondiments, !uel and %a'es and remuneration paya&le to personnel or amount paya&le to a'en$y responsi&le !or $oo(in'" Transport su&sidy %as also raised !rom the earlier ma3imum o! Rs 00 per 7uintal to Rs" 100 per 7uintal !or spe$ial $ate'ory states and Rs B0 per 7uintal !or other states" Central assistan$e %as provided !or the !irst time !or mana'ement, monitorin' and evaluation o! the s$heme T 2F o! the $ost o! !ood 'rains, transport su&sidy and $oo(in' assistan$e" 4 provision !or servin' mid day meal durin' summer va$ation in drou'ht a!!e$ted areas %as also made" In @uly 200> the #$heme %as !urther revised to enhan$e the $oo(in' $ost to Rs 1"10 per $hild)s$hool day !or #tates in the ,orth =astern Re'ion and Rs 1"00 per $hild ) s$hool day !or other #tates and +Ts" The nutritional norm %as revised to 400 Calories and 12 'ram o! protein" In order to !a$ilitate $onstru$tion o! (it$hen$um-store and pro$urement o! (it$hen devi$es in s$hools provision !or Central assistan$e T Rs" >0,000 per unit and T Rs" 0,000 per s$hool in phased manner %ere made" In 8$to&er 200B, the #$heme %as e3tended to $over $hildren o! upper primary $lasses -i"e" $lass :I to :III. studyin' in *,4BD =du$ationally 2a$(%ards 2lo$(s -=22s. and the name o! the #$heme %as $han'ed !rom J,ational 6ro'ramme o! ,utritional #upport to 6rimary =du$ation to J,ational 6ro'ramme o! Mid Day Meal in #$hools " The nutritional norm !or upper primary sta'e %as !i3ed at B00 Calories and 20 'rams o! protein" The #$heme %as e3tended to all areas a$ross the $ountry !rom 1"4"2001"The #$heme %as !urther revised in 4pril 2001 to e3tend the s$heme to re$o'ni/ed as %ell as unre$o'ni/ed Madarsas ) Ma7ta&s supported under ##4"

The Mid Day Meal is the %orld s lar'est s$hool !eedin' pro'ramme rea$hin' out to a&out 12 $rore $hildren in over 12">0 la(h s$hools)=G# $entres a$ross the $ountry" Today, Mid day Meal s$heme is servin' primary and upper primary s$hool $hildren in entire $ountry"
44

0'e present status of MDG indicators under Goal 2D t'ro s lig't on t'e remar)a>le ac'ievement in t'e field of universalisation of Primary educationD t'e focussed initiatives are to >e continued to maintain t'e momentum gat'ered so farD addressing t'e specific issues of t'e vulnera>le groups of c'ildren 'o tends to

miss primary education at any point of time due to various socio ? economic 'urdles!

****

40

Chapter 5
0#$&RDS G%/D%R %71&+I06 &/D %MP#$%RM%/0 #" $#M%/

Goal *A 6romote Gender =7uality and =mpo%er <omen 0arget 4= %liminate gender disparity in primaryD secondary educationD prefera>ly >y 2003D and in all levels of educationD no later t'an 2013 Indicators
Ratio o! 'irls to &oys in primary, se$ondary and tertiary edu$ation Ratio o! literate %omen to men,10-24 years old #hare o! %omen in %a'e employment in the non- a'ri$ultural se$tor 6roportion o! seats held &y %omen in ,ational 6arliament"

The MDGs re$o'nise the $entrality o! 'ender e7uality in the development a'enda and a$hievement o! the 'ender e7uality is dependent on the inte'ration o! 'ender $on$erns %ithin ea$h o! the MDGs K !rom improvin' health and !i'htin' disease, to redu$in' poverty and miti'atin' hun'er, to e3pandin' edu$ation and lo%erin' $hild mortality, to in$reasin' a$$ess to sa!e drin(in' %ater and to ensurin' environmental sustaina&ility" =du$ation is the sin'le most important !a$tor %hi$h paves %ay to development pro$ess in all spheres o! li!e %hi$h in turn leads to 'ender e7uality and %omen empo%erment" 2uildin' upon the e3istin' $apa$ities and re$o'ni/in' the immense
4>

$ontri&ution to nation &uildin' that the lar'e net%or( o! edu$ational institutions has made in the post independent India, the $ountry has em&ar(ed upon a se$ond phase o! e3pansion and esta&lishment o! $entres o! e3$ellen$e in hi'her edu$ation" It is envisa'ed that stren'thenin' the t%o ends o! the spe$trum, namely, elementary edu$ation and hi'her)te$hni$al edu$ation %ould help in meetin' the o&Me$tives o! e3pansion, promotin' enhan$ed a$$ess to edu$ation !or 'irls and ena&lin' &oth &oys and 'irls to pursue their $areer and $ontri&ute their !ull potential to so$iety" ;i'her edu$ation $ontri&utes vastly not only in national development &ut also in developin' $riti$al a&ilities o! people to !a$e $hallen'es" The unpre$edented e3plosion o! (no%led'e %arrants hi'her edu$ation to &e$ome more dynami$ as never &e!ore, $onstantly enterin' into un$hartered domains"

<ith

+niversal

=lementary

=du$ation

&e$omin'

reality,

near

universali/ation o! se$ondary edu$ation is a lo'i$al ne3t step" Curther, universalisation o! 7uality se$ondary edu$ation implies $reatin' se$ondary s$hoolin' provisions o! a de!ined standard irrespe$tive o! the lo$ation and mana'ement o! the institution to a$$ommodate all those eli'i&le 'rade :III and 'rade R 'raduates %ho are %illin' to parti$ipate in se$ondary and hi'her se$ondary edu$ation" It is e3pe$ted that initiatives su$h as Ri'ht To =du$ation o! ei'ht years o! s$hoolin' %ould not only &e in$reasin' parti$ipation levels in elementary edu$ation &ut also su&stantially improve the internal e!!i$ien$y o! elementary edu$ation and to ensure hi'her levels o! transition to se$ondary s$hoolin'" 4s evident !rom DI#= report 2011-12, the
4B

transition rate !rom 6rimary to +pper 6rimary level has in$reased !rom 10"1B in 200D-10 to 1B"0D in 2010-11"

Reducing gender gap in educationH Indicator= Ratio of girls to >oys in primaryD secondary and tertiary education

In re$o'ni/in' the importan$e o! edu$ation in 'ender e7uality and empo%erment o! %omen, the very !irst indi$ator o! MDG * is to monitor the status o! 'irls enrolment in 6rimary, #e$ondary and Tertiary levels o! edu$ation" Gender 6arity Inde3 -G6I. in enrolment at primary, se$ondary and tertiary levels is the ratio o! the num&er o! !emale students enrolled at primary, se$ondary and tertiary levels in pu&li$ and private s$hools to the num&er o! male students" To standardise the e!!e$ts o! the population stru$ture o! the appropriate a'e 'roups, the G6I o! the G=R11 !or ea$h level o! edu$ation is used, i"e" G6I -G=R. U G=R -Cemale.)G=R -Male." 4 G6I o! 1 indi$ates parity &et%een the se3es or no 'ender disparity" 4 G6I that varies &et%een 0 and 1 typi$ally means a disparity in !avour o! males %hereas a G6I 'reater than 1 indi$ates a disparity in !avour o! !emales" Tar'et 4 is intended to a$hieve G6I o! 1 &y 2000 !or primary enrolment and &y 2010 !or all levels" In 'eneral, at the national level, the !emale-male 'ap in enrolment in edu$ation is steadily improvin' over the years" The &etter transition rate !rom various levels o! edu$ation is also a &ri'ht line" In 2010-11, the transition rate !rom 6rimary level to +pper primary level %as 1B"*2 !or 'irls and 1>"1B !or &oys"

In primary edu$ation, the G6I o! G=R has 'one up !rom 0"B> in 1DD0-D1 to 1"01 in 2010-11 sho%in' **F in$rease, in se$ondary edu$ation the in$rease is !rom 0">0 in 1DD0-D1 to 0"11 in 2010-11 there&y sho%in' 4BF in$rease, and in hi'her edu$ation, it is in$reased !rom 0"04 in 1DD0-D1 to 0"1> in 2010-11 re'isterin' an in$rease o! 0DF"

11

G=R K Gross =nrolment Ratio


41

1"0 1 0"0 0

"ig 3!1= Gender Parity Inde< of G%R


0"B> 0"> 0"04 1"01 0"11 0"1>

6rimary edu$ation #e$ondary edu$ation Tertiary edu$ation

1DD0-D1 2004-00 2000-0> 200>-0B 200B-01 2001-0D 200D-10 2010-11

0a>le 3!1= Gender Parity Inde< *G%R, ?&ll India


1;;02;1 2004203 2003208 2008209 0"D4 0"12 0">D 200920: 0"D1 0"10 0"B0 200:20; 1"00 0"10 0"B0 200;210 1"00 0"11 0"B4 2010211 1"01 0"11 0"1> Primary 0"B> 0"D0 0"D4 education Secondary 0">0 0"BD 0"10 education 0ertiary 0"04 0"B1 0">D education #our$eA Ministry o! ;uman Resour$es Development

+eading to empo erment of omen H! Indicator= Ratio of literate omen to menD 13224 years old Cor the population as a %hole, the litera$y rate in India as per Census 2011, is B*F $ompared to >4"1F in 2001" Durin' 2001 - 2011, the litera$y rate o! males in$reased !rom B0"*F to 10"DF and !or !emales, the in$rease %as !rom 0*"BF to >4">F" In this period, the litera$y rate in rural areas in$reased !rom 01"BF to >B"1F and in ur&an areas, the pro'ress %as !rom BD"DF to 14"1F" 4n e3tremely positive development in the present de$ade is that the 'ap o! 21 per$enta'e points re$orded &et%een the male and !emale litera$y rates in 2001 Census has redu$ed to 1> per$enta'e points in 2011, mainly due to hi'her rate o! in$rease in !emale litera$y"

4D

The litera$y rate amon' males -10 -24 years old. %as 14 in 2001 a'ainst >1 !or !emales -10 -24 years old. and ,## 200B-01 sho%ed the litera$y rates as D1 and 10 respe$tively" The ratio o! Cemale litera$y rate to Male litera$y rate !or 10-24 years in$reased !rom 0">B in 1DD1 to 0"10 in 2001 and stood at 0"11 in 200B-01" The ratio o! !emale litera$y rate to male litera$y rate in the a'e 'roup 10-24 years tends to e3$eed 1 &y 2010, implyin' hi'her litera$y rate amon' !emale youths than their male $ounterparts" ;o%ever, the situation varies a$ross #tates) +Ts, %ith #tates li(e 2ihar, @har(hand, RaMasthan, +ttar 6radesh, 4runa$hal 6radesh, Madhya 6radesh and 8disha %here !emale youth litera$y is less than the national avera'e" States it' "emale yout' literacy rate less t'an /ational level */SS 200920:,
D0 10 B0 >0 00 40 *0 20 10 0 2ihar @har(hand Dadra 9 RaMasthan +ttar 4runa$hal Madhya ,a'ar 6radesh 6radesh 6radesh ;aveli 8disha India 00 >2 >* >4 B* BB BB B1 10

"ig 3!4= States it' ;0A I a>ove female yout' literacy */SS 200920:,
102 100 D1 D> D4 D2 D0 11 1> 14 D0 D0 D0 D> D> D> DB D1 D1 D1 100

D0

D0

D2

D2

D*

The li(ely attainment o! hi'her !emale litera$y rate alon' %ith the a$hievement o! 'ender parity in primary, se$ondary and tertiary levels o! edu$ation $an &e a maMor

00

'ain !or %omen in a$7uirin' a$$ess to %ider %orld o! learnin' and development o! s(ills, e$onomi$ independen$e, authority o! de$ision ma(in' and sel!-determination"

Indicator= S'are of $omen in $age %mployment in t'e /on2&gricultural Sector

The third important indi$ator !or Tar'et 4 under MDG * is s'are of $omen in $age %mployment in t'e /on2&gricultural SectorD %hi$h is de!ined as the share o! !emale %or(ers in the non-a'ri$ultural se$tor e3pressed as a per$enta'e o! total employment in the se$tor" This measures the de'ree to %hi$h la&our mar(ets are open to %omen in industry and servi$e se$tors, %hi$h a!!e$ts not only e7ual employment opportunity !or %omen &ut also e$onomi$ e!!i$ien$y throu'h !le3i&ility in the la&our mar(et and re!le$t e$onomi$ !a$tors in so$ial empo%erment o! %omen"

It is a matter o! la' in time to 'et the !ull e!!e$t o! 'ender e7uity in edu$ation on %omen s parti$ipation in the la&our mar(ets o! industry and servi$es" The rate o! $han'e over time in India in respe$t o! the share o! %omen in %a'e employment in the non-a'ri$ultural se$tor is slo%" In 2011-12, the >1th round ,## results had estimated the per$enta'e share o! !emales in %a'e employment in the nona'ri$ultural se$tor as 1D"*F %ith the share in rural and ur&an areas as 1D"DF and 11"BF respe$tively"

"ig 3!4= Percentage s'are of females in age employment in non agricultural sector
20"0 20 1D"0 1D 11"0 11 1B"0 1B 1>"0 1> 1D"> 1D"D 1D"2 11"B 1B"D 1B"> 200D-10 2011-12 11"> 11"> 2004-00 1D"*

rural

ur&an

ruralVur&an

#our$eA ,## >1st, >>th and >1th rounds, %a'e employment K re'ular %a'e ) salaried and $ausualla&our to usual status -psVss.

It is proMe$ted that at this rate o! pro'ress, the share o! %omen in %a'e employment $an at &est rea$h a level o! a&out 22"21F &y 2010" Ea&our mar(ets in
01

industry and servi$es se$tors in India are heavily male dominated and a 00A00 situation !or men and %omen is too ideal to &e true 'iven the mar(et dynami$s and e3istin' so$io-$ultural !rame%or(" In 2011-12, the #tate o! Manipur -41">F. has reported the hi'hest per$enta'e share o! %omen in %a'e employment in non-a'ri$ultural se$tor, !ollo%ed &y Tripura -**"1F., Tamil ,adu -*2"0F., Ierala -*0"1F. and Me'halaya -*0F." The lo%est per$enta'e share o! %omen in %a'e employment in non-a'ri$ultural se$tor %as reported in 2ihar ->"1F., Damn 9 Diu ->">F., @har(hand -D"1F., +ttara(hand -D"1F. and +ttar 6radesh -10F." The trend over the years has not sta&ili/ed in most o! the #tate) +Ts and in rural ) ur&an areas"

Indicator= Proportion of seats 'eld >y omen in /ational Parliament

India has %itnessed 10 General ele$tions to the Eo( #a&ha o! ,ation s 6arliament so !ar" 4s on De$em&er 201*, India, the %orldNs lar'est demo$ra$y, has only >2%omen representatives out o! 04* mem&ers in Eo( #a&ha, %hile there are 21 !emale M6s in the 242-mem&er RaMya #a&ha"
0a>le 3!2= Proportion of seats 'eld >y $omen in /ational Parliament Reference year /um>er of $omen mem>ers A Eo( #a&ha RaMya #a&ha Total 1DD1 2004 200B 200D 2011 201* 40 o! 044 4B o! 044 0D o! 040 >0 o! 044 >2 o! 04* 21 o! 200 20 o! 200 21 o! 2*4 2> o! 241 21 o! 242 BB o! B1D B* o! BD4 B2 o! BD4 10 o! BBD 1> o! B10 D0 o! B10 D"B D"2 D"1 10"* 10"D> 11"4>

4$$ordin' to data released &y Inter parliamentary union -I6+., India ran(s 101 in the <orld !or proportion o! ,ational 6arliament seats held &y <omen" &iming at eradication of gender disparity in %ducationH! =du$ation o! 'irls has &een a hi'h priority %ith the Government o! India" The ,ational $ommitment to provide !ree and $ompulsory edu$ation to all $hildren in the

02

>-14 years a'e 'roup is no% a Cundamental Ri'ht o! every $hild in India a!ter the passin' o! the Constitution -1>th 4mendment. 4$t in De$em&er, 2002" Rea$hin' out to the 'irl $hild is $entral to the e!!orts to universali/e elementary edu$ation" #arva #hi(sha 4&hiyan, or J=du$ation !or 4ll pro'ramme

re$o'ni/es that ensurin' 'irl s edu$ation re7uires $han'es not only in the edu$ation system &ut also in so$ietal norms and attitudes" 4 t%o-pron'ed 'ender strate'y has there!ore &een adopted, to ma(e the edu$ation system responsive to the needs o! the 'irls throu'h tar'eted interventions %hi$h serve as a pull !a$tor to enhan$e a$$ess and retention o! 'irls in s$hools and on the other hand, to 'enerate a $ommunity demand !or 'irls edu$ation throu'h trainin' and mo&ilisation" The tar'eted provision !or 'irls under #arva #hi(sha 4&hiyan in$lude A Free textbooks to all girls upto class VIII Separate toilets for girls Back to school camps for out-of-school girls Bridge courses for older girls Recruitment of 50% omen teachers !arl" childhood care and !ducation centers in#near schools#con$ergence I%&S programme etc' (eachers) sensitation programmes to promote e*uitable learning ith

opportunities +ender-sensiti$e teaching-learning materials including textbooks Intensi$e communit" mobilisation efforts ,Inno$ation fund) per district for need based inter$entions for ensuring girls) attendance and retention' =!!orts are &ein' made to 'enerate a $ommunity demand !or 'irls edu$ation and ena&lin' $onditions !or people s and %omen s parti$ipation, to $reate the push !a$tors ne$essary to 'uarantee 'irls edu$ation" Motivation and mo&ilisation o! parents and the $ommunity at lar'e, enhan$in' the role o! %omen and mothers in s$hool related a$tivities and parti$ipation in s$hool $ommittees, and stren'thenin'
0*

the lin(a'es &et%een the s$hool, tea$hers and $ommunities are some o! the %ays in %hi$h the ena&lin' $onditions are &ein' $reated" %arly C'ild'ood Care and %ducation *%CC%, is a $riti$al and essential input in !reein' 'irls !rom si&lin' $are responsi&ilities, leadin' to their re'ular attendan$e in s$hool and in providin' s$hool readiness s(ills to pre-s$hool $hildren" The ##4 %or(s in a $onver'ent mode %ith the Inte'rated Child Development #ervi$es -ICD#. pro'ramme to promote pre-s$hool edu$ation &y providin' !or trainin' o! 4n'an%adi %or(ers, primary s$hool tea$hers, and health %or(ers !or a $onver'ent understandin' o! pre-s$hool and =CC=" The ##4, li(e other pro'ramme in the past, provides !unds under Innovative head -Rs" 10 Ea(h per distri$t. and under the /ational Programme for %ducation of Girls at %lementary +evel *,6=G=E. $omponent -!or *000 edu$ationally &a$(%ard &lo$(s. to support pre-s$hool $omponent o! ICD# or an interim pre-s$hool $entre %here ICD# does not e3ist &ut is needed" The /ational Programme for %ducation of Girls at %lementary +evel */P%G%+., is a !o$used intervention o! Government o! India, to rea$h the ;ardest to Rea$hH 'irls, espe$ially those not in s$hool" Eaun$hed in @uly 200*, it is an important $omponent o! ##4, %hi$h provides additional support !or enhan$in' 'irl s edu$ation over and a&ove the investments !or 'irl s edu$ation throu'h normal ##4 interventions" The pro'ramme provides !or development o! a model s$hoolH in every $luster %ith more intense $ommunity mo&ili/ation and supervision o! 'irls enrolment in s$hools" Gender sensitisation o! tea$hers, development o! 'endersensitive learnin' materials, and provision o! need-&ased in$entives li(e es$orts, stationery, %or(&oo(s and uni!orms are some o! the endeavours under the pro'ramme" 4ll =du$ationally 2a$(%ard 2lo$(s have &een in$luded under ,6=G=E"

<ith &etter transition rate !rom 6rimary level to +pper 6rimary level, as a result o! the all out e!!orts in universalisation o! elementary edu$ation, &etter in!rastru$ture and 7uality in upper level edu$ation is in demand" 4nti$ipatin' this, the s$heme o! Ras'triya Mad'yami) S'i)s'a &>'iyan *RMS&, and the Sc'eme of
04

Model sc'ools %ere laun$hed to improve enrollment and 7uality in se$ondary edu$ation" 4s o! no% a %ide ran'e o! $entrally sponsored s$hemes are &ein' run &y di!!erent se$ondary s$hool institutions and &odies so as to ensure 'reater 'eo'raphi$al $overa'e, so$ial and 'ender in$lusion and use o! ICT !or 7uality enhan$ement" #e$ondary =du$ation re$eived !resh impetus %ith the laun$h o! Rashtriya Madhyami(a #hi(sha 4&hiyan -RM#4. in 200D" It %as laun$hed to enhan$e a$$ess and improve 7uality in edu$ation %ith de!inite time tar'ets i"e", rea$hin' universal a$$ess &y 201B and universal retention &y 2020" It also aimed at removin' so$io-e$onomi$, 'ender and disa&ility &arriers in the $ourse o! attainin' the set tar'ets" +nder the RM#4, it is visuali/ed to improve not only physi$al !a$ilities, &ut also 7uality aspe$ts related to s$hools and e7uity aspe$ts to !a$ilitate the parti$ipation o! #C)#T and minority 'roups et$"

The Eis'ori S'a)ti 6o.ana *ES6, implemented &y the Ministry o! <omen and Child development see(s to empo%er adoles$ent 'irls, so as to ena&le them to ta(e $har'e o! their lives" It is vie%ed as a holisti$ initiative !or the development o! adoles$ent 'irls" The pro'ramme throu'h its interventions aims at &rin'in' a&out a di!!eren$e in the lives o! the adoles$ent 'irls" It see(s to provide them %ith an opportunity to reali/e their !ull potential" The &road o&Me$tives o! the #$heme are to improve the nutritional, health and development status o! adoles$ent 'irls, promote a%areness o! health, hy'iene, nutrition and !amily $are, lin( them to opportunities !or learnin' li!e s(ills, 'oin' &a$( to s$hool, help them 'ain a &etter understandin' o! their so$ial environment and ta(e initiatives to &e$ome produ$tive mem&ers o! the so$iety" 0'e Ra.iv Gand'i Sc'eme for %mpo erment of &dolescent Girls *RGS%&G, ? Sa>la &y the Ministry o! <omen and Child Development is ne% $omprehensive s$heme mer'in' I#G and ,utrition 6ro'ramme !or 4doles$ent Girls to address the multidimensional pro&lems o! 4doles$ent 'irls -4Gs." #42E4 is tar'etin' 4doles$ent 'irls in the a'e 'roup o! 11-11 years under all ICDs proMe$ts in sele$ted distri$ts a$ross India" In these distri$ts RG#=4G has repla$ed I#G and ,64G and in the remainin' distri$ts I#G is $ontinuin'"
00

The o&Me$tives o! the s$heme are toA =na&le sel!-development and empo%erment o! 4Gs? Improve their nutrition and health status? #pread a%areness amon' them a&out health, hy'iene, nutrition? Reprodu$tive and #e3ual ;ealth -4R#;., and !amily and $hild $are? +p'rade their home-&ased s(ills, li!e s(ills and vo$ational s(ills? Mainstream out-o!-s$hool 4Gs into !ormal)non !ormal-edu$ation? and In!orm and 'uide them a&out e3istin' pu&li$ servi$es, su$h as 6;C, C;C, 6ost 8!!i$e, 2an(, 6oli$e #tation, et$"

#42E4 s$heme aims at empo%erin' the tar'et 'roup o! 4doles$ent 'irls in many %ays %ith spe$ial emphasis on the edu$ation o! this 'roup" The Ma'atma Gand'i /ational Rural %mployment Guarantee &ct *MG/R%G&, %hi$h is a landmar( initiative o! the Government o! India, to address mainly the issue o! Mo& 'uarantee in the rural areas has (ept provision !or %omen empo%erment also" The MG,R=G4 'uarantees at least 100 days o! %a'e-

employment to the adult mem&ers o! %illin' rural household in India" It is provided in the 4$t that %hile providin' employment, priority shall &e 'iven to %omen in su$h a %ay that at least 1)*rd o! the &ene!i$iaries shall &e %omen %ho have re'istered and re7uested !or %or( under the #$heme" %ducation >eing one of t'e most vital transforming factors in t'e nation >uildingD sustained and focused initiatives to overcome various 'urdles are of utmost importance for >ringing infrastructure and Cuality improvements and t'ere>y eliminating all )inds of disparity in educationD including gender disparity! 0'e po er of education is in its potency to >rea) mentalD social and economical >arriers in due course of timeD t'ere>y >ringing societal c'anges and empo erment of omen in various realms of life! Initiatives promoting omen participation in

age employment and decision ma)ing are addressing t'e issues of gender eCuality and development! omen empo erment along it' >etter economic and social

LLLL
0>

C'apter 8 R%D1CI/G C-I+D M#R0&+I06


Goal 4= Reduce C'ild Mortality 0&RG%0 3= Reduce >y t o2t'irdsD >et een 1;;0 and 2013D t'e 1nder "ive Mortality Rate
Indicators +nder- Cive Mortality Rate In!ant Mortality Rate 6roportion o! one year old $hildren immunised a'ainst measles

In!an$y and $hildhood periods o! human li!e are o!ten threatened &y maMor potential ris(s to survival due to a num&er o! reasons" In India, a num&er o! interlin(ed elements li(e

poverty, malnutrition, mother s health, medi$al $are et$ in addition to the $hild s health $onditions, lead to the persistin' si'ni!i$ant rates o! +nder-!ive mortality, in!ant mortality and its $omponent vi/", neo-natal mortality and post neo-natal, peri-natal mortality" 8ver the years, India has attained impressive a$hievements in the !ields o! $hild survival and a !aster de$linin' trend has &een o&served in the re$ent past in In!ant Mortality and $hild mortality rates" ;o%ever, the 'ravity o! the pro&lem varies si'ni!i$antly amon' the #tates"

The Government o! India s ne%ly adopted J,ational 6oli$y !or Children, 201* , rea!!irms the Government s $ommitment to the reali/ation o! the ri'hts o! all $hildren in the $ountry" The 6oli$y
0B

lays do%n the 'uidin' prin$iples that must &e respe$ted &y the national, state and lo$al Governments in their a$tions and initiatives a!!e$tin' $hildren" The 6oli$y has identi!ied survival, health, nutrition, edu$ation, development, prote$tion and parti$ipation as the undenia&le ri'hts o! every $hild, and has also de$lared these as (ey priority areas"

4 7ui$( 'lan$e at the $auses o! $hild mortality and the !a$tors $ontri&utin' to them are important in addressin' the various related issues" 4s per <;8 2012 estimates, the $auses o! Child Mortality in the a'e 'roup 0-0 years in India are ,eonatal $auses -02F., 6neumonia -10F., Diarrhoeal disease -11F., Measles -*F., InMuries -4F.,and 8thers -10F." The prominent $auses o! death amon' in!ants are perinatal $onditions -4>F., respiratory in!e$tions -22F., diarrhoeal disease -10F., other in!e$tious and parasiti$ diseases -1F., and $on'enital anomalies -*"1F."The

maMor $auses o! neonatal deaths are In!e$tions -*0"BF. su$h as 6neumonia, #epti$emia and +m&ili$al Cord in!e$tion? 6rematurity -*4">F. i"e &irth o! ne%&orn &e!ore *B %ee(s o! 'estation and 4sphy3ia -1DF. i"e" ina&ility to &reathe

immediately a!ter &irth and leads to la$( o! o3y'en" The Ca$tors $ontri&utin' to these $auses are -a. ;ome delivery &y uns(illed persons -&. Ea$( o! essential ne% &orn $are !or asphy3ia and hypothermia -$. 6oor $hild $are pra$ti$es -d. Ea$( o! early dete$tion o! si$( ne%&orn -e. Inade7uate)Delayed re!erral me$hanisms and -!. Inade7uate in!rastru$ture at health $are !a$ilities !or spe$iali/ed $are o! si$( ne%&orn"

The early days o! li!e is very $riti$al to a ne% &orn &a&y and in India the neonatal -ne%&orns up to 21 days old. deaths are maMor $ounts in in!an$y -0 -1 year. deaths" The latest #ample Re'istration #ystem Report -#R# 2012. presents the details o! death rates o! various a'e 'roups o! Children" 4t national level, neo K natal mortality rate is 2D and ran'es !rom 1> in ur&an areas to ** in rural areas" 4mon' the &i''er #tates, neo- natal mortality ran'es !rom *D in Madhya 6radesh and 8disha to B in Ierala" The per$enta'e o! neo-natal deaths to total in!ant deaths is >1"0 per $ent at the ,ational level and varies !rom 0>"1 per$ent in ur&an areas to B0"4 per $ent in rural areas" 4mon' the &i''er #tates, @ammu 9 Iashmir -BB"2F. re'istered
01

the hi'hest per$enta'e o! neo-natal deaths to in!ant deaths and the lo%est in 4ssam -02"1F." 4t the ,ational level, IMR is reported to &e 42 and varies !rom 4> in rural areas to 21 in ur&an areas" 4mon' the &i''er #tates, it varies !rom 12 in Ierala to 0> in Madhya 6radesh" Cemale in!ants e3perien$ed a hi'her mortality than male in!ants in all #tates" 4t the ,ational level, under-!ive mortality rate is estimated at 02 and it varies !rom 01 in rural areas to *2 in ur&an areas" 4mon' the &i''er #tates, it varies !rom 1* in Ierala to B0 in 4ssam" 4ll the &i''er #tates have hi'her +nder-!ive mortality rates o! !emale than that o! male" 4t the ,ational level, the death rate in a'e 'roup -0 -14 years. is estimated to &e 0"1" Rural-ur&an di!!erentials e3ist %ith the ur&an areas re'isterin' si'ni!i$antly lo%er death rates as $ompared to that in rural areas in maMority o! the #tates" 4mon' the &i''er #tates, the lo%est death rate in this a'e 'roup is re'istered in Ierala -0"2. and the hi'hest in @har(hand -1"D." Mortality of c'ildren >elo five years of age is decliningH Indicator= 1nder "ive Mortality Rate The +nder-Cive Mortality Rate -+0MR. is the pro&a&ility -e3pressed as a rate per 1000 live &irths. o! a $hild &orn in a spe$i!ied year dyin' &e!ore rea$hin' the a'e o! !ive i! su&Me$ted to $urrent a'e spe$i!i$ mortality rates" In India, +0MR has de$lined !rom an estimated level o! 120 in 1DD0 to 02 in 2012" "ig! 8!1= 0rend in 1nder "ive Mortality Rate
140 120 100 10 >0 40 20 0 1DD0 1DD2 1DD1 2000 200D 2010 2011 2012 2010 est #our$eA1990 estimated, 1992, 1998, 2005-NFHS; 2009 onwards SRS, O/o Registrar General of India 120 10D"* D4"D B4"* histori$al path >4 0D 00 02 Ei(ely a$hievement path 2010 Tar'et 6ath 2010

4D 42

Given to redu$e +0MR to 42 per thousand live &irths &y 2010, India tends to rea$h 4D &y 2010 as per the histori$al trend, missin' the tar'et &y B per$enta'e points"

0D

;o%ever, $onsiderin' the $ontinuan$e o! the sharper annual rate o! de$line %itnessed in the re$ent years, India is li(ely to a$hieve the tar'et"

The MDG indi$ator J+nder Cive mortality rate is an important indi$ator espe$ially in the Indian $onte3t, as it re!le$ts the $omple3 s$enario in addressin' the issues related to redu$in' $hild mortality due to the varia&ility in the status o! a$hievement &y di!!erent $ate'ories" <hile e3aminin' the pro'ress o! #tates in

a$hievin' the MDG tar'et o! +0MR, the #tates o! Ierala -1*., Tamil ,adu -24., Maharashtra -21., Delhi -21., 6unMa& -*4., Iarnata(a -*B. and <est 2en'al -*1. have already a$hieved the national level MDG tar'et o! +0MR" In addition to these #tates, @ammu 9 Iashmir, ;ima$hal 6radesh, and 4ndhra 6radesh are li(ely to a$hieve the national tar'et &y 2010" ;o%ever, more meanin'!ul $omparison o! the pro'ress o! #tates is %ith the respe$tive #tate MDG tar'ets" "ig! 8!2= 13MR 2 li)ely ac'ievement vis 2a 2vis target 2013D (igger 4ndhra 6radesh States
<est 2en'al 10 +ttar 6radesh Tamil ,adu RaMasthan 6unMa& 8disha Maharashtra Madhya 6radesh Ierala >0 40 20 0 ;aryana ;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir Iarnata(a 4ssam 2ihar Delhi GuMarat 2012 li(ely a$hievement 2010 tar'et 2010

4s per the histori$al trend, Delhi, @ammu 9 Iashmir, Ierala, Tamil ,adu 9 <est 2en'al are li(ely to a$hieve their respe$tive MDG tar'ets" The #tates o! +ttar 6radesh, RaMasthan, 8disha, Madhya 6radesh, ;ima$hal 6radesh, and 4ssam are li(ely to miss their respe$tive MDG tar'et %ith a $onsidera&le -'ap more than 10 points. 'ap" The #R# &ased +0MR in India !or the year 2012, stands at 02 and there is $onsidera&le inter-state variation" In 2012, amon' the &i''er #tates, the +0MR %as lo%est in Ierala -1*. and hi'hest in 4ssam -B0." The #tates %hi$h have +0MR a&ove
>0

the national level estimate -02. in 2012 are Chattis'arh -00., 2ihar -0B., RaMasthan -0D., 8disha ->1., +ttar 6radesh ->1., Madhya 6radesh -B*. and 4ssam -B0." The Inter- #tate) &y se3) &y pla$e o! residen$e variations in +0MR are depi$ted &elo%" "ig! 8!4= 1nder "ive Mortality Rate 2012
4ssam +ttar 6radesh RaMasthan Chhattis'arh @har(hand GuMarat ;ima$hal 6radesh <est 2en'al 6unMa& Delhi 24 Ierala 0 10 1* 20 *0 40 00 >0 B0 10 21 21 *4 *1 *B 4* 4* 4* 02 00 41 41 0D 0B 00 >1 >1 B0 B*

4t national level, the +0MR !or !emales is 0> and !or males is 4D" +0MR amon' !emales is hi'her in all #tates $ompared to males" The !emale K male 'ap in +0MR is hi'her in Rural areas -!emaleA >2, maleA 04. $ompared to ur&an areas -!emaleA *4, maleA *1." "ig!8!4= 13MR 2>y Se< 2012
D0 10 B0 >0 00 40 *0 20 10 0
@ammu 9 Iashmir 2ihar <est 2en'al Iarnata(a ;ima$hal 6radesh @har(hand ;aryana 6unMa& Chhattis'arh Tamil ,adu RaMasthan GuMarat 8disha +ttar 6radesh Madhya 6radesh 4ndhra 6radesh Maharashtra 4ssam Ierala Delhi India

Male Cemale

>1

+0MR is hi'her in rural areas than ur&an areas at national level and in various #tates" 4t national level, it varies !rom 0> in rural areas to *2 in ur&an areas" 4s mentioned a&ove, the rural - ur&an 'ap in +0MR at national level is 24 points and the 'ap varies amon' the &i''er #tates, %hi$h is &et%een 4* in 4ssam to * in Ierala" "ig!8!3 13MR >y place of residence 22012
D0 10 B0 >0 00 40 *0 20 10 0 Ierala 6unMa& RaMasthan Delhi GuMarat India 2ihar +ttar 6radesh <est 2en'al Iarnata(a @ammu 9 Iashmir ;ima$hal 6radesh Madhya 6radesh 4ndhra 6radesh Maharashtra ;aryana @har(hand Chhattis'arh Tamil ,adu 8disha 4ssam Rural +r&an

#our$eA #R#, 8)o Re'istrar General o! India

Indicator= Infant Mortality Rate In!ant Mortality Rate -IMR. is de!ined as the num&er o! deaths o! in!ants o! a'e less than one year per thousand live &irths" In India, the In!ant Mortality has redu$ed &y nearly 00F durin' 1DD0- 2012 and the present status is at 42 per 1000 live &irths"
"ig! 8!8= 0rend in IMR
100 10 >0 40 20 0 10 B* >0

00

4B

44

42

;istori$al path

40 2B

Ei(ely a$hievement Tar'et path

1DD0 1DD4 200* 200D 2010 2011 2012 2010

#our$eA #R#, 8)o Re'istrar General o! India

4s per the histori$al trend, the IMR is li(ely to rea$h 40 deaths per 1000 live &irths, missin' the MDG tar'et o! 2B %ith a $onsidera&le mar'in" ;o%ever, as IMR is de$linin' at a sharper rate in the re$ent years, the 'ap &et%een the li(ely a$hievement and MDG tar'et 2010 is set to redu$e"
>2

<hile e3aminin' the pro'ress o! #tates in a$hievin' the MDG tar'et o! IMR, the #tates o! Goa -10., Manipur -10., Ierala -12., ,a'aland -11., Tamil ,adu -21., #i((im -24., Delhi -20. and Maharashtra -20., have already a$hieved the national level MDG tar'et o! IMR -2B." In addition to these #tates, 4runa$hal 6radesh are li(ely to a$hieve the national tar'et &y 2010" ;o%ever, more meanin'!ul $omparison o! the pro'ress o! #tates is %ith the respe$tive #tate MDG tar'ets"

"ig!8!9= IMR 2+i)ely ac'ievement vis 2a vis target 2013

4ndhra 6radesh <est 2en'al +ttar 6radesh Tripura Tamil ,adu

#i((im

>0 00 40 *0 20 10 0

4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Goa

GuMarat

2012 Ei(ely a$hievement 2010

RaMasthan

;aryana

Tar'et 2010

6unMa& 8rissa Me'halaya Manipur Maharashtra Ierala Madhya 6radesh

;ima$hal 6radesh Iarnata(a

#our$eA 8!!i$e o! Re'istrar General o! India

4s per the histori$al trend, Tamil ,adu and Manipur are li(ely to a$hieve the respe$tive #tate level MDG tar'ets" The #tates o! Tripura, ;ima$hal 6radesh, GuMarat, Madhya 6radesh, 2ihar, 4ndhra 6radesh, ;aryana, +ttar 6radesh, RaMasthan, 4ssam and Me'halaya are li(ely to miss their respe$tive #tate level tar'ets &y a $onsidera&le -more than 10 points. 'ap"

4s in the $ase o! +0MR, the indi$ator IMR also sho%s hu'e diversity in its status in various parts o! the Country" 4mon' the &i''er #tates IMR ran'ed &et%een 12 in Ierala to 0> in Madhya 6radesh" In 2012, IMR is hi'her than the national estimates in 1 #tate) +Ts namely 2ihar, Chattis'arh, RaMasthan, Me'halaya, 8disha, +ttar 6radesh, 4ssam and Madhya 6radesh"
>*

"ig!8!:= IMR 2>igger States 22012


>0 00 40 *0 21 20 10 0 12 20 20 21 *2 *2 4B 4D 41 42 42 4* *1 *1 *D 0> 0* 0* 00

#our$eA #R#, 8)o Re'istrar General o! India

The trend o! hi'her IMR !or !emales is o&served at national level and all the #tate )+Ts" In 2012, at all India level, !emale Kmale 'ap in IMR is * points -!emale - 44, male - 41. and amon' the &i''er #tates, the 'ap is hi'hest in Madhya 6radesh -!emale - 0D, male K 04. %hi$h has reported the hi'hest IMR also" In Ierala, %hi$h has reported the lo%est IMR, sho%ed !emale Kmale 'ap in IMR o! * points -!emale - 1*, male K 10." "ig! 8!;= IMR >y Se<2 (igger States 2012
B0 >0 00 40 *0 20 10 0 Iarnata(a <est 2en'al GuMarat @ammu 9 Iashmir +ttar 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Madhya 6radesh 4ndhra 6radesh @har(hand Ierala Chattis'arh 6unMa& Tamil ,adu Maharashtra RaMasthan ;aryana India 8disha Delhi

male !emale

#our$eA #R#, 8)o Re'istrar General o! India

Durin' 1DD0 to 2012, IMR o! !emales has de$lined !rom 11 to 44 %hereas the de$line in IMR males %as !rom B1 to 41" There is a de$line o! 40">1F in !emale IMR and o! 4B"44F in male IMR is durin' this period"

>4

In 2012, at all India level, the Rural K+r&an 'ap in IMR is 11 points -Rural - 4>, +r&an 21." 4ll the &i''er #tates reported hi'her IMR in rural areas and the rural Kur&an 'ap in IMR varied &et%een 4 points in Ierala to 20 points in 4ssam" "ig! 8!10= IMR >y place of residence2 2012 2(igger States
B0 >0 00 40 *0

Rural
20

+r&an
10 0

#our$eA #R#, 8)o Re'istrar General o! India

Durin' 1DD0 to 2012, IMR o! Rural areas has de$lined !rom 1> to 4> %hereas the de$line in +r&an IMR %as !rom 00 to 21" There is a de$line o! 4>"01F in Rural IMR and o! 44F in +r&an IMR is durin' this period"

Immunisation 2 gap persists H! Indicator= Proportion of one year old c'ildren immunised against measles The national level $overa'e o! the proportion o! one-year old -12-2* months. $hildren immunised a'ainst measles has re'istered an in$rease !rom 42"2F in 1DD2D* to B4"1F in 200D -+,IC=C 9G8I- Covera'e =valuation #urvey 200D." 4t the histori$al rate o! in$rease, India is e3pe$ted $over a&out 1DF $hildren in the a'e 'roup 12-2* months !or immunisation a'ainst measles &y 2010" Thus India is li(ely to !all short o! universal immunisation o! one-year olds a'ainst measles &y a&out 11 per$enta'e points in 2010" 4$$ordin' to DE;#-* !or 200B-01, national $overa'e o! immunisation o! 1- year-olds has rea$hed >D">F %ith BB">F in ur&an and >>">F in rural areas and the Covera'e =valuation #urvey- 200D reported the national level estimate as B4"1F" The Covera'e =valuation #urvey 200D also reveals a rural Kur&an 'ap in the $overa'e o! measles immuni/ation %ith B2"4F $hildren o! a'e 12-2*
>0

months %ere immuni/ed a'ainst measles in rural areas and a sli'htly hi'her $overa'e o! B1"*F is reported !or the ur&an areas" "ig! 8!11= 0rend in Proportion of one year old c'ildren immunised against measeles 2 India
120 100 10 >0 40 20 0
1DD2-1DD* 1DD1-1DDD 2000 2001 2002 2002-2004 2000-200> 200B-01 200D li(ely Tar'et 2010 a$hievement 2010

100 1D"0> 00"> >1"4 >D"> 0> 01"1 B4"1

42"2

00"B

00"4

4lso, there e3ists, a sli'ht se3 %ise variation in the $overa'e o! measles immuni/ation as the $overa'e &ein' B4"1F !or male $hildren and B*"2F !or !emale $hildren" Curther, $overa'e 'ap in measles immuni/ation depend upon the &irth order o! the $hild also as BD"1F o! the !irst &irth order $hildren %ere immuni/ed a'ainst only 0*">F o! the 4th &irth order $hildren" 8nly >1"2F o! the $hildren in lo%est %ealth 7uintile %ere immuni/ed a'ainst measles $ompared to 1*"0F o! $hildren !rom the households %ith the hi'hest %ealth 7uintile" The Covera'e =valuation #urvey 200D also analyses at %hat sta'e the $hildren dropped out and did not 'et all va$$ines" The 2CG Kmeasles drop-out rate -6er$enta'e o! $hildren, %ho re$eived 2CG va$$ination, &ut did not re$eive measles va$$ination. %as !ound to &e 14"B per$ent" Curther analysis sho%s that #tate di!!erentials e3isted in the drop-out rates at all sta'es" ;i'her 2CG Kmeasles drop-out rate %as o&served in #tates su$h as +ttar 6radesh -*0"DF., 2ihar -2D"*F., 4runa$hal 6radesh -2B"0., Madhya 6radesh -24"0F., @har(hand -22"1F. and RaMasthan -20">F." The drop-out rates %ere lo% in Goa -1"4F., ;ima$hal 6radesh -2"2F., Maharashtra -*"BF., #i((im -0"1F., and Tamil ,adu -0">F." D6T1 KMeasles dropout rate is 10"*F"

Goin' &y their histori$al rate o! in$rease in $overa'e, 1> #tates)+Ts are e3pe$ted to a$hieve universal $overa'e in measles immuni/ation o! one year olds &y 2010 and 1 more #tates are li(ely to per!orm &etter than the national $overa'e level

>>

in immunisation o! one-year olds a'ainst measles &y 2010" 4mon' the maMor #tates, +ttar 6radesh, Mi/oram, Chattis'arh and ;aryana are li(ely to miss the tar'et &y a lar'e mar'in"

&ddressing issues of c'ild mortalityH! The Government has adopted a ne% /ational Policy for C'ildrenD 2014 on 2>th 4pril, 201*" The 6oli$y rea!!irms the Government s $ommitment to the

reali/ation o! the ri'hts o! all $hildren in the $ountry" The 6oli$y lays do%n the 'uidin' prin$iples that must &e respe$ted &y the national, state and lo$al Governments in their a$tions and initiatives a!!e$tin' $hildren" The 6oli$y has

identi!ied survival, health, nutrition, edu$ation, development, prote$tion and parti$ipation as the undenia&le ri'hts o! every $hild, and has also de$lared these as (ey priority areas" +nder the priority area o! health, the 6oli$y states that the #tate shall ta(e ne$essary measures to -a. improve maternal health$are, in$ludin' antenatal $are, sa!e delivery &y s(illed health personnel, post natal $are and nutritional support -&. address (ey $auses and determinants o! $hild morality throu'h interventions &ased on $ontinuum o! $are, %ith emphasis on nutrition, sa!e drin(in' %ater sanitation and health edu$ation -$. provide universal and a!!orda&le a$$ess to servi$es !or prevention, treatment, $are and mana'ement o! neo-natal and $hildhood illnesses and prote$t $hildren !rom all %ater &orne, ve$tor &orne, $ommuni$a&le and other $hildhood diseases"

The ;ealth o! the mother has an important &earin' on the health o! the $hild" Thus interventions !or improvement o! maternal health are $riti$al !or improvin' survival o! ne%&orn and are deemed to &e intervention !or &oth maternal and $hild health" +nder /ational Rural -ealt' Mission */R-M,D hi'her resour$es are &ein' provided to the states and distri$ts %ith %ee( health indi$ators" Curther, the

!ollo%in' interventions are implemented throu'h Reprodu$tive Child ;ealth -RC;. pro'ramme under ,R;M um&rella to redu$e Child mortality rate in the $ountry"

a, Promotion of Institutional Delivery t'roug' Kanani Sura)s'a 6o.ana *KS6,


and Kanani S'is'u Sura)s'a Earya)ram *KSSE,A 6romotin' Institutional
>B

delivery to ensure s(illed &irth attendan$e is a (ey to redu$in' &oth maternal and neo-natal mortality" @#G en$oura'es pre'nant %omen to opt !or institutional delivery and provides !or $ash assistan$e" @##I entitles all pre'nant %omen to a&solutely /ero e3pense delivery in$ludin' $aesarean se$tion operation in Government health !a$ilities and provides !or !ree to and !ro transport, !ood, dru's and dia'nosti$s" #imilar entitlements have also &een put in pla$e !or si$( neonates"

>, Strengt'ening "acility >ased ne >orn care


,eonatal mortality is one o! the maMor $ontri&utors to the In!ant Mortality" To address the issues o! hi'her neonatal and early neonatal mortality, !a$ility &ased ne%&orn $are servi$es at health !a$ilities have &een esta&lished" In!rastru$ture stren'thenin', lo'isti$s and $apa$ity &uildin' o! ;ealth %or(ers have &een ensured in these !a$ilities" i" Special /e (orn Care 1nits *S/C1s, are &ein' setup at distri$t hospitals and medi$al $olle'es These are spe$iali/ed ne% &orn and si$( $hild $are units at distri$t hospitals %ith spe$ialised e7uipments, %hi$h in$lude phototherapy unit, o3y'en hoods, in!usion pumps, radiant %armer, Earyn'os$ope and =T tu&es, nasal $annulas 2a' and mas(, and %ei'hin' s$ale" #,C+ is 12-20 &edded unit and re7uires 4 trained do$tors and 10-12 nurses !or round the $lo$( servi$es" *DD #,C+s are no% !un$tional in the Country"

ii" /e >orn Sta>iliLation 1nits */(S1s, are &ein' esta&lished at $ommunity health $entres )CR+s" These units provide servi$es, %hi$h in$lude resus$itation, provision o! %armth, early initiation o! &reast !eedin', prevention o! in!e$tion and $ord $are, supportin' $are in$ludin' o3y'en, I: !luids, provision !or monitorin' o! vital si'ns in$ludin' &lood pressure and re!erral servi$es

>1

These are 4 &edded units %ith trained do$tors and nurses !or sta&ili/ation o! si$( ne%&orns"

There are at present 1042,2#+s in the $ountry"

iii" /e >orn (a>y Care Corners */(CCs, are &ein' setup in all !a$ilities %here deliveries are ta(in' pla$e" These are 1 &edded !a$ility atta$hed to the la&our room and 8peration Theatre -8T. !or provision o! essential ne%&orn $are" The servi$es in$lude resus$itation, provision o! %armth, and prevention o! in!e$tion and $ord $are and early initiation o! &reast-!eedin'" The e7uipments at ne%&orn $are $orners in$lude <ei'hin' s$ale, radiant %armer, su$tion ma$hine and mu$us su$(er" There are 11001 !un$tional ,2CCs in the $ountry"

c, -ome (ased /e (orn Care *-(/C,= ;ome &ased ne%&orn $are throu'h
4#;4 -4$$redited #o$ial ;ealth 4$tivist. has re$ently &een initiated to improve ne% &orn $are pra$ti$es at the $ommunity level and !or early dete$tion and re!erral o! si$( ne% &orn &a&ies" 4#;4 %ill ma(e visits to all ne%&orns a$$ordin' to spe$i!ied s$hedule up to 42 days o! li!e" The proposed in$entive is Rs" 00 per home visit o! around one hour duration, amountin' to a total o! Rs" 200 !or !ive visits" This %ould &e paid at one time a!ter 40 days o! delivery, su&Me$t to the !ollo%in'A a! re$ordin' o! %ei'ht o! the ne%&orn in MC6 $ard >! ensurin' 2CG , 1st dose o! 86: and D6T va$$ination c! &oth the mother and the ne%&orn are sa!e till 42 days o! the delivery, and d! re'istration o! &irth has &een done 4t present, 10 #tates namely - 2ihar, Chattis'arh, @har(hand, Madhya 6radesh, RaMasthan, +ttara(hand, 4runa$hal 6radesh, 4ssam, ,a'aland, #i((im, GuMarat, Dadra 9 ,a'ar ;aveli, Delhi, 6udu$herry have already implemented ;2,C and remainin' states are in pro$ess o! implementin' the same"

>D

d, Capacity >uilding of 'ealt' care providers


:arious trainin's are &ein' $ondu$ted under ,R;M to train do$tors, nurses and 4,M !or early dia'nosis and $ase mana'ement o! $ommon ailments o! $hildren" These trainin's are Integrated Management of /eonatal and c'ild illness *IM/CI,A The strate'y en$ompasses a ran'e o! interventions to prevent and mana'e the $ommonest maMor $hildhood illnesses %hi$h $ause death i"e" neonatal illnesses, 4$ute Respiratory In!e$tions, Diarrhoea, Measles, Malaria and Malnutrition" It !o$uses on preventive, promotive and $urative aspe$ts, i"e" it 'ives a holisti$ outloo( to the pro'ramme" The o&Me$tives is to implement IM,CI pa$(a'e at the level o! household and #u&-$entres -throu'h 4,Ms., 6rimary health $entres -throu'h medi$al o!!i$ers, nurse and E;:s., to provide a $omprehensive ne%&orn and $hild health servi$es to address maMor neonatal and $hild hood illnesses" o 4 total o! 000 distri$ts and 0"1la(h health $are providers have &een trained in IM,CI" o 111DDhealth $are providers have &een trained in !a$ility &ased IM,CI trainin'"

B0

/av.at S'is'u Sura)s'a Earya)ram */SSE,= 2asi$ ,e%&orn Care and Resus$itation, has &een laun$hed to address $are at &irth issues i"e" 6revention o! ;ypothermia, 6revention o! In!e$tion, =arly initiation o! 2reast !eedin' and 2asi$ ,e%&orn Resus$itation" ,e%&orn $are and resus$itation is an important startin'-point !or any neonatal pro'ram and is re7uired to ensure the &est possi&le start in li!e" The o&Me$tive o! this ne% initiative is to have one person trained in 2asi$ ne%&orn $are and resus$itation at every delivery" o Master trainers at Central and #tate level are pediatri$ians !rom tertiary hospital and medi$al $olle'e and at distri$t level pediatri$ians and 'yne$olo'ists !rom the distri$t hospital" This trainin' is &ein' imparted to Medi$al o!!i$ers, #ta!! nurses and 4,Ms at C;C)CR+s and 243B 6;Cs %here deliveries are ta(in' pla$e" o The trainin' pa$(a'e is &ased on the latest availa&le s$ienti!i$ eviden$e and %ill &e immensely use!ul in de$reasin' neonatal mortality" The trainin' is !or 2 days and is e3pe$ted to redu$e neonatal mortality si'ni!i$antly in the $ountry o 4&out 1DD>2 health $are providers have &een trained in ,##I"

e, Management of Malnutrition
4s malnutrition redu$es resistan$e o! $hildren to in!e$tions thus in$reasin' mortality and mor&idity amon' $hildren, emphasis is &ein' laid under ,R;M !or mana'ement o! malnutrition" 0D4 ,utritional Reha&ilitation Centres have &een esta&lished !or mana'ement o! severe a$ute malnutrition" 4s &reast!eedin' redu$es neo-natal mortality, e3$lusive &reast!eedin' !or !irst si3 months and appropriate in!ant and youn' $hild !eedin' pra$ti$es are &ein' promoted in $onver'en$e %ith Ministry o! <oman and Child Development"

B1

Iron and Coli$ 4$id is also provided to $hildren !or prevention o! anaemia" Re$ently, %ee(ly Iron and Coli$ 4$id is proposed to &e initiated !or adoles$ent population"

:illa'e ;ealth and ,utrition Days -:;,Ds. are also &ein' or'ani/ed !or impartin' nutritional $ounsellin' to mothers and to improve $hild $are pra$ti$es"

f, Reduction in mor>idity and mortality due to &cute Respiratory Infections


*&RI, and Diarr'oeal Diseases= 6romotion o! /in$ and 8R# supplies is ensured" 1! C'ild'ood Diarr'oea In order to $ontrol Diarrrhoeal diseases Government o! India has adopted the <;8 'uidelines on Diarrhoea mana'ement" India introdu$ed the lo% osmolarity 8ral Rehydration #olution -8R#., as re$ommended &y <;8 !or the mana'ement o! diarrhea" Win$ has &een approved as an adMun$t to 8R# !or the mana'ement o! diarrhea" 4ddition o! Win$ %ould result in redu$tion o! the num&er and severity o! episodes and the duration o! diarrhoea" ,e% 'uidelines on mana'ement o! diarrhoea have &een modi!ied &ased on the latest availa&le s$ienti!i$ eviden$e" 2! &cute Respiratory Infections 4$ute Respiratory In!e$tions and alon' %ith Diarrhoea are t%o maMor (illers o! under !ive $hildren" =arly dia'nosis and appropriate $ase mana'ement &y rational use o! anti&ioti$s remains one o! the most e!!e$tive interventions to prevent deaths due to pneumonia" The 4RI 'uidelines are &ein' revised %ith the in$lusion o! the latest availa&le 'lo&al eviden$e"

g, Supplementation it' micronutrients throu'h supplies o! :itamin 4 9 iron


supplements" 1! 5itamin ? & The poli$y has &een revised %ith the o&Me$tive o! de$reasin' the prevalen$e o! :itamin 4 de!i$ien$y to levels &elo% 0"0F, the strate'y &ein' implemented isA
B2

1,00,000 I+ dose o! :itamin 4 is &ein' 'iven at nine months" :itamin 4 dose o! 2,00,000 I+ -a!ter D months. at si3 monthly intervals up to !ive years o! a'e" 4ll $ases o! severe malnutrition to &e 'iven one additional dose o! :itamin 4" 2! Iron and "olic &cid supplementation

To mana'e the %idespread prevalen$e o! anaemia in the $ountry, the poli$y has &een revised"

In!ants !rom the a'e o! > months on%ards up to the a'e o! !ive years shall re$eive iron supplements in li7uid !ormulation in doses o! 20m' elemental iron and 100m$' !oli$ a$id per day per $hild !or 100 days in a year"

Children >-10 years o! a'e shall re$eive iron in the dosa'e o! *0 m' elemental iron and 200m$' !oli$ a$id !or 100 days in a year"

Children a&ove this a'e 'roup %ould re$eive iron supplements in the adult dose"

', 1niversal ImmuniLation Programme


Immuni/ation 6ro'ramme is one o! the (ey interventions !or prote$tion o! $hildren !rom li!e threatenin' $onditions, %hi$h are preventa&le" It is one o! the lar'est immuni/ation pro'ramme in the %orld" +nder the +niversal Immuni/ation 6ro'ramme, Government o! India is providin' va$$ination to prevent seven va$$ine preventa&le diseases i"e" o Diphtheria, 6ertussis, Tetanus, 6olio, Measles, severe !orm o! Childhood Tu&er$ulosis and ;epatitis 2 The va$$ination s$hedule under the +I6 isA BCG -2a$illus Calmette Guerin. 1 dose at 2irth -upto 1 year i! not 'iven earlier. DPT -Diphtheria, 6ertussis and Tetanus To3oid. 0 doses? Three primary doses at >,10,14 %ee(s and t%o &ooster doses at 1>-24 months 9 0 Gears o! a'e
B*

OPV -8ral 6olio :a$$ine. 0 doses? 0 dose at &irth, three primary doses at >,10 and 14 %ee(s and one &ooster dose at 1>-24 months o! a'e Hepatitis B va$$ine 4 doses? 0 dose %ithin 24 hours o! &irth and three doses at >, 10 and 14 %ee(s o! a'e" Measles 2 doses? !irst dose at D-12 months and se$ond dose at 1>24months o! a'e TT-Tetanus To3oid. 2 doses at 10 years and 1> years o! a'e TT K !or pre'nant %oman t%o doses or one dose i! previously va$$inated %ithin * Gear In addition, @apanese =n$ephalitis -@= va$$ine. va$$ine %as introdu$ed in 11* endemi$ distri$ts in $ampai'n mode in phased manner !rom 200>-10 and has no% &een in$orporated under the Routine Immuni/ation 6ro'ramme" >2 ne% distri$ts have &een planned !or introdu$tion o! @= $ampai'n over ne3t * years" =arlier 10 states have &een $overed under @= $ampai'n? no% 4 more states have &een in$luded !or @= $ampai'n i"e" Delhi, 6unMa&, @har(hand and Me'halaya" 2"> $rore ne% &orn are tar'eted !or va$$ination ea$h year throu'h D0 la(h immuni/ation session held annually There are 20,000 $old $hain points in the $ountry to store va$$ine under re7uired temperature" Government o! India has introdu$ed se$ond dose o! measles a$ross the $ountry" In addition, in #tates havin' less than 10F $overa'e, supplementary immuni/ation a$tivity has &een ta(en up in a phased manner" ;ep-2 va$$ine %hi$h %as earlier introdu$ed in 10 #tates has no% &een e3panded to the entire $ountry" 6entavalent, a $om&ination va$$ine, %hi$h in$ludes D6T V ;ep-2 V ;i& has &een introdu$ed in 2 #tates -Ierala and Tamil ,adu. and 2"D4 million $hildren has &een immuni/ed till #eptem&er,2012" There has &een a remar(a&le de$line in polio $ases sin$e 2010" 8nly 1 polio $ase %as dete$ted in 2011 $ompared to 42 $ases o! polio in 2010" 8n 12th @anuary, 2012 India $ompletes one !ull year %ithout any polio $ase %hi$h is a remar(a&le a$hievement, parti$ularly
B4

$onsiderin' the !a$t that in 200D India a$$ounted !or hal! o! the total num&er o! polio $ases 'lo&ally and there %ere an estimated 2 la(h $ases o! polio every year in the $ountry in the year 1DB1" <;8 has also removed India !rom the list o! polio endemi$ $ountries" To stren'then routine immuni/ation, some ne%er initiatives have &een introdu$ed li(e provision o! 4uto Disa&le -4D. #yrin'e to ensure inMe$tion sa!ety, #upport !or alternate va$$ine delivery !rom 6;C to #u&-Centres and 8utrea$h #essions, and #upport !or mo&ili/ation o! $hildren to immuni/ation session sites &y 4$$redited #o$ial ;ealth 4$tivist -4#;4."

I, Mot'er and C'ild 0rac)ing System= 4 name &ased Mother and Child Tra$(in' #ystem has &een put in pla$e %hi$h is %e& &ased to ena&le tra$(in' o! all pre'nant %omen and ne%&orns so as to monitor and ensure that $omplete servi$es are provided to them" #tates are en$oura'ed to send #M# alerts to &ene!i$iaries remindin' them o! the dates on %hi$h servi$es are due and 'enerate &ene!i$iary%ise due list o! servi$es %ith due dates !or 4,Ms on a %ee(ly &asis"

Integrated C'ild Development Services *ICDS, Sc'eme

ICD# is a $entrally sponsored #$heme &ein' implemented &y the #tate Governments)+T 4dministrations" The s$heme aims at holisti$ development o! $hildren &elo% > years o! a'e and pre'nant %omen 9 la$tatin' mothers &y providin' a pa$(a'e o! si3 servi$es $omprisin' -i. #upplementary nutrition -ii. 6re-s$hool non!ormal edu$ation -iii. ,utrition and health =du$ation -iv. Immuni/ation -v. ;ealth $he$(-up and -vi. Re!erral servi$es throu'h 4n'an%adi Centres at 'rassroots level" Three o! the si3 servi$es vi/" immuni/ation, health $he$(-up and re!erral servi$es are related to health and are provided &y Ministry o! ;ealth and Camily <el!are throu'h ,R;M and 6u&li$ ;ealth In!rastru$ture"

There are 14 la(h approved 4<Cs and B0B> ICD# 6roMe$ts in the $ountry" The #$heme is universal and appli$a&le to all the &ene!i$iaries irrespe$tive o! any
B0

e$onomi$ or other $riteria" The servi$es are provided at the 4<Cs throu'h the 4<<)4<;" There are D0>"12 la(h &ene!i$iaries -420"D la(h 0-* years $hildren, *0*"1* la(h *-> years $hildren and 112"0B la(h 69E Mothers. %ho availed the servi$es as on *1"*"201*"

In order to address various pro'rammati$, mana'ement and institutional 'aps and to meet administrative and operational $hallen'es Government has approved the proposal !or #tren'thenin' and Restru$turin' o! ICD# #$heme on 24"D"2012" The (ey !eatures o! #tren'thened and Restru$tured ICD# inter-alia in$lude addressin' the 'aps and $hallen'es %ith -a. spe$ial !o$us on $hildren under * years and pre'nant and la$tatin' mothers -&. stren'thenin' and repa$(a'in' o! servi$es in$ludin' , $are and nutrition $ounselin' servi$es and $are o! severely under%ei'ht $hildren -$. a provision !or an additional 4n'an%adi <or(er $um ,utrition Counselor !or !o$us on $hildren under * years o! a'e and to improve the !amily $onta$t, $are and nutrition $ounselin' !or 69E Mothers in the sele$ted 200 hi'h-&urden distri$ts a$ross the $ountry, &esides havin' provision o! lin( %or(er, 0F $rS$he $um 4n'an%adi $entre -d. !o$us on =arly Childhood Care and =du$ation -=CC=. -e. !or'in' stron' institutional and pro'rammati$ $onver'en$e parti$ularly, at the distri$t, &lo$( and villa'e levels -!. models providin' !le3i&ility at lo$al levels !or $ommunity parti$ipation -'. introdu$tion o! 46I6 -h. improvin' #upplementary ,utrition 6ro'ramme in$ludin' $ost revision, -i. provision !or $onstru$tion and improvement o! &uildin's o!

4n'an%adi $entres -M. allo$atin' ade7uate !inan$ial resour$es !or other $omponents
B>

in$ludin' Monitorin' and Mana'ement and In!ormation #ystem-MI#., Trainin' and use o! In!ormation and $ommuni$ation te$hnolo'y -ICT., -(. to put ICD# in a mission mode et$" and -l. revision o! !inan$ial norms et$"

The 'oals and tar'ets o! restru$tured and stren'thened ICD# are -i. to prevent and redu$e youn' $hild under nutrition &y 10F points in 0-* years and enhan$e early development and learnin' out$omes in all $hildren &elo% si3 years o! a'e -ii. improved $are and nutrition o! 'irls and %omen and redu$e anaemia prevalen$e in youn' $hildren, 'irls and %omen &y 1)0th and -iii. a$hieve time &ound 'oals and out$omes %ith results &ased monitorin' o! indi$ators at di!!erent levels"

In addition to concentrating on 'ealt' care facilitiesD t'e related socio ?economic and environmental determinants are also to >e addressed in order to prevent t'e c'ild mortality to t'e ma<imum e<tent possi>le!

LLLL

BB

C'apter 9 IMPR#5I/G M&0%R/&+ -%&+0-

Goal 0A Improve Maternal ;ealth 0arget 8= Reduce >y t'ree Cuarters >et een 1;;0 and 2013D t'e Maternal Morality Ratio Indicators= Maternal Mortality Ratio 6roportion o! &irths attended &y s(illed health personnel

Deaths due to pre'nan$y and $hild &irth are potential threats to %omen in the reprodu$tive a'e 'roups" The toll that unsa!e motherhood ta(es on the lives and health o! %omen, and hen$e, on their !amilies and $ommunities, &e$omes really tra'i$ as it is mostly preventa&le" Redu$tion o! mortality o! %omen has thus &een an area o! maMor $on$ern and 'overnments a$ross the 'lo&e have set time &ound tar'ets to a$hieve it" Maternal death is an important indi$ator o! the rea$h o! e!!e$tive $lini$al health servi$es to the poor, and is in turn a$t as one o! the $omposite measure to assess the $ountry s pro'ress" The MDG Goal 0A Improve Maternal ;ealth 'ets enhan$ed si'ni!i$an$e in this $onte3t"

Maternal Mortality Ratio is declining fasterH! Indicator= Maternal Mortality Ratio The Maternal Mortality Ratio -MMR, is the num&er o! %omen %ho die !rom any $ause related to or a''ravated &y pre'nan$y or its mana'ement
B1

-e3$ludin' a$$idental or in$idental $auses. durin' pre'nan$y and $hild&irth or %ithin 42 days o! termination o! pre'nan$y, irrespe$tive o! the duration and site o! the pre'nan$y, per 100,000 live &irths"

The pro&lem in estimatin' MMR is due to the $omparative rarity o! the event, ne$essitatin' a lar'e sample si/e" ;o%ever, even %ith this $onstraint, #ample Re'istration #ystem -#R#. data indi$ates India has re$orded a deep de$line o! 40">F in MMR !rom *2B in 1DDD-2001 to 1B1 in 2010-12 and a !all o! a&out *0F happened durin' 200>-12" The de$line in MMR !rom 1DD0 to 2012 is 0DF" This $an &e attri&uted to the in$rease in a%areness and the intensive e!!orts &ein' ta(en throu'hout the $ountry in improvin' health$are espe$ially that o! pre'nant %omen and mothers" Crom an estimated MMR level o! 4*B per 100,000 live &irths in 1DD0, India is re7uired to redu$e the MMR to 10D per 100,000 live &irths &y 2010" 4t the histori$al pa$e o! de$rease, India tends to rea$h MMR o! 140 per 100,000 live &irths &y 2010, !allin' short &y *1 points" ;o%ever, the &ri'ht line in the trend is the sharper de$line ie" 1>F durin' 200D-12, 1BF durin' 200>-0D and 1>F durin' 2004-0> $ompared to 1 F de$line durin' 2001-200*"
"ig! 9!1= 0rend in Maternal Mortality Ratio
000 400 400 *00 *00 200 200 100 100 00 0
4*B 401 *D1 *2B *01 204 212 1B1 140 10D ;istori$al 6ath Ei(ely a$hievement &y 2010 Tar'et &y 2010

#our$eA #ample Re'istration #ystem, 8!!i$e o! Re'istrar General o! India

BD

4s per #R# 2010-12, amon' the maMor #tates, Maternal Mortality Ratio is lo%est in Ierala ->>. and hi'hest in 4ssam -*21." Durin' 2010-12, the Maternal Mortality Ratio is hi'her than the national level estimate in the #tates o! 2ihar) @har(hand, Madhya 6radesh) Chattis'arh, 8disha, RaMasthan, +ttar 6radesh) +ttara(hand and 4ssam"

"ig!9!2= Maternal Mortality Ratio 2010212


*00 *00 200 200 100 100 00 0 >> 1B D0 110 11B 122 144 14> 100 1B1 21D 2*0 2*0 200 *21 2D2

#our$eA #ample Re'istration #ystem -2010-12.

The present status o! MMR alon' %ith the e3tent o! pro'ress a$hieved in the last one de$ade, 'ive a &etter pi$ture o! the per!orman$e o! the #tates in redu$in' maternal mortality ratio" The #tates %hi$h sho%ed hi'hest points o! de$line durin' 1DDD-2012 are +ttar 6radesh) +ttara(hand -de$lined &y 24B points., RaMasthan -de$lined &y 24> points., 8disha -de$lined &y 11D points., 2ihar)@har(hand -de$lined &y 111 points., Madhya 6radesh) Chhattis'arh -de$lined &y 1BB points. %here as at all India level, the de$line %as 14D points" Thus, most o! the #tates %ith hi'hest level o! MMR in 2010 - 12, have sho%n ma3imum points o! de$line, %hi$h o!!ers a ray o! hope in the pro'ress o! #tates to%ards a$hievin' MDG 0"

4s per the present status -2010-12., the #tates o! 4ndhra 6radesh, GuMarat, Ierala, Maharashtra, Tamil ,adu and <est 2en'al have the distin$tion o! a$hievin' all India MDG tar'et !or MMR" 4 &etter pi$ture o! the pro'ress a$hieved &y the

10

#tates is o&tained &y $omparin' the #tate %ise MDG tar'ets and the li(ely a$hievement &y 2010"

"ig! 9!4=MMR current statusD li)ely ac'ievement vis 2a 2vis target 2013

4ndhra 6radesh India <est 2en'al

400 *00 200 100

4ssam 2ihar)@ahr(hand

+ttar 6radesh)+ttara(hand

GuMarat

Tamil ,adu

;aryana

2010-12

RaMasthan

Iarnata(a

li(ely a$hievement 2010

6unMa& 8rissa

Ierala Madhya 6radesh)Chhatis'arh Maharashtra

tar'et 2010

4s per the histori$al trend, the #tates o! Ierala, <est 2en'al and 2ihar ) @har(hand are li(ely to a$hieve their #tate level MMR tar'ets &y 2010" ;o%ever, as per the histori$al trend, the #tates o! 4ssam, ;aryana and 8disha, are li(ely to !all short o! their #tate level tar'ets &y hu'e mar'ins" The remainin' #tates are li(ely to miss the tar'ets &y 11 to 02 points"

It is %orryin' that more youn' mothers in the a'e 'roup 20-2D years die due to maternal $auses and the proportion in$reased in 2010-12 !rom that o! 200B-0D" The proportion o! maternal deaths in the a'e 'roup 20-2D years stood at >BF in 2010-12, %hereas the $orrespondin' !i'ure in 200B-0D is >*F" Curther, the a'e 'roup, 20-24 yrs are more sus$epti&le to maternal death as deaths due to maternity $auses are hi'hest in this 'roup" Durin' 2010-12, the maternal deaths are hi'hest in the a'e 'roup 20-24 years -*DF. !ollo%ed &y 20-2D years -21F., %hereas the $orrespondin' !i'ures !or 200B-0D %ere *>F and 2BF respe$tively"

11

0a>le 9!1= &ge Distri>ution of Maternal and /on2 Maternal deat'sD IndiaD 200920; I 2010212
&ge Groups Maternal Deat's *A, 200920; 10-1D 20-24 20-2D *0-*4 *0-*D 40-44 40-4D 1324;
Source= 8)o Re'istrar General o! India

/on2maternal Deat's *A, 200920; 12 1> 1* 1* 14 1> 1> 100 2010212 12 1> 1* 12 12 10 1D 100

2010212 B *D 21 1B B 2 0 100

D *> 2B 14 D 0 1 100

In addition to Maternal Mortality Ratio -MMR., the Maternal Mortality Rate -MMRate - ,um&er o! maternal deaths in a 'iven period per 100000 %omen o! reprodu$tive a'e durin' the same time period. and 4dult li!etime ris( o! maternal death -The pro&a&ility that a 10-year-old %omen %ill die eventually !rom a maternal $ause. are important statisti$al measures o! maternal mortality" "ig! 9!4= 0rend in Maternal Mortality Rate 2 India I >iggers States
>0 00 40 *0 20 10 0

20"B 12"4
2004-0> 200B-0D 2010-12

Source= 8)o Re'istrar General o! India

The maternal mortality rate at all India level has $ome do%n !rom 20"B in 2004-00 to 12"4 in 2010 -12" 4ll the maMor #tates have also sho%n a de$line in MMR durin' this period" The MMRate is lo%est in Ierala -*"*. and hi'hest in

+ttarpradesh) +ttara(hand -21"B. in 2010-12"

12

"ig! 9!3= 0rend in +ife 0ime Ris) *A,2 India and >igger States
2 1"1 1"> 1"4 1"2 1 0"1 0"> 0"4 0"2 0

0"B 0"4
2004-0> 200B-0D 2010-12

Source= 8)o Re'istrar General o! India

4t all India level, li!etime ris( de$lined !rom 0"BF in 2004-0> to 0"4F 2010-12 and all the maMor #tates have sho%n de$line durin' this period" In 2010-12, li!etime ris( %as lo%est in Ierala 0"1F and hi'hest in +ttar 6radesh) +ttara(hand -1F."

Gaps still persisting in ensuring safe deliveryH! Indicator= Proportion of >irt's attended >y s)illed 'ealt' personnel #a!e motherhood depends mainly on delivery &y trained )pro!essional personnel, parti$ularly throu'h institutional !a$ilities" 4mon' other thin's, ensurin' ante-natal $are o! prospe$tive mothers at health $entres and re$ommended doses o! ICT are important !a$tors that help improve maternal health and redu$e li!e ris( durin' pre'nan$y" The ,ational Camily ;ealth #urvey -,C;#-2000-0>. and Distri$t ;ousehold #urvey -DE;#- 200B-01. revealed the trend in institutional deliveries and sa!e deliveries and pointed to%ards the need !or more !o$used and a$$elerated initiatives to improve the situation" The institutional deliveries in India in$reased !rom 40"DF in 2002-04-Distri$t level ;ousehold #urvey. to B2"DF in 200D -Covera'e =valuation #urvey." 4s per Covera'e =valuation #urvey -C=#., 200D, delivery attended &y s(illed personnel is B>"2F %hi$h %as 4B">F as per Distri$t level ;ousehold #urvey -DE;#-2002-04." <ith the e3istin' rate o! in$rease in deliveries &y s(illed personnel, the li(ely a$hievement !or 2010 is only to BB"2DF, %hi$h is !ar short o! the tar'eted universal $overa'e" 4s per C=# 200D, the per$enta'e o! deliveries attended &y s(illed health personnel ran'es !rom 4*"1F -,a'aland. to 100F -Ierala."
1*

"ig! 9!8= Deliveries attended >y s)illed 'ealt' personnel *A,2200;


120 100 10 >0 40 20 0

DD"D B>"2 4*"1

+ttar 6radesh

<est 2en'al

Manipur

Madhya 6radesh

GuMarat

4ndhra 6radesh

,a'aland

@har(hand

Iarnata(a

;ima$hal 6radesh

6unMa&

Chhattis'arh

Me'halaya

RaMasthan

;aryana

Tripura

4ssam

@ammu 9 Iashmir

+ttara(hand

4runa$hal 6radesh

Mi/oram

#i((im

Goin' &y the histori$ rate o! $overa'e in$rease in deliveries assisted &y trained) pro!essional persons, B #tates namely, 4ndhra 6radesh, Goa, @ammu 9Iashmir, Ierala, Madhya 6radesh, 8rissa, RaMasthan, #i((im and Tamil ,adu are li(ely to rea$h universal $overa'e or $lose to it -a$hievement o! D0F9 a&ove. &y the year 2010"Cor the other #tates, short!all !rom universal $overa'e tends to vary !rom 11 to >1 per$enta'e points"

The maternal health $are servi$es !or antenatal $are in$ludes at least three antenatal $are visits, iron prophyla3is !or pre'nant and la$tatin' %omen, at least one dose o! tetanus to3oid va$$ine, dete$tion and treatment o! anemia in mothers, and

Maharashtra

Tamil ,adu

14

Ierala

8rissa

2ihar

India

Delhi

Goa

mana'ement and re!erral o! hi'h-ris( pre'nan$ies and natal $are" some maMor indi$ators related to maternal health are,

The #tatus o!

0a>le 9!2= Status of some ma.or indicators related to maternal 'ealt'


Indicators Mothers %ho had re$eived any 4,C -F. Mothers %ho had * or more 4,C -F. Mothers %ho had !ull 4,C $he$( up -F. Institutional Delivery -F. #a!e Delivery -F. IC4 ta&lets $onsumed !or 100 days Mothers %ho re$eived 6,C %ithin 2 %ee(s o! delivery -F. L-6,C %ithin 10 days D+-S22 *2002204, B*"> 00"4 1>"0 40"D 41 20"0 ,4 D+-S24 *200920:, B0"2 4D"1 11"1 4B"0 02"B 4>"> 4D"B >0"1L C%S *200;, 1D"> >1"B 2>"0 B2"D B>"2

&ddressing issues related to maternal 'ealt' H!! Interventions I Strategies under /R-M= The ,ational Rural ;ealth Mission -,R;M. %as laun$hed on 12th 4pril, 2000 throu'hout the $ountry %ith spe$ial !o$us on 11 states, in$ludin' ei'ht =mpo%ered 4$tion Group -=4G. #tates, the ,orth-=astern #tates, @ammu 9 Iashmir and ;ima$hal 6radesh" The ,R;M see(s to provide a$$essi&le, a!!orda&le and 7uality health $are to the rural population, espe$ially the vulnera&le se$tions" Durin' the 12th 6lan, one o! the 'oals o! ,R;M is to redu$e MMR to less than 100 per 1,00,000 live &irths" +nder ,ational Rural ;ealth Mission -,R;M. and %ithin its um&rella, the Reprodu$tive and Child ;ealth 6ro'ramme 6hase II, the Government o! India has ta(en a num&er o! steps to a$$elerate the pa$e o! redu$tion in maternal mortality" These strate'ies and interventions areA 1, Kanani Sura)s'a 6o.ana *KS6,= @anani #ura(shaGoMana, a demand promotion s$heme !or redu$tion o! MMR and IMR has led to steep in$rease in Institutional Delivery in 'overnment health !a$ilities" Cash &ene!its are provided under the s$heme to #C)#T )26E %omen to promote institutional delivery"
10

2, 7uality &ntenatalD Intranatal and Postnatal care= Quality 4,C in$ludes minimum o! at least 4 4,Cs in$ludin' early re'istration and 1st 4,C in !irst trimester alon' %ith physi$al and a&dominal e3amination, ;& estimation and urine investi'ation, 2 doses o! T"T Immuni/ation and $onsumption o! IC4 ta&lets !or 100 days" Iron and Coli$ 4$id supplementation to pre'nant 9 la$tatin' %omen !or prevention and treatment o! anaemia" ;ealth and nutrition edu$ation to promote dietary diversi!i$ation, in$lusion o! iron and !olate ri$h !ood as %ell as !ood items that promote iron a&sorption" The Mother and Child 6rote$tion Card -MC6 Card. has &een introdu$ed throu'h a $olla&orative e!!ort o! the Ministry o! <omen and Child Development and the Ministry o! ;ealth 9 Camily <el!are, Government o! India to monitor servi$e delivery !or mothers and $hildren" The $ard also $aptures some o! (ey servi$es delivered to the mother 9 &a&y durin'

4ntenatal, Intra natal9 6ost natal $are !or ensurin' that the minimum pa$(a'e o! servi$es are delivered to the &ene!i$iary" 6ostnatal $are &y ensurin' 41 hrs stay in hospital durin' $hild&irth and throu'h su&se7uent home visits on
*rd

, Bthand 42nd day, are important

$omponents !or identi!i$ation and mana'ement o! emer'en$ies o$$urrin' durin' post natal period in order to provide s(illed attendan$e at every &irth" #ta!! ,urses -#,s., E;:s and 4,Ms are &ein' made te$hni$ally $ompetent to handle $ommon o&stetri$ emer'en$ies &y providin' them a * %ee( trainin' on #24 -#(illed 2irth 4ttendan$e." Eine listin' o! severely anaemi$ pre'nant %omen is &ein' done at the #u& Centres and 6;Cs !or tra$(in' o! severely anaemi$ %omen !or appropriate mana'ement" 4, #perationalisation of t'e 'ealt' facilities for provision of (asic %mergency #>stetric Care *(eM#C, *C%m#C, services= and Compre'ensive %mergency #>stetric Care

1>

#u&-Centres, 6rimary ;ealth Centres, Community ;ealth Centres and Distri$t ;ospitals are &ein' operationali/ed !or providin' 243B &asi$ and $omprehensive o&stetri$ and ne% &orn $are servi$es"

4, Delivery Points= Govt" o! India is !a$ilitatin' the #tates in identi!yin' the delivery pointsH !or providin' $omprehensive and 7uality Reprodu$tive Maternal ,e%&orn and Child ;ealth -RM,C;. #ervi$es at these health !a$ilities %hi$h are per!ormin' deliveries) C- se$tions a&ove a $ertain &en$hmar(" 4&out 1B000 delivery points have &een identi!ied all over the $ountry and #tates have &een

provided !unds !or stren'thenin' and up 'radation o! these $enters and operationali/in' them throu'h rational deployment o! e3istin' manpo%er, trainin' o! do$tors and spe$ialists !or these health !a$ilities and also providin' them %ith other resour$es li(e dru's)e7uipments et$" 3, Capacity >uilding of 'ealt' care providers=

To 8perationalise 6;Cs, C;Cs, D; and other health !a$ilities, the health providers %or(in' at these !a$ilities are &ein' trained and oriented !or improvin' their (no%led'e and s(ills in providin' 7uality o&stetri$ $are servi$es" #ome o! the (ey trainin's &ein' imparted areA S(&A a * %ee(s trainin' o! #,s)4,Ms)E;:s in S)illed &ttendance at (irt'D !or %hi$h $urri$ulum and te$hni$al 'uidelines have &een revised and disseminated to states)+Ts" 0raining of M((S Doctors in +ife Saving &naest'etic S)ills *+S&S, for %mergency #>stetric Care= Cor e!!e$tive and &etter mana'ement o! =mer'en$y 8&stetri$ needs at the 'rass root level, G8I has &een implementin' 11 %ee( trainin' pro'ramme!or M22# do$tors in E#4# !or =mer'en$y 8&stetri$ Care -=m8C. at CR+" The trainin' pro'ramme is presently &ein' implemented in nearly 100 medi$al $olle'es a$ross all the maMor #tates in$ludin' ,= Re'ion!
1B

0raining of M((S Doctors in %mergency #>stetric Care *%m#C,A Government o! India has also introdu$ed a trainin' pro'ramme !or M22# do$tors in =mer'en$y 8&stetri$ Mana'ement 9 #(ills in$ludin' Caesarean #e$tion in $olla&oration %ith Cederation o! 8&stetri$ and Gyne$olo'i$al #o$iety o! India -C8G#I." This > %ee( trainin' pro'ramme is &ein' implemented at the level o! Medi$al Colle'es and Distri$t ;ospitals in nearly 20 medi$al $olle'es o! the #tates"

0raining of M((S Doctors in (asic %mergency #>stetric Care *(%m#C,A 4 10 day trainin' !or Medi$al 8!!i$ers in 2asi$ =mer'en$y 8&stetri$ Care is &ein' $ondu$ted at identi!ied trainin' $enters o! the #tates and +Ts"

8, Referral Services at >ot' Community and Institutional levelA

+nder ,R;M, states are provided !inan$ial assistan$e !or esta&lishin' the emer'en$y response servi$es and patient transport am&ulan$es" Government o! India has a thrust on esta&lishin' a net%or( o! 2asi$ patient $are transportation am&ulan$es %ith the aim to rea$h the &ene!i$iaries in rural areas %ithin *0 minutes o! the $all !or 7ui$( servi$e delivery" The states have &een 'iven !le3i&ility to use di!!erent models o! emer'en$y re!erral transport !or esta&lishin' the ne$essary lin(a'es &et%een home and health !a$ility and &et%een di!!erent levels o! health !a$ilities and !or drop &a$( home !or pre'nant %omen and post delivered %omen and si$( neonates !or %hom it is to &e provided !ree o! $ost"

Iey !eatures !or assured re!erral servi$es areA

Ein(in' %ith a $entrali/ed 243B $all $entre havin' an universal toll !ree num&er either distri$t-%ise or state-%ise as per the situation

:ehi$les are &ein' G6# !itted !or e7uita&le 'eo'raphi$al distri&ution and e!!e$tive net%or( and utili/ation"

11

4 prudent mi3 o! &asi$ level am&ulan$es and emer'en$y response vehi$les are &ein' esta&lished %ith !o$us on ade7uate $overa'e &y

2asi$ level am&ulan$es Response time !or the am&ulan$e should &e rea$hin' the &ene!i$iary %ithin *0 minutes and the %oman rea$hes the health !a$ility %ithin the ne3t *0 minutes +niversal a$$ess to re!erral transport throu'hout the #tate, in$ludin' transport to di!!i$ult and hard to rea$h areas, to &e ensured" 9, Compre'ensive &>ortion Care services=

To redu$e maternal mortality and mor&idity due to unsa!e a&ortion, $onsistent e!!orts have &een made to e3pand sa!e a&ortion servi$es in peripheral health $are !a$ilities in rural areas" These in$lude provision o! dru's and e7uipment !or Manual :a$uum 4spiration -=:4., Manual :a$uum 4spiration -M:4., Medi$al Methods o! 4&ortion -MM4. at 6;Cs, C;Cs, D;s %ith !o$us on the delivery points, en$oura'in' private and ,G8 se$tors to provide 7uality MT6 servi$es, $erti!i$ation and re'ulation o! private se$tor !a$ilities throu'h Distri$t Eevel Committees -DECs. %ithin the !rame%or( o! the MT6 4$t 1DB1 and development o! appropriate I=C )2CC messa'es to $reate a%areness in the $ommunity on MT6 Cunds !or implementin' sa!e a&ortion servi$es are &ein' allo$ated to states throu'h #tate 6ro'ramme Implementation 6lans -#tate 6I6. under ,R;M" 4ppro3imately B000 providers a$ross the $ountry have &een trained in MT6 te$hni7ues so !ar"

:, Services for Reproductive I 0ract Infections *R0I @S0I, = #ervi$es !or RTI )#TI are provided at all health !a$ilities !rom 6;C up%ards in$ludin' C;Cs, other su& distri$t hospitals and distri$t hospitals %ith a !o$us on Delivery 6oint in $onver'en$e %ith the ,4C6" These in$lude #yndromi$

1D

mana'ement o! RTIs)#TIs, provision o! $olour $oded (its, R6R testin' (its and <hole 2lood Cin'er 6ri$( Testin' at the delivery points" 6revention o! 6arent to Child Transmission -66TCT. #ervi$es to enhan$e $overa'e o! 66TCT servi$es, ;I: s$reenin' o! all pre'nant %omen is &ein' o!!ered durin' routine 4nte natal $are visits on a voluntary &asis" ,4C8 has laun$hed ne% Guidelines !or 66TCT under the ,4C6"
;, #utreac' activities=

5illage -ealt' and /utrition Day *5-/Ds, at 4n'an%adi $entre at least on$e every month and to provide ante natal) post partum $are !or pre'nant %omen, promote institutional delivery, immuni/ation, Camily 6lannin' 9 nutrition are the part o! various servi$es &ein' provided durin' :;,Ds"

10, %ngagement of &ccredited Social -ealt' &ctivists *&S-&s, to generate demand and facilitate accessing of 'ealt' care services >y t'e community! The 4#;4s have &een en'a'ed to per!orm various (ey a$tivities e"'" re'ular visit to pre'nant %omen, prepare mi$ro-&irth plans, $ounsel !or institutional delivery, es$ort the pre'nant %oman to the nearest pu&li$ health !a$ility at the time o! delivery, !a$ilitate arran'ement !or re!erral transport, assist 4,M in providin' $are to the mother durin' the postnatal period throu'h home visits and to !a$ilitate the pre'nant %omen in 'ettin' the &ene!its under the @#G s$heme et$" 6er!orman$e 2ased In$entivesA #tates are in$entivi/in' the 4#;4 !or her (ey a$tivities as per G8I 9 #tate Guidelines" /e initiatives =

11, Mot'er C'ild 0rac)ing System *MC0S,= /ame (ased pregnant omen and c'ildren=

e> ena>led trac)ing of

4n online Mother Child Tra$(in' #ystem -MCT#. has &een made operational !or all the #tates and +Ts" 4!ter enterin' the data, %or( plan is &ein' 'enerated !or the 4,Ms and 4#;4s to deliver the health servi$es durin' any

D0

point o! time" MCT# $all $entre has &een setup to $all the &ene!i$iaries and validate their data" 12, Kanani S'is'u Sura)s'a Earya)aram *KSSE, Government o! India has laun$hed @anani #hishu #ura(sha Iarya(aram -@##I. on 1st @une, 2011" The initiative entitles all pre'nant %omen deliverin' in pu&li$ health institutions to a&solutely !ree and no e3pense delivery, in$ludin' $aesarean se$tion" The entitlements in$lude !ree dru's and $onsuma&les, !ree diet up to * days durin' normal delivery and up to B days !or C-se$tion, !ree dia'nosti$s, and !ree &lood %herever re7uired" This initiative also provides !or !ree transport !rom home to institution, &et%een !a$ilities in $ase o! a re!erral and drop &a$( home" #imilar entitlements have &een put in pla$e !or all si$( ne%&orns a$$essin' pu&li$ health institutions !or treatment till *0 days a!ter &irth" 4ll the #tates and +Ts have initiated this pro'ramme"

14, Maternal Deat' Revie *MDR,A Maternal Death Revie% -MDR. is one o! the important interventions under the RC; 6ro'ramme to a$$elerate the pa$e o! de$line o! MMR in the $ountry" The MDR pro$ess has &een institutionalised a$ross the $ountry to serve as a tool !or improvin' the 7uality o! o&stetri$ $are and redu$in' maternal mortality and mor&idity" +nder the pro$ess, reportin' and analysis o! the maternal deaths provides an opportunity to identi!y the delays that $ontri&ute to maternal deaths at various levels and use the in!ormation to ta(e $orre$tive a$tions to over$ome the systemi$ and pro'rammati$ 'aps in servi$e provision" The MDR Guidelines and monitorin' tools have &een disseminated to the states and +Ts !or 'uidin' states in rollin' out and monitorin' the MDR 6ro$ess" 4ll the #tates 9 +Ts are $urrently reportin' on the MDR pro$ess throu'h monthly reports to M8;C<" Tamil ,adu and Ierala have %ell esta&lished pro$esses to $ondu$t MDR !or a num&er o! years" 8ther #tates

D1

li(e Maharashtra, 8disha, 6unMa&, Madhya 6radesh and 4ssam have sho%n $onsidera&le pro'ress in reportin' and analysis o! maternal deaths" 14, Maternal and C'ild -ealt' $ings= @#G has led to steep in$rease in Institutional Delivery in 'overnment health !a$ilities" 4#;4s are also 'eneratin' demand and !a$ilitatin' a$$ess o! %omen and $hildren to pu&li$ health institutions" 4s a result, these hospitals are overstret$hed in order to ensure 7uality o! $are" 100 &edded state- o! -the art Maternal and Child ;ealth <in's have &een introdu$ed at 10> Distri$t ;ospitals 9 Medi$al Colle'es" 2esides this, B0)00)*0 &edded maternity %ards have &een san$tioned at other D;s)#D;s)C;Cs %ith hi'h volume delivery load at 122 health !a$ilities" More than 20,000 additional &eds have &een san$tioned a$ross 11 states to &e $ompleted in ne3t 2 to * years"

Indira Gand'i Matritva Sa'yog 6o.ana *IGMS6, 4 Conditional Cash Trans!er #$hemes !or pre'nant and la$tatin' %omen %as introdu$ed in 8$to&er, 2010 to $ontri&ute to &etter ena&lin' environment &y providin' $ash in$entives !or improved health and nutrition to pre'nant and nursin' mothers &y the Ministry o! <omen and Child Development" The s$heme envisa'es providin' $ash to 6re'nant 9 Ea$tatin' -69E. %omen durin' pre'nan$y and la$tation in response to individual !ul!illin' spe$i!i$ $onditions" It addresses short term in$ome support o&Me$tives %ith lon' term o&Me$tive o! &ehavioural and attitudinal $han'es" The s$heme attempts to partly $ompensate !or %a'e loss to 6re'nant 9 Ea$tatin' %omen &oth prior to and a!ter delivery o! $hild" 2ein' implemented on pilot &asis in 0* sele$ted distri$ts usin' the plat!orm o! ICD#, 12"0 la(h 69E %omen are e3pe$ted to &e $overed every year under IGM#G" The &ene!i$iaries are paid Rs" 4000)- in three instalments per 69E %omen &et%een the se$ond trimester and till the $hild attains the a'e o! > months on !ul!illin' spe$i!i$ $onditions related to maternal and $hild health" 6re'nant %omen o! 1D years o! a'e and a&ove !or !irst t%o live &irths are eli'i&le under the s$heme" 4ll Government ) 6u&li$ #e$tor +nderta(in's -Central and
D2

#tate. employees are e3$luded !rom the #$heme as they are entitled !or paid maternity leave" The %ives o! su$h employees are also e3$luded !rom the s$heme" The s$heme is no% $overed under Dire$t 2ene!it Trans!er -D2T. pro'ramme and under %hi$h nine distri$ts have &een in$luded under !irst phase o! the implementation" Cor phase-II, %hi$h starts !rom 01)0B)201*, seven distri$ts namely 6ala(ad -Ierala., Ganam -6udu$herry., <est Delhi -Delhi., ,al'onda -4ndhra 6radesh., ;amirpur -;ima$hal 6radesh., Ea(shad%eep -Ea(shad%eep. 9Dhamtari -Chhatis'arh. have &een identi!ied" +nder the The ,ational Cood #e$urity 4$tH, every pre'nant %omen and la$tatin' mother %ill &e$ome entitled to maternity &ene!it o! Rs" >000)-" The Ministry %ill have to revise the 'uideline o! the IGM#G to &rin' it in $on!ormity %ith the provisions o! the 4$t" The si'ni!i$ant $han'es %ill in$lude universalisation o! IGM#G !rom 0* distri$ts to %hole o! the $ountry, in$reasin' the num&er o! &ene!i$iaries many !old and in$rease in amount to &e trans!erred per &ene!i$iary !rom present Rs" 4000)- to Rs" >000)- in 0* distri$ts a$ross the $ountry is &ein' issued"

In addition to t'e a>ove mentioned ma.or initiatives >y Central ministriesD t'e State Governments also implement similar programmes to improve maternal 'ealt'D and to reduce maternal mortality! 0'e programmes are to focuss on all concerned fronts including a areness generationD >etter accessi>le 'eat' care facilitiesD financial >enefits etc 'ic' in turn ensure safe mot'er'ood!

LLLL

D*

Chapter 8 FIGHT AGAINST DEADLY DISEASES

Goal 8= Com>at -I5@&IDSD Malaria and ot'er Diseases 0&RG%0 9= -ave 'alted >y 2013 and >egun to reverse t'e spread of -I5@&IDS
;I: prevalen$e amon' pre'nant %omen a'ed 10-24 years Condom use rate o! the $ontra$eptive prevalen$e rate Condom use at last hi'h ris( se3 6er$enta'e o! population a'ed 10-24 years %ith $omprehensive $orre$t (no%led'e o! ;I:)4ID#

0&RG%0 := -ave 'alted >y 2013 and >egun to reverse t'e incidence of Malaria and other major diseases.
6revalen$e and death rates asso$iated %ith Malaria 6roportion o! population in Malaria ris( areas usin' e!!e$tive Malaria prevention and treatment measures -6er$enta'e o! population $overed under use o! residuary spray in hi'h ris( areas. 6revalen$e and death rates asso$iated %ith Tu&er$ulosis 6roportion o! Tu&er$ulosis $ases dete$ted and $ured under D8T#

The e3isten$e and rapid spread o! ;I: and 4ID# poses a serious $hallen'e to every nation a$ross the 'lo&e" ;I: and 4ID# have the potential to undermine the massive

improvements that have &een made in 'lo&al health over the years" 4part !rom &ein' a serious health pro&lem, the multi layered e!!e$ts o! the epidemi$ on the so$io-e$onomi$ !a&ri$ o!

D4

%hole nations, ma(es ;I: and 4ID# a potential development threat %orld%ide" Sustaining t'e declining trend in prevalence of -I5@ &IDs H
The ;I: epidemi$ in India $ontinues to de$line at the national level %ith an

overall redu$tion in adult ;I: prevalen$e, ;I: in$iden$e -ne% in!e$tions. and 4ID#related mortality in the $ountry" The latest ;I: estimates provide sound eviden$e on the $urrent trend o! the epidemi$" The adult -10K4D years. ;I: prevalen$e has de$reased !rom 0"40F in 2002 to 0"2BF in 2011" India has demonstrated an overall redu$tion o! 0BF in estimated annual ne% ;I: in!e$tions amon' adult population !rom 2"B4 la(hs in 2000 to 1"1> la(hs in 2011" The trend o! annual 4ID# deaths is also sho%in' a steady de$line sin$e the roll out o! !ree 4nti Retroviral Treatment -4RT. pro'ramme in India in 2004" De$lines in adult ;I: prevalen$e and ne% ;I: in!e$tions are sustained in most o! the states in$ludin' all the hi'h prevalen$e states o! #outh India and ,orth =ast" The ;I: estimates, ho%ever, hi'hli'ht the diversity o! trends at the state level" 4lso, risin' trends in ;I: prevalen$e, num&er o! 6eople Eivin' %ith ;I: -6E;I:. and ne% ;I: in!e$tions have &een noted in some lo% prevalen$e states over the last !e% years" The adult -10K4D years. ;I: prevalen$e is a si'ni!i$ant indi$ator !or determinin' the level and spread o! ;I: epidemi$ amon'st the total population o! the $ountry" It is $al$ulated as the a''re'ate o! the num&er o! adults -10K4D years. livin' %ith ;I: in all states, divided &y the total adult -10K4D years. population %ithin a parti$ular time period, e3pressed as per$enta'e" ,ational adult -10K4D years. ;I: prevalen$e is estimated at 0"21F -0"24FK0"*4F. in 2010 and 0"2BF -0"22FK0"**F. in 2011" 4dult ;I: prevalen$e %as estimated to have pea(ed in $ountry in 2002 at a level o! 0"41F -%ithin &ounds 0"*0FK0"4BF. !ollo%in' %hi$h there has &een pro'ressive de$line in estimated prevalen$e in the su&se7uent years" 4dult ;I: prevalen$e amon' males and !emales is estimated at 0"*4F and 0"2*F in 2010 and 0"*2F and 0"22F in 2011 respe$tively"

D0

"ig :!1= %stimated &dult -I5 prevalence *1324; years of age,


0"0 0"40 0"4 0"*0 0"* 0"20 0"2 0"10 0"1 0"00 0 2002 Source: D/o AIDS control 200> 200B 2001 200D 2010 2011 0"*> 0"*2 0"*1 0"* 0"21 0"2B 0"40

The adult ;I: prevalen$e at national level has $ontinued its steady de$line !rom estimated level o! 0"41F in 2001 throu'h 0"**F in 200B to 0"2BF in 2011" #imilar $onsistent de$lines are noted amon' &oth men and %omen at national level"

In 2011, amon' the states, Manipur has sho%n the hi'hest estimated adult ;I: prevalen$e o! 1"22F, !ollo%ed &y 4ndhra 6radesh -0"B0F., Mi/oram -0"B4F., ,a'aland -0"B*F., Iarnata(a -0"02F., Goa -0"4*F. and Maharashtra -0"42F." 2esides these states, 8disha, GuMarat, Tamil ,adu and Chandi'arh have sho%n estimated adult ;I: prevalen$e 'reater than the national prevalen$e -0"2BF., %hile Chhattis'arh, @har(hand, Tripura, <est 2en'al, +ttara(hand, Delhi and 2ihar have sho%n estimated adult ;I: prevalen$e in the ran'e o! 0"20K0"2BF" 4ll other states)+Ts have levels o! 4dult ;I: prevalen$e &elo% 0"20F" De$linin' trends in adult ;I: prevalen$e are sustained in all the hi'h prevalen$e states -4ndhra 6radesh, Iarnata(a, Maharashtra, Manipur, ,a'aland and Tamil ,adu. and other states su$h as Mi/oram and Goa"

;I: prevalen$e amon' the youn' population -10K24 years. at national level has de$lined !rom 0"10F in 200B to 0"11F in 2011" +nli(e adult -10K4D years. ;I: prevalen$e %here ;I: prevalen$e amon' males is around 1"0 times that amon' !emales, in youn' -10K24 years. population, ;I: prevalen$e is e7ual amon' men and %omen at 0"11F" ;I: prevalen$e amon' the youn' male population -10K24 years.
D>

has de$lined slo%ly !rom an estimated 0"10F in 200B to rea$h an estimated 0"11F in 2011" #imilar to the trend and level estimated amon' the youn' male population, ;I: prevalen$e amon' the youn' !emale population -10K24 years. has also slo%ly de$lined !rom an estimated 0"10F in 200B to an estimated 0"11F in 2011"

=stimation o! the total num&er o! 6eople Eivin' %ith ;I: -6E;I:. is a use!ul indi$ator !or assessin' the severity o! the epidemi$ at a parti$ular point in time or its trend over duration o! time" The estimated num&er o! 6E;I: -adults and $hildren. in India in 2011 %as 20"11 la(hs, $ompared to the estimated 22"02 la(hs -6E;I: in the $ountry in 200B" 4 $omparison &et%een 200B and 2011 estimates re!le$ts an appro3imate 1F de$line in total num&er o! 6E;I: in the past !ive years" 8ut o! the 20"D la(h total num&er o! 6eople Eivin' %ith ;I: in 2011, $hildren -O10 years. a$$ount !or BF -1"40 la(h. o! all in!e$tions" 8! all ;I: in!e$tions, *DF -1"1> la(h. are amon' %omen" The !our hi'h prevalen$e states o! India -4ndhra 6radeshK4"1D la(h, Maharashtra-*"1> la(h, Iarnata(a-2"0D la(h and Tamil ,adu-1"** la(h. a$$ount !or 0*F o! all ;I: in!e$ted population in the $ountry" <est 2en'al, GuMarat, 2ihar, +ttar 6radesh and 8disha are estimated to have more than 1 la(h 6E;I: ea$h and to'ether a$$ount !or another 2DF o! ;I: in!e$tions in India" The states o! RaMasthan, @har(hand, Chhattis'arh, Madhya 6radesh, 6unMa&, Manipur, Delhi and Ierala have estimated ;I: in!e$tions &et%een 20,000 and B0,000 ea$h and to'ether a$$ount !or another 10F o! ;I: in!e$tions in the $ountry"

;I: estimates !or the num&er o! annual ne% ;I: in!e$tions is a (ey indi$ator providin' in!ormation on the level and spread o! ne% in!e$tions" India has demonstrated an overall redu$tion in the estimated annual ne% ;I: in!e$tions -in all a'e-'roups. !rom 2"D> la(hs in 2000 to 1"*0 la(hs in 2011" The estimated annual ne% ;I: in!e$tions amon' adult -10V years. population has de$lined steadily over the past de$ade &y a&out 0BF !rom 2"B4 la(hs in 2000 to 1"1> la(hs in 2011" Males a$$ount !or appro3imately >1F o! total ne% annual ;: in!e$tions in 2011 %hilst %omen a$$ount !or an estimated *DF o! total ne% ;I: in!e$tions" The disa''re'ation o! total

DB

ne% ;I: in!e$tions &y se3 is retained at similar levels o! >1F male $ontri&ution and *DF !emale $ontri&ution durin' 2000 to 2011 %ith sli'ht inter-year variations"

4mon' states, 4ndhra 6radesh is estimated to have the hi'hest num&er -1>,>0*. o! ne% adult ;I: in!e$tions in 2011 !ollo%ed &y 8disha -12,B0*., @har(hand -D,010., Iarnata(a -D,024., 2ihar -B,BDB., +ttar 6radesh -B,B40. and <est 2en'al -B,21D." <hile the states o! GuMarat, Maharashtra, Chhattis'arh, RaMasthan, 6unMa& and +ttara(hand have ne% adult ;I: in!e$tions &et%een *,000 and B,000, rest o! the states have less than *,000 ne% adult ;I: in!e$tions in 2011"
"ig :!2= %stimated ne -I5 infections *in 13M years Population,
11000 1>000 14000 12000 10000 1000 >000 4000 2000 0

1>>0*

1*2
Goa Chandi'arh 4runa$hal 6radesh Mi/oram Me'halaya ,a'aland ;ima$hal 6radesh Ierala Tripura @ammu 9 Iashmir Manipur ;aryana Delhi Madhya 6radesh 4ssam Tamil ,adu +ttara(hand 6unMa& RaMasthan Chhattis'arh Maharashtra GuMarat <est 2en'al +ttar 6radesh 2ihar Iarnata(a @har(hand 8disha 4ndra 6radesh

8! the 1"1> la(h estimated ne% in!e$tions in 2011 amon' adults, the si3 hi'h prevalen$e states a$$ount !or only *1F, %hile the ten lo% prevalen$e states o! 8disha, @har(hand, 2ihar, +ttar 6radesh, <est 2en'al, GuMarat, Chhattis'arh, RaMasthan, 6unMa& 9+ttara(hand to'ether a$$ount !or 0BF o! ne% in!e$tions" <hile sta&le to de$linin' trends are evident in the si3 hi'h prevalen$e states o! 4ndhra 6radesh, Iarnata(a, Maharashtra, Manipur, ,a'aland and Tamil ,adu -the ne% ;I: in!e$tions amon' adults have de$reased &y 21F in hi'h prevalen$e states &et%een 200B 9 2011., some lo% prevalen$e and vulnera&le states li(e 8disha, @har(hand, 6unMa&, 4ssam and +ttara(hand have sho%n risin' trends in the estimated num&er o! annual ne% in!e$tions in the re$ent years"

Total num&er o! annual 4ID# related deaths in India is de$linin' over the past years" It is estimated that a&out 1"41 la(h -1"14 la(hs-1"B1 la(hs. people died o! 4ID#
D1

related $auses in 2011 in India" In $omparison %ith the 2"0> la(hs -1">B la(hs-2"40 la(hs. 4ID# related deaths estimated in 200B, this mar(s a near 2DF redu$tion in estimated num&er o! 4ID# related deaths durin' 200BK11" in!e$ted $hildren a$$ount !or BF o! all 4ID#-related deaths" Deaths amon' ;I: Males a$$ounted !or

nearly >0F o! total estimated 4ID# related deaths in 200B and this proportion de$reased 'radually to >*F in 2011" Cemales on the other hand a$$ounted !or an in$reasin' proportion o! the total estimated 4ID# related deaths !rom *4F in 2004 to *BF in 2011" In hi'h prevalen$e states, estimated 4ID#-related deaths have de$reased &y around 42F durin' 200B to 2011" It is estimated that the s$ale up o! !ree 4RT sin$e 2004 has saved $umulatively over 1"0 la(h lives in the $ountry till 2011 &y avertin' deaths due to 4ID#-related $auses" <ith the $urrent s$ale up o! 4RT servi$es, it is estimated to avert around 00,000K>0,000 deaths annually in the ne3t !ive years" The statisti$s presented a&ove, reveals the present status o! the epidemi$ ;I:)4IDs in India" The pro'ress o! the spe$i!i$ MDG indi$ators is presented &elo%"

Indicator= -I5 prevalence among pregnant omen aged 13224 years *A, The prevalen$e o! ;I: amon' 6re'nant %omen a'ed 10-24 years is sho%in' a de$linin' trend !rom 2000 and it has de$lined !rom 0"1D F in 2000 to 0"*DF in 2010-11"
"ig :!4= -I5 Prevalence among Pregnant omen aged 13224 years in India *A, 0"1>
0"1D 0"0B 0"4D 0"41

1 0"1 0"> 0"4 0"2 0

0"*D

2004
#our$eA ;I: #entinel #urveillan$e

2000

200>

200B

2001

2010-11

;o%ever, in the #tates o! Chattis'arh, Delhi, @har(hand, Madhya 6radesh, Manipur, Me'halaya, Mi/oram, 8disha, 6unMa&, RaMasthan, #i((im, +ttar 6radesh, +ttara(hand sho%ed in$reasin' trend in prevalen$e o! ;I: amon' 6re'nant %omen a'ed 10-24 years durin' 2001 to 2011"
DD

Indicator= Condom use rate of t'e contraceptive prevalence rate *Condom use to overall contraceptive use among currently married omenD 1324; yearsD percent , 4$$ordin' to ,C;# KIII, Condom use rate o! the $ontra$eptive prevalen$e rate -Condom use to overall $ontra$eptive use amon' $urrently married %omen, 10-4D years, per$ent. %as only 0"2 F at all India level" Delhi -22"DF., +ttara(hand -10"BF., 6unMa& -10"0F., ;aryana -11"1F., ;ima$hal 6radesh -11"0F., +ttar 6radesh -1">F., @ammu 9 Iashmir -1F., Goa -B"0F., Maharashtra ->"2F., GuMarat -0"1F., RaMasthan -0"BF. and Ierala -0"0F., %ere the #tates %hi$h reported Condom use rate o! the $ontra$eptive prevalen$e rate a&ove the national !i'ure"

Indicator= Condom use at last 'ig'2ris) se< The 2ehavioural #urveillan$e #urvey -2##. $ondu$ted to monitor the $han'es in (no%led'e and &ehavior indi$ators in di!!erent ris( 'roups %ith respe$t to ;I:)4ID# indi$ates that Condom use amon' non-re'ular se3 partners is 7uite prevalent" 4$$ordin' to 2## $ondu$ted in 2001 9 200>, the national estimates !or Condom use at last hi'h-ris( se3 -F. - 6roportion o! population a'ed 10-24 years %ho used $ondom durin' last se3 %ith non-re'ular partner re'istered a 1DF in$rease !rom 01"DF in 2001 to >1"BF in 200>" In 200D, 2## %as $ondu$ted in si3 #tates -+ttar 6radesh, 4ndhra 6radesh, Iarnata(a, Tamil ,adu, Maharashtra and Manipur. as part o! Mid-Term Revie% o! ,4C6-III" The estimates !or Condom +se at hi'h ris( se3 -F. !or these #tates !or 200> 9 200D are as !ollo%sA
0a>le :!1= Condom use at last 'ig'2ris) se< *A, 2 Proportion of population aged 13224 years 'o used condom during last se< it' non2regular partner= States +ttar 6radesh 4ndhra 6radesh Iarnata(a 12 Tamil ,adu Maharashtra Manipur
#our$e A2ehavioural #urveillan$e #urvey

2008 41"1 >*"> 11"1 4>"4 BB"1 B>">

200; 4> 1D 1B D2

12

Cor 2001, the !i'ure reported is !or Tamil ,adu 9 6ondi$herry" 100

4s per the JCondom 6romotion Impa$t #urvey 2010 , the national estimate !or Condom use at last hi'h-ris( se3 is B4F" Indicator= Proportion of population aged 13224 years it' compre'ensive correct Eno ledge of -I5@&IDS *A, 4$$ordin' to 2##, the national estimate !or proportion o! population a'ed 10-24 years %ith $omprehensive $orre$t Ino%led'e o! ;I:)4ID#1* -F. in 200> %as *2"DF reportin' &etterment !rom 2001 -22"2F." The estimates o! the indi$ator !or the #tates in %hi$h 2## %as $ondu$ted in 200D are as !ollo%sA

0a>le :!2= Compre'ensive Correct Eno ledge a>out -I5 0ransmission and Prevention States +ttar 6radesh 4ndhra 6radesh 21 Iarnata(a Tamil ,adu Maharashtra Manipur 2* *0 4D 4* 1D 10 0> 24 2008 2D 200; 21

#our$e A2ehavioural #urveillan$e #urvey

/ational &IDS Control Programme is playing a significant role in reversing t'e trendH! In order to $ontrol the spread o! ;I:)4ID#, the Government o! India is implementin' the ,ational 4ID# Control 6ro'ramme -,4C6. &y D)o 4ID# Control -,4C8. as a 100F $entrally sponsored s$heme" The !irst ,ational 4ID# Control 6ro'ramme %as laun$hed in 1DD2, !ollo%ed &y ,4C6-II in 1DDD" 6hase III o! ,4C6, laun$hed in @uly 200B, had the 'oal to halt and reverse the epidemi$ in the $ountry over the !ive-year period -200B-2012. &y s$alin' up prevention e!!orts amon' ;i'h Ris( Groups -;RG. and 'eneral population, and inte'ratin' them %ith Care, #upport
1*

Comprehensive Correct knowledge about HIV transmission and Prevention is constructed as Percentage of Population aged 15-24 years who could correctly identify the two major ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV (Consistent condom use and having one faithful uninfected sex partner), reject the two most common local misconceptions about HIV transmission (transmission of HIV/AIDS through mosquito bites and sharing of meals with HIV/AIDS patients), and who know that a healthy-looking person can transmit HIV.

101

9 Treatment servi$es" 6revention and Care, #upport 9 Treatment -C#T. !orm the t%o (ey pillars o! all ;I:)4ID# $ontrol e!!orts in India" 4nalysis o! epidemi$ proMe$tions revealed that India had appro3imately 1"1> la(h ne% ;I: in!e$tions in 2011 as a'ainst 2"B4 la(h ne% in!e$tions in 2000" There has &een redu$tion o! ne% ;I: in!e$tions &y 0BF over the last de$ade -2000-2011." This is one o! the most important eviden$e on the impa$t o! the various interventions under ,ational 4ID# Control 6ro'ramme and s$aled-up prevention strate'ies" 4 $lear de$line is also evident in ;I: prevalen$e amon' the youn' population -10-24 years. at national level, &oth amon' men and %omen" #ta&le to de$linin' trends in ;I: prevalen$e amon' the youn' population -10-24 years. are also noted in most states" Considera&le de$lines in ;I: prevalen$e have &een re$orded amon' Cemale #e3 <or(ers at national level -0"0>F in 200B to 2">BF. and in most o! the states, %here lon'-standin' tar'eted interventions have !o$used on &ehaviour $han'e and in$reasin' $ondom use" De$lines have &een a$hieved amon' Men %ho have se3 %ith Men -B"41F in 200B to 4"4*F in 2011." #ta&le trends have &een re$orded amon' InMe$tin' Dru' +sers at national level -B"2*F in 200B to B"14F in 2011." <ider a$$ess to 4ntiretroviral Therapy -4RT. has led to 2DF redu$tion in estimated annual 4ID#-related deaths durin' ,4C6-III period -200B-2011." Greater de$lines in estimated annual deaths are noted in states %here si'ni!i$ant s$ale up o! 4RT servi$es has &een a$hieved" It is estimated that the s$ale up o! !ree 4RT sin$e 2004 has saved over 1"0 la(h lives in the $ountry till 2011 &y avertin' deaths due to 4ID#-related $auses" Consolidatin' the 'ains made till no%, ,ational 4ID# Control 6ro'ramme 6hase-I: aims to a$$elerate the pro$ess o! reversal and !urther stren'then the epidemi$ response in India throu'h a $autious and %ell de!ined inte'ration pro$ess over the ne3t !ive years" The proposed o&Me$tive is to redu$e ne% in!e$tion &y 00F -200B &aseline o! ,4C6-III. and $omprehensive $are, support and treatment to all persons livin' %ith ;I:)4ID#" The said o&Me$tive %ill &e a$hieved throu'h proposed (ey strate'ies o! intensi!yin' and $onsolidatin' prevention servi$es %ith a !o$us on ;i'h Ris( Group -;RG. and vulnera&le population, in$reasin' a$$ess and promotin'
102

$omprehensive $are, support and treatment, e3pandin' In!ormation, =du$ation 9 Communi$ation -I=C. servi$es !or 'eneral population and hi'h ris( 'roups %ith a !o$us on &ehavior $han'e and demand 'eneration, &uildin' $apa$ities at national, state and distri$t levels and stren'thenin' the #trate'i$ In!ormation Mana'ement #ystem"

The pa$(a'e o! servi$es provided under ,4C6-I: in$lude Prevention Services


I.Tar'eted

Interventions !or ;i'h Ris( Groups and 2rid'e 6opulation -Cemale

#e3 <or(ers -C#<., Men %ho have #e3 %ith Men -M#M., Trans'ender);iMras, InMe$tin' Dru' +sers -ID+., Tru$(ers 9 Mi'rants.
II.,eedle-#yrin'e

=3$han'e 6ro'ramme -,#=6. and 8pioid #u&stitution Therapy

-8#T. !or ID+s


III.6revention

Interventions !or Mi'rant population at sour$e, transit and

destinations
IV.Ein(

<or(er #$heme -E<#. !or ;RGs and vulnera&le population in rural areas 9 Control o! #e3ually Transmitted In!e$tions)Reprodu$tive Tra$t

V.6revention

In!e$tions -#TI)RTI.
VI.2lood VII.;I:

sa!ety

Counselin' 9 Testin' #ervi$es o! 6arent to Child Transmission

VIII.6revention

IX.Condom promotion X.In!ormation,

=du$ation 9 Communi$ation -I=C. and 2ehaviour

Chan'e

Communi$ation -2CC. K Mass Media Campai'ns throu'h Radio 9 T:, Midmedia $ampai'ns throu'h Col( Media, display panels, &anners, %all %ritin's et$", #pe$ial $ampai'ns throu'h musi$ and sports, Cla'ship pro'rammes su$h as Red Ri&&on =3press et$"
XI.#o$ial

Mo&ili/ation, Gouth Interventions and 4doles$en$e =du$ation

6ro'ramme
XII.Mainstreamin' XIII.<or(

;I:)4ID# response

6la$e Interventions
10*

CareD Support I 0reatment Services


I.Ea&oratory

servi$es !or CD4 -The cluster of differentiation -cluster of

designation. -o!ten a&&reviated as CD. is a proto$ol used !or the identi!i$ation and investi'ation o! $ell o! sur!a$e mole$ules providin' tar'ets !or immunophenotypin'o! $ells. Testin' and other investi'ations
II.Cree

Cirst line 9 se$ond line 4nti-Retroviral Treatment -4RT. throu'h 4RT

$entres and Ein( 4RT Centres -E4Cs., Centres o! =3$ellen$e -C8=. 9 4RT plus $enters"
III.6ediatri$ IV.=arly

4RT !or $hildren

In!ant Dia'nosis !or ;I: e3posed in!ants and $hildren &elo% 11 months and 6sy$ho-so$ial support throu'h Community Care Centres

V.,utritional VI.;I:-T2

Coordination -Cross-re!erral, dete$tion and treatment o! $o-in!e$tions. o! 8pportunisti$ In!e$tions Eivin' %ith ;I: -6E;I:. net%or(s

VII.Treatment

VIII.Drop-in Centres !or 6eople

Status of Implementation of Eey Interventions I" 0argeted Intervention *0I,= Tar'eted Intervention pro'ramme is one o! the important prevention strate'ies under ,ational 4ID# Control 6ro'ramme" Tar'eted Interventions -TIs. $omprise o! preventive interventions %or(in' %ith !o$used $lient populations in a de!ined 'eo'raphi$ area %here there is a $on$entration o! one or more ;i'h Ris( Groups -;RGs." 10F o! ;RGs are planned to &e $overed via TIs %ith primary prevention servi$es li(e treatment !or #TI, $ondoms, needles)syrin'es, 8pioid #u&stitution Therapy -8#T., 2ehaviour Chan'e $ommuni$ation -2CC., ena&lin' environment, %ith $ommunity

involvement and lin(a'es %ith $are and support servi$e" The (ey ris( 'roups $overed throu'h Tar'eted Intervention -TI. pro'ramme in$ludeA Core ;i'h Ris( Groups -;RGs.-Cemale #e3 <or(ers -C#<., Men %ho have #e3 %ith Men -M#M. in$ludin' Trans'enders -TGs., InMe$tin' Dru' +sers -ID+. and 2rid'e 6opulations- Mi'rants and Tru$(ers" :arious $omponents o! Tar'eted Intervention pro'ramme in$ludesA 2ehaviour
104

Chan'e $ommuni$ation, Condom promotion, Treatment !or se3ually transmitted In!e$tion, ,eedle #yrin'e pro'ram, a&s$ess mana'ement, 'eneral medi$al servi$es and 8pioid #u&stitution Therapy -!or ID+s., Ein(a'e %ith ;I: testin' and treatment servi$es, Community mo&ili/ation and =na&lin' =nvironment" Durin' 2012-1*, 211 TIs

esta&lished a'ainst the tar'et o! 110" Durin' 201*-14 -till 4u'ust, 201*., 24> TIs esta&lished a'ainst the tar'et o! *00"

II"

+in) $or)er Sc'emeA This $ommunity-&ased intervention address ;I: prevention and $are needs o! the hi'h ris( and vulnera&le 'roups in rural areas &y providin' in!ormation on ;I:, $ondom promotion and distri&ution and re!errals to $ounselin', testin' and #TI servi$es throu'h Ein( %or(ers" In partnership %ith various development partners, the Ein( %or(er s$heme is operational in 10> distri$ts as o! Mar$h 201*, and rea$hes out to rural ;RGs and their partners and vulnera&le 'roups" The #$heme $overed a&out 1,0>,*DD ;RG, *0,01,4D* :ulnera&le 6opulation till Mar$h, 201*" ,early 12F ;RGs have &een tested at ICTC under this intervention" This has &een done &y esta&lishin' lin(a'es %ith e3istin' servi$es" In order to $reate a sense o! o%nership in the $ommunity and involve the youth in !i'htin' a'ainst ;I:, 12,B21 Red Ri&&on Clu&s and 10,4*1 In!ormation Centres had &een esta&lished at the villa'e level &y Mar$h, 201*" 2y the end o! @une, 201*, 1>* distri$ts $overed under Ein( <or(er #$heme, a'ainst the tar'et o! 1>* distri$ts"

III"

Management of Se<ually 0ransmitted infections *S0I,@Reproductive 0ract Infection *R0I, prevention and control Programme= 6rovision o! mana'ement o! #e3ually Transmitted In!e$tions -#TI. )Reprodu$tive Tra$t In!e$tions -RTI. servi$es is aimed at preventin' ;I: transmission under the ,4C6 III and Reprodu$tive and Child ;ealth -RC; II. pro'ramme o! the ,ational Rural ;ealth Mission -,R;M." =nhan$ed #yndromi$ Case Mana'ement, %ith minimal la&oratory tests, is the
100

$ornerstone o! #TI)RTI mana'ement under ,4C6 III" 6resently, ,4C8 is supportin' 1,114 desi'nated #TI)RTI $lini$s %hi$h are providin' #TI)RTI servi$es &ased on the enhan$ed syndromi$ $ase mana'ement" Durin' 2012-1*, >0"** la(h #TI)RTI patients mana'ed a'ainst the tar'et o! >4"2 la(h as per national proto$ol" Conver'en$e strate'y %ith ,ational Rural ;ealth Mission -,R;M. throu'h standardi/ed treatment proto$ols and $ommon operational 'uidelines has also &een developed" ,4C8 has stren'thened seven re'ional #TI trainin', re!eren$e and resear$h $entres to provide etiolo'i$ dia'nosis to the #TI)RTI $ases, validate syndromi$ dia'nosis, monitor dru' rXsistan$e to 'ono$o$$i and implement 7uality $ontrol !or #yphilis testin'" Durin' 201*-14 -till @une, 201*., 11"2 la(h patient mana'ed as per the national proto$ol a'ainst the tar'et o! >1 la(h" I5! Condom Promotion= ,4C8 has su$$ess!ully implemented !our phases o! the Condom #o$ial Mar(etin' 6ro'ramme in 10 #tates" 4round *D"2D $rores pie$es o! $ondom have &een distri&uted throu'h so$ial mar(etin' up to Mar$h, 201* &y ,4C8 $ontra$ted so$ial mar(etin' or'ani/ations a'ainst the tar'et o! *0 $rores pie$es !or 2012-1*" Durin' 2012-1*, ,4C8 has distri&uted 4>"1 $rores !ree $ondoms &y Mar$h, 201*, a'ainst the tar'et o! 44"4B $rore" Durin' 201*-14 -up to @uly, 201*., 11"0B $rores pie$es $ondom distri&uted a'ainst the tar'et o! *0 $rores under ,4C8 $ontra$ted so$ial mar(etin' or'ani/ations and 10"22 $rore a'ainst the tar'et o! *> $rore under !ee distri&ution $ondom" :" (lood Safety Programme= 4$$ess to sa!e &lood has &een ensured throu'h a net%or( o! around 1,111 &lood &an(s a$ross the $ountry, %hi$h in$ludes *4 Model &lood 2an(s, 1B0 2lood #eparation +nits, 1>B MaMor 2lood 2an(s and B42 Distri$t Eevel 2lood 2an(s" Durin' 2012-1*, ,4C8 supported &lood &an(s $olle$ted 04"1> la(h units o! &lood, o! %hi$h 14F %as !rom voluntary &lood donation" Durin' 201*-14 -till @uly,

10>

201*., 10"D1 la(h units &lood $olle$ted throu'h ,4C8 supported &lood &an(, o! %hi$h 1*F %as !rom voluntary &lood donation" :I" -I5 Counseling and 0esting Services= This pro'ramme o!!ers $ounselin' and testin' servi$es !or ;I: in!e$tion, %hi$h in$ludes three main $omponents K Inte'rated Counselin' and Testin' Centres -ICTC., 6revention o! 6arent to Child Transmission -66TCT. and ;I:-T2 $olla&orative a$tivities" ;I: Counselin' and testin' #ervi$es %ere rapidly s$aled up throu'h 4,001 standalone Inte'rated Counselin' and Testin' Centres and 1,*1D Ca$ility Inte'rated Counselin' and Testin' Centres in$ludin' those under 6u&li$ and 6rivate 6artnership model" 4 total o! 104"00 la(h 'eneral $lients and 12"D4 la(h pre'nant %omen %ere tested durin' 2012-1* -till Mar$h 201*." D4F o! ;I: positive pre'nant %omen and &a&ies %ere provided ,evirapine prophyla3is !or 6revention o! 6arent to Child Transmission o! ;I:" +nder the ;I:-T2 $oordination pro'ramme, around 1*"21 la(h $ross-re!errals %ere made &et%een ,4C6 and Revised ,ational Tu&er$ulosis Control 6ro'ramme durin' 2012-1*-up to Mar$h 2012-1*. Durin' 201*-14, total o! *1">> la(h 'eneral $lients and *0"22 la(h pre'nant %omen %ere tested, D>F o! ;I: positive pre'nant %omen and &a&ies %ere provided ,evirapine prophyla3is !or 6revention o! 6arent to Child Transmission o! ;I:, the ;I:-T2 $oordination pro'ramme, around 4"4* la(h $ross-re!errals %ere made durin' 201*-14 -till @uly 201*."

10B

:II"

CareD Support I 0reatment Programme= The Care, support and treatment pro'ramme under ,4C6 in$ludes $omprehensive

mana'ement o! 6E;I: %ith respe$t to treatment and prevention o! 8pportunisti$ in!e$tions, 4nti-retroviral therapy -4RT., psy$ho-so$ial support, home &ased $are, positive prevention and impa$t miti'ation"

The 4RT is o!!ered !ree o! $ost to all 6E;I: %ho are eli'i&le $lini$ally" 4ny person %ho has a $on!irmed ;I: in!e$tion is su&Me$ted to !urther evaluation !or determinin' %hether he re7uires 4RT or not &y under'oin' CD4 $ount and other &aseline investi'ations" 4ll those 6E;I: eli'i&le as per te$hni$al 'uidelines are initiated on !irst line 4RT" #ome o! these 6E;I: %ho develop resistan$e to !irst line 4RT are started on se$ond line 4RT"

In the late nineties 9 early 2000, the 4RT %as &eyond the rea$h o! most o! positive patients due to hi'h $ost -Rs" 20-*0,000 per month., %hi$h $ame do%n si'ni!i$antly due to produ$tion o! 'eneri$ 4R: du's &y Indian 6harma$euti$al $ompanies" Considerin' the need o! patients, the Govt" o! India started !ree 4RT pro'ramme laun$hed on 1st 4pril, 2004 in ei'ht 'overnment hospitals in si3 hi'h prevalen$e states" This has sin$e then &een s$aled up to 40B 4RT $entres a'ainst the tar'et to set up 420 su$h $entres &y @une 201*" 10D lin( 4RT $entres -E4C. %ere also set up to !a$ilitate the delivery o! 4RT nearer to residen$e o! 6E;I:" 4s o! @uly 201*, >"B> la(h $lini$ally eli'i&le patients are re$eivin' !ree 4RT in Government health !a$ilities" :III" +a>oratory Services2 Ea&oratory #ervi$es provide universal availa&ility and routine a$$ess to 7uality assured ;I: related la&oratory servi$es" The assuran$e o! 7uality in (it evaluation, assessment o! ;I: testin' servi$es throu'h implementation o! =3ternal Quality 4ssessment #$heme -=Q4#., CD4 testin', :iral load testin' and =arly In!ant Dia'nosis is &ein' addressed on a $ontinuous &asis" Thirteen ,ational Re!eren$e
101

Ea&oratories and 11B #tate-Re!eren$e Ea&oratories provide 7uality assuran$e !or ;I: testin' at all ICTCs under the pro'ramme" 4t present, 10 ,ational Re!eren$e Ea&oratories and 11 #tate Re!eren$e Ea&oratories are a$$redited" IR" %arly Infant Diagnosis of -I5A =arlier, dia'nosis o! ;I: in ne% &orn $hild %as possi&le only a!ter 11 months o! a'e leadin' to late start o! re7uired treatment and $are" To address this issue and promote early treatment, =arly In!ant Dia'nosis o! ;I: !or the $hildren &elo% 11 months has &een rolled out !rom 1st Mar$h 2010 at B>B ICTC s and 111 4RT $entres" This has &een e3panded $ountry%ide in a phased manner to 1,011 ICTC s and 21B 4RT $entres" 4s o! De$em&er 2012, a total o! *0,011 ;I: e3posed &a&ies o! less than 11 months o! a'e have &een tested under this pro'ramme" R" Information %ducation I Communication= ,4C8 s $ommuni$ation strate'y has moved !rom $reatin' 'eneral a%areness to 2ehaviour Chan'e Communi$ation" It aims to motivate &ehavioural $han'e amon' most at ris( populations, raise a%areness and ris( per$eption amon' 'eneral population, parti$ularly youth and %omen, 'enerate demand !or ;I:)4ID# related health servi$es li(e $ondoms, ICTC)66TCT !a$ilities? and $reate an ena&lin' environment that en$oura'es ;I: related prevention, $are and support a$tivities and to redu$e sti'ma and dis$rimination at individual, $ommunity and institutional levels" ,4C8 implements inte'rated and $omprehensive $ampai'ns usin' *>0Y $ommuni$ation approa$h" Re'ular $ampai'ns are $ondu$ted at national and state level usin' mass media, mid-media, outdoor, interpersonal $ommuni$ation, and innovative media vehi$les li(e di'ital $inema, panels in metro trains, di'ital s$reens, internet, and mo&ile phones amon' others"

10D

Red Ri>>on %<press *RR%, is the %orld s lar'est mass mo&ili/ation $ampai'n on ;I:)4ID#" It is a spe$ial e3hi&ition train %hi$h travels a$ross the $ountry disseminatin' the messa'es on ;I:)4ID# and 'eneral health in rural and remote areas o! the $ountry" 4lon' %ith the train spe$ial outrea$h pro'rammes are or'ani/ed in the villa'es throu'h I=C e3hi&ition vans and !ol( troupes" 0a>le :!4= Coverage during t'ree p'ases of Red Ri>>on %<press
&ctivity #tates rea$hed ;alt stations 6eople rea$hed dire$tly Distri$t Resour$e 6ersons trained 6eople tested !or ;I: General ;ealth Che$(ups #ervi$e not provided #ervi$e not provided *>,000 21,000 8ver seventy thousand 4&out ei'hty thousand RR% ?I 24 110 >2 la(h >1,000 RR%2II 22 02 10 la(h 11,000 RR% III 2* 1>2 1 $rore 14 la(h 8ver one la(h

FI!

Strategic Information Management= India has a ro&ust system o! annual ;I: #entinel #urveillan$e !or monitorin' the ;I: epidemi$ in the $ountry amon' 'eneral population as %ell as ;i'h Ris( Groups" 2esides epidemi$ trend analysis, data !rom surveillan$e is also used !or strate'i$ plannin' and prioritisation under the pro'ramme as %ell as estimation o! adult ;I: prevalen$e, ;I: in$iden$e and mortality" Glo&ally a$$epted models are used to estimate and proMe$t the ;I: &urden in the $ountry" ,4C8 is $urrently implementin' ,ational Inte'rated 2iolo'i$al 9 2ehavioural #urveillan$e amon' hi'h ris( 'roups and &rid'e population" 6ro'ramme 'enerates ri$h data on servi$e delivery throu'h over 10,000 reportin'
110

units a$ross the $ountry" #trate'i$ In!ormation Mana'ement #ystem -#IM#., a %e&-&ased system !or data mana'ement and analysis o! all pro'ramme data %as laun$hed in 4u'ust 2010 and is rolled out a$ross the $ountry" Resear$h in ;I:)4ID# is promoted and $oordinated &y ,4C8 in $olla&oration %ith the Indian Coun$il o! Medi$al Resear$h" 4n ela&orate 4nalysis 9 Resear$h 6lan is &ein' rolled out to !ill the $riti$al eviden$e 'aps in the pro'ramme" The J,et%or( o! Indian Institutions !or ;I:)4ID# Resear$h %as $onstituted to !a$ilitate and underta(e ;I:)4ID# resear$h? 42 reputed institutions are $urrently mem&ers o! this Consortium"

0arget := -ave 'alted >y 2013 and >egun to reverse t'e incidence of Malaria and ot'er ma.or diseases! Reducing malaria casesH! Malaria %as a maMor s$our'e in India $ontri&utin' B0 million $ases %ith a&out 0"1 million deaths annually, prior to the laun$hin' o! the ,ational Malaria Control 6ro'ramme -,MC6. in 1D0*" The %idespread DDT indoor residual spray -IR#. in the $ountry under the ,MC6 resulted in a sharp de$line in malaria $ases in all areas under spray and as a result the G8I $onverted the ,MC6 into the ,ational Malaria =radi$ation 6ro'ramme -,M=6. in 1D01" The ,M=6 %as initially a 'reat su$$ess %ith the malaria in$iden$e droppin' to a 0"1 million $ases and no deaths due to malaria reported in 1D>0" The resur'en$e o! malaria in the $ountry resulted in es$alation o! in$iden$e to >"4 million $ases in 1DB>" The resur'en$e %as attri&uted to various operational, administrative and te$hni$al reasons, in$ludin' emer'en$e o! dru' resistan$e in the parasites and inse$ti$ide resistan$e in the ve$tors" In 1DBB, the Modi!ied 6lan o! 8peration -M68. %as implemented %ith the immediate o&Me$tives o! preventin' deaths due to malaria and redu$in' mor&idity due to malaria" The national pro'ramme %as also inte'rated %ith the primary health $are delivery system" +nder the M68, IR# %as re$ommended in areas %ith 4nnual 6arasite In$iden$e -46I. Z 2 in addition to early dia'nosis and prompt treatment" The malaria in$iden$e de$lined to 1">> million $ases in 1D1B" The s$ar$e resour$es in many states,
111

ho%ever, allo%ed spray $overa'e in areas %ith 46I [ 0 only" 2y 1DD>, there %as another malaria upsur'e %ith *"0* million $ases and 2,10* deaths reported"

#in$e the !o$us shi!ted !rom eradi$ation to $ontrol, the pro'ramme %as renamed as ,ational 4nti-Malaria 6ro'ramme -,4M6. durin' year 1DDD" It is important to note that the Dire$torate responsi&le !or prevention and $ontrol o! malaria at $entral level %as also made responsi&le !or prevention and $ontrol o! !ilariasis, Iala-a/ar, @apanese =n$ephalitis, Den'ue and Chi(un'unya" <ith the $onver'en$e o! prevention and $ontrol o! other ve$tor &orne diseases, the Dire$torate o! ,4M6 %as renamed as Dire$torate o! ,ational :e$tor 2orne Disease Control 6ro'ramme -,:2DC6. in 200*" The ,:2DC6 is presently one o! the most $omprehensive and multi-!a$eted pu&li$ health pro'rammes in the $ountry" The ,:2DC6 &e$ame an inte'ral part o! the ,R;M laun$hed in 2000" The spe$ial !o$us o! the ,:2DC6 is on resour$e $hallen'ed settin's and vulnera&le 'roups" The in$iden$e o! malaria in the $ountry started haltin' and sustainin' reversal o! $ases !or last one de$ade" The malaria $ases %ere &rou'ht do%n !rom 2,0*1,BD0 $ases in 2000 to 1,11>,0>D $ases in 2000 and !urther &rou'ht do%n to 1,0>B,124 $ases in 2012" The Country is headin' to%ards a$hievin' tar'et o! 00F redu$tion in in$iden$e o! malaria $ases a'ainst the &aseline" The annual in$iden$e rate -$ases o! malaria)1000

population. o! Malaria has $ome do%n !rom 2"0B per thousand in 1DD0 to 1"10 per thousand in 2011, and to 0"11 $ases -provisional. per 1000 population in 2012" The malaria death rate in the $ountry %as 0"0D deaths per la(h population in 2000 %hi$h has $ome do%n to 0"04 deaths per la(h population in 2012"

The total positive $ases o! Malaria and deaths due to Malaria have sho%n de$linin' trend !rom 2011 and 2010 respe$tively" The indi$ators 4nnual 6arasite In$iden$e -46I. per 1000 population and Deaths due to Malaria are sho%in'

de$linin' trend in the re$ent past and the $hallen'e is to sustain that trend"

112

"ig :!4= Malaria situation in India


2"0

2"0D
2 1"0 1 0"0

0"11

4nnual 6arasite In$iden$e -per 1000 population. Deaths due to Malaria -per 100000 population.

0"0D
0

0"04

#our$eA M)o ;ealth and Camily <el!are

4s may &e seen the annual in$iden$e has &een $onstantly de$linin', %hi$h reveals that the in$reasin' trend o! malaria in$iden$e has already &een halted and &ein' reversed"
0a>le :!4= Malaria Status in t'e country 200022012 6ear 0otal Positive Cases of Malaria &nnual Parasite Incidence *per 1000 population, 2"0D 2"12 1"12 1"12 1"14 1">1 1">> 1"*D 1"*> 1"*> 1"*B 1"1 0"11 Deat's due to malaria Deat's due to Malaria *per 100000 population, D*2 1000 DB* 100> D4D D>* 1B0B 1*11 1000 1144 1011 B04 01D 0"0D 0"1 0"0D 0"1 0"0D 0"0D 0"1> 0"12 0"0D 0"0D 0"01 0"0> 0"04

2000 2001 2002 200* 2004 2000 200> 200B 2001 200D 2010 2011 2012

20*1BD0 2010414 114122D 11>D40* 1D10*>* 111>0>D 1B1012D 1001D2B 102>210 10>*0B4 10DDD1> 1*10>0> 10>B124

#our$eA M)o ;ealth and Camily <el!are

11*

M&+&RI& C#/0R#+ S0R&0%GI%S 1! %arly case Detection and Prompt 0reatment *%DP0,

=D6T is the main strate'y o! malaria $ontrol - radi$al treatment is ne$essary !or all the $ases o! malaria to prevent transmission o! malaria"

Chloro7uine is the main anti-malaria dru' !or un$ompli$ated malaria" Dru' Distri&ution Centres -DDCs. and Cever Treatment Depots -CTDs. have &een esta&lished in the rural areas !or providin' easy a$$ess to anti-malarial dru's to the $ommunity"

4lternative dru's !or $hloro7uine resistant malaria are re$ommended as per the dru' poli$y o! malaria"

2! 5ector Control *i, C'emical Control +se o! Indoor Residual #pray -IR#. %ith inse$ti$ides re$ommended under the pro'ramnme

+se o! $hemi$al larvi$ides li(e 4&ate in pota&le %ater 4erosol spa$e spray durin' day time Malathion !o''in' durin' out&rea(s

*ii, (iological Control


+se o! larvivorous !ish in ornamental tan(s, !ountains et$" +se o! &io$ides"

*iii, Personal Prop'ylatic Measures t'at individuals@communities can ta)e up


+se o! mos7uito repellent $reams, li7uids, $oils, mats et$" #$reenin' o! the houses %ith %ire mesh +se o! &ednets treated %ith inse$ti$ide <earin' $lothes that $over ma3imum sur!a$e area o! the &ody

4! Community Participation

#ensiti/in' and involvin' the $ommunity !or dete$tion o! 4nopheles &reedin' pla$es and their elimination

,G8 s$hemes involvin' them in pro'ramme strate'ies Colla&oration %ith CII)4##8C;4M)CICCI

114

3! %nvironmental Management I Source Reduction Met'ods


#our$e redu$tion i"e" !illin' o! the &reedin' pla$es 6roper $overin' o! stored %ater Channeli/ation o! &reedin' sour$e

8! Monitoring and %valuation of t'e Programme


Monthly Computeri/ed Mana'ement In!ormation #ystem-CMI#. Cield visits &y state &y #tate ,ational 6ro'ramme 8!!i$ers Cield visits &y Malaria Resear$h Centres and other ICMR Institutes Ceed&a$( to states on !ield o&servations !or $orre$tion a$tions"

C#/0R#+ #" M&+&RI& I/ 1R(&/ SI01&0I#/

Malaria in ur&an areas %as $onsidered to &e a mar'inal pro&lem restri$ted to me'a to%ns only and %as $onsidered that lo$al &odies are $apa&le o! handlin' it" There!ore, %hile laun$hin' the ,ational Malaria =radi$ation 6ro'ramme in 1D01, +r&an Malaria %as not in$luded" 2y 1DB0s, in$iden$e o! rural malaria $ame do%n drasti$ally i"e" 0"1 to 0"10 million $ases per year &ut the ur&an to%n reported risin' trend" Madho( Committee in 1DB0, investi'ated the pro&lem and assessed that 10 to 12F o! total $ases %ere $ontri&uted &y ur&an areas" The $ommittee re$ommended anti larval measures !or $ontainment o! ur&an malaria, &e$ause it %as !eared that proli!eration !rom ur&an to rural may spread and nulli!y the 'ains already made" The $ontrol o! malaria in the ur&an areas %as thou'ht o! an important strate'y as a pro'ramme $omplimentary to the ,:2DC6 !or rural areas" Modi!ied 6lan o! 8peration -M68. %as desi'ned and su&mitted to the Ca&inet to ta$(le the malaria situation in &oth ur&an and rural areas in the $ountry simultaneously" +nder M68, it %as de$ided to initiate anti-larval and anti-parasiti$ measures to a&ate the malaria transmission in ur&an areas" The proposal to $ontrol malaria in to%ns named as 1r>an Malaria Sc'eme %as approved durin' 1DB1 and it %as envisa'ed that 1*1 to%ns %ould &e $overed under the s$heme in a phased manner" This s$heme %as san$tioned durin' ,ovem&er, 1DB1 and the e3penditure on this s$heme is treated as

110

plan e3penditure in $entrally sponsored se$tor" The $entral assistan$e under this s$heme %as treated 100 per $ent 'rant to the #tate Governments in (ind"

4t present, +r&an Malaria #$heme is prote$tin' 1*0"* million population !rom malaria as %ell as !rom other mos7uito &orne diseases in 1*1 to%ns in 1D #tates and +nion Territory"

1R(&/ M&+&RI& SI01&0I#/ 4&out 10F o! the total $ases o! malaria are reported !rom ur&an areas" Ma3imum num&ers o! malaria $ases are reported !rom Chennai, :isha(apatnam, :adodara, Iol(ata, ,e% Mum&ai, :iMaya%ada et$" The $omparative epidemiolo'i$al pro!ile o! malaria durin' 2000-2010 in all ur&an to%ns o! the $ountry is as !ollo%sA

0a>le :!3= Comparative %pidemiological profile of malaria in 1; States under 1MS during 2003212
6ear 2000 200> 200B 2001 200D 2010 2011 2012 201*L Population 10242*0>4 100B12000 11244102B 11***40B* 114>DD100 11010D000 1*0*1>DB1 1*0*2D1*1 1*0**01*1 0otal cases 1*024D 12D0*1 10212D 11*110 1>>0>0 B4D01 142002 12400 DD41 P!f 14D00 1B2B1 110*1 11D>* *11*4 B01B 1*D10 121B >10 P!" A 11"02 1*"*4 1>"12 1*"42 11"B0 11"B0 D"B> D"DB >"1D SPR 2"** 2"0B 1"D2 1">> 2"D1 2"D1 2"0B 1"*4 0"0B S"R 0"2> 0"21 0"*2 0"22 0"0> 0"0> 0"20 0"1* 0"04 Deat's D> 140 120 102 21* *1 14B >1 0

L6rovisional upto May 201*, #our$eA Revised ,ational :e$tor 2orne Diseases Control 6ro'rame

Control Strategies under 1r>an Malaria Sc'eme +nder the s$heme, Malaria Control strate'y %ill $omprise o! -i. 6arasite $ontrol 9 -ii. :e$tor $ontrol i" Parasite control= Treatment is done throu'h passive a'en$ies vi/" hospitals, dispensaries &oth in private 9 pu&li$ se$tors and private pra$titioners" In

11>

me'a $ities malaria $lini$s are esta&lished &y ea$h health se$tor) malaria $ontrol a'en$ies vi/" Muni$ipal Corporations, Rail%ays, De!en$e servi$es

ii"

5ector control comprises of t'e follo ing components #our$e redu$tion +se o! larvi$ides +se o! larvivorous !ish #pa$e spray Minor en'ineerin' Ee'islative measure

The $ontrol o! ur&an malaria lies primarily in the implementation o! ur&an &yela%s to prevent mos7uito &reedin' in domesti$ and peri-domesti$ areas, or residential &lo$(s and 'overnment)$ommer$ial &uildin's, $onstru$tion sites" +se o! larvivorous !ish in the %ater &odies su$h as slo% movin' streams, la(es, ornamental ponds, et$" is also re$ommended" Earvi$ides are used !or %ater &odies, %hi$h are unsuita&le !or use o! larvivorous !ish" 4%areness $ampai'ns are also underta(en &y Muni$ipal 2odies)+r&an area authorities"

The $ontrol measures re$ommended under +M# are as &elo%A

Source reduction -Guidelines for Source Reduction. =nvironmental methods o! $ontrollin' mos7uito &reedin' in$ludin' sour$e redu$tion minor en'ineerin' %or(s, &y !illin' dit$hes, pits, lo% lyin' areas, streamlinin', $anali/in', desiltin', de%eedin', trimmin' o! drains, %ater disposal and sanitation, emptyin' %ater $ontainers on$e in a %ee( and o&servin' %ee(ly Dry Day et$" a" &nti2larval met'ods C'emical

Re$urrent anti-larval measures at ee)ly intervals %ith approved $hemi$al

11B

larvi$ides to $ontrol the ve$tor mos7uitoes are re$ommended" The !ollo%in' $hemi$al larvi$ides are used in the +r&an Malaria #$heme pro'rammeA

(iological Control -Guidelines for +arvivorous fis'.

In some ur&an areas larvivorous !ish li(e Gam&usia and Guppy are also used in $ertain situations %here the $hemi$al $ontrol is not !easi&le" 2iolo'i$al larvi$ide, 2a$illus thurin'iensisisraelensis either %etta&le po%der or a7ueous suspension are also used !or $ontrol o! a7uati$ sta'es o! ve$tor mos7uitoes"

1! &erosol Space Spray

#pa$e sprayin' o! pyrethrum e3tra$t -2F. in 00 houses in and around every malaria and den'ue positive $ases to (ill the in!e$tive mos7uitoes is re$ommended"

Com>ating 0( H!! Indicator= IncidenceD prevalence and Deat' rates associated it' 0(

Controllin' T2 in India is a tremendous $hallen'e" The T2 &urden in India is still sta''erin'" =very year, 1"1 million persons develop the disease, o! %hi$h a&out 100,000 are in!e$tious? and, until re$ently, *B0,000 died o! it annually \1,000 every day" The disease is a maMor &arrier to so$ial and e$onomi$ development" 4n estimated 100 million %or(days are lost due to illness" #o$iety and the $ountry also in$ur a hu'e $ost due to T2\nearly +#5 * &illion in indire$t $osts and +#5 *00 million in dire$t $osts"

The Revised ,ational Tu&er$ulosis Control 6ro'ramme -R,TC6., &ased on the D8T# -Dire$tly 8&served Treatment #hort $ourse. strate'y, &e'an as a pilot in 1DD* and %as laun$hed as a national pro'ramme in 1DDB" Rapid R,TC6 e3pansion &e'an in late 1DD1" 2y the end o! 2000, *0Fo! the $ountry s population %as $overed, and &y
111

the end o! 2002, 00Fo! the $ountry s population %as $overed under the R,TC6" 2y the end o! 200*, BB1 million population %as $overed, and at the end o! year 2004 the $overa'e rea$hed to DDB million" 2y De$em&er 2000, around DBF -a&out 1010 million. o! the population had &een $overed, and the entire $ountry %as $overed under D8T# &y 24th Mar$h 200>"

=very day in India, under the R,TC6, more than 10,000 suspe$ts are &ein' e3amined !or T2, !ree o! $har'e" The dia'nosis o! these patients and the !ollo%-up o! patients on treatment is a$hieved throu'h the e3amination o! more than 00,000 la&oratory spe$imens" 4s a result o! these e3aminations, ea$h day, a&out *,000 patients are started on treatment, stoppin' the spread o! T2 in the $ommunity" In order to a$hieve this, more than >00,000 health $are %or(ers have &een trained and more than 11,000 desi'nated la&oratory Mi$ros$opy Centres have &een up'raded and supplied %ith &ino$ular mi$ros$opes sin$e the in$eption o! the R,TC6" 4s a result o! rapid e3pansion in dia'nosti$ !a$ilities, the proportion o! sputum- positive $ases $on!irmed in the la&oratory are dou&le that o! the previous pro'ramme and is on par %ith international standards" Despite the rapid e3pansion, overall per!orman$e remains 'ood and in many areas is e3$ellent" Treatment su$$ess rates have tripled !rom 20Fin the earlier pro'ramme to 1>Fin R,TC6"

The <orld ;ealth 8r'anisation -<;8., in its latest report on tu&er$ulosis -T2. has said that India needs to speed up its $apa$ity !or dia'nosis and treatment o! patients, espe$ially those su!!erin' !rom multi-dru' resistant -MDR. tu&er$ulosis" In its re$ommendations to India, home to the %orldNs lar'est num&er o! T2 patients, in$ludin' those su!!erin' !rom Multi Dru' Resistant -MDR. T2 and total dru'-resistant -TDR. T2, the <;8 says that ]$ase noti!i$ations -o! T2. must &e improved &y !or'in' stron'er lin(a'es %ith the private health se$tor and en!or$in' reportin' o! dia'nosed $ases that is no% mandated &y la%]" 4s per the J<;8 Report 2012 Glo&al

11D

Tu&er$ulosis Control the prevalen$e14 rate o! T2 in India has $ome do%n !rom 4>0 per 100,000 population in 1DD0 to 24D in 2011 per 100, 000 population"

"ig!:!3= 0rend in incidence and Prevalence of 0( in India


000 400 400 *00 *00

4>0

24D
200 200 100 100 00 0 1DD0 1DD0 2000 2000 200D 2010 2011

In$iden$e -6er la(h population. 6revalen$e -6er la(h population .

21> 111

#our$eA M)o ;ealth and Camily <el!are

The Mortality due to T2 has redu$ed !rom *1 per la(h population in 1DD0 to 24 in 2011" 0a>le :!8= 0u>erculosis situation in India
6ear Incidence *Per la)' population, 1DD0 1DD0 2000 2000 200D 2010 2011 21> 21> 21> 20D 1D0 110 111 Prevalence *Per la)' population , 4>0 4>0 4*1 *>0 21D 2>D 24D
#our$eA M)o ;ealth and Camily <el!are

Mortality *Per +a)' Population, *1 *1 *D *> 2D 2B 24

14

Prevalence is a measurement of all individuals affected by the disease at a particular time, whereas incidence is a measurement of the number of new individuals who contract a disease during a particular period of time. 120

Indicator= Proportion of 0( cases detected and cured under D#0S =very patient %ho is $ured stops spreadin' T2, and every li!e saved is a $hild, mother, or !ather %ho %ill 'o on to live a lon'er, T2-!ree li!e" The strate'y o! D8T# is &ased lar'ely on resear$h done in India in the !ield o! T2 over the past *0 years" #in$e 1DDB, a!ter su$$ess!ul pilotin' D8T# has &een implemented in India as the Revised ,ational Tu&er$ulosis Control 6ro'ramme -R,TC6." In the R,TC6, the proportion o! T2 $ases %hi$h are $on!irmed in the la&oratory and the $ure rate are &oth more than dou&le that o! the previous pro'ramme" The operational !easi&ility o! D8T# in the Indian $onte3t has &een demonstrated, %ith 1 out o! 10 patients treated in the pro'ramme &ein' $ured, as $ompared %ith appro3imately * out o! 10 in the previous pro'ramme" Multidru' -resistant tu&er$ulosis -MDRT2. is a result and symptom o! poor mana'ement o! T2 patients" D8T# has &een sho%n to prevent the emer'en$e o! MDRT2 and to reverse the trend o! MDRT2 in $ommunities in %hi$h it has emer'ed" T2 is the most $ommon opportunisti$ in!e$tion amon' people livin' %ith ;I:" The Ministry o! ;ealth and Camily <el!are has reported that, the latest status o! treatment o! T2 under D8T# reveals that, the proportion o! T2 $ases dete$ted is B0F and $ured is 10F under D8T#" Initiatives to ards addressing t'e >urden of 0(H!!

Revised /ational 0u>erculosis Control Programme *R/0CP,

a. The pro'ramme is !o$usin' on the redu$tion in the de!ault rates amon'st all ne% and re-treatment $ases and is underta(in' steps !or the same" b. To improve a$$ess to tri&al and other mar'inali/ed 'roups the pro'ramme has developed a Tri&al a$tion plan %hi$h is &ein' implemented %ith the provision o! additional T2 +nits and DMCs in tri&al)di!!i$ult areas, additional sta!!, $ompensation !or transportation o! patient 9 attendant and hi'her rate o! salary to $ontra$tual sta!!" c. 4t present R,TC6 has esta&lished 2*20 partnerships %ith ,G8s and 1*DDB partnerships %ith private pra$titioners and private se$tor partners to $at$h
121

the patients outside the pu&li$ se$tor" In addition *10 medi$al $olle'es -in$ludin' private ones. have &een involved in R,TC6 &y the end o! Mar$h 201*" d. ;ealth !a$ilities in 'overnment se$tor outside ;ealth Ministry have &een involved vi/" =#I, Rail%ays, 6orts and the ministries o! Mines, #teel, $oal, et$" e. Intensi!ied 6u&li$ 6rivate Mi3 proMe$t is &ein' underta(en %ith Indian Medi$al 4sso$iation -IM4. in 1> states and %ith Catholi$ 2ishop Con!eren$e o! India -C2CI., a !aith &ased or'anisation -C28., in 1D #tates under the Glo&al Cund supported Rollin' Continuation Channel -RCC. 6roMe$t" f. +nder the Glo&al Cund Round D proMe$t $ivil so$iety or'ani/ations are underta(in' a$tivities in *B4 distri$ts a$ross 2* states to enhan$e the visi&ility and rea$h o! the pro'ramme and en'a'e %ith $ommunities and $ommunity &ased $are providers to improve T2 $are and $ontrol" 0( -I5 Coordination= To $om&at T2 in ;I: patients g. The T2-;I: $olla&orative a$tivities %hi$h %ere &ein' underta(en in 14 states in 200> %ere s$aled up to all the states in 200B" h. Durin' 2012, 02DB4D T2 suspe$ts %ere re!erred !rom ICTCs to R,TC6 and o! them DD00 %ere dia'nosed as havin' T2 and in the same period 440>* T2 patients %ere tested !or ;I: and o! them a&out B14* %ere dia'nosed as ;I: positive and o!!ered a$$ess to ;I: $are"

Programmatic Management of Drug Resistant 0( *PMD0, services=

The pro'ramme reali/es the need !or rapidly s$alin' up the 6MDT servi$es !or early dia'nosis and treatment o! the Dru' Resistant T2 patients" 2y 2010 these servi$es %ill &e made availa&le to all smear positive $ases re'istered under the pro'ramme early durin' treatment in$ludin' T2-;I: $ases" 6ro'ramme is in the pro$ess o! esta&lishin' a net%or( o! 4* a$$redited la&oratories a$ross the $ountry" These la&oratories %ill &e $apa&le o! per!ormin' $onventional -i"e" #olid Culture and D#T. and rapid dia'nosti$ tests -i"e" Ei7uid Culture 9 D#T and Mole$ular tests. !or
122

MDR T2" In addition the pro'ramme is also a$$reditin' and involvin' e3istin' la&oratories in Government Medi$al Colle'es as %ell la&oratories in the ,G8 and 6rivate #e$tor to supplement the la&oratory $apa$ity" The 6MDT servi$es have &een initiated in all *0 #tates)+Ts o! India %ith in some distri$ts" 4ll the distri$ts in the $ountry a$hieved $omplete 'eo'raphi$al $overa'e &y Mar$h 201* and move to%ards universal a$$ess to 7uality dia'nosis and treatment o! MDR T2 patient &y 'radually e3tendin' the opportunity to dia'nose early durin' the treatment o! T2" 4lso other ne%er rapid dia'nosti$ test, su$h as 4utomated ,u$lei$ a$id ampli!i$ation test -,44T., li(e Gene Rpert et$" are under $onsideration"

&dvocacy Communication and Social Mo>iliLation *&CSM,

4C#M is a priority a$tivity in the pro'ramme" The 4C#M a$tivities are in&uilt into the pro'ramme and are implemented intensively !rom the ,ational level to the most peripheral level till the $ommunity" R,TC6 has a %ell-$on$eived 4C#M strate'y in pla$e" There is a dedi$ated I=C Resour$e Center in the pro'ramme %e&site %ith relevant $ommuni$ation materials in various lan'ua'es !or lo$al use" R,TC6 has esta&lished its o%n &randin' o! D8T# %ith a lo'o %hi$h has &een %idely re$o'ni/ed" Curther provision o! dedi$ated human resour$es at #tate and distri$t levels !or 4C#M a$tivities has &een made in the pro'ramme"

4!8 0( /otificationA

T2 $ontinues to &e a maMor pu&li$ health pro&lem a$$ountin' !or su&stantial mor&idity and mortality in the $ountry" =arly dia'nosis and $omplete treatment o! T2 is the $orner-stone o! T2 prevention and $ontrol strate'y" Inappropriate dia'nosis and irre'ular)in$omplete treatment %ith anti-T2 dru's may $ontri&ute to $ompli$ations, disease spread and emer'en$e o! Dru' Resistant T2" In order to ensure proper T2 dia'nosis and $ase mana'ement, redu$e T2 transmission and address the pro&lems o! emer'en$e and spread o! Dru' Resistant-T2, it is essential to have $omplete in!ormation o! all T2 $ases" To%ards the same, a Government 8rder
12*

,o W-21010)2)2012-T2 dated Bth May 2012 has &een issued &y the Government o! India mandatin' all the health$are providers to noti!y every T2 $ase dia'nosed and)or treated to lo$al authorities i"e" Distri$t ;ealth 8!!i$er ) Chie! Medi$al 8!!i$er o! a distri$t and Muni$ipal health 8!!i$er o! a Muni$ipal Corporation ) Muni$ipality or to the ,odal 6u&li$ ;ealth 4uthority -!or this purpose. or o!!i$ials desi'nated &y the #tates)+Ts !or this purpose every month in a 'iven !ormat" Cor the purpose o! this noti!i$ation, health$are providers %ill in$lude $lini$al esta&lishments run or mana'ed &y the Government -in$ludin' lo$al authorities., private or ,G8 se$tors and)or individual pra$titioners"

0(2Dia>etes Mellitus colla>orative activities

4s a $onse7uen$e o! ur&ani/ation as %ell as so$io-e$onomi$ development, there has &een es$alatin' epidemi$ o! Dia&etes Mellitus -DM." 4vaila&le eviden$es and modelin' studies indi$ate that 10-20F o! all T2 in India also su!!er !rom DM and that dia&etes %orsens T2 treatment out$omes- in$reased death, !ailure and relapse rates" =pidemiolo'i$al models usin' 2000 data in India have sho%n that DM a$$ounts !or 20F o! smear-positive pulmonary T2 and studies indi$ates that the in$rease in DM prevalen$e in India has &een an important o&sta$le to redu$in' T2 in$iden$e in the $ountry"

In year 2011, <orld ;ealth 8r'ani/ation has released the Colla&orative !rame%or( !or $are and $ontrol o! tu&er$ulosis and dia&etes"H 8ne o! the important a$tivities o! the Colla&orative Crame%or( is the routine implementation o! &idire$tional s$reenin' o! the t%o diseases" India has adopted <;8 !rame%or( !or the $are and $ontrol o! Dia&etes and Tu&er$ulosis, %here in &idire$tional s$reenin' &et%een t%o diseases has &een %or(ed out %ithin the routine health servi$es"

The Central T2 Division too( the matter to Dire$tor General o! ;ealth #ervi$es -DG;#. o! Government o! India %ho advised ,on Communi$a&le Disease -,CD. pro'ramme ) ,ational 6ro'ramme !or 6revention and Control o! Can$er, Dia&etes,
124

Cardiovas$ular Diseases and #tro(e -,6CDC#., to issue appropriate dire$tives to all $on$erned authorities in 100 distri$ts presently under ,on $ommuni$a&le Disease -,CD. pro'ramme to in$orporate and prioriti/e the s$reenin' o! all T2 patients -all a'es." #u$h arran'ement %ill e3pand to additional 200 distri$ts in 2014 as per ,6CDC# pro'ramme e3pansion to other distri$ts in the $ountry"

Intensive and focused initiatives

it' added momentum are going on in IndiaD to

tac)le t'e >urden of diseases li)e -I5@ &IDSD Malaria and 0( and t'e efforts 'ave resulted in reversing t'e trend! Sustaining t'e ac'ievement of trend reversal is t'e present c'allenge >efore t'e Country and initiatives it' focus on vulnera>le

areas@ target population are >eing ta)en to overcome t'e c'allenge!

LLLL

120

C'apter ; PR#0%C0I/G 0-% %/5IR#/M%/0

Goal BA =nsure =nvironmental #ustaina&ility


0&RG%0 ;= Integrate t'e principle of sustaina>le development into country policies and programmes and reverse t'e loss of environmental resources! Indicators 6roportion o! land area $overed &y !orest Ratio o! area prote$ted to maintain &iolo'i$al diversity to sur!a$e area =ner'y use per unit o! GD6- Rupee. Car&on Dio3ide emission per $apita and $onsumption o! 8/one -depletin' Chloro!luoro Car&ons -8D6 tons. 6roportion o! the ;ouseholds usin' solid !uels

0&RG%0 10= -alveD >y 2013 t'e proportion of people it'out sustaina>le access to safe drin)ing ater and >asic sanitation Indicators 6roportion o! population %ith sustaina&le a$$ess to an improved %ater sour$e, ur&an and rural 6roportion o! population %ith a$$ess to improved sanitation, ur&an and rural

0&RG%0 11= (y 2020D to 'ave ac'ieved a significant improvement in t'e lives of at least 100 million slum d ellers Indicators #lum population as per$enta'e o! ur&an population

12>

Many o! the 'reatest $hallen'es to humanity in the !uture %ill relate to the e!!e$ts o! 'lo&al environmental $han'es K in $limate, ur&ani/ation, %ater availa&ility, and loss o! &iolo'i$al diversity" The J=nvironment $omprises all entities, natural or manmade, e3ternal to onesel!, and their interrelationships, %hi$h provide value, no% or perhaps in the !uture, to human(ind" =nvironmental $on$erns relate to their de'radation throu'h a$tions o! humans" #ustaina&ility o! !orest e$osystem is an essential $omponent o! the environmental $onservation e!!orts and any de'radation o! !orests %ill have an adverse impa$t on various systems su$h as %ater resour$es, a'ri$ulture, &iodiversity, environment, $limate and human health, &esides, the su&sisten$e livin' o! tri&al and other $ommunities livin' in and around !orest areas"

,atural resour$e depletion -%ater, mineral, !orest, sand, ro$(s et$"., environmental de'radation, loss o! &iodiversity and loss o! resilen$e in e$osystems et$ are the maMor environmental issues !a$ed &y India" The "orest Conservation &ct o! India, 1D10 %ith amendments in 1D11, provides !or $onservation o! !orests and matters $onne$ted %ith prote$tion o! trees !rom ille'al !ellin' and destru$tion" The ,ational =nvironment poli$y 200> has evolved !rom the re$o'nition that only su$h development is sustaina&le, %hi$h respe$ts e$olo'i$al $onstraints" India ena$ted a Corest Ri'hts 4$t, 200> to vest !orest ri'hts and titles on traditional !orest d%ellin' $ommunities" India s !orests have lon' &een an important part o! her $ulture and a de!inin' !eature o! her lands$ape" Indicator= Proportion of land area covered >y forest India re$o'ni/es that $onservin', e3pandin' and improvin' the 7uality o! our !orests is a maMor national priority" This has enormous domesti$ and 'lo&al &ene!its" ,ot only it is an e!!i$ient %ay to miti'ate the e!!e$ts o! $limate $han'e &ut it also improves India s %ater se$urity, sa!e'uards ri$h &iodiversity and provides livelihood se$urity !or millions o! people" 4s per 2011 assessment, the Country has a !orest $over o! >D202B (m2, %hi$h is 21"00F o! the Country s 'eo'raphi$al area" The !orest $over -revised. estimate !or 200D sho%s total !orest $over o! >D2*D4(m2%hi$h indi$ates a de$line o! *>B (m2 in 2011" The #tates %hi$h reported maMor de$line are
12B

4ndhra 6radesh -211 (m2., Manipur -1D0 (m2., and ,a'aland -14> (m2." Durin' 200D-11, Corest Cover in$reased more than 00 s7" (m" in 6unMa&, -100 s7"(m., @har(hand -1* s7"(m., Tamil ,adu --B4 s7"(m., 4andaman and ,i$o&ar Islands ->2 s7"(m. and RaMasthan -01 s7"(m."
0a>le ;!1= "orest Cover in India A of Geograp'ic &rea Class "orest Cover :ery dense !orest Moderately dense !orest 8pen Corest 0otal "orest Cover 2004 01210 **D2BD 21BB>D 89:444 &rea *sC!)m, 2009 1*010 *1D012 211*BB 8;0:;; 200; 1*421 *202*1 211B21 8;24;4 2011 1*4B1 *20B*> 21B120 8;2029 2004 1"0> 10"*2 1"B> 20!84 2009 2"04 D"B 1"BB 21!02 200; 2"04 D"B4 1"B1 21!08 2011 2"04 D"B> 1"B0 21!03

#our$eA #tate o! Corest Report 2011

4rea %ise, state o! Madhya 6radesh has the lar'est !orest $over -BB,B00 (m2. in the Country !ollo%ed &y 4runa$hal 6radesh ->B,410(m2., Chhattis'arh -00>B4(m2., Maharashtra -00>4> (m2. and 8disha -41D0* (m2." In terms o! per$enta'e o! !orest $over %ith respe$t to total 'eo'raphi$al area, Mi/oram %ith D0">1F has the hi'hest, !ollo%ed &y Ea(shadeep -14"0>F., 4ndaman 9 ,i$o&ar Islands -11"01F., 4runa$hal 6radesh -10"00F., ,a'aland -10"**F., Me'halaya -BB"02F. and Tripura -B>"0BF." &fforestation is progressingH In India nearly 200 million people are dependent on !orests !or livelihood" Con$erted pro'rammes are ma(in' them partners in $onservation o! !orests" ,ational 4!!orestation 6ro'ramme -,46. implemented &y M)o =nvironment and Corests is a 6arti$ipatory 4pproa$h to #ustaina&le Development o! Corests" The overall o&Me$tive o! the s$heme is to develop the !orest resour$es %ith people s parti$ipation, %ith !o$us on improvement in livelihoods o! the !orest-!rin'e $ommunities, espe$ially the poor" ,46 #$heme aims to support and a$$elerate the on'oin' pro$ess o! devolvin' !orest prote$tion, mana'ement and development !un$tions to de$entrali/ed institutions o! @oint Corest Mana'ement Committee -@CMC. at the villa'e level, and Corest Development 4'en$y -CD4. at the !orest division level"
121

Indicator= Ratio of area protected to maintain >iological diversity to surface area India is one o! the 1B me'a diverse $ountries %ith 4 'lo&al &iodiversity hotspots" Ratio o! area prote$ted to maintain &iolo'i$al diversity to sur!a$e area is the appropriate indi$ator to measure the $ountry s &io-diversity stren'th" The

net%or( o! prote$ted areas in India, presently $overs a&out 0"0>F o! the $ountry s total 'eo'raphi$ area" 4 net%or( o! >1D 6rote$ted 4reas -64s. has &een esta&lished -as on *1)12)1*., e3tendin' over 1,>>,*02">* s7" (ms $omprisin' 102 ,ational 6ar(s, 02> <ildli!e #an$tuaries, 0B Conservation Reserves and 4 Community Reserves -0"0>F o! total 'eo'raphi$al area." There is a positive $han'e in the net%or( o! prote$ted areas in the Country as in 2011, the net%or( in$luded >>1 6rote$ted 4reas -64s., e3tendin' over 1,>1,221"0B s7" (ms -4"D0F o! total 'eo'raphi$al area."
0a>le ;!2= Protected &reas of India ?as on 41@12@2014 /o! /ational Par)s */Ps, $ildlife Sanctuaries *$+Ss, Conservation Reserves *CRs, Community Reserves Protected &reas *P&s,
#our$eA M)o =nvironment and Corests

&rea 400B0 (m 2 1242*D (m 2 201B"D4(m 2 20">D (m 2 188432!84 )m


2

102 02> 0B 4 8:;

A of Geograp'ical &rea of India 1"22 F *"B1F 0"0> F 0"0 F 3!08 A

4lso, 41Ti'er Reserves and *2 =lephant Reserves have &een desi'nated !or spe$ies spe$i!i$ mana'ement o! ti'er and elephant ha&itats" /ational Mission for a Green India The ,ational Mission !or a Green India is one o! the ei'ht Missions under the ,ational 4$tion 6lan on Climate Chan'e -,46CC." The Green India Mission -GIM. re$o'ni/es that $limate $han'e phenomena %ill seriously a!!e$t and alter the distri&ution, type and 7uality o! natural resour$es o! the $ountry and the asso$iated livelihoods o! the people" GIM a$(no%led'es the in!luen$es that the !orestry se$tor has on environmental amelioration throu'h $limate miti'ation, !ood se$urity, %ater se$urity, &iodiversity $onservation and livelihood se$urity o! !orest dependent $ommunities" GIM puts the 'reenin'H in the $onte3t o! $limate $han'e adaptation and miti'ation, meant to enhan$e e$osystem servi$es li(e $ar&on se7uestration and stora'e -in !orests and other e$osystems., hydrolo'i$al servi$es and &iodiversity?
12D

alon' %ith provisionin' servi$es li(e !uel, !odder, small tim&er and ,TC6s" The GIM has the o&Me$tivesA ^ In$reased !orest)tree $over on 0m ha o! !orest)non-!orest lands and

improved 7uality o! !orest $over on another 0 m ha -a total o! 10 m ha. Improved e$osystem servi$es in$ludin' &iodiversity, hydrolo'i$al servi$es and

$ar&on se7uestration as a result o! treatment o! 10 m ha" ^ In$reased !orest-&ased livelihood in$ome !or * million !orest

dependent households ^ 2020" The Mission aims to respond to $limate $han'e &y a $om&ination o! adaptation and miti'ation measures, %hi$h %ould helpA ^ enhan$in' $ar&on sin(s in sustaina&ly mana'ed !orests and other =nhan$ed annual C82 se7uestration o! 00->0 million tones &y the year

e$osystems? ^ adaptation o! vulnera&le spe$ies) e$osystems to the $han'in'

$limate? and ^ adaptation o! !orest dependant lo$al $ommunities in the !a$e o!

$limati$ varia&ility" The $ountry is on tra$( in in$reasin' the prote$tion net%or( !or arrestin' the diversity losses and !or maintainin' e$olo'i$al &alan$e"

1*0

The +nited ,ations General 4ssem&ly has de$lared 2011 to 2020 as the +, De$ade on 2iodiversity -+,D2. %ith a vie% o! raisin' a%areness a&out the importan$e o! &iodiversity -or the variety o! li!e on earth., and a$hievin' the 20 headline tar'ets o! the ten year J#trate'i$ 6lan " The Ministry o! =nvironment and Corests and the Convention on 2iolo'i$al Diversity laun$hed the +nited ,ations De$ade on 2iodiversity -+,D2. -2011-2020. !or 4sia and the 6a$i!i$, on 2*rd May 2011"

R=DD -Redu$in' =missions !rom De!orestation and Corest De'radation. is the 'lo&al endeavour to $reate an in$entive !or developin' $ountries to prote$t, &etter mana'e and save their !orest resour$es, thus $ontri&utin' to the 'lo&al !i'ht a'ainst $limate $han'e" R=DDV 'oes &eyond merely $he$(in' de!orestation and !orest

de'radation, and in$ludes in$entives !or positive elements o! $onservation, sustaina&le mana'ement o! !orests and enhan$ement o! !orest $ar&on sto$(s" R=DDV $on$eptuali/es !lo% o! positive in$entives !or demonstrated redu$tion in de!orestation or !or enhan$in' 7uality and e3panse o! !orest $over" It %or(s on the &asis o! $reatin' a !inan$ial value !or the $ar&on stored and enhan$ed in &iomass and soil o! standin' !orests" Countries that redu$e emissions and underta(e sustaina&le mana'ement o! !orests %ill &e entitled to re$eive !unds and resour$es as in$entives" India is playin' a positive role throu'h its R=DDV initiatives and has ta(en a !irm stan$e in !avour o! a $omprehensive R=DDV approa$h" It has presented an am&itious Green India Mission 6ro'ramme under its ,ational 4$tion 6lan on Climate Chan'e"

Indicator= %nergy use per unit of GDP *Rupee, 6er-$apita =ner'y Consumption -6=C. durin' a year is $omputed as the ratio o! the estimate o! total ener'y $onsumption durin' the year to the estimated midyear population o! that year" =ner'y Intensity is de!ined as the amount o! ener'y $onsumed !or 'eneratin' one unit o! Gross Domesti$ 6rodu$t -at $onstant pri$es." 6=C and =ner'y intensity are the most used poli$y indi$ators, &oth at national and international levels" In the a&sen$e o! data on $onsumption o! non-$onventional ener'y !rom various sour$es, parti$ularly in rural areas in the developin' $ountries,

1*1

in$ludin' India, these t%o indi$ators are 'enerally $omputed on the &asis o! $onsumption o! $onventional ener'y"

In India, the $onsumption o! ener'y in petaMoules10 %as in the !orm o! ele$tri$ity %hi$h a$$ounted !or a&out 0B"0BF o! the total $onsumption durin' 201112" Coal and Ei'nite %ere se$ond -1D"D1F., %hile Crude 6etroleum -11"B0F. %as third" The total $onsumption o! ener'y !rom $onventional sour$es in$reased !rom 44,441 petaMoules durin' 2010-11 to 4B,2>4 petaMoules durin' 2011-12, sho%in' an in$rease o! >"**F" The 6er-$apita =ner'y Consumption -6=C. -the ratio o! the estimate o! total ener'y $onsumption durin' the year to the estimated mid-year population o! that year. in$reased !rom 22*2"0 I<h in 1DD0-D1 to >,200"20 I<h in 2011-12" The annual in$rease in 6=C !rom 2010-11 to 2011-12 %as B"1DF" The =ner'y Intensity -amount o! ener'y $onsumed !or 'eneratin' one unit o! Gross Domesti$ 6rodu$t, at 1DDD-2000 pri$es. has sho%n a mi3ed trend durin' 1DD0-2012, %hile sho%in' an overall de$line !rom 0"10D4 I<h in 1DD0-D1 to 0"140 I<h-at 2004-00 pri$es. in 2011-12"

0a>le ;!4= 0rends in Per Capita %nergy Consumption and %nergy Intensity in India -I<h.
Per Capita %nergy Consumption*E $-, %nergy Intensity *E$-, per rupeeN

6ear

1DD0-D1 1DD0-D> 2000-01 2000-0> 200>-0B 200B-01 2001-0DLL 200D-10 2010-11 2011-12 -p.
Gro t' rate of 2011212 over 2010211 *A,

22*2"00 20D*"01 *04B"11 *4DB"0D *B2B"24 4401"0D 414>"24 02B>"01 0B1D"0* >200"20
9!1;

0"10D4 0"10D* 0"100* 0"1*B4 0"1*00 0"1001 0"1*00 0"1*1D 0"140* 0"140*
4!38

T =ner'y intensity U4mount o! ener'y $onsumed !or produ$in' one unit o! GD6, LLtill 2001-0D GD6 estimates are %ith 1DDD2000 pri$es and !rom 2001-0D %ith 2004-00 pri$es" #our$e A =ner'y #tatisti$s 201*"

10

1 peteMoule U 10 @oules
1*2

10

The trends sho%n in 6er Capita ener'y $onsumption and =ner'y intensity durin' 1DD0 to 2012 are presented &elo%" "ig ;!1=Per Capita %nergy Consumption*E$-,
B000 >000 0000 4000 *000 2000 1000 0

>200"2 0

22*2"0

0"1>0 0"1> 0"100 0"10 0"140 0"14 0"1*0 0"1* 0"120 0"12

"ig ;!2=%nergy Intensity *E$-, per rupee 0"10D4


0"1001 0"140*

0"1*00 0"1*00

Indicator= Car>on Dio<ide emission per capita and consumption of #Lone 2depleting C'lorofluoro Car>ons * #DP tons, Car&on dio3ide -C82. is the primary 'reenhouse 'as emitted throu'h human a$tivities" ;uman a$tivities are alterin' the $ar&on $y$le\&oth &y addin' more C82 to the atmosphere and &y in!luen$in' the a&ility o! natural sin(s, li(e !orests, to remove C82 !rom the atmosphere" <hile C82 emissions $ome !rom a variety o! natural sour$es, human-related emissions are responsi&le !or the in$rease that has o$$urred in the atmosphere sin$e the industrial revolution" 4s per the Iey <orld =ner'y #tatisti$s 201*, &y International =ner'y 4'en$y, the per $apita C82 emission -MT. o! India is 1"41 -MT. %hereas the $orrespondin' estimate !or %orld and 4sia are respe$tively 4"0 -MT. and 1"01 -MT." In India, the per $apita C82 emission -MT. in$reased steadily durin' 1DD0 to 201*"
"ig ;!4= Per Capita C#2 emission *M0, India
1"0 1"21 1 0">D 0"0 0 1DD0 1DD0 2000 2000 200B 2001 200D 201* 0"D> 0"1* 1"0> 1"2> 1"*B 1"41

#our$eA International =ner'y 4'en$y 1**

In 201*, the estimated C82 emission -Million Tonnes. !or India is 1B40"0>" The Car&on dio3ide emission sho%ed a per$enta'e in$rease o! 1DD">1F in 201* over 1DD0 !or India %hereas the $orrespondin' in$rease !or the <orld %as 4D"4DF" Durin' 200D to 201*, the per$enta'e in$rease in C82 emission %as 10F !or India and 1F !or the %orld"
0a>le ;!4= C'ange in Car>on Dio<ide emissions
1;;0 1;;3 2000 2003 2009 200: 200; 2014 Car>on dio<ide emissions Million tonnes *Sectoral approac', 2 India 3:2!4 998!8 Car>on dio<ide emissions Million tonnes *Sectoral approac', 2$orld 20;88 219;2 #our$eAInternational =ner'y 4'en$y

;92!3

1180

1439

1441

13:3!:

1943!08

244;4

291::

2;04:

2;434

2:;;;!4

41442

Protecting #Lone +ayerH! India &e$ame 6arty to the :ienna Convention !or the 6rote$tion o! the 8/one Eayer on 11th Mar$h, 1DD1 and the Montreal 6roto$ol on #u&stan$es that Deplete the 8/one Eayer on 1Dth @une,1DD2" India %as mainly produ$in' and usin' nine o! the D> su&stan$es $ontrolled under the Montreal 6roto$ol" These are CCC-11, CCC-12, CCC-11*, ;CCC-22 halon-1211, halon-1*01, CTC, Methyl Chloro!orm and Methyl 2romide" India had prepared a detailed Country 6ro'ramme -C6. in 1DD* to phase-out 8D# in a$$ordan$e %ith its ,ational Industrial Development #trate'y" The o&Me$tives o! the C6 %ere to phase-out 8D#s &y a$$essin' the 6roto$olNs Cinan$ial Me$hanism %ithout undue e$onomi$ &urden to &oth $onsumers and industry manu!a$turin' various types o! e7uipments usin' 8D#s" The other o&Me$tives o! the C6 %ere minimisation o! e$onomi$ dislo$ation as a result o! $onversion to non-8D# te$hnolo'ies, ma3imisation o! indi'enous produ$tion, pre!eren$e to one time repla$ement, emphasis on de$entrali/ed mana'ement and minimisation o! o&soles$en$e" India has phased out produ$tion and $onsumption o! CCCs, CTC and halons e3$ept use o! pharma$euti$al 'rade CCCs in manu!a$turin' o! Metered Dose
1*4

Inhalers -MDIs. !or 4sthma and Chroni$ 8&stru$tive 6ulmonary Diseases -C86D. patients"

In a$$ordan$e %ith the ,ational #trate'y !or 8D# phase-out, the Ministry o! =nvironment and Corests, Government o! India, has noti!ied Rules $overin' various aspe$ts o! produ$tion, sale, $onsumption, e3port and import o! 8D#" In 200B, $onsumption o! CCC is estimated at DD1 8D6 tones, do%n !rom 0>14 8D6 tones in 2000"
"ig ;!4= Consumption of C"Cs #DP tonne
1000 B000 >000 0000 4000 *000 2000 1000 0 1DD2 1DD* 1DD4 1DD0 1DD> 1DDB 1DD1 2000 2001 200* 200B DD1"0 2>01 4001 02BB >*1B >402 >D*B >B0* 02>0 0>14 4014

#our$eA 8/one Cell, M)o =nvironment and Corests

Indicator= Proportion of t'e -ouse'olds using solid fuels 4s per Census 2011, >B"*F households are usin' solid !uels -!ire %ood ) $rop residue, $o% dun' $a(e) $o(e et$. !or $oo(in' a'ainst B4"*F in 2001" Cire%ood is &ein' used as !uel in maMority o! the households -4DF in 2011 and 02"0F in 2001." In
1*0

2011, solid !uel is used !or $oo(in' in 1BF households %hereas the status in ur&an areas is 2>F" There is an in$rease o! 11 points in the use o! E6G) 6,G as $oo(in' !uel" Sustaina>le access to improved drin)ing ater and improving sanitation facilities Indicator= Proportion of population it' sustaina>le access to an improved ater sourceD ur>an and rural The study o! the drin(in' %ater !a$ility re7uires analysin' the a$$ess to di!!erent sour$es o! drin(in' %ater and su!!i$ien$y o! drin(in' %ater" The a$$essi&ility o! drin(in' %ater at household level has other aspe$t li(e the distan$es travelled &y mem&ers o! a household to rea$h the sour$e o! drin(in' %ater" The 7uality o! drin(in' %ater is also a very important $omponent in maintainin' 'ood health o! the population" Many households attempt to improve the 7uality o! %ater they drin( &y adoptin' various methods !or treatin' the %ater &e!ore drin(in'"

In ,## >Dth round -@uly- De$ 2012., the improved sour$e o! drin(in' %ater in$ludeA J&ottled %ater , Jpiped %ater into d%ellin' , Jpiped %ater to yard)plot , Jpu&li$ tap)standpipe , Jtu&e %ell)&orehole , Jprote$ted %ell , Jprote$ted sprin' , and Jrain%ater $olle$tion " Durin' 2012, in rural India, 11"0F households had improved sour$e o! drin(in' %ater %hile in ur&an India D0"*F households had improved sour$e o! drin(in' %ater" The ,## 2012 also sho%s that %hile in rural Ierala only 2D"0 F o! households 'ot drin(in' %ater !rom Jimproved sour$es , the proportion %as 10F or
1*>

more !or most o! the other &i''er states e3$ept @har(hand ->4"4F." 8n the other hand, in the ur&an areas o! most o! the &i''er states, more than D0Fo! households 'ot drin(in' %ater !rom Jimproved sour$es %ith the nota&le e3$eption o! Ierala -0>"1 per$ent." This $an &e attri&uted to the !a$t o! Jun$overed %ells &ein' the maMor sour$e o! drin(in' %ater in &oth rural -00"0F. and ur&an -4*"DF. areas in Ierala as revealed &y Census 2011" The Census provides details o! sour$es o! drin(in' %ater a$$essed &y the households" In 2011, in rural India, ;and 6ump) Tu&e %ell -01"DF. is the main sour$e o! drin(in' %ater !ollo%ed &y Tap -*0"1F." In ur&an India Tap %ater -B0">F. is the maMor sour$e !ollo%ed &y ;and 6ump) Tu&e %ell -20"1F." 0a>le ;!3= Sources of Drin)ing $ater *A, ? Census
0ap $ell -and Pump@ 0u>e ell 2011 Rural India +r&an India 4ll India *0"1 B0"> 4*"0 2001 24"* >1"B *>"B 2011 1*"* >"2 11 2001 22"2 B"B 11"2 2011 01"D 20"1 42 2001 41"D 21"4 41"2 #t'er sources 2011 4"0 2"0 *"0 2001 4"0 2"* *"D

The prevailin' trend over time, su''ests attaina&ility o! nearly $ent per$ent $overa'e &y 2010, in$ludin' &oth rural and ur&an se$tors" In other %ords, halvin' the

proportion o! households %ithout a$$ess to sa!e drin(in' %ater sour$es !rom its 1DD0 level to &e rea$hed &y 2010, has already a$hieved in &oth rural and ur&an areas"
"ig ;!3= Percentage of 'ouse'olds it' access to improved source of drin)ing ater
120 100 10 >0

1B"12

D0"*
11"0

DB"0 D*"0>
BD"4B Rural ;istori$al trend Rural Ei(ely a$hievement 2010 Rural Tar'et 2010 +r&an ;istori$al trend +r&an Ei(ely a$hievement 2010 +r&an Tar'et 2010 D>"*

01"D4
40 20 0 1DD0 est #our$eA ,C;#, DE;#, ,## 1DD* 1DDD 2004 200> 2012

2010

1*B

The 7uality o! drin(in' %ater, su!!i$ien$y o! drin(in' %ater and availa&ility %ithin premises o! households et$ are important related $on$erns" The ,## 2012 had as$ertained the sele$ted households per$eption on the 7uality o! drin(in' %ater they re$eived !rom the prin$ipal sour$e" It %as as$ertained %hether the %ater %as J&ad in taste , J&ad in smell , J&ad in taste and smell , J&ad due to other reasons or had Jno de!e$t " The proportion o! households reportin' Jno de!e$t o! drin(in' %ater !rom respe$tive prin$ipal sour$e $an &e interpreted as the proportion o! households that %ere satis!ied %ith the 7uality o! the drin(in' %ater they 'ot" The result sho%s that 1B"B per$ent and 11"1 per$ent households in rural India and ur&an India respe$tively %ere 'ettin' 'ood 7uality o! drin(in' %ater" In rural areas o! most o! the &i''er states, more than B0 per$ent o! households 'ot J'ood 7uality o! drin(in' %ater e3$ept in 4ssam -01"0 per$ent." #imilarly in ur&an areas o! most o! the &i''er states more than B0 per$ent o! households 'ot J'ood 7uality o! drin(in' %ater e3$ept in 4ssam ->*"1 per$ent. and @ammu and Iashmir ->0"> per$ent."

The availa&ility o! drin(in' %ater !a$ility %ithin premises o! the households is an indi$ator o! the &urden o! the households to a$$ess the drin(in' %ater" Census 2011 revealed that, at all India level, 4>">Fhouseholds has drin(in' %ater !a$ility %ithin premises o! the households sho%in' an improvement over *DF in 2001" ,## 2012, reveals that, in rural areas 4>"1F households and in ur&an areas B>"1F households have drin(in' %ater !a$ility %ithin premises o! the households"

"ig ;!8= Drin)ing ater facility it'in primises of 'ouse'olds


D0 10 B0 >0 00 40 *0 20 10 0 B>"1 B1"2 >0"4 2012 *0 21"B 2011 2001

4>"> *D

4>"1

Total

Rural

+r&an

Source: Census 2011, 2001, NSS- 2012

1*1

Curther, durin' 2012, 10"1F households in rural India had su!!i$ient1> drin(in' %ater, the !i'ure &ein' 1D"> F in ur&an India" 4mon' rural areas o! &i''er states, +ttar 6radesh had the hi'hest -DB"1F. and @har(hand, the lo%est -B0"*F. proportion o! households havin' su!!i$ient drin(in' %ater" #imilarly amon' ur&an areas o! &i''er states, +ttar 6radesh had the hi'hest -D>">F. and Madhya 6radesh, the lo%est -B>"2F. proportion o! households havin' su!!i$ient drin(in' %ater"

The sanitation !a$ility availa&le to the households is havin' a hu'e impa$t on the livin' $onditions and it is $losely related to the health and hy'iene o! the mem&ers o! households" In <orld ;ealth 8r'ani/ation and +nited ,ations Children s Cund s Glo&al <ater #upply and #anitation 4ssessment 2000 Report, sanitation %as de!ined to in$lude $onne$tion to a se%er or septi$ tan( system, pour-!lush latrine, simple pit or ventilated improved pit latrine, %ith allo%an$e !or a$$epta&le lo$al te$hnolo'ies" The ,## 2012 sho%s that 0D"4 per$ent and 1"1 per$ent households in rural India and ur&an India respe$tively had no latrine !a$ilities" 4$ross rural areas o! &i''er states, it is o&served that durin' 2012, @har(hand had the hi'hest -D0"0 F. proportion o! households that had no latrine !a$ilities, mu$h hi'her than the all India proportion -0D"4 per$ent." 8ther states amon' the &i''er states %here the estimated proportion amon' the rural households %as hi'her than the $orrespondin' all India !i'ure in$lude Tamil ,adu->>"4F., Iarnata(a -B0"1F., 2ihar -B2"1F., RaMasthan -B*"0F., +ttar 6radesh -B0"*F., Chhattis'arh -B>"BF., Madhya 6radesh -BD"0F. and 8disha -11"*F." The same pattern is also o&served in ur&an areas o! these states"

The ,## 2012 revealed 0D"4 per$ent and 1"1 per$ent households in rural India and ur&an India respe$tively had no latrine !a$ilities" This has rea!!irmed the $ensus 2011 results that, more than 00F o! the households o! the Country are not havin' latrine !a$ility, thou'h an improvement o! 10 per$enta'e points $ompared to the $orrespondin' per$enta'e re$orded durin' the last de$ade" In 2011, the per$enta'e o! households %ith no latrine redu$ed to 0*"1F !rom >*">F in 2001" Census 2011

The availa&ility o! drin(in' %ater !rom the prin$ipal sour$e %as ta(en as su!!i$ient throu'hout the year i!, in ea$h o! the $alendar months o! the year, availa&ility o! drin(in' %ater %as su!!i$ient" 1*D

1>

revealed that, in rural areas >D"*F households are not havin' latrine !a$ility, %hereas in ur&an areas the $orrespondin' !i'ure is 11">F in 2011"
"ig ;!9= Percentage of 'ouse'olds it' no latrine
D0 10 B0 >0 00 40 *0 20 10 0 1"1 2>"* 11"> 0D"4 0*"1 Total Rural +r&an >D"* >*"> B1"1

2012
Source: Census 2011, 2001, NSS- 2012

2011

2001

To%ards ensurin' the &asi$ sanitation o! latrine !a$ility in households, %hile in ur&an areas, the 2010 tar'et is li(ely to &e met, the pro'ress is 7uite la''in' in rural areas"
"ig ;!:= Percentage of -ouse'olds it'out latrine facility
100"00 D0"00 10"00 B0"00 >0"00 00"00 40"00 *0"00 20"00 10"00 0"00 1B"10
Rural ;istori$al path Rural Ei(ely a$hievement 2010 Rural Tar'et 2010 4>">4 +r&an ;istori$al path

>1"11
0D"40

24"10
10"14 1"10

12"14

+r&an Ei(ely a$hievement 2010 +r&an Tar'et 2010

1DD* 1DDD 2004 200> 2001 2011 2012 2010

#our$eA ,C;#, DE;#, Census, ,##

4nother important aspe$t o! the sanitation !a$ility is %hether the households have a$$ess to Jimproved sour$e o! latrine " In ,## 2012, Jimproved sour$e o! latrine in$ludes sour$es su$h as J!lush)pour-!lush toA piped se%er system)septi$ tan()pit latrine , Jventilated improved pit latrine , Jpit latrine %ith sla& and J$ompositin' toilet " It has &een o&served that durin' 2012, *1"1F and 1D">F households in rural and ur&an India respe$tively had a$$ess to Jimproved sour$e o! latrine" 4$ross rural areas o! &i''er states, it has &een o&served that durin' 2012, Ierala had the hi'hest
140

-D>"DF. and @har(hand, the lo%est -1"DF. proportion o! households havin' a$$ess to Jimproved sour$e o! latrine" In ur&an areas o! ea$h o! the &i''er states, more than B0F o! households had a$$ess to Jimproved sour$e o! latrine and it %as hi'hest -D1"1F. in Ierala and lo%est -B4"DF. in Chhattis'arh"

Improving t'e lives in slumsH!

Indicator= Slum population as percentage of ur>an population The Millennium Development Goal B also aims at improvin' the livin' $ondition o! slum d%ellers" In India Census, and ,ational #ample #urvey are t%o sour$es %hi$h report slum data at national level" ;o%ever, the de!inition is not the same in &oth the data sour$es as sho%n &elo%"
0a>le ;!8= Definition of Slum Census 2011 /SS 2012 4ll noti!ied areas in a to%n or $ity 4reas noti!ied as slums &y the noti!ied as J#lum &y #tate, +T $on$erned muni$ipalities, administration or lo$al $orporations, lo$al &odies or 'overnment under any a$t development authorities %ere in$ludin' a J#lum 4$t may &e termed Jnoti!ied slums " $onsidered as Jnoti!ied slums " 4lso, any $ompa$t settlement %ith a 4ll areas re$o'nised as J#lum &y $olle$tion o! poorly &uilt tenements, #tate, +T administration or lo$al mostly o! temporary nature, 'overnment, ;ousin' and #lum $ro%ded to'ether, usually %ith 2oards, %hi$h may not have &een inade7uate sanitary and drin(in' !ormally noti!ied as slum under %ater !a$ilities in unhy'ieni$ any a$t may &e $onsidered as $onditions, %as $onsidered a slum &y Jre$o'nised slums " the survey, provided at least 20 households lived there" #u$h a 4 $ompa$t area o! at least *00 settlement, i! not a notified slum, population or a&out >0-B0 %as $alled a non-notified slum" -,ote households o! poorly &uilt that %hile a non-notified slum had to $on'ested tenements, in $onsist o! at least 20 households, no unhy'ieni$ environment, usually su$h restri$tion %as imposed in $ase %ith inade7uate in!rastru$ture o! notified slums". and la$(in' in proper sanitary and drin(in' %ater !a$ilities" #u$h #lumsA The %ord slumH $overed areas should &e identi!ied &y the &oth notified slums and non-notified Char'e 8!!i$er and also inspe$ted slums &y an 8!!i$er nominated &y Dire$torate o! Census operations" #u$h areas may &e $onsidered as Jidenti!ied slums "

141

4s per Census 2011, total num&er o! to%ns reported is 2>1*, sho%in' an in$rease !rom 1B4* in 2001" "ig ;!;= State S'are of slum population to total slum population of India ? Census

4s per ,## 2012, at all-India level, only 10"1 per$ent o! ur&an d%ellin' units %ere situated in slum" ;o%ever, Census 2011 reported that 1B"2F o! ur&an households are lo$ated in slums" Census re$orded a *B"14F de$adal 'ro%th in the num&er o! slum households"
0a>le ;!9= Slum 'ouse'olds *Census, Decadal 2001 2011 gro t' 10100B1D 1*D201D1 *B"14 4*00>100 >2BD2B41 001*20B0 10111B>> 44"1B 44"11
142

#lum households +r&an households -slum reported to%ns. +r&an all to%ns
#our$eA Census 2011, 8)o Re'istrar General o! India

Census !urther reveals that in 2011, 1B"*>F o! the ur&an population lives in slums"

0a>le ;!:= Slum Population *Census, 2001 02*B101D Decadal 2011 gro t' >04D4>04 20"0> *0"1 *1"1

#lum households +r&an households -slum reported to%ns. +r&an all to%ns
#our$eA Census 2011, 8)o Re'istrar General o! India

22*111101 2D11*1124 21>11D>1D *BB10>120

The ,## 2012, presents the livin' $onditions o! the households in the slums &y $onsiderin' the type o! the stru$ture, sour$e o! drin(in' %ater, sanitation, road et$"
"ig ;!10= "acilities in Slums *A,
D0 10 B0 >0 00 40 *0 20 10 0 B1"4 0D"> 0>"D BB"1 >B"> >>"1 40"> *1"* 14"B >"0 *"> *0"D 1> 2>"1 1>"4 *1"> 2012 2001-0D

%ith maMority tap %ater as no ele$tri$ity pu$$a road o! houses havin' pu$$a stru$ture maMor sour$e %ithin slum

no latrine !a$ility

no draina'e no 'ar&a'e !a$ility disposal

approa$h road usually

arran'ement remains%ater lo''ed due to rain!all

#our$eA ,## 2012

Thou'h, the per$enta'e o! slums %ith maMority o! houses havin' pu$$a stru$ture has improved durin' 2001-12, in the areas o! a$$ess to ele$tri$ity, pu$$a road, tap %ater, sanitation !a$ility et$, the situation has deteriorated, %hi$h may &e attri&uted to the si'ni!i$ant de$adal 'ro%th o! households as %ell as population in slums"

"ocussed initiatives to ensure >asic living facilitiesH! /ational Rural Drin)ing $ater Programme 6rovision o! sa!e drin(in' %ater is a &asi$ ne$essity" <ater is a #tate su&Me$t and rural %ater supply has &een in$luded in the =leventh #$hedule o! the

14*

Constitution amon' the su&Me$ts that may &e entrusted to 6an$hayats &y the #tates" Considerin' the ma'nitude o! the pro&lem, the Central Government has &een supplementin' the e!!orts o! the #tate Governments throu'h the $entrally sponsored 4$$elerated Rural <ater #upply 6ro'ramme -4R<#6. sin$e 1DB2KB*" The =leventh 6lan identi!ied the maMor issues that need ta$(lin' durin' this period as the pro&lem o! sustaina&ility, %ater availa&ility and supply, poor %ater 7uality, $entrali/ed vs" de$entrali/ed approa$hes and !inan$in' o! 89M $ost %hile ensurin' e7uity in re'ard to 'ender, so$ially and e$onomi$ally %ea(er se$tions o! the so$iety, s$hool $hildren, so$ially vulnera&le 'roups su$h as pre'nant and la$tatin' mothers, spe$ially disa&led senior $iti/ens et$" In order to address the a&ove issues, the rural %ater supply pro'ramme and 'uidelines have &een revised %ith e!!e$t !rom 1"4"200D as the ,ational Rural Drin(in' <ater 6ro'ramme -,RD<6."

The !ollo%in' paradi'm shi!t has &een made in the ,ational Rural Drin(in' <ater 6ro'ramme 'uidelines !or ensurin' sustaina&le and environmentally !riendly drin(in' %ater supply proMe$tsA ^ Move !or%ard !rom a$hievin' ha&itation level $overa'e to%ards household level drin(in' %ater $overa'e" ^ Move a%ay !rom over dependen$e on sin'le sour$e to multiple sour$es throu'h $onMun$tive use o! sur!a$e %ater, 'round%ater and rain%ater harvestin'" ^ Co$us on ensurin' sustaina&ility in drin(in' %ater s$hemes and prevent slip &a$(" ^ =n$oura'e %ater $onservation in$ludin' revival o! traditional %ater &odies ^ 4$hieve household level drin(in' %ater se$urity throu'h !ormulation o! proper %ater demand and &ud'etin' at the villa'e level" ^ Conver'en$e o! all %ater $onservation pro'ramme at the villa'e level" ^ Move $ons$iously a%ay !rom hi'h $ost treatment te$hnolo'ies !or ta$(lin' arseni$ 9 !luoride $ontamination to development o! alternative sour$es in respe$t o! arseni$ and alternate sour$es)dilution o! a7ui!ers throu'h rain%ater harvestin' in respe$t o! ta$(lin' !luoride $ontamination"
144

^ Treatment o! $at$hment area o! drin(in' %ater sour$es throu'h simple measures su$h as !en$in' and e!!e$tive implementation o! Total #anitation Campai'n -T#C. pro'ramme, prevention o! se%a'e)animal %aste lea$hin' into sur!a$e) under'round %ater sour$es, promotin' e$olo'i$al sanitation to redu$e use o! inor'ani$ !ertili/ers so as to prevent nitrate pollution in drin(in' %ater sour$es" ^ 6romotion o! simple to use te$hnolo'ies su$h as terra$otta &ased !iltration systems, solar distillation and dilution throu'h rain%ater harvestin' !or ta$(lin' iron, salinity and suspended parti$ulate matters" ^ Ein(a'e o! %ater 7uality monitorin' and surveillan$e %ith the @almani s$heme !or implementation o! standalone drin(in' %ater puri!i$ations systems in rural s$hools

In order to ensure operationali/ation o! the approa$hes mentioned a&ove, the !ollo%in' main $han'es have &een in$orporated in the Rural <ater #upply 6ro'ramme" ^ 4%ardin' per!orman$e rather than non-per!orman$e o! #tates" This is done &y removin' the %ei'hta'e !or the num&er o! un$overed)partially $overed ha&itations and %ater 7uality a!!e$ted ha&itations in the allo$ation $riteria !or $entral assistan$e to the #tates" ^ Introdu$tion o! an in$entive o! 10F o! the ,RD<6 allo$ation !or the #tates that trans!er the mana'ement o! rural drin(in' %ater s$hemes -R<#. to the 6an$hayati RaM Institutions" ^ In$reasin' the per$enta'e allo$ation !or #ustaina&ilityH $omponent !rom 0F to 20F !or implementin' sustaina&ility measures in R<# proMe$ts &y the #tates" This $omponent is !unded on a 100F Central share &asis as a'ainst the 00F Central share in re'ard to other $omponents" ^ Introdu$tion o! a ne% $omponent o! #upport Cund %ith 0F allo$ation" #ettin' up o! <ater and #anitation #upport 8r'anisation &y ea$h #tate to ta(e up support a$tivities !o$usin' on so!t%are a$tivities li(e a%areness 'eneration, $apa$ity &uildin', %ater 7uality testin', MI# et$"
140

^ In order to en$oura'e the #tates o! ,orth-=ast and @9I, that have limited resour$es, the !und sharin' pattern !or them has &een li&erali/ed !rom the e3istin' 00A00 -Centre to #tate. to D0A10 -Centre to #tate."

To meet the emer'in' $hallen'es in the rural drin(in' %ater se$tor relatin' to availa&ility, sustaina&ility and 7uality, the $omponents under the pro'ramme are ,RD<6 -Covera'e., ,RD<6 -#ustaina&ility., ,RD<6 -<ater 7uality., ,RD<6 -DD6 areas., ,RD<6 -,atural $alamity. and ,RD<6 -#upport." In a$$ordan$e %ith the poli$y o! Government o! India, the Department o! Drin(in' <ater #upply has earmar(ed 10F o! the total Central outlay !or the pro'ramme !or the ,= #tates"

/irmal ('arat &>'iyan and /irmal Gram Puras)ar

Individual ;ealth and hy'iene is lar'ely dependent on ade7uate availa&ility o! drin(in' %ater and proper sanitation" There is, there!ore, a dire$t relationship &et%een %ater, sanitation and health" Consumption o! unsa!e drin(in' %ater, improper disposal o! human e3$reta, improper environmental sanitation and la$( o! personal and !ood hy'iene have &een maMor $auses o! many diseases in developin' $ountries" India is no e3$eption to this" Government started the Central Rural #anitation 6ro'ramme -CR#6. in 1D1> primarily %ith the o&Me$tive o! improvin' the 7uality o! li!e o! the rural people and also to provide priva$y and di'nity to %omen" The $on$ept o! sanitation %as e3panded to in$lude personal hy'iene, home sanitation, sa!e %ater, 'ar&a'e disposal, e3$reta disposal and %aste %ater disposal" <ith this &roader $on$ept o! sanitation, CR#6 adopted a demand drivenH approa$h %ith the name Total #anitation Campai'nH -T#C. %ith e!!e$t !rom 1DDD" The revised approa$h emphasi/ed more on In!ormation, =du$ation and Communi$ation -I=C., ;uman Resour$e Development, Capa$ity Development a$tivities to in$rease a%areness amon' the rural people and 'eneration o! demand !or sanitary !a$ilities" This enhan$ed people s $apa$ity to $hoose appropriate options throu'h alternate delivery me$hanisms as per their e$onomi$ $ondition" The 6ro'ramme %as implemented %ith !o$us on $ommunity-led and people $entered initiatives" Cinan$ial

14>

in$entives %ere provided to 2elo% 6overty Eine -26E. households !or $onstru$tion and usa'e o! individual household latrines -I;;E. in re$o'nition o! their a$hievements" 4ssistan$e %as also e3tended !or $onstru$tion o! s$hool toilet units, 4n'an%adi toilets and Community #anitary Comple3es -C#C. apart !rom underta(in' a$tivities under #olid and Ei7uid <aste Mana'ement -#E<M."

To 'ive a !illip to the T#C, Government o! India also laun$hed the ,irmal Gram 6uras(ar -,G6. that sou'ht to re$o'nise the a$hievements and e!!orts made in ensurin' !ull sanitation $overa'e" The a%ard 'ained immense popularity and $ontri&uted e!!e$tively in &rin'in' a&out a movement in the $ommunity !or attainin' the ,irmal #tatus there&y si'ni!i$antly addin' to the a$hievements made !or in$reasin' the sanitation $overa'e in the rural areas o! the $ountry" =n$oura'ed &y the su$$ess o! ,G6, the T#C %as renamed as ,irmal 2harat 4&hiyanH -,24." The o&Me$tive is to a$$elerate the sanitation $overa'e in the rural areas so as to $omprehensively $over the rural $ommunity throu'h rene%ed strate'ies and saturation approa$h" The main o&Me$tives o! the ,24 are as underA

2rin' a&out an improvement in the 'eneral 7uality o! li!e in the rural areas" 4$$elerate sanitation $overa'e in rural areas to a$hieve the vision o! ,irmal 2harat &y 2022 %ith all 'ram 6an$hayats in the $ountry attainin' ,irmal status"

Motivate $ommunities and 6an$hayati RaM Institutions promotin' sustaina&le sanitation !a$ilities throu'h a%areness $reation and health edu$ation"

To $over the remainin' s$hools not $overed under #arva #hi(sha 4&hiyan -##4. and 4n'an%adi Centres in the rural areas %ith proper sanitation !a$ilities and underta(e proa$tive promotion o! hy'iene edu$ation and sanitary ha&its amon' students"

=n$oura'e $ost e!!e$tive and appropriate te$hnolo'ies !or e$olo'i$ally sa!e and sustaina&le sanitation"

Develop $ommunity mana'ed environmental sanitation systems !o$usin' on solid 9 li7uid %aste mana'ement !or overall $leanliness in the rural areas"

14B

,irmal 2harat 4&hiyan -,24. envisa'es $overin' the entire $ommunity !or saturated out$omes %ith a vie% to $reate ,irmal Gram 6an$hayats %ith !ollo%in' prioritiesA
o

6rovision o! Individual ;ousehold Eatrine -I;;E. o! &oth 2elo% 6overty Eine -26E. and Identi!ied 4&ove 6overty Eine -46E. households %ithin a Gram 6an$hayat -G6."

Gram 6an$hayats %here all ha&itations have a$$ess to %ater to &e ta(en up" 6riority may &e 'iven to Gram 6an$hayats havin' !un$tional piped %ater supply"

6rovision o! sanitation !a$ilities in Government #$hools and 4n'an%adis in Government &uildin's %ithin these G6s"

#olid and Ei7uid <aste Mana'ement -#E<M. !or proposed and e3istin' ,irmal Grams"

=3tensive $apa$ity &uildin' o! the sta(e holders li(e 6an$hayati RaM Institutions -6RIs., :illa'e <ater and #anitation Committees -:<#Cs. and !ield !un$tionaries !or sustaina&le sanitation"

4ppropriate $onver'en$e %ith Mahatma Gandhi ,ational Rural =mployment Gurantee #$heme -M,R=G#. %ith uns(illed man-days and s(illed man-days"

141

The strate'y o! ,24 is to trans!orm rural India into J,irmal 2harat &y adoptin' the N$ommunity ledN and Npeople $enteredN strate'ies and $ommunity saturation approa$h" 4 ]demand driven approa$h] is to &e $ontinued %ith emphasis on a%areness $reation and demand 'eneration !or sanitary !a$ilities in houses, s$hools and !or $leaner environment" /irmal Gram Puras)ar The Government o! India -G8I. has &een promotin' sanitation $overa'e in a $ampai'n mode to ensure &etter health and 7uality o! li!e !or people in rural India" To add vi'our to its implementation, G8I laun$hed an a%ard &ased In$entive #$heme !or !ully saniti/ed and open de!e$ation !ree Gram 6an$hayats, 2lo$(s, Distri$ts and #tates $alled ,irmal Gram 6uras(arH -,G6. in 8$to&er 200* and 'ave a%ay the !irst a%ards in 2000 as a $omponent o! its !la'ship s$heme Total #anitation Campai'n -T#C." ,irmal Gram 6uras(ar till 2011 %as 'iven &y Ministry o! Drin(in' <ater and #anitation, Government o! India at all levels o! 6RIs that is Gram 6an$hayat, 2lo$( 6an$hayat and distri$t 6an$hayat"

14D

Ka a'arlal /e'ru /ational 1r>an Rene al Mission *K//1RM,

The mission @,,+RM aims to en$oura'e re!orms and !ast tra$( planned development o! identi!ied $ities" Co$us is to &e on e!!i$ien$y in ur&an in!rastru$ture and servi$e delivery me$hanisms, $ommunity parti$ipation, and a$$ounta&ility o! +r&an Eo$al 2odies to%ards $iti/ens" In addition to improvin' the &asi$ amenities and in!rastru$ture in ur&an areas, the pro'ramme also tar'ets to improve the $onditions o! #lums" The o&Me$tives o! the @,,+RM are to ensure that the !ollo%in' are a$hieved in the ur&an se$tor? -a. Co$ussed attention to inte'rated development o! in!rastru$ture servi$es in $ities $overed under the Mission -&. =sta&lishment o! lin(a'es &et%een asset-$reation and asset-mana'ement throu'h a sle% o! re!orms !or lon'-term proMe$t sustaina&ility -$. =nsurin' ade7uate !unds to meet the de!i$ien$ies in ur&an in!rastru$tural servi$es -d. 6lanned development o! identi!ied $ities in$ludin' peri-ur&an areas, out'ro%ths and ur&an $orridors leadin' to dispersed ur&anisation -e. #$ale-up delivery o! $ivi$ amenities and provision o! utilities %ith emphasis on universal a$$ess to the ur&an poor -! . #pe$ial !o$us on ur&an rene%al pro'ramme !or the old $ity areas to redu$e $on'estion and -'. 6rovision o! &asi$ servi$es to the ur&an poor in$ludin' se$urity o! tenure at a!!orda&le pri$es, improved housin', %ater supply and sanitation, and ensurin' delivery o! other e3istin' universal servi$es o! the 'overnment !or edu$ation, health and so$ial se$urity" The Mission $omprises t%o #u&- Missions, namelyA -1. #u&-Mission !or +r&an In!rastru$ture and Governan$e %hi$h is administered &y the Ministry o! +r&an Development throu'h the #u&- Mission Dire$torate !or +r&an In!rastru$ture and Governan$e" The main thrust o! the #u&-Mission %ill &e on in!rastru$ture proMe$ts relatin' to %ater supply and sanitation, se%era'e, solid %aste mana'ement, road net%or(, ur&an transport and redevelopment o! old $ity areas %ith a vie% to up'radin'
100

in!rastru$ture therein, shi!tin' industrial and $ommer$ial esta&lishments to $on!ormin' areas, et$" -2. #u&-Mission !or 2asi$ #ervi$es to the +r&an 6oorA This %ill &e administered &y the Ministry o! +r&an =mployment and 6overty 4lleviation throu'h the #u&-Mission Dire$torate !or 2asi$ #ervi$es to the +r&an 6oor" The main thrust o! the #u&-Mission %ill &e on inte'rated development o! slums throu'h proMe$ts !or providin' shelter, &asi$ servi$es and other related $ivi$ amenities %ith a vie% to providin' utilities to the ur&an poor"

The se$tors and proMe$ts eli'i&le !or @,,+RM assistan$e in eli'i&le $ities %ould &e as !ollo%sA -1. Inte'rated development o! slums, housin' and development o! in!rastru$ture proMe$ts in slums in the identi!ied $ities?" -2. 6roMe$ts involvin' development, improvement, and maintenan$e o! &asi$ servi$es to the ur&an poor" -*. #lum improvement and reha&ilitation o! proMe$ts" -4. 6roMe$ts on %ater supply, se%era'e, draina'e, $ommunity toilets, and &aths et$" -0. 6roMe$ts !or providin' houses at a!!orda&le $ost !or slum d%ellers, ur&an poor, e$onomi$ally %ea(er se$tions -=<#. and lo%er in$ome 'roup -EIG. $ate'ories" ->. Constru$tion and improvement o! drains and storm %ater drains" -B. =nvironmental improvement o! slums and solid %aste mana'ement" -1. #treet li'htin'" -D. Civi$ amenities li(e $ommunity halls, $hild $are $entres et$" -10. 8peration and Maintenan$e o! assets $reated under this $omponent" -11. Conver'en$e o! health, edu$ation and so$ial se$urity s$hemes !or the ur&an poor Ra.iv & as6o.ana *R&6, The RaMiv 4%as GoMana implemented &y the Ministry o! ;ousin' and +r&an 6overty 4lleviation envisa'es a #lum Cree IndiaH %ith in$lusive and e7uita&le $ities in
101

%hi$h every $iti/en has a$$ess to &asi$ $ivi$ in!rastru$ture, so$ial amenities and de$ent shelter" The mission o! the 6ro'ramme is to en$oura'e #tates)+nion Territories -+Ts. to ta$(le slums in a de!initive manner, &y !o$usin' onA 1" 2rin'in' all e3istin' slums, noti!ied or non-noti!ied -in$ludin' re$o'nised and identi!ied. %ithin the !ormal system and ena&lin' them to avail the &asi$ amenities that is availa&le !or the rest o! the $ity)+4? 2" Redressin' the !ailures o! the !ormal system that lie &ehind the $reation o! slums &y plannin' !or a!!orda&le housin' sto$( !or the ur&an poor and initiatin' $ru$ial poli$y $han'es re7uired !or !a$ilitatin' the same" The o&Me$tives o! the pro'ramme are, Improvin' and provisionin' o! housin', &asi$ $ivi$ in!rastru$ture and so$ial amenities in intervened slums" =na&lin' re!orms to address some o! the $auses leadin' to $reation o! slums" Ca$ilitatin' a supportive environment !or e3pandin' institutional $redit lin(a'es !or the ur&an poor" Institutionali/in' me$hanisms !or prevention o! slums in$ludin' $reation o! a!!orda&le housin' sto$(" #tren'thenin' institutional and human resour$e $apa$ities at the Muni$ipal, City and #tate levels throu'h $omprehensive $apa$ity &uildin' and stren'thenin' o! resour$e net%or(s" =mpo%erin' $ommunity &y ensurin' their parti$ipation at every sta'e o! de$ision ma(in' throu'h stren'thenin' and nurturin' #lum D%ellers 4sso$iation)Cederation" The s$heme is appli$a&le to all slums %ithin a $ity, %hether noti!ied or non-noti!ied -in$ludin' identi!ied and re$o'nised., %hether on lands &elon'in' to Central Government or its +nderta(in's, 4utonomous &odies $reated under the 4$t o! 6arliament, #tate Government or its +nderta(in's, +r&an Eo$al 2odies or any other pu&li$ a'en$y and private se$tor" It is also appli$a&le to ur&ani/ed villa'esH inside the plannin' area o! the $ity, ur&an homeless and pavement d%ellers"

102

India 'as made significant progress in developing drin)ing 'as met t'e Millennium Development Goal drin)ing

ater infrastructure and ater target! -o everD

c'allenges remain including t'e need for rapid development and sustaina>ility of supply to meet an increasing population against a varia>le resource distri>ution! "urt'erD to ensure >asic sanitation facilityD to t'e 'uge population of t'e countryD t'e nation needs to more focused initiatives and dedicated follo up to sustain t'e same! Improved management of drin)ing )eys to 'ealt' of t'e population along Improving drin)ing ater supply and >etter sanitation are it' social and economic progress!

ater supply and CualityD eradicating open defecation and t'e ill significantly contri>ute to reducing

adoption of positive 'ygiene >e'aviours

c'ild mor>idityD mortality and improving t'e nutritional status of c'ildren! &lso tac)ling t'e issues related to t'e slums and slum population gro ing in num>ers and improving t'e living conditions of slum d ellers are ma.or among t'e c'allenges t'at t'e nation is facing today!

GGGG

10*

C'apter 10 (ooming Sectors of 0elecom and I0

MDG 8: Develop a global partnership or development 0arget 1:= In !o"operation #ith the private se!tor$ ma%e available the bene its o ne# te!hnologies$ espe!ially in ormation and !ommuni!ation&
Indicators Telephone lines and $ellular su&s$ri&ers per 100 population Internet su&s$ri&ers per 100 population 6ersonal $omputers per 100 population

Rapid gro t' of 0elecom sectorH! The tele$om servi$es have &een re$o'ni/ed the %orld-over as an important tool !or so$io-e$onomi$ development !or a nation" It is one o! the prime support servi$es needed !or rapid 'ro%th and moderni/ation o! various se$tors o! the e$onomy" Indian tele$ommuni$ation se$tor has under'one a maMor pro$ess o! trans!ormation throu'h si'ni!i$ant poli$y re!orms, parti$ularly &e'innin' %ith the announ$ement o! ,ational Tele$om 6oli$y -,T6. 1DD4 and %as su&se7uently reemphasi/ed and $arried !or%ard under ,T6 1DDD and 2012" The ,T6 2012, addresses the vision, strate'i$ dire$tion and the various medium term and lon' term issues related to Tele$om #e$tor" The 6rimary o&Me$tive o! ,T6 2012 is ma3imi/in' pu&li$ 'ood &y ma(in' availa&le a!!orda&le, relia&le and se$ure tele$ommuni$ations and &road&and servi$es a$ross the entire
104

$ountry"

The main thrust o! the 6oli$y is on the multiplier e!!e$t and

trans!ormational impa$t o! su$h servi$es on the overall e$onomy" Driven &y various poli$y initiatives, the Indian tele$om se$tor %itnessed a $omplete trans!ormation in the last de$ade" It has a$hieved a phenomenal 'ro%th durin' the last !e% years and is poised to ta(e a &i' leap in the !uture also" The Indian tele$om net%or( %ith D0*"0D million telephone $onne$tions, in$ludin' 1B*"*> million %ireless telephone $onne$tions, at the end o! @une 201* is se$ond lar'est net%or( in the %orld a!ter China" 8ut o! this, *0B">1 million telephone $onne$tions are in rural areas and 040"41 million are in ur&an areas o! the $ountry"

Tele-density, %hi$h sho%s the num&er o! telephones per 100 population, is an important indi$ator o! tele$om penetration in the $ountry" 8verall tele-density in the $ountry is B*"0F as on *0)>)1*"
#ver all 0eledensity *A,
10 B0 >0 00 40 *0 20 10 0 2000 B0"41 B* B*"0

02"B4 *>"D1 11"22 D"01 200> 12"1> 200B 200D 2010 2011 2012 201*

#our$eA Tele$om Re'ulatory authority o! India -TR4I.

4s per the status o! the 2nd 7uarter o! 201*, the +r&an tele-density is 140"*0F, %hereas rural tele-density is 41"DF" The tele$om se$tor has sho%n ro&ust 'ro%th durin' the past !e% years" It has also under'one a su&stantial $han'e in terms o! mo&ile versus !i3ed phones and pu&li$ versus private parti$ipation" The %ireless telephone servi$es play a maMor role in improvin' the teledensity" 4s per the status o! 2nd 7uarter o! 201*, the share o! %ireless telephones in total telephones is D>"BF vis Ka -vis 40"*2F in 200*" 4lso 6rivate se$tor si'ni!i$antly $ontri&utes to the present day &etter $onne$tivity in
100

tele$om se$tor" The share o! private se$tor in total telephones has in$reased to 1>"00F, !rom *0"44F in 200*" <hile, $onsiderin' the present teledensity amon' the #tate) servi$e areas1B, it ran'es !rom 40 in 2ihar to 220 in Delhi -as on *1)0)201*."

"ig 10!2 0eledensity *2014,


200 200 100 100 00 0
220 DB 104 100 101

40

4B

04

0B

>0

>0

>1

B0

B2

B*

BB

BB

1B

1B

D1

#our$eA Tele$om Re'ulatory authority o! India -TR4I.

Internet revolutioniLing livesH The hu'e leap in tele$om se$tor alon' %ith the advan$es in IT se$tor has led to massive pro'ress in the internet su&s$ri&er &ase" There are 1D1"*D million Internet su&s$ri&ers in$ludin' 10"2 million 2road&and su&s$ri&ers at the end o! @une 201*" The internet su&s$ri&ers per 100 population a$$essin' internet only throu'h %ireline &road&and $onne$tions is 1"2 and the $orrespondin' !i'ure in$ludin' those a$$essin' internet throu'h %ireless $onne$tions is 1*"011" This rapid 'ro%th is

possi&le due to various proa$tive and positive de$isions o! the Government and $ontri&ution o! &oth &y the pu&li$ and the private se$tors" The rapid strides in the tele$om se$tor have &een !a$ilitated &y li&eral poli$ies o! the Government that provides easy mar(et a$$ess !or tele$om e7uipment and a !air re'ulatory !rame%or( !or o!!erin' tele$om servi$es to the Indian $onsumers at a!!orda&le pri$es" 6resently, all the tele$om servi$es have &een opened !or private parti$ipation" <ith te$hnolo'y development, Eaptops, ta&lets et$ have &e$ome maMor tools servin' the purpose o! personal $omputers in addition to Des( top $omputers"
Maharashtra in$ludes Mum&ai #ervi$e area, Tamil ,adu in$ludes Chennai and <est 2en'al in$ludes Iol(ota" 11 ,um&er o! su&s$ri&ers a$$essin' internet throu'h %ireless $onne$tions does not in$lude su&s$ri&er &ase o! 2#,E, MT,E, Quadrant and :ideo$on as they have not provided the data !or Mar$h 201*"
10>
1B

Improving connectivityH!! The Government has ta(en !ollo%in' main initiatives !or the 'ro%th o! the Tele$om #e$torA +i>eraliLation The pro$ess o! li&erali/ation in the $ountry &e'an in the ri'ht earnest

%ith the announ$ement o! the ,e% =$onomi$ 6oli$y in @uly 1DD1" Tele$om e7uipment manu!a$turin' %as deli$ensed in 1DD1 and value added servi$es %ere de$lared open to the private se$tor in 1DD2, !ollo%in' %hi$h radio pa'in', $ellular mo&ile and other value added servi$es %ere opened 'radually to the private se$tor" This has resulted in lar'e num&er o! manu!a$turin' units &een set up in the $ountry" 4s a result most o! the e7uipment used in tele$om area is &ein' manu!a$tured %ithin the $ountry" 4 maMor &rea(throu'h %as the $lear enun$iation o! the 'overnmentNs intention o! li&erali/in' the tele$om se$tor in the ,ational Tele$om 6oli$y resolution o! 1*th May 1DD4" /ational 0elecom Policy 1;;4 In 1DD4, the Government announ$ed the ,ational Tele$om 6oli$y %hi$h de!ined $ertain important o&Me$tives, in$ludin' availa&ility o! telephone on demand, provision o! %orld $lass servi$es at reasona&le pri$es, improvin' IndiaNs $ompetitiveness in 'lo&al mar(et and promotin' e3ports, attra$tin' Corei'n Dire$t Investment -CDI. and stimulatin' domesti$ investment, ensurin' IndiaNs emer'en$e as maMor manu!a$turin' ) e3port &ase o! tele$om e7uipment and ensurin' universal availa&ility o! &asi$ tele$om servi$es to all villa'es" It also announ$ed a series o! spe$i!i$ tar'ets to &e a$hieved &y 1DDB"

0elecom Regulatory &ut'ority of India *0R&I, The entry o! private servi$e providers &rou'ht the inevita&le need

!or independent re'ulation" The Tele$om Re'ulatory 4uthority o! India -TR4I. %as, thus, esta&lished %ith e!!e$t !rom 20th Ce&ruary 1DDB &y an 4$t o! 6arliament, $alled the Tele$om Re'ulatory 4uthority o! India 4$t, 1DDB, to re'ulate tele$om servi$es, in$ludin' !i3ation)revision o! tari!!s !or tele$om servi$es %hi$h %ere earlier vested %ith the Central Government" TR4INs mission is to $reate and nurture $onditions !or
10B

'ro%th o! tele$ommuni$ations in the $ountry in a manner and at a pa$e, %hi$h %ill ena&le India to play a leadin' role in emer'in' 'lo&al in!ormation so$iety" 8ne o! the main o&Me$tives o! TR4I is to provide a !air and transparent poli$y environment, %hi$h promotes a level playin' !ield and !a$ilitates !air $ompetition" In pursuan$e o! the a&ove o&Me$tives, TR4I has issued !rom time to time a lar'e num&er o! re'ulations, orders and dire$tives to deal %ith issues $omin' &e!ore it and provided the re7uired dire$tion to the evolution o! Indian tele$om mar(et !rom a Government o%ned monopoly to a multi operator multi servi$e open $ompetitive mar(et" The dire$tions, orders and re'ulations issued, $over a %ide ran'e o! su&Me$ts in$ludin' tari!!, inter$onne$tion and 7uality o! servi$e as %ell as 'overnan$e o! the 4uthority" /ational 0elecom Policy 1;;; The most important milestone and instrument o! tele$om re!orms in India is the ,ational Tele$om 6oli$y 1DDD -,T6 DD." The ,T6- 1DDD %as approved on 2>th Mar$h 1DDD, to &e$ome e!!e$tive !rom 1st 4pril 1DDD" ,T6-DD laid do%n a $lear roadmap !or !uture re!orms, $ontemplatin' the openin' up o! all the se'ments o! the tele$om se$tor !or private se$tor parti$ipation" It $learly re$o'ni/ed the need !or stren'thenin' the re'ulatory re'ime as %ell as restru$turin' the departmental tele$om servi$es to that o! a pu&li$ se$tor $orporation so as to separate the li$ensin' and poli$y !un$tions o! the Government !rom that o! &ein' an operator" It also re$o'ni/ed the need !or resolvin' the prevailin' pro&lems !a$ed &y the operators so as to restore their $on!iden$e and improve the investment $limate"

Internet Service Providers *ISPs, Internet servi$e %as opened !or private parti$ipation in 1DD1 %ith a vie% to

en$oura'e 'ro%th o! Internet and in$rease its penetration" The se$tor has seen tremendous te$hnolo'i$al advan$ement and has ne$essitated ta(in' steps to !a$ilitate te$hnolo'i$al in'enuity and provision o! various servi$es"

(road>and Policy 2004 Re$o'ni/in' the potential o! u&i7uitous 2road&and servi$e in 'ro%th

o! GD6 and enhan$ement in 7uality o! li!e throu'h so$ietal appli$ations in$ludin'


101

tele-edu$ation, tele-medi$ine, e-'overnan$e, entertainment as %ell as employment 'eneration &y %ay o! hi'h-speed a$$ess to in!ormation and %e& &ased $ommuni$ation? the Government has announ$ed 2road&and 6oli$y in 8$to&er 2004" The main emphasis is on $reation o! in!rastru$ture throu'h various te$hnolo'ies that $an $ontri&ute to the 'ro%th o! &road&and servi$es" The prime $onsideration 'uidin' the 6oli$y in$ludes a!!orda&ility and relia&ility o! 2road&and servi$es, in$entives !or $reation o! additional in!rastru$ture, employment opportunities, indu$tion o! latest te$hnolo'ies, national se$urity and &rin's in $ompetitive environment so as to redu$e re'ulatory interventions"

0ariff C'anges The Indian Tele$om #e$tor has %itnessed maMor $han'es in the tari!!

stru$ture" The Tele$ommuni$ation Tari!! 8rder -TT8. 1DDD, issued &y re'ulator -TR4I., had &e'un the pro$ess o! tari!! &alan$in' %ith a vie% to &rin' them $loser to the $osts"

Investment #pportunities and Incentives 4n attra$tive trade and investment poli$y and lu$rative in$entives

!or !orei'n $olla&orations have made India one o! the %orldNs most attra$tive mar(ets !or the tele$om e7uipment suppliers and servi$e providers"

Mo>ile /um>er Porta>ility *M/P,

Mo&ile ,um&er 6orta&ility -M,6. allo%s su&s$ri&ers to retain their e3istin' telephone num&er %hen they s%it$h !rom one a$$ess servi$e provider to another irrespe$tive o! mo&ile te$hnolo'y or !rom one te$hnolo'y to another o! the same or any other a$$ess servi$e provider" The Government has announ$ed the 'uidelines !or Mo&ile ,um&er 6orta&ility -M,6. #ervi$e Ei$en$e in the $ountry on 1st 4u'ust 2001 and has issued a separate Ei$en$e !or M,6 servi$e %"e"!" 20"0*"200D"

10D

/ational 0elecom Policy22012 */0P22012, The Government approved ,ational Tele$om 6oli$y-2012 -,T6-2012.

on *1st May 2012 %hi$h addresses the :ision, #trate'i$ dire$tion and the various medium term and lon' term issues related to tele$om se$tor" The primary o&Me$tive o! ,T6-2012 is ma3imi/in' pu&li$ 'ood &y ma(in' availa&le a!!orda&le, relia&le and se$ure tele$ommuni$ation and &road&and servi$es a$ross the entire $ountry" 4vaila&ility o! a!!orda&le and e!!e$tive $ommuni$ations !or the $iti/ens is at the $ore o! the vision and 'oal o! the ,T6-2012" The poli$y also re$o'nises the predominant role o! the 6rivate se$tor in this !ield and the $onse7uent poli$y imperative o! ensurin' $ontinued via&ility o! servi$e providers in a $ompetitive environment" 6ursuant to ,T6 -2012, these prin$iples %ould 'uide de$isions needed to stri(e a &alan$e &et%een the interests o! users ) $onsumers, servi$e providers and 'overnment revenue" /ational Eno ledge /et or) The ,ational Ino%led'e ,et%or( is a proMe$t &ein' implemented throu'h ,ational In!ormati$s Centre -,IC. is the implementin' a'en$y %ith the o&Me$tive to inter$onne$t all institutions o! hi'her learnin' and resear$h %ith a hi'h speed data $ommuni$ation net%or( to !a$ilitate (no%led'e sharin' and $olla&orative resear$h to &rid'e the e3istin' (no%led'e 'ap in the $ountry and to evolve as a Ino%led'e #o$iety and spur e$onomi$ a$tivities in the Ino%led'e domain" /ational % 2Governance Plan The ,ational e KGovernan$e 6lan -,eG6. %as approved on 1>th May, 200> %ith the vision to ma(e all 'overnment servi$es a$$essi&le to the $ommon man in his lo$ality, throu'h $ommon servi$e delivery outlets and ensure e!!i$ien$y, transparen$y and relia&ility o! su$h servi$es at a!!orda&le $osts to reali/e the &asi$ needs o! the $ommon man" The ,eG6 is a multi Ksta(eholder pro'ramme %hi$h primarily !o$uses on ma(in' $riti$al pu&li$ servi$es availa&le and promotin' rural entrepreneurship" It $omprises o! *1 Mission Mode 6roMe$ts -MM6s. and $ore e K in!rastru$ture" The ,ational e-Governan$e 6lan -,eG6., ta(es a holisti$ vie% o! eGovernan$e initiatives a$ross the $ountry, inte'ratin' them into a $olle$tive vision, a
1>0

shared $ause" 4round this idea, a massive $ountry%ide in!rastru$ture rea$hin' do%n to the remotest o! villa'es is evolvin', and lar'e-s$ale di'iti/ation o! re$ords is ta(in' pla$e to ena&le easy, relia&le a$$ess over the internet" The ultimate o&Me$tive is to &rin' pu&li$ servi$es $loser home to $iti/ens, as arti$ulated in the :ision #tatement o! ,eG6"

State $ide &rea /et or)s *S$&/,

#tate <ide 4rea ,et%or(s -#<4,. is envisa'ed as the $onver'ed &a$(&one net%or( !or data, voi$e and video $ommuni$ations throu'hout a #tate ) +T and is e3pe$ted to $ater to the in!ormation $ommuni$ation re7uirements o! all the Departments" +nder this #$heme, te$hni$al and !inan$ial assistan$e is &ein'

provided to the #tates) +Ts !or esta&lishin' #<4,s to $onne$t all #tate) +T head7uarters up to the &lo$( level via Distri$t) #u& Divisional ;ead7uarters, in a verti$al hierar$hi$al stru$ture %ith a minimum &and%idth $apa$ity o! 2M&ps per lin(" #teps have &een initiated to inte'rate all #<4,s usin' the ,ational Ino%led'e ,et%or("

More initiatives to esta>lis' >etter connectivity t'roug'out t'e CountryD >y strengt'ening telecom and I0 sector leading to improved governance and faster communications are >eing ta)en >y State @ Central Governments >rig'ten t'e future! 'ic' ill

LLLL

1>1

&PP%/DIF

&ppendi< 1
MDGs and 0argets ?Summary of Progress ac'ieved >y India
Indicator 6ear 1;;0 &ctual@est! value G#&+ 1= %R&DIC&0% %F0R%M% P#5%R06 &/D -1/G%R 0&RG%0 1= -alveD >et een 1;;0 and 2013D t'e proportion of people 'ose income is less t'an one dollar a day #n 2trac) Proportion of population >elo 1; poverty line *A, 21!;2 49!: 24!; 20!94 *2011212, Poverty Gap Ratio Rural /o >ase year targets 3!03 *2011212, 2!9 *2011212, S'are of poorest Cuintile in national consumption *MRP met'od, Rural /o >ase year targets ;!98 *200;210, 9!11 *200;210, MDG target 2013 +i)ely ac'ievement 2013 +atest status

1r>an

1r>an

0&RG%0 2= -alveD >et een 1;;0 and 2013D t'e proportion of people 'o suffer from 'unger Slo or almost off2trac) Proportion of under2 eig't c'ildren >elo 4 years *A, 40 32 28 44 *2003208, MDG 2= &C-I%5% 1/I5%RS&+ PRIM&R6 %D1C&0I#/ 0&RG%0 4= %nsure t'atD >y 2013D c'ildren every 'ereD >oys and girls ali)eD ill >e a>le to complete a full course of primary sc'ooling

1D

2ased on revised 6overty ;ead Count Ratio provided &y Tendul(ar Committee to revie% the methodolo'y !or estimation o! poverty" i

MDGs and 0argets ?Summary of Progress ac'ieved >y India


Indicator 6ear 1;;0 &ctual@est! value MDG target 2013 #n2trac) /et %nrolment Ratio in primary grade *A, Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 'o reac' grade 3 ;;!:; *2010211, :8!03 *2011212, :8 81 100!0 100 *200920:, MDG 4= PR#M#0% G%/D%R %71&+I06 &/D %MP#$%R $#M%/ 0&RG%0 4 = %liminate gender disparity in primary and secondary educationD prefera>ly >y 2003D and in all levels of education no later t'an 2013 #n2trac) Ratio of girls to >oys in primary education *Gender Parity Inde< of G%R, Ratio of girls to >oys in secondary education *Gender Parity Inde< of G%R, Ratio of girls to >oys in tertiary education *Gender Parity Inde< of G%R, "emale= Male literacy rate of 13224 year olds 0!80 1!00 *1;;1, *2010211, +i)ely ac'ievement 2013 +atest status

99 &>solute targets for 2013

100!0

100

100

+iteracy rate of 13224 year olds

0!94

1!00

1!01 *2010211,

0!::

0!34 1!00 *1;;1,

0!:8 *2010211,

0!89 1!00 *1;;1, 1

0!:: *200920:, 1;!4

S'are of omen in age employment in t'e non2 agricultural sector *A, Proportion of seats 'eld >y omen

12!9

30

24!1 *2011212,

&>solute targets for

30

11!48

ii

MDGs and 0argets ?Summary of Progress ac'ieved >y India


Indicator 6ear 1;;0 &ctual@est! value in national parliament *A, 2013 MDG target 2013 *2014, +i)ely ac'ievement 2013 +atest status

MDG 4= R%D1C% C-I+D M#R0&+I06 TARGET 5 : Reduce >y t o2t'irdsD >et een 1;;0 and 2013D t'e 1nder2 "ive Morality Rate Moderately on ? trac) due to t'e s'arp decline in recent years 1nder five mortality rate *per 1000 live >irt's, Infant Mortality rate *per 1000 live >irt's, 128 42 30 32 *2012, 42 :0 29 41 *2012, Proportion of 1 year2old c'ildren immuniLed against measles Proportion of 1 year2old c'ildren immuniLed against measles MDG3 3= IMPR#5% M&0%R/&+ -%&+00&RG%0 8 = Reduce >y t'ree CuartersD >et een 1;;0 and 2013D t'e maternal mortality ratio Slo or off2trac) Maternal mortality ratio *per 100D000 live >irt's, 19: 449 10; 14; *2010212, Proportion of >irt's attended >y s)illed 'ealt' personnel *A, 32 44 100 82 *200920:, MDG 8= C#M(&0 -I5@&IDSD M&+&RI& &/D #0-%R DIS%&S%S 0&RG%0 9 = -ave 'alted >y 2013 and >egun to reverse t'e spread of -I5@&IDS #n2trac) as trend reversal in -I5 prevalence 'as ac'ieved -I5 Prevalence among pregnant omen aged 13224 years * A , 0arget is trend reversal 0!4; 2 *2010211, 94!1 42!2 100 :; *200;,

iii

MDGs and 0argets ?Summary of Progress ac'ieved >y India


Indicator 6ear 1;;0 &ctual@est! value Condom use rate of t'e 20 contraceptive prevalence rate *A, and not >ased on >ase year value MDG target 2013 3!2 *2003208, 94 *2010, Percentage of population aged 132 24 years it' compre'ensive correct )no ledge of -I5@&IDS 0&RG%0 := -ave 'alted >y 2013 and >egun to reverse t'e incidence of malaria and ot'er ma.or diseases Moderately on2trac) as trend reversal 'as ac'ieved for &nnual Parasite Incidence of Malaria and for prevalence of 0( &nnual parasite incidence *&PI, rate *Malaria, 0!:: 2!39 2 *2012 p, Prevalence of 0( *including -I5, per 100D000 population 24; 44: 2 *2011, Proportion of population in Malaria ris) areas using effective Malaria prevention and treatment measures Deat's due to 0( per 100D000 population 42!; *2008, +i)ely ac'ievement 2013 +atest status

Condom use at last 'ig'2ris) 21 se< *A,

Data not availa>le

24 44 2 *2011,

MDG 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY TARGET 9: Integrate t'e principle of sustaina>le development into country policies and programmes and reverse t'e loss of environmental resources! Moderately on2trac)

20

Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate is Condom use to overall contraceptive use among currently married women,15-49 years, percent. 21 Condom use at last high risk sex is Condom use rate among non regular sex partners 15-24 years

iv

MDGs and 0argets ?Summary of Progress ac'ieved >y India


Indicator 6ear 1;;0 &ctual@est! value &rea covered under forests as percentage of geograp'ical area MDG target 2013 21!03 2 *2011, Ratio of area protected to maintain >iological diversity to surface area *A, %nergy use per GDP *Rupee, 3!08 0arget is trend reversal and not >ased on >ase year value *2014, 0!1434 E$*2011212, 1!41 M0 *2014, ;;:!3 *2009, Proportion of population using solid fuels *A, 89!4 *2011, 0&RG%0 10= -alveD >y 2013D t'e proportion of people it'out sustaina>le access to safe drin)ing ater and >asic sanitation #n2trac) for t'e indicator of drin)ing aterD >ut slo for t'e indicator of Sanitation -ouse'olds it' sustaina>le access to an improved ater sourceD *A, 1r>an :9!12 ;4!38 ;9!3 *2012, Rural 3:!;4 9;!49 ;8!4 *2012, -ouse'olds it'out access to sanitation *A, 1r>an 24!1 13!:4 12!14 *2012, Rural :9!1 48!84 81!11 *2012, 0&RG%0 11= (y 2020D to 'ave ac'ieved a significant improvement in t'e lives of at least 100 million 3;!4 :!: ::!3 ;3!4 +i)ely ac'ievement 2013 +atest status

Car>on dio<ide emissions per capita

Consumption of oLone2depleting C"Cs *#DP tons,

MDGs and 0argets ?Summary of Progress ac'ieved >y India


Indicator 6ear 1;;0 &ctual@est! value slum d ellers 0'e pattern not statistically discerni>le Slum population as percentage of ur>an population 19!48A *2011, MDG target 2013 +i)ely ac'ievement 2013 +atest status

MDG := D%5%+#P & G+#(&+ P&R0/%RS-IP "#R D%5%+#PM%/0 0&RG%0 1: = In cooperation it' t'e private sectorD ma)e availa>le t'e >enefits of ne tec'nologiesD especially information and communications #n2trac) 0elep'one per 100 population 2 *2014, Internet su>scri>ers per 100 Population *accessing internet only t'roug' ireline >road>and connection, Including ireless 0arget is increasing trend and not >ased on >ase year value 94!3

1!2 *2014,

14!3 *2014,

Personal computers per 100 population

Data not availa>le

GGGG

vi

&ppendi<22
M%0-#D#+#G6 /#0% #/ MDG 0R&CEI/G The methodolo'y !or tra$(in' the MDGs in this report is the one pres$ri&ed &y the +,#D !or developin' $ountries" This methodolo'y is $hara$terised &y the simpli$ity o! its !ormulation and ease o! interpretation" The indi$ators in India s MDG !rame%or( are mostly dire$t indi$ators %hi$h o&viates the need !or imputation or indire$t derivation o! the measures o! the identi!ied indi$ators" This simpli!ies the revie% e3er$ise and eliminates the need to depend on assumptions" Collo%in' is the s$hemati$ des$ription o! the tra$(in' methodolo'y adopted !or the revie% e3er$ise o! this report" Cor the purpose o! this report, &oth histori$al rate o! $han'e and re7uired rate o! $han'e -%hi$h are e3plained &elo%. have not &een $al$ulated e3pli$itly in order to avoid $on!usion re'ardin' proper interpretation and mathemati$al $al$ulations involved in usin' the rates !or derivin' the a$tual measures o! the indi$ators !or the year 2010, !or that matter !or any other time point" Cor &etter $omprehension o! laymen, the a$tual proMe$ted values o! the indi$ators !or !uture time points -e" '", 2010. are more a$$epta&le than the rates o! $han'e o! di!!erent indi$ators" In the statisti$al tra$(in' o! MDGs, the estimation o! the li(ely a$hievement !or the year 2010 is re7uired !or the indi$ators %hi$h have e3pli$it -relative, a&solute. tar'et !or 2010" The underlyin' assumption o! the estimation pro$edure in the MDG tra$(in' is that, the rate o! $han'e in a indi$ator values slo%s do%n %ith improvement in the level o! the $ondition that the indi$ator measures and $onse7uentially the indi$ator !ollo%s an e3ponential pattern over time" The tar'et value !or the year 2010 is determined &y applyin' the MDG de!inition o! the tar'et on the indi$ator value !or the year 1DD0" The 2010 value o! the indi$ator is proMe$ted on the &asis o! o&served values o! the indi$ator at various time points" Thus, the histori$al rate o! $han'e is used to proMe$t the li(ely a$hievement !or the year 2010 o! the indi$ator" Indicator Selection Criteria 1" Indi$ators that are dire$tly related to a tar'etA the indi$ators $orrespondin' to various tar'ets under ea$h o! the MDGs are 'iven at 4ppendi3 Indi$ators relevant to India are those %hi$h are dire$tly related to the tar'ets !or %hi$h pro'ress is measured !or developin' $ountries, i"e" e3$ludes those related to developed $ountries and least developed or island $ountries T%o $ate'ories o! Indi$ators havin' 7uantitative tar'ets to &e rea$hed &y 2010 are $overed !or tra$(in' purpose, vi/"
vii

2"

*"

a" =3pli$it tar'et values !or 2010 i" Relative -redu$e &y _, 2)*, ` . ii" 4&solute -!ull enrolment, 'ender parity. &" Reversal o! trends i" ;alt and &e'un to reverseP"H -Goal >. ii" Reverse the loss o! environmental resour$esH-Goal B, Tar'et D. 0rac)ing Progress Principles Ieep it simple o Most MDG indi$ators move relatively slo%ly over time o Data 'aps and num&er o! o&servations don t allo% sophisti$ated time series analysis o +se all the in!ormation availa&le %hi$h %ill lead to more e!!i$ient estimates

Indicator 0rac)ing 0ec'niCue Cal$ulate Jre7uired rate o! $han'e, !rom the latest availa&le value, !or the tar'et to &e met on time, i"e", &y 2010 Cal$ulate Jhistori$al rate o! $han'e &et%een 1DD0 and the latest year !or %hi$h an indi$ator value is availa&le Compare the re7uired %ith the histori$al rates o! $han'e

%stimate -istorical Rate of C'ange Rt U ae&t R0 U a 4'ain, Ta(in' natural lo'arithm o! &oth sides o! e7uation a&ove U En R0 V &t PP -1. i"e" -&a. U -En Rt K En R0.)t PP -2. In terms o! histori$al rate o! $han'e, r Rt U R0 -1V r.t i"e" En Rt K En R0 U t En-1Vr. or, -En Rt K En R0.)t U En-1Vr. or, -1Vr. U e3pb-En Rt K En R0.)t
viii

%here Rt is indi$ator value !or year t, %hi$h 'ives !or tU0,

En Rt U En a V &t

or, r U e3pb-En Rt K En R0.)t K 1 +sin' relation -2. in -*. %e 'et r U e3p-&a. -1

PP -*.

%here r is histori$al rate o! $han'e

#tate-%ise and national estimates o! the indi$ators at o&servation time points have &een su&Me$ted to the relationship -1. to arrive at their lo'arithmi$ values" These values &ein' linear in time series, provide the lo'arithmi$ values o! the measure $orrespondin' to !uture points o! time, !rom %hi$h the estimates at the 'iven point o! !uture time may &e derived &y anti-lo' $al$ulation" Calculate reCuired rate of c'ange Cor indi$ators %ith an e3pli$it tar'et, i"e" those sele$ted !or monitorin' Goals 1-0 and Goal B, Tar'et 10

rL U -RL)RT.1)-2010-T. K 1 rL U 0

<here RL is tar'et value -!or year 2010. and RT is indi$ator value !or last availa&le year i! tar'et has already &een rea$hed, i"eA

RT c RL !or indi$ators o! %hi$h values have to de$rease RT Z RL !or indi$ators o! %hi$h values have to in$rease Cor indi$ators re7uirin' trend reversal the re7uired rate o! $han'e is not relevant o Classi!i$ation o! de$ision has to &e &ased on histori$al rate o! $han'e alone

Cut2offs Tar'et is $onsidered to have &een a$hieved i! indi$ator has rea$hed a $ertain pre-de!ined a&solute value $alled J$ut-o!! value" The rationale !or havin' a $ut-o!! value is as !ollo%sA o Redu$in' e"'" $hild mortality rates &y 2)* !rom some already a$hieved lo% levels mi'ht &e tremendously $ostly o 6revents $ountries)re'ions or areas that sli'htly slip &a$( !rom hi'h a$hievement &ein' $lassi!ied as Jre'ressin' Cut-o!!s as appli$a&le to di!!erent indi$ators are 'iven in the !ollo%in' Ta&le

i3

Indicators Proportion of population >elo poverty line Proportion of under eig't c'ildren Proportion of population undernouris'ed Primary enrolment ratio-,=R. Proportion of pupils reac'ing grade 3 Primary completion rate Primary girls2>oys ratio Secondary girls2>oys ratio 0ertiary girls2>oys ratio C'ild mortality rate-+0MR. Infant mortality rate Maternal mortality rate -I5 prevalence 0( prevalence 0( deat' rate "orested land cover Protected areas Per capita car>on dio<ide emissions Per capita C"C consumption A of population it'out access to ater A of population it'out access to sanitation

MDG target Reduce >y 'alf Reduce >y 'alf

Cut2off 3A 3A

Reduce >y 'alf

3A

100 100

;3A ;3A

100 100 100 100 Reduce >y 2@4 Reduce >y 2@4 Reduce >y 4@4 Reverse prevalence Reverse prevalence Reverse incidence Reverse loss Reverse loss Reverse emissions

;3A ;3A ;3A ;3A 43 per 1D000 live >irt's 43 per 1D000 live >irt's 23 per 100D000 live >irt's decrease decrease decrease increase increase decrease

Reverse consumption Reduce >y 'alf

decrease 3A

Reduce >y 'alf

3A

Appendix 3
Addressing MDGs in 12th Plan
MDG G#&+SD 0&RG%0S &/D 120- P+&/ *20122 2019, Important 12th Plan Schemes I/DIC&0#RS 0&RG%0S GOAL : ERADICATE E!TREME POVERTY AND HUNGER TARGET : Hal"e# $et%ee& 99' a&( )' 5# t*e p+,p,+ti,& ,- pe,ple %*,se i&.,/e is less t*a& ,&e (,lla+ a (a0 -.' 6overty ;ead$ount Ratio 1. ;ead-$ount ratio ,ational Cood #e$urity per$enta'e o! population &elo% o! $onsumption poverty to Mission the national poverty line. Rashtriya Irishi :i(as GoMana &e redu$ed &y 10 ,ational Rural =mployment per$enta'e points over the #$heme -MG,R=G4. pre$edin' estimates &y the /' 6overty Gap ratio Indira 4%as GoMana end o! 12th !ive year plan" ,ational Rural Eivelihood 2. Generate 00 0' #hare o! poorest 7uintile in Mission national $onsumption million ne% %or( ,ational +r&an Eivelihood opportunities in the nonMission RaMiv 4%as GoMana !arm se$tor and provide s(ill $erti!i$ation to e7uivalent num&ers durin' the T%el!th Cive Gear 6lan" TARGET ): Hal"e# $et%ee& 99' a&( )' 5# t*e p+,p,+ti,& ,- pe,ple %*, s1--e+ -+,/ H1&2e+ 4" 6revalen$e o! under%ei'ht *" Redu$e under-nutrition Inte'rated Child $hildren under three years o! a'e" amon' $hildren a'ed 0K* Development #$hemes years to hal! o! the ,C;#-* -ICD#. levels -,C;# -* estimates under nutrition &elo% * years at 40F, hen$e the 12th CG6 is to redu$e it to 20F &y 201B." GOAL ): ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION TARGET 3: E&s1+e t*at# $0 )' 5# .*il(+e& e"e+0%*e+e# $,0s a&( 2i+ls ali4e# %ill $e a$le t, .,/plete a -1ll .,1+se ,- p+i/a+0 s.*,,li&2 >" ,et =nrolment Ratio in primary 4" Mean Gears o! #$hoolin' #arva #hi(sha 4&hiyan edu$ation to in$rease to seven years" ,ational 6ro'ramme B" 6roportion o! pupils startin' ,utritional #upport to Grade 1 %ho rea$h Grade 0 6rimary =du$ation -Mid Day 1"Eitera$y rate o! 10-24 year olds Meal. GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER E5UALITY AND EMPO6ER 6OMEN TARGET 7 :Eli/i&ate 2e&(e+ (ispa+it0 i& p+i/a+0 a&( se.,&(a+0 e(1.ati,&# p+e-e+a$l0 $0 )''5# a&( i& all le"els ,- e(1.ati,& &, late+ t*a& )' 5 D" Ratio o! 'irls to &oys in primary, 0" =nhan$e a$$ess to #arva #hi(sha 4&hiyan se$ondary and tertiary edu$ation hi'her edu$ation &y ,ational 6ro'ramme -Gender 6arity Inde3 -G6I o! G=R. $reatin' t%o million ,utritional #upport to 6rimary 3i

Addressing MDGs in 12th Plan


MDG G#&+SD 0&RG%0S &/D I/DIC&0#RS in 6rimary, #e$ondary and Tertiary edu$ation. 10" Ratio o! literate %omen to men, 10-24 years old" 11" #hare o! %omen in %a'e employment in the nona'ri$ultural se$tor 12" 6roportion o! seats held &y %omen in ,ational 6arliament" 120- P+&/ *20122 2019, Important 12th Plan Schemes 0&RG%0S additional seats !or ea$h =du$ation -Mid Day Meal. a'e $ohort, ali'ned to the Rashtriya Madhyami$ s(ill needs o! the e$onomy" #hi(sha 4&hiyan >"=liminate 'ender and Rashtriya +$hhtar #hi(sha so$ial 'ap in s$hool 4&hiyan enrolment -that is, ,ational Mission !or &et%een 'irls and &oys, =mpo%erment o! <omen in$ludin' and &et%een #Cs, #Ts, Indira Gandhi Matritav #ahyo' Muslims and the rest o! GoMana the population.

GOAL 7: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY TARGET 5 : Reduce >y t o2t'irdsD >et een 1;;0 and 2013D t'e 1nder2 "ive Morality Rate -0'+nder- Cive Mortality Rate B" Redu$e IMR to 20 &y the ,ational ;ealth Mission -1' In!ant mortality rate end o! the T%el!th Cive in$ludin' ,R;M -5' 6roportion o! 1 year-old Gear 6lan -&y 201B" -MDG Inte'rated Child $hildren immuni/ed a'ainst tar'et is to redu$e it to 2B Development #$hemes -ICD#. measles per 1000 live &irths &y 2010." GOAL 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH TARGET 8 :Re(1.e $0 t*+ee 91a+te+s# $et%ee& 99' a&( )' 5# t*e /ate+&al /,+talit0 +ati, -2' Maternal mortality ratio 1" Redu$e MMR to 1 per ,ational ;ealth Mission -3' 6roportion o! &irths attended 1,000 live &irths, -ie MMR in$ludin' ,R;M &y s(illed health personnel at 100 per 100000 live Inte'rated Child &irths. &y the end o! the Development #$hemes -ICD#. T%el!th Cive Gear 6lan -&y ,ational Mission !or 201B" -MDG 'oal is to =mpo%erment o! <omen redu$e it to 10D &y 2010." in$ludin' Indira Gandhi Matritav #ahyo' GoMana GOAL 8: COMBAT HIV:AIDS# MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES TARGET 7 :Ha"e *alte( $0 )' 5 a&( $e21& t, +e"e+se t*e sp+ea( ,- HIV:AIDS -4' ;I: prevalen$e amon' ,ational 4ID# 9 #TD Control pre'nant %omen a'ed 10-24 6ro'ramme years -5' Condom use rate o! the $ontra$eptive prevalen$e rate Condom use to overall $ontra$eptive use amon' $urrently married %omen,10-4D years, per$ent . -5.' Condom use at last hi'h ris( se3 - Condom use rate amon' non re'ular se3 partners 10-24 years . -5B' 6er$enta'e o! population 3ii

Addressing MDGs in 12th Plan


MDG G#&+SD 0&RG%0S &/D 120- P+&/ *20122 2019, Important 12th Plan Schemes I/DIC&0#RS 0&RG%0S a'ed 10-24 years %ith $omprehensive $orre$t (no%led'e o! ;I:)4ID# TARGET ;: Ha"e *alte( $0 )' 5 a&( $e21& t, +e"e+se t*e i&.i(e&.e ,- /ala+ia a&( ,t*e+ /a<,+ (iseases 21" 6revalen$e and death rates ,ational :e$tor 2orne asso$iated %ith Malaria Diseases Control 6ro'ramme 22" 6roportion o! population in Revised ,ational T2 Control Malaria ris( areas usin' e!!e$tive 6ro'ramme Malaria prevention and treatment measures - 6er$enta'e o! population $overed under use o! residuary spray in hi'h ris( areas. 2*" 6revalen$e and death rates asso$iated %ith Tu&er$ulosis" /1' 6roportion o! Tu&er$ulosis $ases dete$ted and $ured under D8T# GOAL 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY TARGET 9: Integrate t'e principle of sustaina>le development into country policies and programmes and reverse t'e loss of environmental resources! /5' 6roportion o! land area D" In$rease 'reen $over -as ,ational 4!!orestation $overed &y !orest measured &y satellite 6ro'ramme -,ational Mission !or 2>" Ratio o! area prote$ted to ima'ery. &y 1 million Green India. maintain &iolo'i$al diversity to he$tare every year durin' sur!a$e area" the T%el!th Cive Gear 6lan" ,ational CCC $onsumption phase out plan

2B" =ner'y use per unit o! GD6Rupee. 21" Car&on Dio3ide emission per $apita and $onsumption o! 8/one -depletin' Chloro!luoro Car&ons - 8D6 tons.

2D" 6roportion o! the ;ouseholds usin' solid !uels TARGET ': Hal"e# $0 )' 5# t*e p+,p,+ti,& ,- pe,ple %it*,1t s1stai&a$le a..ess t, sa-e (+i&4i&2 %ate+ a&( $asi. sa&itati,& *0" 6roportion o! population %ith 10" =nsure 00 per $ent o! ,ational Rural Drin(in' sustaina&le a$$ess to an improved rural population has a$$ess <ater 6ro'ramme %ater sour$e, ur&an and rural to 40 lp$d piped drin(in' ,irmal 2harat 4&hiyan *1" 6roportion o! population %ith %ater supply, and 00 per 3iii

Addressing MDGs in 12th Plan


120- P+&/ *20122 2019, Important 12th Plan Schemes 0&RG%0S $ent 'ram pan$hayats a$hieve ,irmal Gram #tatus &y the end o! T%el!th Cive Gear 6lan TARGET : (y 2020D to 'ave ac'ieved a significant improvement in t'e lives of at least 100 million slum d ellers @a%aharlal ,ehru ,ational +r&an Rene%al Mission RaMiv 4%as GoMana GOAL ;: DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP =OR DEVELOPMENT TARGET ; : I& .,,pe+ati,& %it* t*e p+i"ate se.t,+# /a4e a"aila$le t*e $e&e-its ,- &e% te.*&,l,2ies# espe.iall0 i&-,+/ati,& a&( .,//1&i.ati,&s 4B" Telephone lines and $ellular 11" In$rease rural tele ,ational = Governan$e and su&s$ri&ers per 100 population density to B0 per $ent &y 4$tion 6lan the end o! T%el!th Cive 41 4" Internet su&s$ri&ers per 100 Gear 6lan" population MDG G#&+SD 0&RG%0S &/D I/DIC&0#RS a$$ess to improved sanitation, ur&an and rural 14B' 6ersonal $omputers per 100 population

3iv

&ppendi< 2 4 MDG indicators ?Data @ Programme sources


MDG I/DIC&0#R 6roportion o! population &elo% poverty line -F. 6overty Gap Ratio MDG 1A =radi$ate =3treme 6overty and ;un'er Data @ Programme Source 6lannin' Commission "urt'er details #pe$ial releases on the &asis o! ,##8 $onsumption data #pe$ial releases on the &asis o! ,##8 $onsumption data

6lannin' Commission

#hare o! 6oorest Quintile in ,ational Consumption 6roportion o! under%ei'ht $hildren &elo% * years -F.

,##8

Ministry o! ;ealth and Camily <el!are

,ational Camily ;ealth #urvey

,et =nrolment Ratio in primary 'rade -F. MDG 2A 4$hieve +niversal 6rimary =du$ation 6roportion o! 6upil startin' Grade 1 %ho rea$hes Grade 0 Eitera$y rate o! 10-24 year olds Ratio o! 'irls to &oys in primary, se$ondary, tertiary edu$ation -Gender 6arity Inde3 o! G=R. MDG *A 6romote Gender =7uality and =mpo%er <omen

M)o ;uman Resour$es Development M)o ;uman Resour$es Development

Distri$t In!ormation #ystem on =du$ation Distri$t In!ormation #ystem on =du$ation

8)o Re'istrar General o! India M)o ;uman Resour$es Development

Census

MDG 4A Redu$e Child Mortality

CemaleA Male litera$y rate o! 10-24 year olds #hare o! %omen in %a'e employment in the non-a'ri$ultural se$tor -F. +nder !ive mortality rate -per 1000 live &irths. In!ant Mortality rate -per 1000 live &irths.

Census

,##8

8)o Re'istrar General o! India 8)o Re'istrar General o! India

#ample Re'istration #ystem Report #ample Re'istration #ystem 2ulletin 9 Report

3v

MDG

I/DIC&0#R 6roportion o! 1 year old $hildren immuni/ed a'ainst measles Maternal mortality ratio -per 100,000 live &irths. 6er$enta'e o! deliveries assisted &y s(illed personnel ;I: 6revalen$e amon' pre'nant %omen a'ed 10-24 years - F . Condom use rate o! the $ontra$eptive prevalen$e rate -Condom use to overall $ontra$eptive use amon' $urrently married %omen, 104D yrs, per$ent. Condom use at last hi'h ris( se3 -Condom use rate amon' nonre'ular se3 partners 10-24 yrs. -F. 6er$enta'e o! 6opulation a'ed 104D years %ith $omprehensive $orre$t (no%led'e o! ;I:)4ID# 4nnual parasite in$iden$e rate -Malaria. Death rates asso$iated %ith Malaria Deaths due to T2 per 100,000 population 6roportion o! Tu&er$ulosis Cases Dete$ted and Cured under D8T#

Data @ Programme Source M)o ;ealth and Camily <el!are

"urt'er details ,C;#, DE;#, Covera'e =valuation #urvey -G8I+,IC=C-200D.

8)o Re'istrar General o! India Ministry o! ;ealth and Camily <el!are

#pe$ial Report o! #ample Re'istration #ystem ,ational Camily ;ealth #urvey, Distri$t Eevel ;ousehold #urvey ;I: #entinel #urveillan$e #urveys, D)o 4ID# $ontrol -,4C8. ,ational Camily ;ealth #urvey

MDG 0A Improve Maternal ;ealth

Ministry o! ;ealth and Camily <el!are

Ministry o! ;ealth and Camily <el!are, D)o 4ID# $ontrol

M)o ;ealth and Camily <el!are, D)o 4ID# $ontrol

;I: #entinel #urveillan$e #urveys, D)o 4ID# $ontrol -,4C8.

MDG >A Com&at ;I:)4ID#, Malaria and 8ther Diseases

M)o ;ealth and Camily <el!are, D)o 4ID# $ontrol

2ehavioural #urveillan$e #urveys, D)o 4ID# $ontrol -,4C8.

Dire$torate o! ,ational :e$tor 2orne Disease Control 6ro'ramme M)o ;9C< Dire$torate o! ,ational :e$tor 2orne Disease Control 6ro'ramme M)o ;9C< M)o ;ealth and Camily <el!are, M)o ;ealth and Camily <el!are, Dire$torate o! Revised ,ational T2 Control 6ro'ramme

#urveillan$e Data

#urveillan$e Data

<;8 Report KGlo&al Tu&er$ulosis Control #u$$ess Rate amon' ne% #Vve $ases *F.Revised ,ational Tu&er$ulosis Control 6ro'ramme Reports

3vi

MDG

I/DIC&0#R 4rea $overed under !orests as per$enta'e o! 'eo'raphi$al area Ratio o! 4rea 6rote$ted to Maintain 2iolo'i$al Diversity to #ur!a$e 4rea 6er Capita =ner'y Consumption

Data @ Programme Source M)o =nvironment and Corests

"urt'er details

M)o =nvironment and Corests

C#8, M8#6I

=ner'y $onsumption data availa&le !rom #tate =le$tri$ity 2oards International ener'y a'en$y 8/one $ell

G84E BA =,#+R= =,:IR8,M=,T4E #+#T4I,42IEITG

Car&on Dio3ide emissions per $apita -MT. Consumption o! 8/one-depletin' Chloro!luoro Car&ons -8D6 Tons. 6roportion o! the ;ouseholds +sin' #olid Cuels ;ouseholds %ith sustaina&le a$$ess to an improved %ater sour$e, -F. ;ouseholds %ithout a$$ess to sanitation -F. #lum population as per$enta'e o! ur&an population

M)o =nvironment and Corests M)o =nvironment and Corests

8)o Re'istrar General o! India

Census

8)o Re'istrar General o! India ,##8 8)o Re'istrar General o! India ,##8 8)o Re'istrar General o! India ,##8 Tele$om Re'ulatory 4uthority o! India

Census

Census

Census

G84E 1A Develop a 'lo&al partnership !or development

Telephone lines and $ellular su&s$ri&ers per 100 population Internet su&s$ri&ers per 100 population

Tele$om Re'ulatory 4uthority o! India

3vii

&ppendi< 3

&>>reviations

4C#M - 4dvo$a$y Communi$ation and #o$ial Mo&ili/ation 4I= - 4lternative 9 Innovative =du$ation 4,C - 4nti ,atal Care 4,M - 4u3iliary ,ursin' Mid%i!ery 46I - 4nnual 6arasite In$iden$e 46I6 - 4nnual 6ro'ramme Implementation 6lan 4RI -4$ute Respiratory In!e$tions 4RT - 4nti Retroviral Treatment 4R<#6 - 4$$elerated Rural <ater #upply 6ro'ramme 4#;4 - 4$$redited #o$ial ;ealth 4$tivist 4<C - 4n'an%adi Centres 2eM8C - 2asi$ =mer'en$y 8&stetri$ Care 26E - 2elo% 6overty Eine 2## - 2ehavioural #urveillan$e #urvey C=m8C - Comprehensive =mer'en$y 8&stetri$ Care C=# -Covera'e =valuation #urvey CCC - Chloro Cluoro Car&ons C;C - Community ;ealth Centre CMI# - Computeri/ed Mana'ement In!ormation #ystem CR#6 - Central Rural #anitation 6ro'ramme C#C - Community #anitary Comple3es CTC - Car&on Tetra Chloride D2T - Dire$t 2ene!it Trans!er DG;# - Dire$tor General o! ;ealth #ervi$es DI#= - Distri$t In!ormation #ystem on =du$ation DE;# - Distri$t Eevel ;ousehold #urvey D8T# - Dire$tly 8&served Treatment, #hort Course =22 - =du$ationally 2a$(%ards 2lo$(s =CC= - =arly Childhood Care and =du$ation =D6T - =arly $ase Dete$tion and 6rompt Treatment =G# - =du$ation Guarantee #$heme =Q4# - =3ternal Quality 4ssessment #$heme =<# - =$onomi$ally <ea(er #e$tions CD4 - Corest Development 4'en$y CDI - Corei'n Dire$t Investment C8G#I - Cederation o! 8&stetri$ and Gyne$olo'i$al #o$iety o! India CR+ - Cirst Re!erral +nits
3viii

CG6 - Cive year 6lans GD6 - Gross Domesti$ 6rodu$t G=R - Gross =nrolment Ratio GIM - Green India Mission G8I - Government o! India G6I- Gender 6arity Inde3 G6# - Glo&al 6ositionin' #ystem ;2,C - ;ome 2ased ,e% 2orn Care I4G - Indira 4%as GoMana ICD# - Inte'rated Child Development #ervi$es ICTC - Inte'rated Counsellin' and Testin' Centre I=C - In!ormation, =du$ation 9 Communi$ation IGM#G - Indira Gandhi Matritva #ahyo' GoMana IMR - In!ant Mortality Rate IM,CI - Inte'rated Mana'ement o! ,eonatal and $hild illness I6+ -Inter parliamentary union I#6s - Internet #ervi$e 6roviders IT - In!ormation Te$hnolo'y @CMC - @oint Corest Mana'ement Committee @,,+RM - @a%aharlal ,ehru ,ational +r&an Rene%al Mission @##I - @anani #hishu #ura(sha Iarya(ram @#G - @anani #ura(sha GoMana I#G - Iishori #ha(ti GoMana E;: - Eady ;ealth <or(er EIG - Eo%er In$ome Group E#4# - Ei!e #avin' 4naestheti$ #(ills MCT# - Mother Child Tra$(in' #ystem MDG - Millennium Development Goals MDM# - Mid Day Meal #$heme MDR - Maternal Death Revie% MDR T2 -Multi Dru' Resistant T2 MG,R=G4 - Mahatma Gandhi ,ational Rural =mployment #$heme M;RD - Ministry o! ;uman Resour$e Development MI# - Mana'ement In!ormation #ystem MM6 - Mission Mode 6roMe$ts MMR - Maternal Mortality Ratio M,6 - Mo&ile ,um&er 6orta&ility MR6 - Mi3ed Re!eren$e period MT6 - Medi$al Termination o! 6re'nan$y ,4C8 - ,ational 4ID# Control 8r'anisation ,4C6 - ,ational 4ID# Control 6ro'ramme ,4M6 - ,ational 4nti-Malaria 6ro'ramme ,46 - ,ational 4!!orestation 6ro'ramme
3i3

,46CC - ,ational 4$tion 6lan on Climate Chan'e ,24 - ,irmal 2harat 4&hiyan ,2CC - ,e%&orn 2a&y Care Corners ,2#+ - ,e%&orn #ta&ili/ation +nits ,eG6 - ,ational e-Governan$e 6lan ,=R - ,et =nrolment Ratio ,C;# - ,ational Camily ;ealth #urvey ,C#M - ,ational Cood #e$urity Mission ,G6 - ,irmal Gram 6uras(ar ,IC - ,ational In!ormati$s Centre ,MC6 - ,ational Malaria Control 6ro'ramme ,M=6 - ,ational Malaria =radi$ation 6ro'ramme ,6CDC# - ,ational 6ro'ramme !or 6revention and Control o! Can$er, Dia&etes, Cardiovas$ular Diseases and #tro(e ,6=G=E - ,ational 6ro'ramme !or =du$ation o! Girls at =lementary Eevel ,6-,#6= - ,ational 6ro'ramme o! ,utritional #upport to 6rimary =du$ation ,RD<6 - ,ational Rural Drin(in' <ater 6ro'ramme ,R;M - ,ational Rural ;ealth Mission ,REM - ,ational Rural Eivelihood Mission ,## - ,ational #ample #urvey ,##I - ,avMat #hishu #ura(sha Iarya(ram ,TC6 - ,on -Tim&er Corest 6rodu$t ,T6 - ,ational Tele$om 6oli$y ,+EM - ,ational +r&an livelihood Mission ,:2DC6 - Dire$torate o! ,ational :e$tor 2orne Disease Control 6ro'ramme 8)o RGI - 8!!i$e o! Re'istrar General o! India 8D6 - 8/one Depletin' 6otential 8D# - 8/one Depletin' #u&stan$es 8R# - 8ral Rehydration #olution 64 - 6rote$ted 4reas 6D# - 6u&li$ Distri&ution #ystem 6=C - 6er-$apita =ner'y Consumption 6GR - 6overty Gap Ratio 6;C - 6rimary ;ealth Centre 6;CR - 6overty ;ead Count Ratio 6E;I: - 6eople Eivin' %ith ;I: 6MDT - 6ro'rammati$ Mana'ement o! Dru' Resistant T2 66TCT - 6revention o! 6arent to Child Transmission 6RI - 6an$hayati RaM Institution R4G - RaMiv 4%as GoMana R=DD - Redu$in' =missions !rom De!orestation and Corest De'radation RG#=4G - RaMiv Gandhi #$heme !or =mpo%erment o! 4doles$ent Girls RI:G - Rashtriya Irishi :i(as GoMana
33

RM,C; - Reprodu$tive Maternal ,e%&orn and Child ;ealth RM#4 - Rashtriya Madhyami( #hi(sha 4&hiyan R,TC6 - Revised ,ational Tu&er$ulosis Control 6ro'ramme RR= - Red Ri&&on =3press RT= - Ri'ht to =du$ation RTI - Reprodu$tive 9 Tra$t In!e$tions R<# - Rural Drin(in' <ater #$hemes #24 - #(illed 4ttendan$e at 2irth #G#G - #%arnMayanti Gram #%aroM'ar GoMana #E<M - #olid and Ei7uid <aste Mana'ement #, - #ta!! ,urse #,C+ - #pe$ial ,e% 2orn Care +nit #R#- #ample Re'istration #ystem ##4 - #arva #hi(sha 4&hiyan #TI - #e3ually Transmitted In!e$tions #<4, - #tate <ide 4rea ,et%or(s TDR T2 - Total Dru' Resistant T2 TR4I - Tele$om Re'ulatory 4uthority o! India T#C - Total #anitation Campai'n TT8 - Tele$ommuni$ation Tari!! 8rder +0MR - +nder Cive Mortality Rate +4 - +r&an 4rea +== - +niversal =lementary =du$ation +M# - +r&an Malaria #$heme +,D2 - +nited ,ations De$ade on 2iodiversity +,DG - +nited ,ations Development Group +R6 - +ni!orm Re!eren$e 6eriod +T - +nion Territory :;,D - :illa'e ;ealth and ,utrition Day :<#C - :illa'e <ater and #anitation Committee LLLL

33i

&ppendi< 8
1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 0a>le name Poverty -ead Count Ratio Poverty Gap Ratio S'are in national consumption for t'e poorest Cuintile class of MPC% Proportion of 1nder eig't C'ildren*J 4yrs, Gross %nrolment Ratio /et %nrolment Ratio and Survival Rate Percentage literates among yout' and "emale +iteracy rate= Male +iteracy rate Gender Parity Inde< *GPI, 2010211 Gender Parity Inde< for %nrolment in PrimaryD Secondary and 0ertiary Grades Percentage s'are of females in age employment *regular age@salaried and casual la>ours, in t'e non2agriculture sector according to usual status *psMss, 0rends in 1nder "ive Mortality Rate 1nder "ive Mortality Rate 2012 0rends in Infant mortality Rate Infant Mortality Rate 2012 Percentage of #ne year old C'ildren immunised against Measles 0rends in Maternal mortality ratio 0rends in Maternal Mortality RatioD Maternal Mortality Rate and +ife 0ime Ris) Percentage of deliveries assisted >y a s)illed 'ealt' professional 0rend in &ntenatal care and institutional delivery -I5 prevalence among pregnant omen aged 13224 years Condom use at rate of t'e contraceptive prevalence rate *Condom use to overall contraceptive use among currently married omenD 1324; years Condom use rate of t'e contraceptive prevalence rate among currently married omenD 1324; years %stimated ne -I5 infections *in 13M years population, /um>er of People +iving it' -I5@&IDS *P+-&, receiving first line &R0 %stimated &dult -I5 prevalence 0rend of estimated &IDS Deat's from 200:22011 0rend in Malaria incidence and deat's Revised /ational 0u>erculosis Control Programme 2 0otal Patients Registered and Deat's reported under t'e programme Prevalence and 0reatment outcomes of 0( cases "orest Cover in States@10s in India ? 2011 Percentage of "orest to total geograp'ic area Details of Protected &reas in India Percentage of 'ouse'olds it' access to improved sources of drin)ing ater Percentage of 'ouse'olds it' access to improved sanitation 0elep'one per 100 Population 2 1r>an @ Rural *0ele2 Density, Pg!no <<iii <<iv <<v <<vi <<vii <<viii <<i<2<<< <<<i <<<ii2<<<iii <<<iv2<<<v

11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D *0 *1 *2 ** *4 *0

<<<vi <<<vii <<<viii <<<i< <l2<li <lii <liii <liv <lv2<lvi <lvii <lviii <li< l +i lii liii liv2l<i l<ii2l<iii l<iv2l<v l<vi l<vii l<viii2 l<i< l<< l<<i l<<ii2l<<iii

0a>le 1= Poverty -ead Count Ratio *0endul)ar Met'odology, +i)ely ac'ievement target 2013 2013 1"2B 24"1B 2B"B2 *1"B> 2B"*4 21"D> **"0* *1"14 *D"12 20">> D"*4 1"20 0"0D D"1D 10"D1 1D"11 D"1B 20"01 B"1B 1D"*> B"DD 10"1B **"20 *2"1B 11"2D 2B"00 >"10 1B"B> *1">0 21"B1 1>"42 20"4* 2D"D* *B"B0 1"1> 21"BD 20"40 0"00 1*"2D 12"B0 *2"D> 2D"11 B"20 1D"14 1"*> 11"41 14">2 1D"B2 1"0D 1>"00 D"D1 20"10 10"D> 10"0* 11"14 20"*4 2D"11 10"D1 1D"*B 20"4> 20!94 24!;0

S!/o! 1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D *0

States@1!0!Os 4ndhra 6radesh 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chhattis'arh Delhi Goa GuMarat ;aryana ;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir @har(hand Iarnata(a Ierala Madhya 6radesh Maharashtra Manipur Me'halaya Mi/oram ,a'aland 8disha 6udu$herry 6unMa& RaMasthan #i((im Tamil ,adu Tripura +ttar 6radesh +ttara(hand <est 2en'al &ll India #our$eA 6lannin' Commission

1;;0 est 1;;42;4 2004203 2011212 4D"B4 44"> 2D"D D"2 >*"01 04"0 *1"1 *4">B 0B"D2 01"1 *4"4 *1"D1 >2"21 >0"0 04"4 **"B4 01"*2 00"D 4D"4 *D"D* 1>"4D 10"B 1*"1 D"D1 1D"B1 20"1 20 0"0D *D">2 *B"1 *1"1 1>">* 40"02 *0"D 24"1 11"1> *1"B2 *4"> 22"D 1"0> *1"B4 2>"* 1*"2 10"*0 >0"B4 >0"B 40"* *>"D> 00"11 4D"0 **"4 20"D1 *0"01 *1"* 1D"B B"00 4*"0B 44"> 41"> *1">0 00"10 4B"1 *1"1 1B"*0 B0"40 >0"1 *1 *>"1D 4*"0B *0"2 1>"1 11"1B 10"DD 11"1 10"* 20"4 20"00 20"4 D 11"11 0D">* 0D"1 0B"2 *2"0D *1"2B *0"D 14"1 D">D 22"1* 22"4 20"D 1"2> *D"44 *1"* *4"4 14"B1 *1"DD *1"1 *1"1 1"1D 00"20 44"> 21"D 11"21 *1"0B *2"D 40"> 14"00 00">B 41"4 40"D 11"2> *1"11 *2 *2"B 2D"4* 40"D2 *D"4 *4"* 1D"D1 49!:0 43!4 49!2 21!;

RRIII

0a>le 2= Poverty Gap Ratio for 2004203 I 2011212 *MRP Consumption Distri>ution, Rural 1r>an S!/o! States 2004203 2011212 2004203 2011212
1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D *0 4ndhra 6radesh 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chhattis'arh Delhi Goa GuMarat ;aryana ;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir @har(hand Iarnata(a Ierala Madhya 6radesh Maharashtra Manipur Me'halaya Mi/oram ,a'aland 8disha 6udu$herry 6unMa& RaMasthan #i((im Tamil ,adu Tripura +ttar 6radesh +ttara(hand <est 2en'al &ll India >"DB1 B"401 B"0** 12">B1 1*">D* 1"D20 0"001 D"*41 4"B2D 4"221 2"101 11"110 >"00B 4"*>1 12"0B4 11"D*D 0"B0> 1"*D1 *"410 1"011 1B"*>D *"DD1 *"B00 B"00D 0">2* B"42D D"0BB D"1>4 0"BDB B"D22 ;!843 1"> D"BD 0"BD >"24 1"D1 1"BD 0"B4 *"2B 2"01 1"0* 1"D1 >"11 *"2> 1"0D 1"** 4">0 >">4 1"01 B"01 *"B0 B"01 *"B1 1"11 *"21 0"D> 2"4B 2"1B 0">1 1"20 *"B 3!03 4"11* 4">*B 4"24* 11"420 B"20* 1"DD4 4"2DB *"D22 4"D* 1"0>> 2"122 0"BB >"1D1 4"042 1"0D >"4BD 0"11B 2"1 1 0"0*D D">0* 1"**1 *"1B1 0"B4B *"*0 4"0D* *"101 B"102 0"01> 0"21B 8!09: 0"1B 4"D* *"1* >"1 0"2 1">2 0"B 1">4 1"B> 0"B> 0"D0 4"10 *"0D 0"1* *"1> 1"00 >"14 1"4> 0">2 1"B> *"10 0"14 1"0> 1"0> 0"40 1"1 1"B2 0"2D 1"00 2"B 2!9

#our$eA 6lannin' Commission

RRI:

0a>le 4= S'are in national consumption for t'e poorest Cuintile class of MPC% */SS 200;210, Sr!no 1RP Rural &ll India ;!41 1 4ndhra 6radesh D"0D 2 4runa$hal 6radesh 1"1D * 4ssam 11"0B 4 2ihar 10"DB 0 Chhatis'arh D"1> > Delhi 10"01 B Goa 10"44 1 GuMrat 10">D D ;aryana 1">D 10 ;ima$hal 6radesh D"** 11 @ammu 9 Iashmir 10"1> 12 @har(hand 10">0 1* Iarnata(a 10"1B 14 Ierala B"0D 10 Madhya 6radesh D"20 1> Maharashtra D"D> 1B Manipur 1*"*2 11 Me'halaya 12">> 1D Mi/oram 10"D1 20 ,a'aland 12">> 21 8disha D"B> 22 6unMa& D"01 2* RaMasthan 11"1D 24 #i((im 10"12 20 Tamilnadu 10"14 2> Tripura 11"D1 2B +ttara(hand D 21 +ttar 6radesh 10"44 2D <est 2en'al 10"BD *0 4ndaman 9 ," Island 11"41 *1 Chandi'arh B"44 *2 Dadra 9 ,a'ar ;aveli 11"1D ** Daman 9 Diu D"D* *4 Ea(shad%eep 1"B0 *0 6udu$herry 10"00 #our$eA ,ational #ample #urvey 8!!i$e State @ 10 MRP Rural ;!93 D"BD D"1 11"41 11"21 11"10 10"24 11"00 10">0 D"0D D"14 11">2 11"* 10"D* 1"12 D">1 10"00 1*"BB 1*"1 12"1B 1*"11 10"2> D"B1 11"> 10"B* 10"2> 11"D4 B"1 11"1D 11"4 11"*1 0"1B 11"B* D"0* D"*B 11"22 MMRP Rural ;!:3 10"1* 1"01 11"11 11">B 10"10 12"0> 11"2* 10"B* D"0D 10"41 11"*4 11"BD 10"1D 1"12 D"01 10">2 1*"01 12"10 11"> 1*"14 10"24 D"B0 11"10 10"> 10"11 11"D* B"D 11"12 11"01 10"DD >"10 1*"1* D"D> 10"4 11"1>

1r>an 8!;9 B"1* B"B B"1* 1"1B B"> B"01 B"B2 B"D4 B"0> >"> D"2> B"*2 B"41 0"*2 B"24 >"44 11"01 10"0> D"1* 10"0> B"24 B"42 B"1* 10"B1 1"0B 1"DB 1"02 B">1 >"DB D">2 4">1 1*"11 10">D 1"B0 D"04

1r>an 9!11 B"4> 1"2 B"B1 1">4 1"24 B"*D D"0D 1"11 B"04 >"D D"4 B"4> >"1> >"B4 B"*4 >"10 12"1 10"0* 10"02 11"*D B"*D B"0> 1">1 11"04 1"21 D"21 1"0> B"21 B"1> 1"14 0"4* 11"4 D"*1 10"*> B">

1r>an 9!21 B"0D B"1> B"*0 1"01 B"1* B"B1 D"01 1"4D B"*1 >"14 D"0B B"41 B"4* >"B* B"11 B"0> 11"D1 D"11 D">4 10"20 B"B1 1"0* 1"0* D"14 1"24 1">4 1"*1 B"4B B"1> D"4B 0"D> 11"2B 12"02 D"0> B">1

RR:

0a>le = 4 Proportion of 1nder eig't C'ildren*J 4yrs, Sr!no! S0&0%S@10s 1;;0 estimated 1;;22;4 1;;:2;; 2003208

1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D

4ndhra 6radesh 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chhattis'arh Delhi Goa GuMarat ;aryana ;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir @har(hand Iarnata(a Ierala Madhya 6radesh Maharashtra Manipur Me'halaya Mi/oram ,a'aland 8disha 6unMa& RaMasthan #i((im Tamil ,adu Tripura +ttar 6radesh +ttara(hand <est 2en'al India #our$eA ,C;#, M)o ;C<

44"41 21">2 4*"41 4D"21 >0"12 *1"0D 21"D0 42"12 21">0 40"*0 *>"04 41"1B 41"21 22"20 4*"B0 02"24 1D"** *2"02 1D"2B 1B"*> 04"0B *D">> 40"*> 1*">B 42"11 42">B 0>"B1 42"*1 0>"11 32!00

42"D *2"1 44"1

*>"2 2D"* 42"B *1 *1"4

4>"4 22"1 4B"* 1D"1 *>"D 1B"2 11"B 00 *D"D 41"1 40"B 42"1

0*"2 31!3

*4"2 21"D *0"* 02"2 0*"2 2D"D 21"* 41"> 2D"D *>"0 2D"2 01"0 *1"> 21"B 00"1 44"1 20"1 21"> 1D"1 11"1 00"* 24"B 4>"B 10"0 *1"0 *B"* 41"1 *>"* 40"* 42!9

2D"1 2D"B *0"1 04"D 4B"1 24"D 21"* 41"1 *1"2 *1"1 24 04"> **"* 21"2 0B"D *2"B 1D"0 42"D 14"2 2*"B *D"0 2*"> *>"1 1B"* 20"D *0"2 41"> *1"B *B"> 40!4

+i)ely target 2013 ac'ievement 2013 22"1B 22"21 20"00 14"*1 2D"41 21"B4 0D"00 24">4 41"02 *0"0> 11"01 1D"04 10"D2 14"40 *D"12 21"41 4*"2D 14"*0 2>"B1 20"1B 11"14 11"2B 0D"*> 24"0D 20"0D 24"14 20"04 11"12 >D"10 21"1B 20"*D 2>"12 20"0* D">B 44"1B 1>"01 1*"0* D">* 2B">> 1">1 **"D1 2B"04 14"BD 1D"1* *4"D1 22">1 20"24 >"14 11"0> 21"44 *0"*> 21"*4 **"11 21"*D 2>"12 21"1D 21"BD 21"00 42!:3 28!00

RR:I

0a>le 3= GR#SS %/R#+M%/0 R&0I# *G%R, &ll Categories Sr! /o! States@ 1nion 0erritories 1 4ndhra 6radesh 2 4runa$hal 6radesh * 4ssam 4 2ihar 0 Chhattis'arh > Goa B GuMarat 1 ;aryana D ;ima$hal 6radesh 10 @ammu 9 Iashmir 11 @har(hand 12 Iarnata(a 1* Ierala 14 Madhya 6radesh 10 Maharashtra 1> Manipur 1B Me'halaya 11 Mi/oram 1D ,a'aland 20 8disha 21 6unMa& 22 RaMasthan 2* #i((im 24 Tamil ,adu 20 Tripura 2> +ttar 6radesh 2B +ttara(hand 21 <est 2en'al 2D 49, Islands *0 Chandi'arh *1 D9, ;aveli *2 Daman 9 Diu ** Delhi *4 Ea(shad%eep *0 6udu$herry I/DI& #our$eA Ministry o! ;uman Resour$es Development

Classes I25 (oys Girls DD">1 DD"*1 114"01 1B>"D2 D*"01 D0"0B 1*1"** 12*">4 120"00 11D"DD 10>"D1 101"02 11D"*D 121"42 D0">2 100"22 10D"10 10D"*> 101"2B 111"B1 140"1B 141"40 100"22 104"12 D1"*1 D1"41 1*1"21 1*D">> 100"4D 10*"B4 1D0"B1 111"*> 1D*">> 1D>"*1 1D1"B* 110"0* 10*"B* 102"BB 111"B* 120"11 10D"11 101"** 110"2D 10D"04 1>4"42 101"B0 111"01 112"0> 1*4"D1 1**"2B 12*"10 1*0"*0 10B"10 110"1B D1"40 D*"D2 1B"04 14"D0 B1"0D B1"01 104"*0 10B"0* B>"0* 12">2 120"DB 12D">4 11"44 10"14 104"12 102"2B 113!4; 118!8;

0otal DD"0* 110"B1 D4"*1 12B">1 122"11 104"2B 120"** D4"D1 10D"22 10D"1D 14B"1* 104">1 D1"4* 1*0"24 104">0 1D2"0D 1D4"D1 110"D0 10*"2B 11D"40 101"B> 10D"D4 1>1"0D 111"B> 1*4"10 12>"11 101"D0 D2">> 1>"2* B1"*0 100"0D BD"20 12B">> 11"10 10*"0> 118!01

33vii

0a>le 8= /et %nrolment Ratio and Survival Rate Sr!no State@1ts /et %nrolment Ratio= Primary +evel 200:20; >>"1* BD"*D B2"B> DB"D> B0"D1 D0">4 0>"2B 1>"0* B1"0D D1"10 D0"2 D1">1 >0"21 14"00 1B"D1 D0"02 10"1D 0D">D D1"04 DD"* D1"21 14"01 ;:!3; 200;210 B1"DD 10"22 B*"0> 12"0> D*"01 01"B> 10"1 B*"01 11"D1 DB"11 DD"2* >0"41 1>"D> 11"01 D>"4 1>"B >*"00 1D"> DD"1D DD"10 D0">D 1>"02 ;:!2: 2010211 B0"D* 10">1 BB"0> 10"0 D>"2D 01"*B 10"B* B0"B1 D0"1> D0"** DD"10 >>"** B1"2* 11"2> DD"4* 10"D1 1D"41 1B"*1 D1"10 D4"11 11"D4 ;;!:; Ratio of enrolment of Grade 5 to I 200;210 10"*> 41"11 B0"0B 0B"B0 10">> D>"D1 1B"0 D2"D1 D1"0* 1>"14 11 >2 DB"D0 BB"01 D0"B0 0>"01 00"01 B0">> >D"0* 1>"4B D1"00 >*"04 D1"04 D2">0 BD"10 11"B2 >1"1 9:!0: 2010211 10"04 42"02 >2"*> >D"1D 10"11 D4"B> D2">4 DD">B 11"*0 D4"D1 DD"11 12"*B B*"1 D>"1B 12">4 D>"BD >0"02 02"DB >2"11 B0"00 12"42 10"14 >*"B1 BB"BD D0"41 14"0B BD"B2 B2"1 :1!82 2011212 1>"2B 00"21 >*"0D 10"0D D1"*1 DB"> 1D"D 1D"04 D>"BB B>"0D B>"01 DB"4* D>"*> >1"D0 40">1 >4"B> B4"24 1B"14 1B">1 B*">* D*"22 12"10 10"D1 B4">D :8!03

1 2

49, Islands 4ndhra 6radesh * 4runa$hal 6radesh 4 4ssam 0 2ihar > Chandi'arh B Chattis'arh 1 Dadra 9 ,a'ar ;aveli D Daman 9 Diu 10 Delhi 11 Goa 12 GuMarat 1* ;aryana 14 ;ima$hal 6radesh 10 @ammu 9 Iashmir 1> @har(hand 1B Iaranata(a 11 Ierala 1D Ea(shad%eep 20 Madhya 6radesh 21 Maharashtra 22 Manipur 2* Me'halaya 24 Mi/oram 20 ,a'aland 2> 8disha 2B 6udu$herry 21 6unMa& 2D RaMasthan *0 #i((im *1 Tamil ,adu *2 Tripura ** +ttar 6radesh *4 +ttara(hand *0 <est 2en'al &ll States #our$eA DI#= Clash #tatisti$s 2011-12

33viii

Table 7 : Percentage literates among youth (15-24 year olds) and Female : Male literacy rate

Sr.no.

State Name

1 92 83 87 84 83 88 72 67 57 83 70 76 84 93 84 74 74 77 65 75 79 75 80 72 88 63 85 69 88 75 69 75 66 85 73 50 79 57 88 89 91 88 89 71 82 73 86 68 79 71 90 92 87 75 84 89 85 89 74 74 69 92 97 79 89 82 94 92 90 96 90 83 62 78 86 77 83 93 93 88 98 98 98 80 89 81 92 94 92 96 98 94 97 94 91 86 91 92 92 94 73 78 73 90 99 98 100 62 78 65 86 84 77 90 80 100 93 97 92 96 92 85 70 82 88 82 84 80 87 83 89 97 95 98 97 43 69 53 80 67 55 77 64 86 96 97 97 97 100 97 97 97 93 93 95 96 93 96 53 78 63 77 80 73 87 79 84 55 87 68 84 78 64 90 74 89 85 90 87 88 91 88 93 96 91 75 89 81 88 89 85 93 87 95 0.84 0.94 0.63 0.68 0.62 0.92 0.79 0.94 0.9 1 0.89 1 0.86 0.87 0.63 0.78 0.78 0.74 0.82 78 90 83 88 90 87 93 90 90 0.87 85 89 81 88 89 83 93 88 89 0.96 81 85 81 87 90 89 91 89 91 0.95 89 95 92 94 98 97 99 98 97 0.94

Jammu & Kashmir

% literates among youth: Census 2001 all female male rural urban 68 57 78 63 83 0.98 0.98 0.89 0.94 0.91 0.95 0.71 0.84 0.71 0.97 0.86 0.98 0.96 1 0.96 0.99 0.96 0.91 0.72 0.86 0.93 0.84 0.88

% literates among youth: NSSO (2007-08) all female male rural urban 88 83 93 87 94

Female : Male literacy rate (15-24years) Census 2001 NSSO 2007-08 0.73 0.89

Himachal Pradesh

Punjab

Chandigarh

Uttaranchal

Haryana

Delhi

Rajasthan

Uttar Pradesh

10

Bihar

11

Sikkim

12

Arunachal Pradesh

13

Nagaland

14

Manipur

15

Mizoram

16

Tripura

17

Meghalaya

18

Assam

19

West Bengal

20

Jharkhand

21

Odisha

22

Chhattisgarh

23

Madhya Pradesh

24

Gujarat

33i3

Table 7 : Percentage literates among youth (15-24 year olds) and Female : Male literacy rate

Sr.no.

State Name

25 67 90 74 80 93 97 98 88 94 93 84 72 87 86 80 91 83 91 94 92 95 99 98 99 99 99 93 92 96 93 95 97 96 98 94 100 84 93 85 93 97 95 99 96 98 98 99 98 99 100 100 100 99 100 0.9 0.96 0.97 0.81 96 97 96 97 97 96 98 100 95 0.99 0.99 91 94 94 91 94 95 94 97 92 0.97 74 86 75 89 89 85 93 87 95 0.86 65 82 68 86 87 82 92 84 94 0.79 85 93 87 92 95 92 97 94 96 0.91 48 80 60 89 85 63 99 83 97 0.6 0.64 0.95 0.89 0.91 1.01 0.98 1 0.96 0.98 0.99 0.88

Daman & Diu

% literates among youth: Census 2001 all female male rural urban 86 79 89 84 90

% literates among youth: NSSO (2007-08) all female male rural urban 98 93 100 97 100

Female : Male literacy rate (15-24years) Census 2001 NSSO 2007-08 0.89 0.93

26

Dadra & Nagar Haveli

27

Maharashtra

28

Andhra Pradesh

29

Karnataka

30

Goa

31

Lakshadweep

32

Kerala

33

Tamil Nadu

34

Puducherry

35

A & N Islands

76 68 India Source: Census 2001, NSSO 2007-08

333

0a>le := Gender Parity Inde< *GPI, 2010211 *&ll Categories, Sr! /o! 1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D *0 *1 *2 ** *4 *0 Classes Classes Classes Classes Classes Classes Classes Classes States@1nion 0erritories I25 5I25III I25III IF2F I2F FI2FII IF2FII I2FII 4ndhra 6radesh 1 1 1 1 1 0"D 0"D> 0"DD 4runa$hal 6radesh 0"D> 0"D0 0"D0 0"D* 0"D0 0"D* 0"D* 0"D> 4ssam 1"0* 1"02 1"0* 0"D 1"01 0"1 0"11 1 2ihar 0"D4 0"11 0"D2 0"1 0"D1 0"B0 0"B1 0"D Chhattis'arh 0"D> 0"D4 0"D0 0"D* 0"D0 0"11 0"1D 0"D4 Goa 0"D0 0"D* 0"D4 0"D0 0"D4 1"04 0"DD 0"D0 GuMarat 1"02 0"D1 0"D1 0"BD 0"D0 0"14 0"11 0"D4 ;aryana 1"11 1"0* 1"01 1"1B 1"0D 1 1"0D 1"01 ;ima$hal 6radesh 1 0"D> 0"DD 0"DD 0"DD 0"D1 0"D1 0"D1 @ammu 9 Iashmir 1"0* 0"D> 1"01 0"D4 1 0"D0 0"D0 0"DD @har(hand 1"02 0"DD 1"01 0"D1 1 0"1D 0"D1 1 Iarnata(a 0"DD 0"DB 0"D1 0"D1 0"D1 1"04 1 0"DD Ierala 1 0"D0 0"D1 0"D1 0"D1 1"12 1"04 1 Madhya 6radesh 1"0> 1"02 1"00 0">> 0"DD 0">D 0">B 0"DB Maharashtra 0"D1 0"D4 0"DB 0"D4 0"D> 0"1* 0"1D 0"D0 Manipur 0"D> 0"D* 0"D0 0"D> 0"D0 0"12 0"D1 0"D4 Me'halaya 1"01 1"12 1"04 1"02 1"0* 1"2B 1"01 1"04 Mi/oram 0"D4 0"D4 0"D4 1"04 0"D0 0"D1 1"01 0"D0 ,a'aland 0"DD 1"02 1 1"01 1"01 0"D1 1"01 1"01 8disha 1"01 0"DB 1 0"D* 0"DD 0"12 0"D 0"D1 6unMa& 0"DD 0"D> 0"D1 1"02 0"D1 1 1"01 0"D1 RaMasthan 0"DD 0"1 0"D* 0">D 0"1D 0">* 0">B 0"1> #i((im 0"DB 1"22 1"04 1"12 1"04 1"0B 1"1 1"04 Tamil ,adu 1"01 0"DD 1 1"02 1"01 1"24 1"1 1"02 Tripura 0"DD 0"DD 0"DD 1 0"DD 0"B1 0"D4 0"D1 +ttar 6radesh 1"00 0"D 1 0"11 0"DB 0"BB 0"BD 0"D> +ttara(hand 1"02 1"0B 1"04 0"D0 1"02 0"DB 0"D> 1"02 <est 2en'al 1"0* 1"04 1"0* 1"02 1"0* 0"D 0"D1 1"02 49, Islands 0"DB 0"DB 0"DB 0"D4 0"D> 1"11 1"01 0"D1 Chandi'arh 0"DD 0"D1 0"D> 0"1* 0"D* 1"1 0"D0 0"D> D9, ;aveli 1"0* 1 1"02 0"DB 1"02 0"11 0"D* 1"02 Daman 9 Diu 1"01 1"12 1"0D 1"01 1"0D 1"21 1"11 1"12 Delhi 1"0* 0"D> 1 0"DB 0"DD 0"DD 0"DB 0"DD Ea(shad%eep 0"DD 1"2> 1"0D 1"0B 1"0D 1"12 1"0D 1"0D 6udu$herry 0"D1 0"D* 0"D> 0"D1 0"D> 1"11 1"00 0"D1 I/DI& 1!01 0!;3 0!;; 0!:: 0!;9 0!:8 0!:9 0!;8 #our$eA M)o ;uman Resour$es Development

333i

0a>le ;= Gender Parity Inde< for %nrolment in PrimaryD Secondary and 0ertiary Grades
Gender parity inde< for secondary classes IF 2F 2010211 1 D"D> 1"0* 0"D4 0"D> 0"D0 1"02 1"11 1 1"0* 1"02 0"DD 1 1"0> 0"D1 0"D> 1"01 0"D4 0"DD 0"DB 1"01 0"DD 0"DB 1"01 0"DD 1"00 1"02 1"0* 0"DB 0"1B 0"DD 0"41 1"01 0"D1 0"11 0">1 0"1* 0"B1 1"00 1"10 1"02 0">B 0"D1 1"0* 0">B 1 0"02 1"02 1"02 0"1D 0">B 0"D 0"BB 0"DD 1"1 1"02 1 1"04 1"04 0"D* 0"D* 0"D4 1"02 1 1"0* 0"1* 0"D4 0"0> 1"0* 1"00 0"1B 0">B 0"D 0"B1 1"00 1"1D 0"D1 0"D2 0"D2 0">4 0">0 0">B 1"04 1"0* 1"0B 1"01 0">B 0"D1 0"D0 1"1 1 1"0* 0"1> 1"04 0"01 1"04 1"0> 0"D4 0"11 0"14 0"14 1"04 1"02 0"D4 0"D0 0"D4 0"DB 0">B 0">B 0"B1 0"B0 0"11 0"1* 0"1* 0"1* 0"D4 0"D1 0"D1 0"D1 0">> 0"D4 0"D> 1"02 1"04 1"01 0"D* 1"02 0">D 1"12 1"02 1 0"11 0"D0 1"02 0"D4 0"1* 0"D* 0"D4 0"D1 0"D4 0"DD 0"11 0"D1 0"DB 0"D0 1"1B 0"B1 0"B> 0"BD 0"BD 0"BD 0"B1 0"D1 0"D* 0"D* 0">1 0"11 1"22 0"02 0"B2 0"BD 0"1* 0">1 0"1D 0"2> 1"2 0"0B 0"B0 0"B> 0"B2 0"B4 0"D> 0">1 1"42 1"4D 0"D1 1 1 1 0"D0 1"*B 0">1 0"B1 0"B0 0"B0 0"D* 0"0D 0"41 0"04 0"01 0">2 0"1 0"*1 0"24 0"BB 1"*2 0"11 0"DD 0"D 0"1* 0">1 0"B4 1"12 0"00 0"B4 0"B> 0"D1 0">1 0"00 0"2* 1"01 0"0> 0"12 0"B2 0"B* 0"B4 0"D0 0"01 1"*4 1"*1 0"BD 0"BD 0"BD 0"11 0"D 0"B 0"01 0"12 0"B1 0"1* 0"11 0"D* 0">* 0">B 0">D 0"4D 0"20 0"B> 1"*> 0"11 0"D> 1"00 0"D 0">1 0"B* 1"14 0"4D 0"B> 0"1> 0"1D 0">> 0"B* 0"20 0"DB 0"0D 0"14 0"B2 0"B* 0">D 0"D0 0">0 1"*D 1"0* 0"12 0"10 0"1B 0"D 1 0"0D 0"> 0">* 2004203 2003208 2008209 200920: 2010211 2004203 2003208 2008209 Gender parity inde< for 'ig'er education *tertiary, 200920: 0"01 0"B0 0"01 0"4* 0"B4 1"1D 0"B0 0"D2 1"21 0"D2 0"0> 0"14 1"1 0"BD 0"B0 0"0D 0"DB 0"DD 0"D0 0"*1 1"2 0"B* 0"BD 0"1B 0"1 0">* 0"D 0">2 1"* 1"01 2010211 0"B> 0"01 1"01 0"BB 0"B2 1"1> 0"1 0"B> 1 0"D1 0"10 0"D2 1"*4 0"BD 0"BD 0"1> 1"2D 0"D> 0">0 0"B1 0">2 0"B2 0"10 0"1 0">D 1"14 1"1* 0"BD 1"*D 0"D>

Sr!no 2003208 1"01 0"D 1 0"B0 0"BB 0"D> 0"1B 1"04 1"01 0"D0 0"1> 0"D1 1 0"D> 0"D1 0"D> 0"D1 0"D1 0"D1 0"DB 1"01 0"D0 0"DB 0"DD 0"D0 0"D* 1"0* 0"D> 1 0"1B 0"1D 1"02 1"01 0"DD 1"0> 1"00 1"0D 0"D* 1"00 0"D> 0"D1 1 1 1"01 0"D1 0"D0 0"D0 1"0D 0"D1 0"D> 1 0"D1 1 0"D> 0"D4 0"DD 0"D1 0"D> 0"DB 0"D> 0"DB 0"D> 0"DD 1"01 1"01 0"DB 0"D1 0"1D 1 0"D0 0"D0 1 1 1"04 1"0B 0"1B 0"11 0"DB 0"D1 0"D4 0"D0 0"BB 0"12 1"02 1 0"D 0"D2 1 1 2008209 200920:

State@10

Gender parity inde< for primary classes i2v

2004203

4ndhra 6radesh

1"01

0"1D

4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam

0"DD

2ihar

0"B0

Chhattis'arh

0"D4

Goa

0"D1

GuMarat

0"1B

;aryana

1"0>

0"DD

10

;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu

0"D1

11

Iashmir @har(hand

0"14

12

Iarnata(a

0"D1

1*

Ierala

14

0"D0

13

Madhya 6radesh Maharashtra

18

Manipur

0"D>

19

Me'halaya

1"0*

1:

Mi/oram

0"D*

1;

,a'aland

0"D1

20

8disha

0"DB

21

6unMa&

1"01

22

RaMasthan

0"D*

24

#i((im

0"DD

24

Tamil ,adu

0"D1

23

Tripura

0"D>

28

+ttar 6radesh

0"D4

29

+ttara(hand

1"01

2:

<est 2en'al

0"DD

2D

49, Islands

0"D1

*0

Chandi'arh

0"D

333ii

0a>le ;= Gender Parity Inde< for %nrolment in PrimaryD Secondary and 0ertiary Grades
Gender parity inde< for secondary classes IF 2F 2010211 1"0* 1"01 1"0* 0"DD 0"D1 1!01 0!9; 0!: 0!:2 0!:3 0!:: 0!91 0"DD 0"DD 1 0"D1 0"D1 0"D> 1"1 1"10 1"1> 1"4* 1"0B 0"1* 0!8; 1"1* 1"14 1"0* 1"0* 0"DB 1"* 1"14 1"0* 0"11 0"D1 1"40 1"01 1"12 1"11 1"*1 1"00 0 0"BD 0!8; 0"B* 0"BD 0">B 0">* 0"DB 0"10 2004203 2003208 2008209 200920: 2010211 2004203 2003208 2008209 Gender parity inde< for 'ig'er education *tertiary, 200920: 0 2"DD 1"21 0"04 0"D* 0!9 0"D2 0"1> 2010211 1"14 2"11 0"10

Sr!no 2003208 0"D> 0"1B 1"04 0"D* 0"11 0!;4 0!;4 0!;: 0"1B 0"1B 1"02 0"D4 1 1"02 0"D2 0"1> 0"D1 1"01 2008209 200920:

State@10

Gender parity inde< for primary classes i2v

2004203

41

D9, ;aveli

0"D*

42

Daman 9 Diu

0"11

**

Delhi

1"11

44

Ea(shad%eep

0"1D

43

6udu$herry

0"1B

India

0!;3

M)o ;uman Resour$e Development

333iii

Table 10: Percentage share of females in wage employment (regular wage/salaried and casual labours) in the nonagriculture sector according to usual status (ps+ss)

Sr.no.

State/U.T./All-India urban 22.7 18.4 20.1 8.4 21.1 14.5 26.8 17 13.8 19.8 11.3 19.8 20.1 27.7 19.7 21.9 26 47.2 21.9 22.8 21.7 18.5 14.5 22.6 24.6 23.2 19.6 10.3 16.9 14.8 9.1 17.7 11.9 7.3 22.8 14.9 9.8 17 21 13.5 15.9 21.5 25 14 18.6 13.8 37 26.7 31.4 34.7 14 15.1 14 19.7 19.9 24.3 17.2 14.5 30 25.6 24.6 32.9 13.1 8.2 20.2 19.6 11.1 26.1 21.1 42.9 35.7 8.7 8 17.8 22.6 20.7 20.2 33.7 21.2 19.1 19.8 11.5 34.5 27.3 29.7 24.3 18.1 18.2 15.9 31.9 20 8.7 18.9 16.4 29.3 29 23.4 17.5 20.7 16.1 47.9 31.5 42 13.3 15 21.6 15.5 27.6 20.2 15.3 15.1 18.3 14.6 23.7 22.6 23.2 9.9 13.1 20.4 10.3 15.3 9.3 16.8 20.9 27.5 11.5 17 6.8 11.6 25.2 29.1 15.3 20.3 19 14.6 21.2 29.7 13.4 17.4 11.1 12.5 22.6 29.3 7.9 20 8.3 7.2 17.3 31.9 17.1 21.7 18.7 13.1 23.3 28.3 12 20.4 11.1 9.1 20.9 30.8 18.3 20.1 41.6 30 27.6 14.5 18.4 14.5 22.6 22.2 32.5 33.8 9.1 10 19.1 16.4 9 20.6 13.6 28.7 17.7 12.8 3.4 25.2 5.3 23.5 13.4 13.7 7.1 21.7 10.3 19.4 19.7 13 4.2 23.4 9.9 22.3 17.6 12.6 5.7 28.6 23.3 29.5 16.8 14.9 7.8 29.9 16.5 28.1 13.4 13.2 6.1 29.3 17.1 28.9 14.5 23.5 18.6 27 18.1 19.3 16.2 23.1 17.3 27.5 17.8 19.3 15.6 22.9 16.6 rural+urban rural urban rural+urban rural urban rural+urban

2004203

200;210

2011212

rural

Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh

24.3 18.7

Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Delhi Goa Gujarat

14.9 9.3 20.2 1.4 30.8 18.6

Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala

7.9 14.1 8.1 15.4 22.3 27.4

Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Megahlaya Mizoram Nagaland

25.9 17.5 16.1 19.5 19.4 15.1

1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D

Odisha Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura

20.6 8.8 16.7 21.2 25.5 12

Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh West Bengal

10.6 8.2 18.7

333iv

30 31 32 19.2 23.9 11.7 20.8 15.6 20.3 6.6 20.6 20 17.5 30 26.3 24.8 24 15 26.8 18.2 22.6 15.2 24 19.2 16.4 5.6 5.7 0.6 15.6 3.1 9.7 18.6 3.3 15.5 18.5 16.8 6.6 18.8 21.9 24.7 17 26.2 24.1 25.5 22.6 24.8 5.5 27.9 14.9 26.4 13.9

33 34

A & N Islands Chandigarh Dadra & Nagar Haveli Daman & Diu

18.3 1.1

20.3 13

35

Lakshadweep Puducherry

0 21.6

all-India 17.9 19.2 18.6 19.6 17.6 18.6 19.9 18.7 19.3 Note: Since from the tabulation it is not possible to derive the casual labours in public works separately for agricultural sector and non-agricultural sector, all the casual workers in public works have been included in the non-agricultural sector Source: NSS 61st round on Employment and unemployment 2004-05 NSS 66th round on Employment and unemployment (2009-10) NSS 68th round on Employment and unemployment (2011-12)

333v

0a>le 11= 0rends in 1nder "ive Mortality Rate Sr!no 1;;0 estimate 100 B> 142 1*1 1> 01 110 111 >1 123 1*4 1B"* *2 1*0"* B0"* >1"B 1>"D 2D"* 20"B 1*1 >1 102"> 14 4> B4 ** 10 >B"> 40 1>"0 104"> 141"* DD"* >1 >0 01 84 00 >2 00 14 1D *> 0> 00 4D 3; 41 0D 40 10 12 ** 02 01 4> 33 40 04 40 1* BB 21 1*"1 *1"D 104 D1"B >D"1 10;!4 0D"1 00"4 4>"1 10"1 B>"1 42"4 ;4!; 10"1 1B B0 >B *B 1* >4 >1 *4 B1 0D 0B *2 1;;2 D1"2 B2 142"2 12B"0 1;;: 10"0 D1"1 1D"0 100"1 200; 02 2010 41 2011 40

1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10

B1 4* >D 2B BD *B

B2 *1 >4 20 B* *1

11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D D4 ** 141 B0 >1 100 *0 22 1*> B> 11* 1*> 10* DB 102 102 >D"1 11"1 1*B"> 01"1 0>"1 122 04"B >*"1 104"4 B2"1 114"D B1 >*"* 01"* 122"0

State 4ndhra 6radesh 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chhattis'arh Delhi Goa GuMarat ;aryana ;ima$hal 6radesh India @ammu 9 Iashmir @har(hand Iarnata(a Ierala Madhya 6radesh Maharashtra Manipur Me'halaya Mi/oram ,a'aland 8disha 6unMa& RaMasthan #i((im Tamil ,adu Tripura +ttar 6radesh +ttara(hand <est 2en'al *1 *1

2003 >*"2 1B"B 10 14"1 D0"* 4>"B 20"* >0"D 02"* 41"0 94!4 01"2 D* 04"B 1>"* D4"2 4>"B 41"D B0"0 02"D >4"B D0"> 02 10"4 40"1 *0"0 0D"2 D>"4 0>"1 0D">

+i)ely ac'ievement 2012 2013 target 2013 4* 40 ** 101 20 B0 B0 4B 0B 0* 4> 00 21 2> 2D 14 1B 41 40 *1 41 40 *B 4* 42 2* 32 4; 42 4* *1 40 00 *B *> *1 1* 11 11 B* B0 4D 21 2> 20 *2 2* >B *0 D2 10 11* B >1 >> 40 *4 *0 20 0D 0D *1 11 40 24 20 *4 *4 *2 >1 >0 01 *4 333vi

Source: Office of Registrar General Of India, National Family Health Surveys

0a>le 12= 1nder "ive Mortality Rate 2012 Sr!no State 1 Ierala 2 Tamil ,adu * Maharashtra 4 Delhi 0 6unMa& > Iarnata(a B <est 2en'al 1 4ndhra 6radesh D @ammu 9 Iashmir 10 ;ima$hal 6radesh 11 ;aryana 12 GuMarat 1* @har(hand India 14 Chhattis'arh 10 2ihar 1> RaMasthan 1B 8disha 11 +ttar 6radesh 1D Madhya 6radesh 20 4ssam

0otal 1* 24 21 21 *4 *B *1 4* 4* 4* 41 41 00 32 00 0B 0D >1 >1 B* B0

male 12 2* 2B 2B 2D *0 *B 40 42 40 40 4> 4B 4; 41 04 02 >B >2 >D B1

female 14 2> 21 *0 40 *D *D 4> 40 4> 02 00 04 38 >2 >0 >B B0 B0 B1 10

Rural 1* 21 ** *D *1 40 40 41 4> 4* 02 0> 0* 3: 0B 01 >0 B2 B2 BD 10

1r>an 10 20 20 2> 2> *1 2D *1 *0 *B *D *2 *1 42 40 *D *> 42 4D 4> *B

Source: SRS Report 2012, Office of Registrar General of India

333vii

0a>le 14= 0rends in Infant mortality Rate


1;;0 1;;0 1;;0 1;;0 1;;0 1;;4 2004 2009 200; 2010 2011 2012

Sr!no "emale B0 B0"* B> B0 B* B0"B B1 BB 0> B0"0 *D 4> >0 40"1 B1 >B 0D *4 >B >0 41 2B 04 42 Male 0otal Rural 1r>an 0otal 0otal 0otal 0otal 0otal 0otal 0otal

State

+i)ely ac'ievement 2013

0arget 2013

1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 20"B B2 >D >1"4 :0 20"1 BD B* B0 :8 20"> 04 0* 40"* 30 *"0 >4 B0 0D 94 1> 0B 0D 4D 80 11 *1 42 *> 40

2* 20 20 20

B 24 2* 2* 29

B0 1> 111 01 2D"1 04"*

10 1B 120 >4 2D"1 04"1

*D 10 >1 44 2>"* 4D"4

>B 1> D1 00 2*"1 4B"*

02 11 12 42 1> 0B

*1 11 04 2* 10 04

2* 0 *B 1D 10 11

122 >1 14 01"4 0D 4> DD >* >1 41

12B >> 11 02"2 B0 4>"* 100

>1 40 0D 40"D *B 42 >B

10* 0* 14 2>"1 0D *D"1 11 >2

1* 4D B0 ** 4* *2 B> 4>

4ndhra 6radesh >1 B2 4runa$hal 6radesh BD"0 B1"0 4ssam B* B1 2ihar B4 B0 Chhatis'arh Delhi Goa 22"2 1D"4 GuMarat B0 B* ;aryana BB >2 ;ima$hal 6radesh B0 >2"> India :1 9: 11 @ammu 9 Iashmir 12 @har(hand 1* Iarnata(a >4 B> 14 Ierala 1* 1D 13 Madhya 6radesh 112 110 1> Maharashtra >2 00 1B Manipur 21"0 *B"* 11 Me'halaya 0*"> 00"1 1D Mi/oram 20 ,a'aland 21 8disha 12* 121 22 6unMa& B1 02 2* RaMasthan 11 10 24 #i((im 4*"0 0D"> 20 Tamil ,adu >1 0B 2> Tripura 41"2 00"B 2B +ttar 6radesh 104 D4 21 +ttara(hand 2D <est 2en'al >2 >4 #our$eA #R#, 8!!i$e o! Re'istrar General o! India 01 21 4D 2> 1D 2> 02 21

04 *B >> 01 0D *> 1* 02 00 4B 33 01 41 4B 1* B2 *4 12 0> 2* 21 B1 4* >0 *4 *0 *D >D 41 *B

4D *2 >1 02 04 ** 11 41 01 40 30 40 44 41 12 >B *1 1> 0D *> 2> >0 *1 0D *4 21 *1 >* 41 **

4> *1 01 41 01 *0 10 44 41 40 49 4* 42 *1 1* >2 21 14 00 *B 2* >1 *4 00 *0 24 2B >1 *1 *1

4* *2 00 44 41 21 11 41 44 *1 44 41 *D *0 12 0D 20 11 02 *4 21 0B *0 02 2> 22 2D 0B *> *2

41 ** 00 4* 4B 20 10 *1 42 *> 42 *D *1 *2 12 0> 20 10 4D *0 11 0* 21 4D 24 21 21 0* *4 *2

41 20 21 1B 20 10 ** 21 333viii

0a>le 14= Infant Mortality Rate 2012 Sr!no State 0otal 1 Ierala 12 2 Tamil ,adu 21 * Delhi 20 4 Maharashtra 20 0 6unMa& 21 > Iarnata(a *2 B <est 2en'al *2 1 GuMarat *1 D @har(hand *1 10 @ammu 9 Iashmir *D 11 4ndhra 6radesh 41 12 ;aryana 42 India 42 1* 2ihar 4* 14 Chattis'arh 4B 10 RaMasthan 4D 1> 8disha 0* 1B +ttar 6radesh 0* 11 4ssam 00 1D Madhya 6radesh 0> #our$eA #R# 2012, 8!!i$e o! Re'istrar General o! India

male 10 21 24 24 2B *0 *1 *> *> *1 40 41 41 42 4> 4B 02 02 04 04

female 1* 22 2> 2> 2D *4 ** *D *D 40 4* 44 44 40 4B 01 04 00 0B 0D

Rural 1* 24 *> *0 *0 *> ** 40 *D 41 4> 4> 48 44 41 04 00 0> 01 >0

1r>an D 11 2* 1B 24 20 2> 24 2B 21 *0 ** 2: *4 *D *1 *D *D ** *B

333i3

0a>le 13= Percentage of #ne year old C'ildren immunised against Measles &rea /ame 4ndaman 9 ,i$o&ar Islands 4ndhra 6radesh 2B"0 20"1 1>"2 10"1 40 14"1 B0"1 >D"> BB"1 00"D >0"D B1"1 >1"D 11"2 04"D >0"0 *4"1 B0"2 *B 14"* 40"1 14"> >B"* B2"2 11"4 D*"1 4B"B 12"> >1"1 2B >B"1 D1"D D0 0B"1 11"0 01"B 11"1 D0 >0"0 10 2D"2 10"> D*"> 1D"1 1> D*"* B2"2 0D"0 >4"* >*"* >*"> >2"* >0"* B1"D 14"* D4 D0 1D"2 >0"2 >0"2 11"> BB"D *2"* BB"2 1B"D 1D"B 4B 10"4 0*"* 01"1 12"* >1"4 14"B 02"1 BB"0 BB"0 B0 BB B*"B 11"* BB"2 14"* D4"0 12"0 B0"0 D2"D 1B"D 01 11"1 D4"0 B1"2 D1"2 >0"B B0"0 1>"* B1"* D0"00 4B"> B2 12"1 10"2 1B"D D2 0B"B 14"0 >1"D 10"1D D1"2 >0"* D0"D> D1"0B 100 100 100 1D"D 1>"2 100"00 100"00 B0">D 11"4 B0"0 BB"2 >B"0 100 100 100 100 1*"* 1>"1 B0 BB"0 >B"1 B2 >2"0 14"* B> 20"1 1*"* 1*"1 2>"D 21"4 40"4 24"> 2D >>"* >2"> *0"D 44"2 *B"4 >4"4 04"2 1B"* BD"D 14"4 D0">0 D0"D 1*"1 D4"1 B2"> >D D4"0 1*"* D1"0 B1 BD"D D>"2 100"00 100 B1"14 1D"00 100"00 1B"1> B1"21 100 100 100 100 100 100 B*"1 **"> 41 >B"1 *1"1 *1"* 41"2 D1"20 10"1 01"2 100"00 100"00 01"D4 B1">1 100 100 100 100 100 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chandi'arh Chhattis'arh Dadra 9 ,a'ar ;aveli Daman 9 Diu Delhi Goa GuMarat ;aryana 0*"B >4"B >1"4 00"1 BD"B B4 12"B >D"4 11"> D0"4 100"00 100 1D D4"1 10"0 >D">> 100 1;;22;4 1;;:2 ;; 2000 2001 2002 2002204 2003 200; 20032 2008 20092 0: +i)ely ac'ievement 2013 target 2013

Sr!no

4 0 > B 1

D 10

11 12 1*
;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir @har(hand Iarnata(a Ierala Ea(shad%eep Madhya 6radesh Maharashtra Manipur

14

13 1> 1B 11 1D

20 21

3l

22
100"00

Me'halaya

1*"2

1B"B

*>"B

00

2D"D

4*"1

02"0

B4"1

100

0a>le 13= Percentage of #ne year old C'ildren immunised against Measles Sr!no 1;;:2 &rea /ame 1;;22;4 2000 2001 2002 2002204 ;; 2003 >D"0 2B"* 11"D D4"2 1B"0 >1"2 1*"1 11"B 0D"D 42"1 B2 B2"> 8:!1 *B"B B1"> B4"B 3:!: D2"0 42"B >B"0 D2"0 D0"> 01"B 4B 12"1 12"1 8;!8 B1 1D"1 1B"* >0"> 1B"1 11"4 >1"1 02"1 B0"1 BB"2 94!1 >>"0 11"1 B1"D 02"2 10"4 11"1 20032 2008 200; 20092 0: +i)ely ac'ievement 2013 >D"14 100"00 100"00 100"00 DD"14 D0"B0 100"00 100"00 100"00 >1"12 100"00 100"00 :;!08 Mi/oram ,a'aland 8disha 6udu$herry 6unMa& RaMasthan #i((im Tamil ,adu Tripura +ttar 6radesh +ttara(hand <est 2en'al India 42!2 30!9 30!4 33!8 81!4 38 42"0 02"4 >0"4 >0"1 1> >0 0> 04"> >2"1 04"4 **"0 2D"B 21"1 2D"2 *0"4 21"D 44"> 4*"4 >*"> 4D"B B1"0 D0"2 10"1 D1"B D>"1 D4"D 01"D B1"D 12"0 1*"2 *1"* 2B"1 **"> *4"0 24"B *0"D >4"1 B>"0 >0"1 B>"* BB"> B>"1 1D"* D*"* D>"4 40"2 04 0D"1 >2"1 >B"1 10 1D"> *2"4 02"0 *1"2 >0"1 B1 >2"B 14"2 0D"0

target 2013 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D

*0

*1

*2

**

*4

200B-01A DE;# -*, 200D A Covera'e =valuation #urvey, +,IC=C and G8I

3li

0a>le 18= Maternal mortality ratio *Deat's per 100D000 live >irt's,

&rea /ame 2D1 044 B*> *01 101 *1> 2BD 100 1D0 1D0 4D1 1*0 *>1 1D> >BB B> B0B 2>4 40: 1>> *4> 210 001 1*1 >0> *0* 4;: 1>D 424 1BB 001 1>B 0*D 211 429 14D *01 1B1 440 1*4 01B 1D4 401 441 40B *BD **0 1*0 *0* 1D2 *11 111 440 141 234 1*> 240 100 >0* 2*4 412 *** B20 1DB 100 >>B 449 2>D 104 201 1B2 *11 DB *0D 140 212 104 401 401 1DB 0>1 0*1 220 *D1 400 202 1B> 2>> 14D 1D0 4D0 *B1 1B2 1>2 221 110 104 410 *12 1>0 11> 21* D0

1;;0 est

1;;9

1;;92;:

1;;;22001

2001204

2004208

1 2 * 4 0 > B 1

li)ely ac'ieve target 200920; 2010212 ment 2013 2013 1*4 110 D* B4 *D0 *21 *0D 1*> 2>1 21D 1>B 114 141 122 10> BB 10* 14> 10B 2B 1B1 144 12D BD 11 >> 00 B0 2*0 1B 2*0 100 200 D0 2D2 11B 19: 1D2 B* 202 1*0 210 B> 242 10 140 101 0D 121 1* 111 4D 214 1>B 10;

4ndhra 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar)@ahr(hand GuMarat ;aryana Iarnata(a Ierala Madhya 6radesh) Chhatis'arh D Maharashtra 10 8disha 11 6unMa& 12 RaMasthan 1* Tamil ,adu 14 +ttar6radesh) +ttara(hand 10 <est 2en'al India #our$eA 8)o Re'istrar General o! India

3lii

0a>le 19= 0rends in Maternal Mortality RatioD Maternal Mortality Rate and +ife 0ime Ris)

Sr!no 1 2 * 4 0 8 B 1 D 1*0 *0* 20> 1D2 *11 111 440 141 140 11B 10 D"2 104 201 1>0 1B2 *11 DB *0D 1B 2*0 1*> 100 200 D0 2D2 D"* 24"D 1*"44 1*"B 4B"0 >"> 0*"1 >"D 1D"0 10"2 11"* *0"D 0"> 40 0"2 1> B"1 D 20"2 0 21"B >"> 0"* 0"D 0"0 0"0 1"> 0"2 1"D 0"* 0"2 0"B 0"4 0"4 1"2 0"2 1"4 0"*

Maternal Mortality Ratio *MMR, Maternal Mortality Rate +ife 0ime Ris) 2004208 200920; 2010212 2004208 200920; 2010212 2004208 200920; 2010212 104 1*4 110 10"D D"1 >"D 0"4 0"* 0"2 410 *D0 *21 *4"4 2B"0 21"0 1"2 1 0"1 *12 2>1 21D *1"4 *0"1 22"1 1"* 1 0"1 1>0 141 122 14"1 12"1 D"0 0"0 0"4 0"* 11> 10* 14> 1B"4 1*"0 11"> 0"> 0"0 0"4 234 212 19: 20!9 18!4 12!4 0!9 0!8 0!4 21* 1B1 144 14 10"1 1"1 0"0 0"4 0"* D0 11 >> 4"D 4"1 *"* 0"2 0"1 0"1 **0 2>D 2*0 *>"D 2B"4 21"1 1"* 1 0"B 0"2 0"> 0"* 0"* 0"D 0"2 1 0"2

&rea /ame 4ndhra 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar)@har(hand GuMarat ;aryana I/DI& Iarnata(a Ierala Madhya 6radesh)Chhattis'arh 10 Maharashtra 11 8disha 12 8ther 1* 6unMa& 14 RaMasthan 10 Tamil ,adu 1> +ttar 6radesh)+ttara(hand 1B <est 2en'al #our$eA 8)o Re'istrar General o! India

3liii

0a>le 1:= Percentage of deliveries assisted >y a s)illed 'ealt' professional Sr!no State 1;;221;;4 1;;:21;;; 200322008 1 4ndhra 6radesh 41"D >0"2 B4"D 2 4runa$hal 6radesh 22 *1"D *0"2 * 4ssam 11 21"4 *1 4 2ihar 24"1 2D"* 0 Chhattis'arh *2"* 41"> > Delhi 0*"1 >0"D >4"1 B Goa 1D"2 D0"1 D4 1 GuMarat 4*"4 0*"0 >* D ;aryana *1"0 42"1 41"D 10 ;ima$hal 6radesh 20"> 40"2 4B"1 11 @ammu 9 Iashmir 42"4 0>"0 12 @har(hand 1B"0 2B"1 1* Iarnata(a 4>"> 0D"1 >D"B 14 Ierala D0"2 D4"1 DD"4 10 Madhya 6radesh 21"D *2"B 1> Maharashtra 0*"1 0D"4 >1"B 1B Manipur *D"D 0*"D 0D 11 Me'halaya *B"D 20"> *1"1 1D Mi/oram >2"2 >B"0 >0"4 20 ,a'aland 11"D *2"1 24"B 21 8disha 1D **"4 44 22 6unMa& 4B"* >2"> >1"2 2* RaMasthan 1D"* *0"1 41 24 #i((im *0"1 0*"B 20 Tamil ,adu >D"* 1*"B D0"> 2> Tripura *2"2 4B"0 41"1 2B +ttar 6radesh 21"1 2B"2 21 +ttara(hand *4"> *1"0 2D <est 2en'al **"D 44"2 4B"> India 44 42!4 48!8 ,C;#, DE;# -200B-01., C=# -200D. 200920: B0"> 41"1 *D"D *1"B 2D"> B1"> D>"B >1"> 0*"2 00"D 01"> 24"D B1"> DD"4 >D"2 4D"D 00"* 21"D >*"* 24"B 00"1 B>"D 02"> 0>"B D0"0 4B"2 *0 *0"2 01"0 32 200; D0"> B1"D >0"0 0*"2 0>"4 14"> DD"1 10"2 >D"* 0*"B 12"D 4B"* 11"4 DD"D 12"D 10"0 12"B >0"2 10"1 4*"1 BD"1 >>"B B0"1 >D"D D1"> 1*"1 >4"2 01"B B2"> 98!2 +i)ely ac'ievement 2013 100 B4"10 B1"B0 00"02 00"4D 1>"*B 100"00 11"*2 B>"B> >D"D0 D0">1 04"** DB"11 100"00 100"00 B4"2D 12"1> 4*"D* B>">1 *1"2B D1"21 14"*B D4"1* D2"10 100"00 B1"10 >>"B1 04"01 B4"21 99!2;

0arget 2013 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

3liv

Table 19: Trend in Antenatal care and institutional delivery Sr!no &t least 1 &/C P 4 &/C State

Institutional Delivery

1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D

4ndhra 6radesh 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chhattis'arh Delhi Goa GuMarat ;aryana ;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir @har(hand Iarnata(a Ierala Madhya 6radesh Maharashtra Manipur Me'halaya Mi/oram

D+-S24 D+-S22 D+-S24 D+-S22 SRS D+-S24 D+-S22 C%S2 *20092 *20022 C%S2 *20092 *20022 *2012, C%S2 *20092 *20022 22 200; 0:, 04, 200; 0:, 04, 200; 0:, 04, DD"0 D0"D D4"0 DB"0 1D"4 1B"D D2"1 D4"* B1"1 >0"D >D"1 1D"> 14"* D1"B D0"D DD"2 D4"1 1D"4 D1"* D*"1 1B"> DB"0 DB"4 D2"* DB"* D*"B D0"1 D1"D >*"1 B4"* 0D"1 BD"> D1"> DD B1"0 1B"2 1>"> 14"* 00"1 D0"2 DD"1 >1"B D1"1 B0"1 00"4 1D"0 01"> >1"0 *B"D B1"D 11"4 D>"D 1B"D 1B"> D1 1B"> 02"2 D1"0 DD"B B4"1 D2"D BB"1 04"> B4"* 00"4 >>"4 **"1 B1"4 1*"4 DB"B 1*"2 >1"> >B"4 1B"0 0B"0 D1"* D0"1 >0"0 12"> 10"0 B1"0 BD"0 4>"* 40 2>"* 01"1 B1"B D0"1 04"1 01"1 0D"4 B*"* *0"0 11"2 D0"2 *4 B4"4 0B"2 *D"0 >2"4 40"D >D"D >4"4 41"* 44"D 1*"> DD"1 B1"1 >*"* 00"* 10"D 40"1 1>"4 DD"D 11 11"D 10 >*"B 1* 4B"> *0"1 2B"0 11 >1"B D>"4 0>"4 4>"1 41"* 04"D 1B"B >0"1 DD"4 4>"D >*"0 41 24"0 00"B *4"1 2>"1 2* 20"2 4D"D D1"2 02"2 *0"1 40"1 B0"0 22"4 01 DB"1 21"2 0B"D 44"> *0"D 02">

42"* B1"1 1D"> 0D"0 41"B >*"* >B"* 11"B 14"2 -

>1"4 1>"1 41"0 B4"0 >B"B >1"1 10"2 B1"> *2"1 4>"0 10 D0"1 D>"1 DD"4 *4"> D2"1 B2 1>"* 01 4*"1 0>"* -

22

Government hospital and 6rivate hospital

3lv

Table 19: Trend in Antenatal care and institutional delivery &t least 1 &/C P 4 &/C Institutional Delivery Sr!no State D+-S24 D+-S22 D+-S24 D+-S22 SRS D+-S24 D+-S22 C%S2 *20092 *20022 C%S2 *20092 *20022 *2012, C%S2 *20092 *20022 24 200; 0:, 04, 200; 0:, 04, 200; 0:, 04, 0*"B 00"> 2D"4 *2"D *0"4 1B"1 D1 D0"* 1>"1 D1"D D1"0 D0"D B1"> B4"> DD :;!8 14 1*"* 0>"> D0"2 D1"D >B"2 >4"2 00"* D>"1 93!2 B0"D 1D"0 >1"1 1D"0 DD"4 12"2 0B"1 >2"> D0"B 94!4 BB"0 B*"4 00"2 1B"* D2"> 1*"1 *1"2 04"1 1*"2 8:!9 04"0 >4"> 2B"> >D"1 D0"> 4*"D 21"1 *2"2 >>"D 4;!: 4B"* >D B0"0 >0"* B0"4 >1"D D1"4 12"> >2"1 0*"0 >D"0 92!; 44"1 >*"1 40"4 4D"0 D4 4>"2 24"0 *0 4D"1 49 *4"4 41"D *1"4 01"> 1>"1 >2"4 22"4 2*"B 4>"* 40!3

20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D

,a'aland 8disha 6unMa& RaMasthan #i((im Tamil ,adu Tripura +ttar 6radesh +ttara(hand <est 2en'al I/DI&

>4"* 10"* **"* 10"1 >B"D -

D>"1 D2"B >>"1 -

24"> 0*"D 2B"D -

>4"> B4"B 30 94!1

#our$eA M)o ;ealth and Camily <el!are, #R# 2012- 8)o Re'istrar General o! India

2*

Government hospital and 6rivate hospital

3lvi

0a>le 20= -I5 prevalence among pregnant omen aged 13224 years *A,

Sr!no 1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D *0 *1 *2 ** *4

State 4 9 , Islands 4ndhra 6radesh 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chandi'arh Chhattis'arh Dadra ,a'ar ;aveli Daman 9 Diu Delhi Goa GuMarat ;aryana ;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir @har(hand Iarnata(a Ierala Madhya 6radesh Maharashtra Manipur Me'halaya Mi/oram ,a'aland 8disha 6udu$herry 6unMa& RaMasthan #i((im Tamil ,adu Tripura +ttar 6radesh +ttara(hand <est 2en'al

2004 0 1"02 0 0 0"2> 0"4* 0 0 0">1 0"*D 1"1B 0"1> 0 0"21 0 0 1"41 0"4* 0"41 0"1> 1"44 0 1"11 2"4* 0"4> 0"*D 0"12 0"10 0 0">2 0"*0 0"42 0 0"*>

2003 0 1"0D 0"04 0 0"0D 0 0"* 0"4* 0 0"41 0 0"1> 0"1 0"10 0 0"01 1"0B 0"*4 0"24 0"D1 0"D2 0 1"10 2"0* 0"00 0"2 0"24 0"01 0"24 0"01 0 0"11 0 0"11

2008 0"14 1"2> 0"11 0"04 0"* 0"40 0"11 0 0 0"01 0"21 0"0> 0"1 0"1 0"0D 0"14 1"02 0"0D 0"2B 0"1 1"0D 0 0"11 1"01 0"01 0 0"1D 0"21 0 0"0 0"4 0"24 0"1 0"2B 0!39

2009 0"1* 0"D1 0 0"11 0"** 0"4* 0"20 0"*D 0"2* 0"20 0"4B 0"44 0"0* 0"00 0"01 0"0B 0"B0 0"42 0"1D 0"B 0"D 0 0"11 1"1* 0"2B 0 0"1* 0"22 0 0"04 0"*> 0"01 0"11 0"*1 0!4;

200: 0 1"10 0"*D 0"0D 0"** 0 0"*2 0 0"22 0"2* 0"B1 0"** 0"22 0"0 0 0"42 0"11 0"1D 0"24 0"0* 0"*1 0 0"> 1"*0 0"*0 0"21 0"*> 0"20 0 0"*0 0 0"2 0"2> 0"11 0!4:

2010211 0 0">> 0"1 0"0B 0"1B 0 0"*1 0 0 0"*4 0"0> 0"*1 0"1D 0"1* 0 0"02 0"> 0"11 0"4 0"* 0"04 0"0B 0">4 0"00 0"40 0 0"*D 0"0* 0"10 0"2D 0 0"2D 0"** 0"11 0!4;

India 0!:8 0!:; Source6 7IV Sentinel Sur$eillance8 &#o .ids %ontrol

3lvii

0a>le 21= Condom use at rate of t'e contraceptive prevalence rate *Condom use to overall contraceptive use among currently married omenD 1324; yearsD percent, Sr!no 1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D *0 *1 *2 ** *4 *0 State 4ndaman 9 ,i$o&ar 4ndhra 6radesh 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chandi'arh Chhattis'arh Dadar ,a'ar ;aveli Daman 9 Diu Delhi Goa GuMarat ;aryana ;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir @har(hand Iarnata(a Ierala Ea(shad%eep Madhya 6radesh Maharashtra Manipur Me'halaya Mi/oram ,a'aland 8disha 6udu$herry 6unMa& RaMasthan #i((im Tamil ,adu Tripura +ttar 6radesh +ttara(hand <est 2en'al India #our$eA ,C;#-*-2000-0>. "emale 2 Current Condom 1se *A, 0"0 2"1 2"* 2"* 2"D

22"D B"0 0"1 11"1 11"0 1 2"B 1"B 0"0 4"1 >"2 4"1 2"4 1"4 2"> * 10"0 0"B 4"1 2"* *"2 1"> 10"B 4"* 3!2

3lviii

3li3

0a>le 22= Condom use rate of t'e contraceptive prevalence rate among currently married omenD 1324; years *percent,

Sr! /o! 1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D

State@1nion 0erritory 4ndhra 6radesh 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chhattis'arh Delhi Goa GuMarat ;aryana ;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir @har(hand Iarnata(a Ierala Madhya 6radesh Maharashtra Manipur Me'halaya Mi/oram ,a'aland 8disha 6unMa& RaMasthan #i((im Tamil ,adu Tripura +ttar 6radesh +ttara(hand <est 2en'al

/"-S24 *2003208, 0"0 2"1 2"* 2"* 2"D 22"D B"0 0"1 11"1 11"0 1 2"B 1"B 0"0 4"1 >"2 4"1 2"4 1"4 2"> * 10"0 0"B 4"1 2"* *"2 1"> 10"B 4"*

/"-S22 *1;;:2;;, 0"B 0"B 1"1 0"> 2"1 1B"0 4"D *"0 >"1 0 4"1 1"1 1 *"1 *"1 4 1"* 1"* 0"D 1"1 0"D 1*"1 *"1 1"0 1"0 1"4 4 >"2 2"D 4!1

/"-S21 *1;;22;4, 0"B 0"B 1"B ,4 ,4 20"0 *"D 1"1 0"2 0"* ,4 ,4 1"2 2"D ,4 2"0 1"2 0"0 0"B 2"1 0"> 1"D 1"0 ,4 1"> 1"> ,4 ,4 1"D 2!4

India 3!2 #our$eA ,ational Camily ;ealth #urveys

0a>le 24= %stimated ne -I5 infections *in 13M years population, Sr!no 1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D *0 *1 *2 ** *4
Source6

State@10

200:
1D,011 121 1,421 1,>4B 4,24D 1,D1> 1>4 >,DD0 >41 1,>12 0,441 >2B 10,2DD 1,1>1 2>* 1,010 1,0D4 2,1*2 *1D >21 11,*40 2,D>D 4,1*1 >> *,21B >4> 1,4B0 B,B04 B,>20 12 200 *1 *0 *1 118D941

200;
11,041 1>1 1,>D* 1,110 4,*B0 2,010 101 >,B00 >4* 1,0D* >,4>1 BB1 D,>D0 D>0 *1B B,*DB 1,044 2,2*1 *1B 0D> 11,1>D *,020 4,0B0 B0 *,1>> B*> 1,11> B,>1* B,0** 12 220 *> *0 ** 113D2:3

2010
1B,4>0 204 2,011 B,1>> 4,412 2,14* 140 >,040 >*B 1,011 B,>0B D01 D,210 1>* *12 >,0B0 1,4** 2,*01 *10 0B* 12,*0> *,1BD 4,4*2 14 2,D2> 1*0 2,411 B,>4B B,*B0 12 2** 41 40 ** 113D031

2011
1>,>0* 20B 2,401 B,BDB 4,0>0 2,2*4 1*2 >,400 >2> 1,010 D,010 1,1D2 D,024 B1D 4>0 0,1D* 1,*04 2,*1B *B> 0>0 12,B0* *,*20 4,*>4 D4 2,B*1 D01 *,011 B,B40 B,21D 12 202 41 4B ** 118D438

4ndhra 6radesh 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chhattis'arh Delhi Goa GuMarat ;ima$hal 6radesh ;aryana @har(hand @ammu 9 Iashmir Iarnata(a Ierala Me'halaya Maharashtra Manipur Madhya 6radesh Mi/oram ,a'aland 8disha 6unMa& RaMasthan #i((im Tamil ,adu Tripura +ttara(hand +ttar 6radesh <est 2en'al 4ndaman 9 ,i$o&ar Chandi'arh Dadar 9 ,a'ar Daman 9 Diu 6udu$herry India 7IV !stimation /0-/

li

0a>le 24= /um>er of People +iving it' -I5@&IDS *P+-&, receiving

first line &R0


Cumulative num>er of P+-& as on Marc' 2014

Sr!no 1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D *0 *1

State 4ndhra 6radesh 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chandi'arh Chhattis'arh Delhi Goa GuMarat ;aryana ;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir @har(hand Iarnata(a Ierala Madhya 6radesh Maharashtra Manipur Me'halaya Mi/oram ,a'aland 8disha 6udu$herry 6unMa& RaMasthan #i((im Tamil ,adu Tripura +ttar 6radesh +ttara(hand <est 2en'al 0otal

&dults 12D0BD 4> 214* 1410> 2>00 *4DD 1220B 10D4 *04B1 *401 2010 1000 *BB1 1>1B4 B0*1 1412 1*04D1 BB>1 2BD 114D *>B> >100 110 10*1D 141*2 B0 >0B0D *04 24D12 1410 140*2 3D;9D032

C'ildren 0DD> 2 112 104 20> 2DD 1*B 11B 1BB4 201 1D4 >1 2>> 0D02 *DD >0> 1D12 0*D 12 14B 11* 210 >1 >01 D*B B *404 D 14>D 104 B10 4D34D43

0otal 1*00B0 41 2200 14D10 2D11 *BD1 1*044 1B11 *2240 *>0D 220D 1111 4044 D2BB> BD*0 D011 14440* 1*00 2D1 1DD> *10D >*10 11* 10DD0 10B>D BB >D21* *1* 2>*11 101D 1411B 8D42D4;9

Source= D@o &IDS Control

lii

0a>le 23= %stimated &dult -I5 prevalence *1324; years of age, Sr!no 1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D *0 *1
*2 ** *4

State@10
4ndhra 6radesh 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chhattis'arh Delhi Goa GuMarat ;ima$hal 6radesh ;aryana @har(hand @ammu 9 Iashmir Iarnata(a Ierala Me'halaya Maharashtra Manipur Madhya 6radesh Mi/oram ,a'aland 8disha 6unMa& RaMasthan #i((im Tamil ,adu Tripura +ttara(hand +ttar 6radesh <est 2en'al 4ndaman 9 ,i$o&ar Chandi'arh Dadar 9 ,a'ar Daman 9 Diu 6udu$herry

200:
0"D1 0"0B 0"04 0"2* 0"24 0"1D 0"0* 0"*1 0"1> 0"11 0"1> 0"04 0">2 0"14 0"01 0"00 1"4* 0"11 0"BB 0"BD 0"*4 0"1> 0"2 0"11 0"*0 0"1B 0"11 0"12 0"2B 0"1 0"22 0"1 0"1* 0"1B

200;
0"10 0"0D 0"00 0"22 0"20 0"2 0"4D 0"*> 0"1> 0"11 0"11 0"00 0"01 0"1* 0"0D 0"0 1"*> 0"1 0"B> 0"B> 0"*> 0"1> 0"1D 0"12 0"*2 0"1D 0"14 0"11 0"20 0"0D 0"24 0"11 0"14 0"1>

2010
0"1 0"11 0"0> 0"21 0"2> 0"21 0"40 0"*4 0"1B 0"11 0"21 0"0> 0"00 0"1* 0"11 0"40 1"2D 0"0D 0"B0 0"B4 0"*1 0"1B 0"11 0"14 0"* 0"22 0"11 0"11 0"24 0"01 0"2> 0"12 0"1> 0"10

2011
0"B0 0"1* 0"0B 0"2 0"2B 0"22 0"4* 0"** 0"1B 0"11 0"20 0"01 0"02 0"12 0"1* 0"42 1"22 0"0D 0"B4 0"B* 0"4 0"11 0"1B 0"10 0"21 0"24 0"22 0"1 0"22 0"01 0"21 0"14 0"11 0"10

India

0!41 0!4 Source6 7IV !stimation /0-/

0!2:

0!29

liii

0a>le 28= 0rend of estimated &IDS Deat's from 200:22011 Sr!no 1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D *0 *1
*2 ** *4

State@10
4ndhra 6radesh 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chhattis'arh Delhi Goa GuMarat ;ima$hal 6radesh ;aryana @har(hand @ammu 9 Iashmir Iarnata(a Ierala Me'halaya Maharashtra Manipur Madhya 6radesh Mi/oram ,a'aland 8disha 6unMa& RaMasthan #i((im Tamil ,adu Tripura +ttara(hand +ttar 6radesh <est 2en'al 4ndaman 9 ,i$o&ar Chandi'arh Dadar 9 ,a'ar Daman 9 Diu 6udu$herry

200:
42,**B 20 2B2 1,>>* 1,D*0 4>0 4D1 11,42> *D1 DB0 1,20> >> 2*,1*> 1,BD2 >0 40,B*4 2,11B *,B0> *BD BB1 4,100 1,*11 0,*1* 20 1*,>1> 202 1>1 10,D1> 14,>2D 24 B1 11 D B4
1;2D414

200;
*1,D1D 24 *04 D,2D4 2,01B 004 42> 11,214 402 DD0 1,404 B* 20,>1> 1,1B0 >D *0,022 2,00D *,B11 *>* B*D 0,*>0 1,1D> 0,02D 21 12,21> 22> 20B 10,>0* 14,014 2* 1B 12 11 04
1:0D;80

2010
*0,2B> *2 *4* D,>>0 2,2B0 440 *00 10,41D *DB 1,014 1,>BB 10* 1>,D2B 1,120 BB 2D,*00 1,DDD *,010 *24 >>> 0,122 1,1>4 0,410 24 10,001 24D 2>0 10,104 14,02B 2* D* 14 1* *D
184D823

2011
*1,*4B 42 *11 D,B00 2,401 4*2 211 D,010 *00 1,020 1,D4B 14> 1*,014 1,B*1 11 2*,B>4 1,D00 *,*24 21> 011 >,**0 1,104 0,2B> 20 1,012 2BD *21 D,4*> 1*,*10 22 102 1B 10 24
149D92;

India

Source6 7IV !stimation /0-/

liv

0a>le 29 *a,= 0rend in Malaria incidence and deat's *200820;, 2009


Malaria Incidence rate *A, (lood Slide %<amination Pf cases Deat's D11D20> 21*1D* *021D20 1101B4 *200D04 41B110 1=V0B 201*240 *DB*2B 4>4B41 **4B0>D D*210D1 0"22 0"00 0"22 0"0* 11"22 4"40 0"02 0"0> 0 0"01 0"BB 0 *"B4 B"4> 0"01 0"B1 0">2 0"21 0"11 1"24 0"*B 0"0> 0 0"0D 0 20044B* D>0D>0D 1"0=V0B 114B20 00141D 1B1BD* 10>20D 001041D 2DD>D2D B140140 >>11 000> 40D02 *01>1 1D2 *4> 2*0>1* *>10D 204> 1B>21 D*111 10>D B>B0D D*DD 141D *10D04 2D00 *2B0D 42 12D*DB *200 D141* >>00B 2401 104000 100> 1410 B11 0 21 D11D4 0B2* 24D 24011 24D>2 >20 B4201 B*1B 21D* **>04B *0 1B>B 1> 220>> >>02 20102 14141 * 10 >* 21 11 10 *4 0 0 0 21 0 0 2> 22B 1 1D2 11D *0 1D1 0 11 1 Malaria cases 0"*1 1*"0> *"D2 1"12 4"21 2"B4 0"B0 1"2B 0"02 0"0> D"2* 0"0> 0"1 0"DD 0"0 0"DD 11 *"D0 4"B B"02 0"0B 0"B1 1"2* 0">0 0"*4 0"2B 0"0 0"00 1"1* 0"*1 0"1 0"04 0"0* 0"02 1"4 0"01 0"02 0"42 0"00 0"4> 0 0"04 0 0 1"*D 0 0"1 0"0> 0"01 0"11 2"4B 0"21 0 4"00 0 0"0> 1"B* 0 0"1> *"12 0"1 0"11 11">2 0"0D 0"01 0"2D 0 Deat's per 100 Malaria Cases Malaria Incidence rate *A, Deat's per 100 Malaria Cases Malaria Incidence rate *A, 0"2B 10"*2 *"02 2"1* *"D1 1"21 0"40 1"40 0"00 0"0B >"1D 0"4 0"1 0"D1 0">4 0"D* 10"*1 0"4B 0"4* B"0D 0"1 0"42 0">*

States@10
Deat's per 100 Malaria Cases 0 0"0 0"24 0"04 0 0"14 0"00 0 0 0 0 0"00 0"21 0"0> 0"24 0"* 0"0> 1"12 2"2* 0"0B 0 0"0> 0

2008

200:

200;
Deat's per 100 Malaria Cases 0"01 0"0B 0"0B 0">0 0"01 0"2 0"0B 0 0 0 0"01 0 0"24 0"0* 0"24 0"0D 0"20 1"2B 0"41 0"00 0 0"0> 2"*1

Sr!no

Malaria Incidence rate *A,

0"*>

4ndhra 6radesh 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam

14"1D

4">

2ihar

1"14

Chhattis'arh

0"00

Goa

1"1

GuMarat

0"11

* 4 0 > B 1 D

1"BD

0"02

10

;aryana ;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir @har(hand

0"04

D"20

Iarnata(a

0">*

11 12 1* 14

0"1

Ierala Madhya 6radesh Maharashtra

0"DD

0"*2

Manipur

2"1>

Me'halaya

10"*1

Mi/oram

4"1D

,a'aland

*">>

8disha

B">B

6unMa&

0"0B

10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2*

RaMasthan

1"10

#i((im

1"1B

lv

0a>le 29 *a,= 0rend in Malaria incidence and deat's *200820;, 2009


Malaria Incidence rate *A, (lood Slide %<amination Pf cases 441 22D02 4* >>0 *>D12 *00> 4 *401 DB 1>D 42> D0000 1%M0: 1 >0 1384394 1111 1D 0 0 1 :4;:99 1 >2 0 0 B4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1144 Deat's B10141D *>1141 201*00 *02B>D0 0**>1D0 1**004 D4*01 >22BD 2412* 00D2*1 4*0 0B>0 141211 004*B 12>4 244*0 14D11 Malaria cases 0"*D >"0> 0"41 2"*B 1"11 2">> 0"*D >"4D 0"*B 0"0* 0 0"00 1!3; 0!0; 1!39 0!09 0 0"0> >"D4 0 0 0 0 0"04 0 0 0"42 0 0 0"1> 0 0 0"40 0 0 2"1* 0 0"11 2 0"12 0 2"20 0 0 0"4B 0 0"21 B"0D 0"2 0 0"** Deat's per 100 Malaria Cases Malaria Incidence rate *A, Malaria Incidence rate *A, 0"1D >"B0 0">1 1"0B 2">0 4"*1 0"4> 0"4B 0"4 0"0* 1"11 0"0B 1!31

States@10

2008

200:

200;

Sr!no

Malaria Incidence rate *A,

Tamil ,adu 0"1* 0 0 0"1* 0"0* 0 0 0 0 0 0 0!1

0"44

Deat's per 100 Malaria Cases 0

Deat's per 100 Malaria Cases 0"01

Deat's per 100 Malaria Cases 0"01 0"20 0 0 0"00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0!09

Tripura

B">

+ttara(hand

0"*1

+ttar 6radesh

2"*2

<est 2en'al

*"0*

49, Islands

2"2B

24 20 2> 2B 21 2D *0 *1

Chandi'arh

0"0D

D 9 , ;aveli

2"D

*2

Daman 9 Diu

0"41

**

Delhi

0"1

*4

Ea(shad%eep

*0

6udu$herry

0"0*

India

1!89

#our$e o! DataA Dire$torate o! ,ational :e$tor 2orne Disease Control 6ro'ramme, Mo;C<, Govt" o! India

lvi

Sr!no

>

Goa 40D1>1

Chhattis'ar h *42>001

2ihar 1**B0B

4ssam 4*0D21B

4runa$hal 6radesh 1D00>*

4ndhra 6radesh

(lood Slide %<aminati on

D120>4*

Malari a cases

2*>1

10220D

1D01

>1*0*

1BD44

***D*

Pf cases

2B0

120010

D**

41**0

0412

2*20D

2010

Deat' s

4B

*>

10*

20

0a>le 29 *>, 0rend in Malaria incidence and deat's *2010214,

Malari a Incide nce rate *A,

0"01

4"44

1"4*

1"0D

D"44

0"*B

Deat' s per 100 Malar ia Cases

0"04 411B22

0"0* *444>41

0"00 1>B0>1

0"00 41*021>

0"0B 1DB>2>

0"0> D*>1B40

(loo d Slide %<a min atio n

111B

1*>1DD

2>4*

4B*DB

1*D00

*4D4D

2011 Mala Pf ria case case s s

1*0

10B4B2

12B*

*4B0B

410>

2401D

Deat's

42

40

1B

(lood Slide %<ami nation

440**1

*B2120D

1D0*0B

*DB**41

100B0B

D42*D>4

1B14

12400>

2>00

2DDDD

1*>1

24>DD

2012 Malar Pf ia case cases s

1B0

D>D24

1*1

200BD

2B1D

10>D0

Deat 's

D0

1*

10

(lood Slide %<amin ation

*>D*00

2B21>>*

14>>>1

*24>02D

1B10D

>4*>002

1212

12*B2

1D44

1B002

00B4

1**01

2014G Mal Pf aria case case s s

114

>>110

0>*

12B01

1>4*

D1*2

Deat 's

1B

11

lvii

Sr!no

12 Iarnata(a D211>>> @har(hand 44*1D BD*> 11 0"41 0"02 D200>20 242*B 2>41 0 D10D1D* 1>4>> 12B1 0 B222>2B 101B0 >44 0

(lood Slide %<aminati on

**1*4D>

Malari a cases

1DD142

Pf cases

1D*0B

Deat' s

1>

0a>le 29 *>, 0rend in Malaria incidence and deat's *2010214,

Malari a Incide nce rate *A,

0"D1

Deat' s per 100 Malar ia Cases

0"01 *441>14

1>0>0*

2011 Mala Pf ria case case s s

B0*02

Deat's

1B

(lood Slide %<ami nation

*B>**2*

1*14B>

2012 Malar Pf ia case cases s

41111

Deat 's

10

(lood Slide %<amin ation

21D*1*4

BB0>0

2014G Mal Pf aria case case s s

2B1*0

Deat 's

11 @ammu 9 Iashmir

4B*2>1

102

4*

0"1B

0 414B04

10D1

40

4D04D0

1>4

*4

40>21>

>12

1>

10 ;ima$hal 6radesh

;aryana 2*400B*

GuMarat 10>1D221

*D*20*

210

11D21

>>001

B>4

1*B2D

2010

B1

0"00

0"11

0">2

0 *>B4DD

0 2D0B*10

0"11 10D>B041

(loo d Slide %<a min atio n

24B

**401

1DB>4

11**

1>112

12B

401011

211*1DD

10B00>1>

21>

2>11D

B>24>

0>D

1041*

2D

*D2024

202B*>1

10021>11

1*0

11220

41D*0

12>

>0*2

1D

lviii

Sr!no

11 Mi/oram **4DD1 Me'halaya 100D4 14>>4 *1 4">> 0"2 21*14D 11>1 1*B* *0 1>1421 D11* D4*B 20 111BDD 100B0 D244 1D

(lood Slide %<aminati on

4*B1>B

Malari a cases

41>42

Pf cases

*D*B4

Deat' s

1B

0a>le 29 *>, 0rend in Malaria incidence and deat's *2010214,

Malari a Incide nce rate *A,

D"0*

Deat' s per 100 Malar ia Cases

0"21 *D1*DB

2014*

2011 Mala Pf ria case case s s

24011

Deat's

0*

(lood Slide %<ami nation

*040B4

201*4

2012 Malar Pf ia case cases s

1D100

Deat 's

02

(lood Slide %<amin ation

*111*B

2121B

2014G Mal Pf aria case case s s

2024D

Deat 's

42

1B Manipur

11BD1>

D4B

41B

0"1

0"42 120>10

B14

*14

11020B

200

1*

BDD0>

110

40

1>

Maharashtr a 1>111D00

1*D1D1

*2*1B

200

0"1>

0"14 1>0D10>*

D>0BB

21401

111

1>0B112D

0101B

111B0

D>

1401B*B1

*B0>1

>111

01

10 Madhya 6radesh

D2*0400

1B1>0

*10D2

*1

0"D4

0"04 DD001*1

D1101

*1D40

10D

D010*>1

B>0*1

240*D

4*

B1>4101

0>1>0

110*4

11

14 Ierala

214*4DB

22DD

2B1

0"11

0"* 210*2BB

1DD*

2B1

2414B00

20*>

2*>

20DB121

1*B0

1D1

1*

2010

(loo d Slide %<a min atio n

li3

Sr!no

Tamil ,adu B1*1>*1

Malari a cases

1B01>

Pf cases

>2*

Deat' s

0a>le 29 *>, 0rend in Malaria incidence and deat's *2010214,

Malari a Incide nce rate *A,

0"22

Deat' s per 100 Malar ia Cases

0"02 B1411DD

221B1

2011 Mala Pf ria case case s s

D20

Deat's

(lood Slide %<ami nation

B>12D1B

111>D

2012 Malar Pf ia case cases s

0B>

Deat 's

(lood Slide %<amin ation

B0>1412

1*0B0

2014G Mal Pf aria case case s s

*BD

Deat 's

24 #i((im

(lood Slide %<aminati on

>02>

4D

14

0"B0

0 >D>D

01

14

>0B4

BB

14

10100

*1

12

2* RaMasthan

1B*2012

00D>*

2**1

2>

0"01

0"00 10D1DB0

042D4

2DB*

40

10D1401

4010D

1*D4

22

>11>1D1

2*100

>B4

>

22 6unMa&

*1404>0

*4BB

B1

0"11

0 *120044

2>D*

>4

2D11B12

1>1D

4*

24421B1

1>0*

24

21 8disha

0240401

*D0>01

*00421

24B

B"00

0"0> 4>00BDD

*01D>1

2110BB

DD

4>1>440

2>2142

24400*

BD

410>121

1BD0B0

1>4D0B

00

20 ,a'aland

112104

4D0D

11BB

14

2"B1

0"21 200020

**>*

D00

214D4*

21D1

121

1D*D41

2041

444

1D

2010

(loo d Slide %<a min atio n

l3

Sr!no

Chandi'arh D1D*0

Malari a cases

*01

Pf cases

>

Deat' s

0a>le 29 *>, 0rend in Malaria incidence and deat's *2010214,

Malari a Incide nce rate *A,

0"*0

Deat' s per 100 Malar ia Cases

0 B0*>1

012

2011 Mala Pf ria case case s s

Deat's

(lood Slide %<ami nation

1>DD1

201

2012 Malar Pf ia case cases s

Deat 's

(lood Slide %<amin ation

*1041

144

2014G Mal Pf aria case case s s

Deat 's

*0

49, Islands 121B>0

2414

10*

2"04

0 DBD4>

1D11

>0B

D0*B2

10*D

>D>

>0DD2

D22

*2*

2D <est 2en'al

(lood Slide %<aminati on

0440*1*

1*4BD0

24>D*

4B

2"41

0"0* 00442B1

>>*>1

10101

1D

010D24>

00BD*

1>>D

*0

441*00B

24**0

22BB

1>

21 +ttar 6radesh

40>>00D

>4>0>

1*12

1"0D

0 41101B1

0>D>1

110B

*D402D0

4B400

B40

*0040B4

411D1

4D0

2B

+ttara(han d 214B>*

1>B2

11*

0"B1

0 24>>41

12BB

12*

2>B01*

1D41

111

20142>

1*00

D2

2> Tripura

**0>01

2*D*D

21204

10

B"24

0"0> 2110B>

1441B

1*112

12

2>111D

110>0

10D10

11**DB

0>B0

0401

20

2010

(loo d Slide %<a min atio n

l3i

*0

*4

**

*2

Sr!no

*1

India 10:89;42;

6udu$herry 1>00D

Ea(shad%eep 440

Delhi 00*D2>

Daman 9 Diu 20002

D9, ;aveli

(lood Slide %<aminati on

>0104

Malari a cases

13;;;:8

1B0

>

201

204

0B0*

Pf cases

:44484

>0

224*

2010

Deat' s

101:

0a>le 29 *>, 0rend in Malaria incidence and deat's *2010214,

Malari a Incide nce rate *A,

1!49

0"2

1"*>

0"00

0"1

1"B>

Deat' s per 100 Malar ia Cases

0!08 10:;8;880

0 241BB1

0 0B1

0 *BB122

0 *110>

0 01D4D

(loo d Slide %<a min atio n

1410838

1D>

41*

2>2

0100

2011 Mala Pf ria case case s s

883004

>

00

2012

Deat's

934

(lood Slide %<ami nation

1!0;%M0:

2**0B1

4B*

*10010

**10B

101000

1089:24

14*

*12

11>

4D40

2012 Malar Pf ia case cases s

3448;3

**

214D

Deat 's

31;

(lood Slide %<amin ation

:;2;2023

110B0*

2B11>1

2D14D

0>>*1

8;4008

10*

*0*

1*

1B0D

2014G Mal Pf aria case case s s

433;88

4D0

Deat 's

2:3

l3ii

Table 28: Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme - Total Patients Registered and Deaths reported under the programme
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

2005

Sr!no

State

Total Patients Registered

Total Died

Mortality Rate

Total Patients Registered

Total Died

Mortality Rate

Total Patients Registered

Total Died

Mortality Rate

Total Patients Registered

Total Died Mortality Rate

Total Patients Registered

Total Died

Mortality Rate

Total Patients Registered

Total Died * 804 20

1
920 107131 5681 0.05 111304 5772 0.05 114624 5844 0.05 114074 6077 47 0.05 775 34 0.04 748 30 0.04 803 27

0.05

0.03 0.05

375 1086 70

19 550 4

0.05

114414

3055

*
2607 32311 61151 2322 28209 391 280 47606 2036 79821 34693 13303 10268 33035 64842 25248 16 74435 138837 7167 3130 0.04 0.05 0 0.00 1182 0.05 4304 0.07 67630 24397 15 80410 142792 1196 0.04 36133 521 0.05 12392 494 1300 4849 1230 0 3121 7680 596 0.04 13611 607 1534 0.04 35591 1567 4480 0.06 80399 4323 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.07 0.05 0.00 0.04 0.05 95 0.05 2104 103 0.05 1177 0.02 49058 1241 0.03 49505 1996 79365 35348 13618 12521 38395 66159 24935 11 80929 139641 21 0.08 337 11 0.03 224 18 0.05 390 8 0.02 443 20 5 1240 113 4266 1623 544 464 1453 4708 1164 0 3052 7966 1149 0.04 27504 1012 0.04 27280 979 0.04 0.05 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.07 0.05 0.00 0.04 0.06 60 0.03 2411 56 0.02 2492 66 0.03 2384 0.04 79619 2612 0.03 84404 2378 0.03 1504 0.05 36766 1561 0.04 38454 1458 0.04 39910 82401 2572 27463 386 326 50693 1897 80575 38241 13743 13164 39569 67744 27019 24 83276 137705 102 0.04 2746 92 0.03 2450 84 0.03 2432

Andama n& Nicobar Andhra Pradesh Arunach al Pradesh 71 1718 2208 50 953 15 16 1420 78 4174 1751 564 410 1297 4881 1155 0 3114 7794

0.06

0.03 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.07 0.04 0.00 0.04 0.06

2360 39788 78510 2764 28658 397 293 50476 2156 77839 36589 14179 13482 39465 68655 26255 13 87823 136135

30 803 1061 41 502 9 8 745 49 2027 839 293 204 639 2589 603 0 1578 4016

Assam

0.05

2346 2949 4 2801 2

141 135 8 108 2

0.04

>

0.03

2478 2353 0

63 104 4

0.04

141

0.05

Bihar Chandig arh Chhatisg arh D&N Haveli Daman & Diu

0.02

10

Delhi

158 4571 7

3 107 7

0.02

11

Goa

0.03

12

Gujarat

0.05

1*

59 380 2 150 8

0.04

14

1731 7708 7 3451 6 1369 7

584

0.04

10

229

0.05

1>

0.04

1B

Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhan d Karnatak a

0.06

11

4478 2617 8 6869 5 2507 4

988 443 6 116 6

0.05

1D

0.00

20

0.04

21

Kerala Lakshad weep Madhya Pradesh Maharas htra

4 7233 5 1445 64

0 309 2 693 6

0.05

Total Patients Registered ** 451 56415 1201 19083 39472 1313 13908 209 155 28253 1017 37493 19554 7372 7224 19633 35281 13189 5 44176 67469

l3iii

Table 28: Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme - Total Patients Registered and Deaths reported under the programme
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

2005

Sr!no

State

Total Patients Registered

Total Died

Mortality Rate

Total Patients Registered

Total Died

Mortality Rate

Total Patients Registered

Total Died

Mortality Rate

Total Patients Registered

Total Died Mortality Rate

Total Patients Registered

Total Died

Mortality Rate

Total Patients Registered

Total Died * 3652 4947 62 113

22
4603 3929 1912 2695 44790 1513 34537 107783 1458 87065 2314 224465 11653 109319 1397498 62545 0.04 1475587 64802 0.04 5032 0.05 107226 5214 0.05 314 0.03 13406 346 0.03 13331 107213 1517333 7822 0.03 245106 8456 0.03 278044 120 0.05 2573 130 0.05 2846 130 9639 417 5268 66212 4682 0.05 86113 4140 0.05 84610 4189 53 0.04 1538 68 0.04 1641 61 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.04 3815 0.04 111700 4069 0.04 112192 4087 0.04 1527 0.04 35875 1585 0.04 37076 1584 0.04 111 0.07 1383 91 0.07 1333 67 0.05 1385 38641 111501 1720 82634 2851 283317 14300 105816 1533309 2276 0.05 49285 2529 0.05 51031 2791 0.05 52145 72 0.03 3079 87 0.03 2984 86 0.03 3614 94 2524 80 1642 4281 87 3973 149 9384 489 5258 66241 73 0.04 2177 73 0.03 2558 86 0.03 2538 90 181 0.05 4857 186 0.04 4639 203 0.04 4591 278 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.04 119 0.03 4885 155 0.03 4293 147 0.03 4239 139 0.03

4639

130

0.03

2*

Manipur Meghala ya

2953

166

0.06

24

1915

70

0.04

2310 3904 49869 1437 40637 112987 1646 82457 2850 277245 14754 102397 1522147

41 36 1327 44 1002 2195 37 2068 65 4338 273 2644 33356

20

Mizoram Nagalan d

0.03

2>

2934 4450 1

92 221 5

0.05

2B

Orissa Puduche rry

0.05

21

0.05

2D

Punjab Rajastha n

1462 3076 4 1043 15

78 148 8 355 3

0.03

*0

0.04

*1

Sikkim Tamil Nadu

1578 9272 5

58 458 9

0.05

*2

0.06

**

87 581 8

0.03

*4

0.03

*0

Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakh and West Bengal

0.04

Total

1429 1760 22 1082 5 1077 41 1293 083

359 478 4 565 85

0.04

Remark - *(Data available only for the period 1st Jan to 30th June 2010). Outcomes are available 13-15 months after initiating a patient on treatment.

**Data for period 1st Jan to 30th June 2011

Source: D/o RNTCP, M/o HFW

Total Patients Registered ** 1544 2440 1192 1880 25395 806 21335 58206 841 41251 1438 146349 7791 52307 775648

l3iv

Table 29: Prevalence and Treatment outcomes of TB cases 2004 Cure rate of new S+ve cases (%) 56.5 134.6 171.4 94 61.1 216.4 89.9 45.7 21.5 284.5 36.4 148.3 148 210.3 26.7 81.1 116.5 77.8 88 89 80 81 91 93 2.9 5.9 4.1 87 88 3.9 83 83 4.1 32 43.1 23.1 30.5 27.4 18.2 4 98.1 81 84 5.3 26.9 85 85 4.8 33.8 32.9 85 85 2.6 56.4 88 81 86 84 87 89 85 78 81 100 83 54 76 83 95 5 27.1 83 87 76 58 88 84 87 85 89 90 91 79 83 100 86 85 95 3.3 45.2 87 88 87 90 2.9 21.3 81 88 3.7 4 4.4 6.9 4.2 2.7 6 4.5 4.8 4.4 5.2 3.8 7.3 5.2 0 4.6 80 82 6.3 29.1 86 88 4.4 85 87 4 47.4 87 88 2.1 84 86 6 34.7 87 89 4.8 34.7 53.7 34.6 19.6 54.9 30.1 31.3 21.7 67.7 33.5 33.2 37.2 52.6 25.9 33.9 29.3 18.7 4 32.8 82 2 40 88 87 86 80 80 85 78 78 82 85 91 88 84 87 89 84 79 83 100 85 Success Rate among new S+ve cases (%) % died of new S+ve cases Prevalence Rate per 100,000 population Cure rate of new S+ve cases (%) % died of new S+ve cases Prevalence Rate per 100,000 population Cure rate of new S+ve cases (%) 2008 2010 % died of new S+ve cases

Sr.No

States/UTs

Prevalence Rate per 100,000 population

A & N Islands

Success Rate among new S+ve cases (%) 84

Success Rate among new S+ve cases (%) 90 89 88 83 88 85 86 78 82 85 92 89 85 89 90 90 82 85 100 88

2 4.7 2.6 4.2 2.9 4.2 4 2.7 0 3 1.9 4 4.9 4.3 2.9 3.5 6.4 4.4 0 3.9

Andhra Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh Assam

Bihar

Chandigarh

Chhattisgarh

Dadra Nagar Haveli Daman & Diu

10

Delhi

11

Goa

12

Gujarat

13

Haryana

14

15

16

Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand

17

Karnataka

18

Kerala

19

Lakshadweep

20

Madhya Pradesh

l3v

Table 29: Prevalence and Treatment outcomes of TB cases 2004 Cure rate of new S+ve cases (%) 86 84 75 85 82 80 25.7 81 87 88 88 19.3 83 92 87 85 86 4.7 87 4 27.5 30.6 92 3.1 31.2 84 4.9 33.6 87 85 79 84 84 88 4.9 29 84 89 2.3 63.3 86 88 3.4 38.1 88 90 86 86 89 88 85 86 87 85 4.4 29.7 84 88 84 84 6.6 4.5 3.5 3 5.7 5.8 4 2.7 4.4 4.6 84 6 30.2 83 87 5.2 84 4.3 34.7 91 91 `1 86 3.5 62.1 88 88 1.5 76 3.9 41 86 87 3.9 54.7 58.4 45.9 31 24.8 37.6 43.4 71.7 31.1 20.7 35.6 36.4 28.8 32.6 85 4.4 38.1 86 86 4.4 45.8 5.3 32.2 84 5.6 30 84 86 80 89 92 83 88 86 88 86 86 89 86 82 84 85 % died of new S+ve cases Prevalence Rate per 100,000 population Cure rate of new S+ve cases (%) % died of new S+ve cases Prevalence Rate per 100,000 population Cure rate of new S+ve cases (%) 2008 2010 % died of new S+ve cases

Sr.No

States/UTs

Prevalence Rate per 100,000 population

21 193.9 152 203.5 97.3 112.6 120.3 78.7 173.4 287.3 150.8 5.1 116.1 94.7 122.4 125.4

Maharashtra

139.9

Success Rate among new S+ve cases (%) 87 86 82 90 93 87 88 88 90 86 87 91 89 84 86 87

Success Rate among new S+ve cases (%) 86

Success Rate among new S+ve cases (%) 86

6 2.5 2.7 2.3 1.8 4.9 4.7 4.6 3.2 1.7 4.9 2.9 3.5 3.2 4 4.1

22

Manipur

23

Meghalaya

24

Mizoram

25

Nagaland

26

Orissa

27

Pondicherry

28

Punjab

29

Rajasthan

30

Sikkim

31

Tamil Nadu

32

Tripura

33

Uttar Pradesh

34

Uttaranchal

35

West Bengal

India

Source: Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme Reports, MoHFW, Govt. of India

l3vi

0a>le 40= "orest Cover in S0&0%S@10s in India ? 2011 *in sC!)m, Sr! /o! Geograp'ic &rea "orest Cover &rea 5ery Dense "orest
100 201>1 1444 2*1 41>* >"B> 04* *B> 2B *224 4140 20D0 1BBB 1442 >>40 1B*> B*0 4** 1*4 12D* B0>0 0 B2 000 2D41 10D 1>2> 4B>2 2D14 *B>1 1"*0 0 0 0 0 :4491

State@10
4ndhra 6radesh 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chhattis'arh Delhi Goa GuMarat ;aryana ;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir @har(hand Iarnata(a Ierala Madhya 6radesh Maharashtra Manipur Me'halaya Mi/oram ,a'aland 8disha 6unMa& RaMasthan #i((im Tamil ,adu Tripura +ttar 6radesh +ttaran$hal <est 2en'al 4" 9 ," Islands Chandi'arh Dadra 9 ,a'ar ;aveli Daman 9 Diu Ea(shad%eep 6udu$herry 0otal

Moderate Dense "orest


2>242 *101D 11404 *210 *4D11 4D"41 010 02*1 40B >*11 1B>0 DD1B 201BD D*D4 *4D1> 20110 >101 DBB0 >01> 4D*1 21*>> B*> 4441 21>1 10*21 4>1> 400D 141>B 4>4> 241> D"00 114 0">2 1B"11 *0"*B 420948

#pen "orest
1D2DB 1002* 14120 ***4 1>>00 11D"D> 10D1 D012 1124 00B4 D>*D 104B0 142*1 >4>4 *>0B4 210D0 1020D B0>B 121DB B0D4 204BB 1021 110>B >D1 10*0> *112 110* 00>B 0*>0 04B 0"11 DB 0"0* D"11 14">D 2:9:20

0otal "orest A of G!&!

1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D *0 *1 *2 ** *4 *0

2B00>D 1*B4* B14*1 D41>* 1*01D1 141* *B02 1D>022 44212 00>B* 2222*> BDB14 1D1BD1 *11>* *01240 *0BB1* 22*2B 2242D 21011 1>0BD 100B0B 00*>2 *422*D B0D> 1*0001 1041> 240D21 0*41* 11B02 124D 114 4D1 112 *2 410 42:9284

4>*1D >B410 2B>B* >140 00>B4 1B>"2 221D 14>1D 1>01 14>BD 220*D 22DBB *>1D4 1B*00 BBB00 00>4> 1B0D0 1B2B0 1D11B 1**11 41D0* 1B>4 1>01B **0D 2*>20 BDBB 14**1 244D> 12DD0 >B24 1>"B1 211 >"10 2B"0> 00"0> 8;2029

1>"1> 10"0 *0"21 B"2B 41"11 11"11 0D"D4 B"4> *">4 2>"*B 10"14 21"12 11"1B 44"02 20"21 1>"4> B>"04 BB"02 D0">1 10"** *1"41 *"0 4"B 4B"*4 11"1> B>"0B 0"D0 40"1 14">4 11"01 14"B2 42"DB 0"4D 14"0> 10"4* 21!03

l3vii

0a>le 40= "orest Cover in S0&0%S@10s in India ? 2011 *in sC!)m, Sr! /o! Geograp'ic &rea "orest Cover &rea 5ery Dense "orest Moderate Dense "orest #pen "orest 0otal "orest A of G!&!

State@10

#our$eA India #tate o! Corest Report 2011

0a>le 41 = State@10 $ise Percentage of "orest to total geograp'ic area *1;;322011, Sl! /o! 1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 State@10 4ndhra 6radesh 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chhattis'arh Delhi Goa GuMarat ;aryana ;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir @har(hand Iarnata(a Ierala Madhya 6radesh Maharashtra Manipur Me'halaya Mi/oram ,a'aland 8disha 6unMa& RaMasthan #i((im Tamil ,adu Tripura +ttar 6radesh +ttara(hand 2"1* *2"D* D"1D *"12 >B"02 D"01 2"1* *B"*4 D"1D *"B1 >*"> D"01 0"B* *B"*4 D"1D *"B1 >*"> D"01 1;;3 2*"1B >1"00 *D"10 1>"11LL 1;;9 2*"2 >1"00 *D"10 1>"11 1;;; 2*"2 >1"00 *D"10 1>"11 2001 2*"2 >1"00 *4"40 >"40 4*"10 0"B* **"0B D">D *"01 >>"02 D"1 2D">1 20"10 21"11 *0"0BLLL 20"B0 >B"1B 42"*4 B0"0D 02"02 *>"B* 0">4 D"22 *B"*4 1B"40 >0 1B"4Da 20"1D 21"1B *4"14 2"01 >B"1B 42"*4 B0"0D 02"00 *>"B* 0"B> D"2> *B"*4 1B"4 >0"01 1B"00 20"1D 21"1B *4"14 2"01 >B"1B 42"*4 B0"0D 02"00 *>"B* 0"B> D"2> *B"*4 1B"4 >0"01 1B"00 20"1D 21"1B *0"1D 20"1* B1"01 42"*4 B0"0D 02"00 *B"*4 >"0B D"4D 11"24 1B"0D >0"01 >"D1 >4"11 2004 2*"2 >1"00 *4"40 >"1B 44"21 0"B* **"0> D"B0 *"02 >>"02 D"1 2D">1 22"4> 21"DD *0"1D 20"1* B1"01 42"*4 BD"* 00"00 *B"*4 >"12 D"4D 12"*1 1B"0D >0"01 >"D1 >4"11 2003 2*"2 >1"00 *4"21 >"1B 44"21 0"B* **"0> D">B *"0* >>"02 D"1 2D">1 1D"D> 21"DD *0"B2 20"1* B1"01 42"*4 BD"* 02"00 *B"*4 >"12 D"4D 12"*1 1B"0D >0"02 >"DB >4"BD 2009 2*"2 >1"00 *4"21 >"1B 44"21 0"B* **"0> D">> *"0* >>"02 D"1 2D">1 1D"D> 21"DD *0"B2 20"1* B1"01 42"*4 BD"* 00">2 *B"*4 >"0B D"04 12"*1 1B"0D >0"02 >"11 >4"BD 2011G 1>"1> 10"0 *0"21 B"2B 41"11 11"11 0D"D4 B"4> *">4 2>"*B 10"14 21"12 11"1B 44"02 20"21 1>"4> B>"04 BB"02 D0">1 10"*4 *1"41 *"0 4"B 4B"*4 11"11 B>"0B 0"D0 40"1 l3viii

<est 2en'al 1*"*1 1*"*1 1*"*1 1*"*1 1*"*1 1*"*1 +nion B1"1B BD"22 BD"22 B1"14 B1"11 B1"11 *0 Territories 0otal 24!48 24!2: 24!2: 24!4: 24!39 24!41 #our$eA Compendium o! =nvironment #tatisti$s, 2011, India #tate o! Corest Report,2011 L 2011 !i'ures $orresponds to !orest $over

2D

1*"*1 B1"*D 24!41

14">4 B4"22 21!03

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Table 32: Details of State wise Protected Areas in India (As on 16/7/2013 ) Area National Park /um>er
8249 275069 94163 114 135191 491 112 3702 44212 196022 55673 222236 79714 191791 38863 32 308245 307713 155707 50362 480 342239 130058 240928 1 5 5 0 0 0 0 3947.07 307.84 490 2 990.7 6 1273.6 40 18 12 1 25 22 23 9 3656.36 25 0 0 1 6 558.16 17 5 2628.42 25 5555.39 1853.24 0.01 7158.4 14915.38 6969.15 323.79 3.9 5592.38 5018.16 5221.88 0 0 1 0 1 0 7 1 0 0 0 3.49 0 4.95 0 222.27 0.03 0 1 226.33 11 1955.82 4 3925 15 10243.11 5 2271.78 32 7745.48 0 34 0 7 4 479.67 23 16619.81 1 2 48.25 8 233.21 2 1 107 6 647.91 0 0 48.72 227 0 829.75 0 3.79 0 0 1 2.19 0 0 0 0 1 92.16 0 0 3 2929.5 11 3760.37 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 26.01 0 0 0 1 335.65 12 2851.67 0 0 0 6 1388.39 21 11618.12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.12 1.5 0 0 0 0 16.07 0 0 0 0 9 1153.94 96 389.39

Sr.no &rea *sC!)m, /um>er /um>er /um>er &rea *sC!)m, &rea *sC!)m, &rea *sC!)m,

State

Wildlife Sanctuaries

Conservation Reserves

Community Reserves

Andaman and Nicobar

Andra Pradesh

Bihar

Chandigarh

Chattisgarh

Dadra Nagar Haveli

Damn & Diu

Goa

Haryana

10

Gujrat

11

Himachal Pradesh

12

Jammu & Kashmir

13

Jharkhand

14

Karnataka

15

Kerala

16

Lakshadeep

17

Madhya Pradesh

18

Maharashtra

19

Odisha

20

Punjab

21

Puducherry

22

Rajasthan

23

Tamil nadu

24

Uttar Pradesh

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Table 32: Details of State wise Protected Areas in India (As on 16/7/2013 ) Area National Park /um>er
53483 88752 1483 83743 78438 21081 22327 10486 22429 16579 7096 3287263 102 40075.17 526 124239.18 1 1784 7 399.1 0 57 1 202.02 3 20.34 0 2 267.48 3 34.2 0 2 36.71 4 566.93 0 0 0 0 0 1382.28 1 40 1 184.4 0 0 2 150 8 1090.75 0 0 5 1977.79 18 1840.14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 2290.82 11 7487.75 0 0 0 0 0 1 27.82 0 0 0 5 1693.25 15 1102.18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20.69 6 4915.44 7 2688.64 3 42.28 0 0

Sr.no &rea *sC!)m, /um>er /um>er /um>er &rea *sC!)m, &rea *sC!)m, &rea *sC!)m,

State

Wildlife Sanctuaries

Conservation Reserves

Community Reserves

25

Uttarakhand

26

West Bengal

27

Delhi

28

Arunachal Pradesh

29

Assam

30

Mizoram

31

Manipur

32

Tripura

33

Meghalaya

34

Nagaland

35

Sikkim

INDIA

Source: Ministry of Environment & Forests

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0a>le 44= Percentage of 'ouse'olds it' access to improved sources of drin)ing ater Sr!no! 1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D *0 *1 *2 ** *4 *0 State@10!@all2India 4ndhra 6radesh 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chhattis'arh Delhi Goa GuMarat ;aryana ;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir @har(hand Iarnata(a Ierala Madhya 6radesh Maharashtra Manipur Me'halaya Mi/oram ,a'aland 8disha 6unMa& RaMasthan #i((im Tamil ,adu Tripura +ttara(hand +ttar 6radesh <est 2en'al 4 9 , Islands Chandi'arh Dadra 9 ,a'ar ;aveli Daman 9 Diu Ea(shad%eep 6udu$herry all2India #our$eA ,## 2001-0D, 2012 200:20; Rural D2"0 D1"B 12"1 DB"* D2"2 10"B D2 D1"4 DB"1 1D"2 12"0 >*"4 D0"1 >D"1 D0"* 1B"D *1"D >> 20"4 >4"1 1*"* DD 10"1 >B"4 D>"1 B>"4 14"1 D>"4 D4"D 1B"4 DB"0 1D"1 100 21"* 100 ;0!4 1r>an 1D"1 DB"B D2"4 DB"0 DB"1 D>"B D1"B D0"> D>"> D1"> D>"> 11"1 D>"D 12"* D* D*"4 B4"2 DB"0 B4"4 >0 D1"2 D1"D D4"1 D1"2 1D"2 D>"D 100 D1"4 D1 D1"D 100 D1"0 D0"2 41"1 D>"0 ;4!; Rural D1"D D>"2 10"1 DB"> D4"1 1*"> 1*"D 1D"2 D2"> D0"1 10"> >4"4 D0"1 2D"0 1*"2 10"0 0B B0"4 1>"1 D1"D 12"4 DD"0 BD"1 10"2 D4 1B"* D2"1 D>"> D0 12"4 DD"D D4"> 1B"4 21"0 100 11"0 2012 1r>an DB"0 D1"4 D2"1 DD"B D*"> DB"B DD"> D0"> D2"* 100 DB"D 11"* D> 0>"1 DB"1 D1"B >D"1 D4"0 DD"1 D0"> D0"0 DD"B D2"* D1"1 D0 DD"B DD"D DD"2 D4"B 100 100 D*"0 D0"D 14"D D1"0 D0"*

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0a>le 44= Percentage of 'ouse'olds it' access to improved sanitation Sr!no 1 2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2* 24 20 2> 2B 21 2D *0 *1 *2 ** *4 *0 State@1!0 4ndhra 6radesh 4runa$hal 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chhattis'arh Delhi Goa GuMarat ;aryana ;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir @har(hand Iarnata(a Ierala Madhya 6radesh Maharashtra Manipur Me'halaya Mi/oram ,a'aland 8disha 6unMa& RaMasthan #i((im Tamil ,adu Tripura +ttara(hand +ttar 6radesh <est 2en'al 4 9 , Islands Chandi'arh Dadra 9 ,a'ar ;aveli Daman 9 Diu Ea(shad%eep 6udu$herry all2India #our$eA ,## 2001-0D, 2012 200:20; rural *4"2 40"1 B1"B 1>"1 10"0 D2"> >*"* *2"2 0*"B 01"D 40"> 14"* 2*"B D*"4 1*"2 *B"D B4"0 11"1 D>"4 1>"4 D"2 >1"D 1B"1 DB 20"2 12"1 44"D 11"0 01"B 0D"D D0 4>"> >>"* 100 *4"> 41!; 2012 ur>an 1>"1 B4 DB >0"2 >0"0 D> 1D D1 1>"1 D0"2 BD"1 B*"B 1>"4 DB"2 B2"> D1"* 12"B D4"4 DD 1B"> >*"0 D1"D 10"1 100 BD"D D4"* D0"0 BD"* 1D"D D*"D DD"4 D*"2 1B"4 D4"B 10"B :3!4 rural 44"0 4>"0 B0"4 20"1 20 100 10"1 40"B B4"2 B*"B 44"1 1"D 21"4 D>"D 20"B 44"* BD"> 1> D*"4 D1"1 1B"* BB"> 2>"1 DD"1 ** 11"> 10"2 22"4 01 B1"2 DD"B 00"B B*"2 100 02"> 4:!: ur>an D1 DB"D DB"1 B1"4 B4"D D1"B D> D*"> D1"2 D0"B BD"4 10"1 1B"B D1"1 14"D D2"B D1"2 DD"4 DD"D DD"4 10"0 D*"* B1"* 100 1>"> D1"1 DB"> 1>"B D*"2 D0 D1"4 >B"1 DD"D DB"B D*"> 1D">

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Sr! no

Cities@ States

as on Marc' 2010 41"*1 B>"*1 42"11 40"1 14">1 10"** 11*"00 01"2D D0"41 10*"BD 01"02 D2"D> >0"0B 0D"*D 101"4 >B"0* 110"*B 0>"20 B4"B0 0B B0 >0 104 B2 101 D1 DB 04 1B >1 >0">4 10*"1 B1"1B 101"02 0B"00 >D">> D1"2> DB"12 04"4 1B"10 >D"2 11*"21 24>"04 124"0B 144"24 140"02 201">1 1BB"21 10*"* 101"21 102"0D 1>2"*B 1B BB 100 >0 1B"*1 BB"4B 104"D> >0"D1 1*1"11 140"0B 440"01 10D"B4 1*0"DB 110"0* **4"D1 120"41 1>D"40 1DB"*D 114"11 124"0 104"14 1>*"1* 102"B4 10*"10 1*1"*4 1*0"2> 1*1"0B BB 4B 40 BB"1 4B"4D 40"*> 112"*4 1**"D1 112"** 1>>"04 1*1">1 100"4> 41"14 01"2 22"0 *0">4

0a>le 43= 0elep'one per 100 Population 2 1r>an @ Rural *0ele2 Density, *in A, #verall 1r>an as on as on as on as on 41 as on as on as on as on 40t' 40t' Dec 40t' Kune May Marc'2 Dec2 40t' Kune Kune2014 Kune2 2010 2011 2014 2010 2010 2011 2014 as on Marc'2 2010 Rural as on as on 40t' Dec2 Kune 2010 2011

as on 40t' Kune 2014

4ndaman 9 ,i$o&ar

2D"D>

*0"0* 20"D0 2*"4* 41"*D 04"0B B2"2* 2D"BD *0"** 00"01 24"*1 41"2B *0"12 *0">2 0D"D* *D"D1 01">0

4*">1 *2"1 2B"1B 0*"44 0B"4* B0"0 *1"0> 4*"4* >2"1D *2"11 0*"0> 41"* *D"2 >B"B1 40"D0 >1"1>

2 * 4 0 > B 1 D 10 11 12 1* 14 10 1> 1B 11 1D 20 21 22 2*

4ndra 6radesh 4ssam 2ihar Chattis'arh GuMarat ;aryana ;ima$hal 6radesh @ammu 9 Iashmir @har(hand Iarnata(a Ierala Madhya 6radesh MaharashtraL ,orth -=ast-I ,orth -=ast-II 8disha 6unMa& RaMasthan Tamil ,aduL +ttaran$hal +ttar 6radeshL -= <est 2en'alL

0B"2* 2D"DD *B"D> 0"B4 01"4> 0D"B BD"*0 4D"D1 0"04 >B"11 10"*> 40"2* 00"* >1"D 11"D1 *D"* B0"44 02"B> B4"*1 1*"D *1"04 *4"11

B0"2B *0"11 00"0B 0"D4 B>"12 BB"4D 104"1> 4>">2 > 12"20 D>">B 0B">B >*"11 10"01 14">D 02"*1 DB"DB >2"*B D*"1D 10"04 4D"D 4B"14

14*"11 D>"04 20>"D* 1B"*1 D0"12 100">* 2D1"10 11*"1D 1>"BD 142">2 114"11 111"21 10"1 104"D> *1">* 1**"20 12*"0B 120"1D 114"D4 2D"*B 10D"4D 100"2*

1B1"DD 114"11 20>"40 1>"1* 124"2* 1*>"BB *11"B1 DB"4> 11"12 1>>"14 221"D4 1*1"D2 100"B1 114"B4 *1"** 1BD"24 1>2"14 144"01 140"D *1"10 1*D"21 141"12

24"** 11"4B 11"11 2"*2 **"02 *D"*B 02"0* 2>"D* 2"14 24"01 44">0 20"11 *2"2B 41"01 0"12 20">1 42"01 *1"42 *1"00 B"10 11"B2 2*"*2

*1"21 22"1> 20"11 2">D 4*">D 4B"00 >D"B 21"02 2"*2 *2"21 01"2> 2>">1 41"D 4B"1> B"*4 2>"1 0*"*2 *>"B* 4>"02 D"*B 24"1 *2">

*D"D1

*4"2D 42"* l33iv

as on Marc'2 2010

Rural as on as on 40t' Dec2 Kune 2010 2011

as on 40t' Kune 2014

0a>le 43= 0elep'one per 100 Population 2 1r>an @ Rural *0ele2 Density, *in A, #verall 1r>an as on as on as on as on as on 41 as on as on as on as on 40t' 40t' t' t' Sr! no Cities@ States Marc' Dec 40 Kune May Marc'2 Dec2 40 Kune Kune2014 Kune2 2010 2010 2011 2014 2010 2010 2011 2014 24 Iol(ota 120"1D 100"B4 20 Chennai 14D"42 10D"1 2> Delhi 1B2"4D 201"D4 2*>"*2 220 211"1> 2B Mum&ai 14*"B1 1B4"14 I/DI& 32!94 88!19 94!;9 94 94!3 11;!43 149!32 184!14 143!43 #our$eA Tele$om Re'ulatory 4uthority o! India -TR4I. LCor @une 2011, 6opulation proMe$tion availa&le 24!41 41!22 43!8

41!;

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