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# Chapter 8 Exercise 8A

Q. 1.

Q. 4.
Q

(a) R = 4j + 5j + j = 10j N
4(0) + 5(50) + 1(100) = 10(x)
x = 35 cm

R=W+x

_

## W(0) + x(1) = (W + x)d

x
d = ______
W+x
x
W
The remainder is 1 ______ = ______
W+x W+x

(b) R = 2j + j + 2j = 5j

x = 2.4 m
_

## Let the length of the plank be 1.

Let d = the distance from the resultants
line of action from the left-hand end.

x
W
The ratio of these parts = ______ : ______
W+x W+x

(c) R = j 7j + j = 5j

=x:W

## 1(0) 7(1) + 1(2) = 5(x)

x=1
_

Q. 5.
Q
_

(d) R = 3j 9j + 3j = 3j
x=3
_

(e) R = j 2j 3j + j = 3j

K=3

R = 2W + W + 3W = 6W

K=5

## 2W(0) + W(3) + 3W(6) = 6W(x)

1
x = 3__
2
1
1
__
__
Answer: 3 M and 2 M from the ends.
2
2
Q. 3.

Forces:
1m

( )

11
(ii) 4W(0) + W(1) + KW(2) = (5 + K)W ___
10
11(5
+
K)
1 + 2K = _________
10
10 + 20K = 55 + 11K

## 1(0) 2(2) 3(5) + 1(6) = 3(x)

1
x = 4__
3
1
3
Q. 2.

()

7
4W(0) + W(1) + KW(2) = (5 + K)W __
8
7(5 + K)
________
1 + 2K =
8
8 + 16K = 35 + 7K

## 3(1) 9(3) + 3(5) = 3x

(i) R = 4W + W + KW = (5 + K)W

Exercise 8B
E
Q. 1.
Q

3N at (2, 1)
2N at (4, 3)

3W

1N at (10, 9)

7W

= 6N at (x, y)

x=4

Resultant:

## 3(1) + 2(3) + 1(9) = 6(y)

y=3

R = 7W + 3W = 10W
7W(0) + 3W(1) = 10W(x)
3
x = ___ m
10

Q. 2.
Q

1N at (1, 1)
2N at (1, 7)
3N at (3, 1)
4N at (2, 3)

= 10N at (x, y)

2N at (1, 2)

x=2

3N at (1, 7)

5N at (5, 1)

y=3

2N at (x, y)

Q. 3.

= 12N at (4, 1)

x=9

3(4) + 2(9) = 5x

x=6

y = 4

3(1) + 2(9) = 5y

y=3

Q. 6.
Q

## 3(4) + 2(9) + 1(x) = 6(6)

( )

1
1(4) + 2(1) + 3(k) = 6 2__
2
k=3

x=6

h = 10

y=3
Q. 4.

Q. 7.
Q

(
10
= ( , 1)
3

## W(3) + 2W(12) = 3W(x)

2+5+3 1+31
pqr = _________, _________
3
3

x=9
y = 13

M at (2, 1)

## Answer: (9, 13) = g

__________________

|pg| = (9
____

+ (13

1)2

= 180

M at (5, 3)
M at (3, 1)

10
x = ___
3

= 6 5

____________________

___

__

## M(1) + M(3) + M(1) = 3M(y)

= 45 = 3 5
__

__

|pg| : |gq| = 6 5 : 3 5
=2:1
2N at (1, 2)
3N at (1, 7)
5N at (5, 1)

y=1

10
The centre of gravity is at ___, 1
3
which is the centroid.

x=0

= 10N at (x, y)

## M(1) + M(3) + M(1) + 2M(y) = 5M(1)

x=3
2(2) + 3(7) + 5(1) = 10(y)
y=2

= 3M at (x, y)

__

Q. 5.

___

## W(1) + 2W(19) = 3W(y)

3)2

Centroid of triangle

y=1

Q. 8.

(i) W at (6, 5)

2W at (7, 1)
3W at (2, 11)
4W at (6, 1)

= 10W at (x, y)

## W(6) + 2W(7) + 3W(2) + 4W(6) = 10W(x)

divide by W

10x = 50
x=5
W(5) + 2W(1) + 3W(11) + 4W(1) = 10W(y)

divide by W

10y = 40
y=4
The centre of gravity is at (5, 4)
(ii) W at (6, 5)
2W at (7, 1)
3W at (2, 11)
kW at (6, 1)

= (6 + k)W at (11, y)

## W(6) + 2W(7) + 3W(2) + kW(6) = (6 + k)W(11)

divide by W

66 + 11k = 26 + 6k
5k = 40
k = 8
W(5) + 2W(1) + 3W(11) 8W(1) = 2W(y)

divide by W

2y = 28
y = 14
Q
Q. 9
9.

2N att ((x, 5)
3N at (11, y)
5N at (5, 6)

1(8) + 4(
4(y)) + 5(2) + 2(
2(3)
3) = 12(2)
= 10N at (6, 5)

y=3

## 2(x) + 3(11) + 5(5) = 10(6)

2x + 58 = 60
x=1
2(5) + 3(y) + 5(6) = 10(5)
3y 20 = 50

Q. 10.

1N at (7, 8)
4N at (1, y)
xN at (5, 2)
2N at (6, 3)

4y + 12 = 24

y = 10

Q.
Q 11.

3W at (30, 20)
2W at (20, 10)
5W at (50, 20)

= 10W at (x, y)

## 3W(30) + 2W(20) + 5W(50) = 10W(x)

divide by 10W
x = 38
3W(20) + 2W(10) + 5W(20) = 10W(y)
divide by 10W

= (7 + x)N at (4, 2)

y = 18
Centre of gravity is at (38, 18)

## 1(7) + 4(1) + x(5) + 2(6) = (7 + x)(4)

5x + 23 = 28 + 4x
x=5

Q. 12.

7
3N at __, 2
3
4N at (1, 7)

5N at (3, 7)
6N at (4, 4)

3 1
4 4
3
_

= 18N at (x, y)

tan A = ___
1_34
4

3
= __
7

7
__

= 0.4286

18x = 36

A = 23 12

x=2

(ii)

4
3

18y = 45

y = 2.5

## Centre of gravity is at (2, 2.5)

Q. 13.

5 at (3, 1)
8 at (4, 2)
3 at (1, 5)
2 at (2, 6)

( )
1
2 at ( 2, ) = 8 at (x, y)
2
1
2 at ( 2, 3 )
2
1
4( ) + 2(2) + 2(2) = 8(x)
2
1
4 at __, 2
2

= 18 at (x, y)

__

__

__

18x = 48
8
x = __
3

1
x = 1__
4
1
1
__
__
4(2) + 2 + 2 3 = 8(y)
2
2
y=2
1
__
4
_
1
1
4
2
tan A = ___
2
A
5
2
= __
g
8
= 0.625
1 1
4
A = 32

() ( )

## 5(1) + 8(2) + 3(5) + 2(6) = 18(y)

18y = 14
7
y = __
9
8 __
7
__
Centre of gravity is at ,
3 9

( )

Exercise 8C
(i)

1 2 3 4

## 5(3) + 8(4) + 3(1) + 2(2) = 18(x)

Q. 1.

(iii)

4
1

3
2
1

(
(

1 1
3 at __, 1__
2 2
1 1
1 at 1__, __
2 2

)
)

= 4 at (x, y)

() ( )

1
1
3 __ + 1 1__ = 4x
2
2
3
x = __
4
1
1
__
__
3 1 + 1 = 4y
2
2
3
y = 1__
4

( ) ()

__

__

__

1
1
4
3

( )
1 1
1 at ( 1 , 2 ) = 9 at (x, y)
2 2
1
4 at ( 2 , 2 )
2
1
1
1
4( ) + 1( 1 ) + 4( 2 ) = 9(x)
2
2
2
1
4 at __, 2
2

1
4 A

__

__

__

3
x = __
2

( )

1
4(2) + 1 2__ + 4(2) = 9(y)
2
37
y = ___
18
3 37
2 18

9p at (3, 0)
27p at (x, y)

35
18

3
_
2
tan A = __
35
__
18

## 9p(0) + 27p(y) = 36p(0) y = 0

The distance (0, 0) to (1, 0)

p
A

Q. 3.
Q

Remainder: Area = 16 1 = 15 m2

A = 37 39
(iv)

1 at (3.5, 3.5)

(13,3)

(7,3)

15 at (x, y)

3
(0,0)

(7,0)

15x = 28.5

Centroid is at
7 + 7 + 13 _________
3+3+0
___________
,
= (9, 2)
3
3
1
Area is __(6)(3) = 9 square units
2

9 at (9, 2)

( 2)
1
__

21 3

y = 1.9

Q. 4.
Q

( )

## (iii) Square: Centre of gravity is at

(1.5, 1.5)
Area of square = 3 3 = 9

1.6

(
)
1 + 9 + 11 2 + 6 + 1
(ii) (
,
) = (7, 3)
3
3
1+3+5 1+5+0
(i) _________, _________ = (3, 2)
3
3
___________ _________

1
21 1__ + 9(2) = 30(y)
2
y = 1.65
5

5
1.3
A

5.1

A = 75 19

## Triangle: Centre of gravity is at

3 + 3 + 9 _________
0+3+0
_________
,
= (5, 1)
3
3
1
Area of triangle = __(6)(3) = 9
2
9 at (1.5, 1.5)
= 18 at (x, y)
9 at (5, 1)

Q. 2.

= 30 at (x, y)

x = 5.15

(3,0)

x = 1.9

(1.9, 1.9)

+ 9(9) = 30(x)

5.15
tan A = ____
1.35
= 3.8148

= 16 at (2, 2)

3.5 + 15x = 32

Triangle piece:

1 1
21 at 3__, 1__
2 2

## Full Square: Area = 4 4 = 16 m2

Small Square: Area = 1 1 = 1 m2

= 0.7714

= 36p at (0, 0)

37
18

27
= ___
35

## 9(1.5) + 9(5) = 18(x)

(6,0)

18x = 58.5
x = 3.25
9(1.5) + 9(1) = 18(y)

18y = 22.5

y = 1.25

## Remainder: Area = 27p,

Centre of gravity is at (x, y)

(3.25, 1.25)

## Centre of gravity is at (x, y)

1
153__ at (x, y)}
2
= 192 at (0, 4)
1
__
38 at (0, 6)
2

Area of rectangle = 16 4 = 64
Triangle: Centre of gravity is at (4, 5)
1
Area of triangle = __(16)(3) = 24
2
64 at (8, 2)
24 at (8, 5)

1
1
153__(x) + 38__(0) = 192 (0)
2
2
x=0

= 88 at (x, y)

1
1
153__(y) + 38__(6) = 192(4)
2
2
1,074
y = ______
307

## 64(8) + 24(8) = 88(x)

x=8
64(2) + 24(5) = 88(y)
31
y = ___
11
Centre of gravity of lamina is at
31
8, ___
11

= 3.5 cm
Q. 6.
Q

Q. 5.

## Area of full disc = p(52) = 25p

Area of remainder = 25p 4p
= 21p

A(0,12)

20

20

(0,2)

(0,0)

x
B
(16,0)

C(16,0)
16

D
(0,4)

16

21p at (x, y)

4p at (2, 0)

= 25p at (0, 0)

## Taking moments around the y-axis:

1
Triangle: Area = __(32)(12)
2

21x + 8 = 0

= 192

21x = 8
8
x = ___
21

## Taking D as the origin, the centre of gravity

is at the centroid of A(0, 12), B(16, 0)
and C(16, 0) which is at

0 16 + 16 ___________
12 + 0 + 0
____________
3

## Centre of gravity of the remainder is

8
___
m = 38 cm from O.
21

) = (0, 4)

## Circle: Area = pr2

22 49
= ___ ___
7
4
77
___
=
2
1
= 38__
2
Centre of gravity is at m(0, 6)

## |AB|2 = |BD|2 + |AD|2

1
The remainder: Area = 192 38__
2
1
= 153__
2

Q. 7.
Q

A
(10,3)

C
B

(0,0)

A: Area is 3 2 = 6

(8,0)

1
Centre of gravity is at 9, 4__
2
1
__
B: Area = (2)(3) = 3
2

(10,0)

## 15pr2(x) + pr2(2r) = 16pr2 (0)

Centre of gravity is at

## ( (8 + 103 + 10), 0 + 30 + 3 ) = ( 283 , 1 )

_____________ _________

2r
x = ___
15
15pr2(y) + pr2(0) = 16pr2 (0)

___

Rectangle: Area = 10 6 = 60
Centre of gravity is at (5, 3)

2r
15

## Remainder C: Area = 60 6 3 = 51.

Centre of gravity is at (x, y)

(
(

1
6 at 9, 4__
2
28
___
3 at
,1
3
51 at (x, y)

)
)

Q. 9.
= 60 at (5, 3)

(50,50)
(20,20)

( )

28
6(9) + 3 ___ + 51 (x) = 60(5)
3
218
x = ____
51
1
__
6 4 + 3(1) + 51(y) = 60(3)
2
150
y = ____
51
218 150
Answer: ____, ____ = (4.27, 2.94)
51 51

22 400
= ___ ____
7
1
= 1,257

( )

Q. 8.

y=0

= 10,000

= 8,743

x=2

y = 1

8,743 at (x, y)

(b)

x = 54.3

a(0,0)

b(2r,0)

Q. 10.

90 cm

## Larger circle: Area = pR2

= p(4r)2

30 cm

= 16pr2
Centre of gravity is at (0, 0)
115 cm

## Smaller Circle: Area = pr2

Centre of gravity is at b(2r, 0)

30 cm

## Remainder: Area = 16pr2 pr2

= 15pr2
Centre of gravity is at (x, y)
15pr2 at (x, y)
pr2 at (2r, 0)

16pr2

at (0, 0)

a(0,0)

b(90,0)

115
(i) Distance = ____
2
= 57.5 cm

Area = 90 115

270 at (16, 6)

= 10,350

378x = 4,968

Larger Section:

x = 13.14

Area = 80 70

= 5,600

378y = 2,700

Smaller Section:

y = 7.14

Area = 80 30

## Centre of Gravity of lamina is at

(13.14, 7.41)

= 2,400
Centre of gravity is at (45, 95)

Q. 12.
Q

Remainder:
Area = 10,350 5,600 2,400
= 2,350
Centre of gravity is at (x, y)
5,600 at (45, 40)
2,400 at (45, 95)
2,350 at (x, y)

= 10,350
at (45, 57.5)

## Taking moments about the x-axis:

5,600(40) + 2,400(95) + 2,350(y)
= 10,350 (57.5)
y = 60.9 cm
1
(i) Area DOPQ = __(base)(height)
2
take [OP] as the base
1
__

## Area DOPQ = (12)(18)

2
= 108 square units
1
Area DOQR = __(base)(height)
2
take [OR] as the base
1
Area DOQR = __(30)(18)
2
(ii) Centre of Gravity of DOPQ

0 + 0 + 18 ____________
0 + 12 + 18
___________
3

= (6, 10)
Centre of Gravity of DOQR
0 + 18 + 30 0 + 18 + 0
= ____________, ___________
3
3
= (16, 6)

1
(i) Area DOPQ = __ |x1y2 x2y1|
2
1
= __| (18)(6) (6)(18) |
2
= 108
1
Area DOQR = __(base)(height)
2
take [OR] as the base
1
Area DOQR = __(36)(18)
2
= 324 square units
Area DOQR : Area DOQR = 108 : 324
=1:3
(ii) Centre of Gravity of DOPQ

0 6 + 18 0 + 6 + 18
= ___________, ___________
3
3

= (4, 8)
Centre of Gravity of DOQR

0 + 18 + 36 0 + 18 + 0
= ____________, ___________
3
3
= (18, 6)
(iii) 1 at (4, 8)
3 at (18, 6)

= 4 at (x, y)

= 378 at (x, y)

Q. 11.

## (1)(4) + (3)(18) = (4)(x)

4x = 58
x = 14.5
Taking moments around the x-axis:
(1)(8) + (3)(6) = (4)(y)
4y = 26

y = 6.5
Centre of Gravity of lamina is at
(14.5, 6.5)

Q. 6.
Q

Exercise 8D
Q. 1.

## (i) The centre of gravity of the cylinder

1
1
is at a height __h = __(24) = 12 cm
2
2
above the table.

## Let P be the point at the right extreme end

of the central axis.

## (ii) The centre of gravity of the cone is at

1
1
a height __h = __(24) = 6 cm
4
4
above the table.

## Here, then, is the diagram of the forces.

The total weight of the compound body is
4W which acts through a point which is
x cm from P.

## (iii) The centre of gravity of the solid

hemisphere is at a height
3
3
__
r = __(24) = 9 cm above the table.
8
8
(iv) The centre of gravity of the
hemispherical shell is at a height
1
1
__
r = __(24) = 12 cm above the table.
2
2
Q. 2.

1
(i) __h = 5
4
h = 20 cm

3W
4W

## By the Principle of Moments:

W(13) + 3W(5) = 4W(x)

Q. 5.

divide by W

28 = 4x
x = 7 cm from P
Q. 7.
Q
2

1
1
2W acts through a point __h = __(14) = 7 cm
2
2
from P.
1
W acts through a point __(8) = 2 cm from
4
the base of the cone, i.e. 16 cm from P.

3
1
= __p(32)(20)
3
= 60p cm3

(i)

2W

1
(ii) V = __pr2h

Q. 4.

## The difference in the heights of their

centres of gravity above the table is
8 6 = 2 cm.
Q. 3.

## The centre of gravity of the solid

hemisphere is at a height
3
3
__
r = __(16) = 6 cm above the table.
8
8
The centre of gravity of the hemispherical
1
1
shell is at a height __r = __(16) = 8 cm
2
2
above the table.

3
W acts through a point __r = 3 cm from
8
the base of the cylinder.
1
3W acts through a point __h = 5 cm from
2
the base of the hemisphere.

## Here, then, is the diagram of the forces.

The total weight of the compound body
is 3W, which acts through a point which is
x cm from P.

3
__

r=3
8
r = 8 cm
2
(ii) V = __pr3
3
2 3
__
= p(8 )
3
1,024p
_______
=
cm3
3
1
(i) __r = 3
2
r = 6 cm

W
2W
3W

=

2pr2
2p(62)

= 72p cm2

divide by W

30 = 3x
x = 10 cm

Q. 8.

15

15

W
3W

4W

5W

## 5W acts through a point

1
1
__
h = __(30) = 15 mm from P.
2
2
3
W acts through a point __(24) = 9 mm
8
from the base of the hemisphere,
i.e. 39 mm from P.

28 = 4x
x = 7 mm
Q. 10.
Q
3

## Here, then, is the diagram of the forces.

The total weight of the compound body is
6W, which acts through a point which is
x mm from P.
15

24

1
W acts through a point __(12) = 3 cm
4
from the base of the hemisphere.
3
W acts through a point __(8) = 3 cm from
8
the base of the cone, i.e. 15 cm from P.

W
5W
6W

## Here, then, is the diagram of the forces.

The total weight of the compound body
is 2W which acts through a point which is
x cm from P.

114 = 6x
x = 19 mm

Q. 9.
5

divide by W

2W

## By the Principle of Moments,

W(15) + W(9) = 2W(x)

3W

24 = 2x

## 3W acts through a point

1
1
__
h = __(10) = 5 mm from P.
2
2
1
W acts through a point __(6) = 3 mm from
2
the base of the hemisphere, i.e. 13 mm
from P.

10

## Here, then, is the diagram of the forces.

The total weight of the compound body is
4W, which acts through a point which is
x mm from P.

divide by W

x = 12 cm
i.e. the centre of the compound body is
12 cm from P. This is at the plane where
the bases of the two solids meet.
Q. 11.
Q

## (i) vcylinder = pr2h

= p(122)(40)
= 5,760p cm3

1
vcone = __pr2h
3
1
= __p(122)(40)
3
1
__
= (5,760p) cm3
3
vcylinder = 3(vcone)

(ii)
12

cone)

2W

## Let W be the weight of the

hemisphere. Therefore 2W is the
weight of the cylinder. W acts through
a point _38 r = _38(18) = 675 cm
from the top of the cylinder. 2W acts
through a point _12 h = _12(24) = 12 cm
from the base of the hemisphere.

(ii)
20

20

10

W
3W

## Let W be the weight of the cone.

Therefore 3W is the weight of the

## Here, then, is the diagram of the

forces. The total weight of the
compound body is 3W, which acts
through a point which is x cm from P.

## cylinder. W acts through a point

1
__

1
h = __(40) = 10 cm from the base
4
4
of the cylinder. 3W acts through a
1
1
point __h = __(40) = 20 cm from the
2
2
base of the cone.

12

30

18.75

2W
3W

## By the Principle of Moments:

2W(12) + W(30.75) = 3W(x)

divide by W
3x = 54.75

W
3W

x = 18.25 cm

4W

Q. 13.
Q

divide by W
110 = 4x
x = 27.5 cm
Q. 12.

=
W

## Here, then, is the diagram of the

forces. The total weight of the
compound body is 4W, which acts
through a point which is x cm from P.
20

6.75

## (i) vcylinder = pr2h = p(182)(24)

= 7,776p cm3
2
2
vhemisphere = __ pr3 = __ p(183)
3
3
= 3,888p cm3
vcylinder = 2(vhemisphere)
weight of cylinder : weight of cone
=2:1

10

10

O
W

W
3W

## Let W be the weight of the hemisphere

and of the cone. Therefore 3W is the
weight of the cylinder. The weight of
the hemisphere, W, acts through a
point _38 r = _38(8) = 3 cm from the base
of the cylinder. The weight of the
cylinder, 3W, acts through a point
_
_
1
1
2 h = 2 (20) = 10 cm from the base of the
cylinder. The weight of the cone, W, acts
through a point _14 h = _14(16) = 4 cm from
the top of the cylinder.

11

## Here, then, is the diagram of the forces.

The total weight of the compound body
is 5W which acts through a point which
is x cm from O.
14

3 10
W

Exercise 8E
E
Q. 1.
Q

3W

5W

___

_____________
__

x = 10.2 cm

______

= 8 N
__

db = 3 2

2pr2

__

__

i 3 2

( )

__

__

__

__

(ii)
Q. 2.
Q
W

## Let W be the weight of the hemisphere.

Therefore 4W is the weight of the
cylinder. W acts through a point _2r
from the top of the cylinder. 4W acts
through a point _12 h = _12(4r) = 2r from
the base of the hemisphere.
Here, then, is the diagram of the
forces. The total weight of the
compound body is 5W which acts
through a point which is a distance of
x from P.
=

5W

## By the Principle of Moments:

4W(2r) + W(4.5r) = 5W(x)
divide by W

x = 2.5r.

__

__

__

__________

___

c
2

___

__

__

__

__

__

__

R = 3i 2i + 5i 4j
= 8i 6j

___

__________

|R | = 82 + (6)2
____

= 100
= 10 N

## Let x = the distance of its line of action

from a.
The moment of the sum = the sum of the

5x = 12.5r

d
4

4W

2.5r

__

|R | = 12 + (5)2 = 26 N

r
2

2r

1__
___

= i 5j

___

__

## The new resultant = (2i 2j ) + (3i 3j )

Wcylinder = 4(Whemisphere)

12

( )
1__
___

= 3i 3j

CSAcylinder = 4(CSAhemisphere)

4W

__

|R | = (2)2 + (2)2

5x = 51

2r

__

= 2i 2j

divide by W

CSAhemisphere =

__

R = i +__ 2j __ 3i 4j

Q. 14.

__

___

## 10(x) = 3(0) 2(1) 5(1) + 4(0)

7
x = ___ m
10
= 70 cm
Let it intersect at a distance k from a,
therefore a distance (1 k) from b.

Q. 5.
Q

intersection.

7
k = __ m
6
1
6
Q. 3.

5m

20

10

5m

16 N
16
8m

## |ad|2 + |dc|2 = |ac|2

42 + |dc|2 = 52

______________

|dc| = 3 m
3
tan A = __
4
3
sin A = __
5
4
cos A = __
_____
_ 5
ab = 16i

____

bc = 10 cos Ai + 10 sin Aj

16

2
_

___

(i) R = 2i + 4j 7i 16j
_

= 5i 12j
___

_____

= 169

____

= 13 N

Q. 4.

___

___

= 10 N

moments
_

## 10(x) = 16(3) + 10(0) + 20(0)

(i) R = 2i + 2j + 2i j + (8i 6j )

x = 4.8 m

= 12i 5j
___

___________

|R | =

_____________

= 100

___

R = 8i 6j
____

10

|R | = (8)2 + (6)2

13

= 8i + 6j

= 16i 12j

## 13(x) = 2(0) + 4(1) + 7(1) + 16(0)

x=

ca = 20 cos Ai 20 sin Aj

11
___

122

____

Q. 6.
Q

(5)2

= 169
= 13 N

## (ii) Taking moments about d:

13(x) = 2(3) + 2(4) + 2(0) + 1(0) + 10(0)
14
x = ___ m
13
(iii) 13x = 2(3) + 2(4) + 2(0) + 1(0)
+ 10(0) + 12
x=2m

4N
a

3N
60
8N
_____

60

(i) ab = 8i
_____

## bc = 8 cos 60i + 8 sin 60j

__

( 2 ) i + 8( 2 )j

= 8

_
1
__

_
3
___

___

= 4i + 43 j

13

__

____

__

## ca = 4 cos 60i + 4 sin 60j

__

___

Q. 2.
Q

= 2i + 2 3 j
_

___

T1

1 T2

___

R = 6i + 6 3 j
___

___________
__

|R | = 62 + (6 3 )2
_________

= 36 + 108
____

T1 + T2 = 2W

11
T2 = ___W
8
5
__
T1 = W
8

= 144
= 12 N
(ii)

Q. 3.
Q

1
l
2

(i)
1

T1

2N

( 2l ) =
1
__

l2

__

x=

3
___
2

x2

T2

T1 + T2 = 2

T1 + T2 = 10

## Moment of the sum = the sum of the

moments
__
3

___
12(x) = 8(0) + 8
l + 4(0)
2
__
12x = 4 3 l

8
Solving these gives T1 = __ N,
7
6
T2 = __ N
7

( )

__

x=

3
___

(ii)

3
1__
___
=
lm
3

T2

2N

T + 2T = 6
T=2N

Q. 1.

2
4N

Exercise 8F

The moment
__
was 4 3__l N m, so the moment
M = 4 3 l N m.

T1
1

2T
1

Q. 4.
Q

1
x = 2 __ cm
2

(i)

W
6m

T1 + T2 = 2W

W
R

4m

3
__

T2 = W
4
1
T1 = 1 __W
4

14

mR

R=W

mR = S

Q. 7.
Q

W(2) = S(6)
1
S = __W
3
1
__
mW = W
3
1
m = __
3

(ii) 2

R
A

Q. 5.

1
R
2
S

## Let the ladder have a length of 2l.

1
11 m

mR
10 m

R=W

mR = S

3
2
Q. 6.

(a)

5
W(5) = S(11) S = ___W
11
5
5
mW = ___W m = ___
11
11

R=W
1
__
R=S
2
W(l cos A) = S(2l sin A)
W cos A
W
S = _______ = _______
2 tan A
2 sin A
1
W
__
W = _______ tan A = 1
2
2 tan A
A = 45.

Q. 8.
Q
S

1
S
2

(i) Friction
(ii) Moment
W

(b) 1

R = 245

0.8R = S

## 245 (a cos a) = S(2a sin a)

A
1
R
2

Equation 2
S = 0.8(245) = 196
Equation 3
245 cos a = (196)2 sin a

## Let the ladder have a length of 2l.

1
1
1 R + __
S = W R = W __S
2
2
1
2 __
R=S
2
1
3 W(lcos A) = S(2l sin A) + __
S(2l cos A)
2
divide by l cos A

## 245 = 392 tan a

245
tan a = ____
392
5
__
=
8

W = 2S tan A + S
S(2 tan A + 1) = W
W
S = __________
2 tan A + 1
2

a
R

0.8 R

25g = 245 N

( W 12S ) = S

1
__
2

__

1
1
__W __S = S 2W S = 4S
4
2
2W = 5S
5W
2W = __________
2 tan A + 1
5
2 tan A + 1 = __
2
3
__
tan A = A = 37
4

15

Q. 9.

mS

3
45
a

20g = 196

## W(5 cos A) = S(10 sin A)

mR

W cos A = 2S sin A
4
4
But S = __R = __W.
5
5

R + mS = 196

mR = S

( )

4
W cos A = 2 __W sin A
5
8
__
cos A = sin A
5
8
1 = __ tan A
5
5
tan A = __
8

## 196(2 cos 45) = S(4 sin 45)

+ mS(4 cos 45)
1__
But cos 45 = sin 45 = ___
2
196(2) = S(4) + mS(4)
(ii)

S + mS = 98

S(1 + m) = 98
98
S = ______
1+m
Now mR = S
98
98
1
1 ______
__
________
R = __
m S = m 1 + m = m(1 + m)
Putting these into equation 1 , we
get
98
98 = 196.
________
+ m ______
m(1 + m)
1+m

98 +

= 196m(1 + m).
Divide by 98.

1 + m2 = 2m(1 + m)
1 + m2 = 2m + 2m2

m2

+ 2m 1 = 0

m=

__

= 1 2

( )

2 2 2
__________
2

( )

__

## Since m > 0, m = 2 1 Q.E.D.

Q. 10. (i)

2W

= S(10 sin A)
4
2W __x + W(4) = S(6)
5
8
__ xW + 4W = 6S
5
12
But S = ___ W
5
8
12
__
xW + 4W = 6 ___W
5
5
8x + 20 = 72
x = 6.5 m

__

______

2 4 + 4
_____________

A
4
R
5

3
3
4
Since tan A = __, cos A = __, sin A = __
5
5
4
1 R = 2W + W = 3W
4
2 __
R=S
5
4
12
S = __(3W) = ___W
5
5
3 2W(x cos A) + W(5 cos A)

Multiply by m(1 + m)
98m2

R=W
4
__
R=S
5

(iii)
5

5
A
4
R
5

16

W
R
A
4R
5

2W

## Assume it is just on the point of slipping

when the man reaches the top.
1

Q
Q. 2.
A

R = W + 2W = 3W
4
__
R=S
5
4
12
S = __(3W) = ___W
5
5
W(5 cos A) + 2W(10 cos A)

8 cm R
B

5W = 2S tan A

________

= 15 cm
[CD] is a median of the triangle. The
2
centroid therefore lies __ of the way
3
along [CD].
2
__
(15) = 10
3
The centre of gravity is 10 cm from C.
(ii)

8
4
W

8
R
B

3 W(5) = S(8)

5
S = __W
8

from C.

5
mW = __W
8

5
m = __
8
Q. 3.
Q
A

## Assume it is on the point of slipping.

Therefore, F = mR.
(ii) 1

1 R=W
2 mR = S

mR

|CD| = 172 82

17 cm

|CD|2 + 82 = 172

Exercise 8G
(i)

## (i) Using Pythagoras Theorem

12
___

W,
5
24
5W = ___W tan A
5
25
tan A = ___
24

Q. 1.

= S(10 sin A)

But S =

17 cm

8 cm

29 cm
20 cm

R=W

mR = S

20 cm R

W(2) = S(8)
1
S = __W
4
Equation 2
mR = S
1
m(W) = __W
4
1
m = __
4
1
The least value of is __.
4

W
29 cm
mR

## Using Pythagoras Theorem

|CD|2 + 202 = 292

_________

## |CD| = 292 202 = 21 cm

[CD] is a median of the triangle. The
2
centroid therefore lies __ of the way
3
along [CD].
2
__
3

(21) = 14

17

## The centre of gravity is 14 cm

from C.
1

R=W

mR = S

Q
Q. 5. (a) See text
(b)

m
W

W(7) = S(20)

7
S = ___W
20

F q

7
mW = ___W
20

7
m = ___
20

Q. 4.

Let |pm| = x
A
25 cm

7 cm
D
7 cm

x2

2
|pg| = __
3

mR

## (i) Using Pythagoras Theorem:

|CD|2

72

252

|CD| =

________

252

72

= 24 cm
[CD] is the median of the triangle. The
2
centroid therefore lies __ of the way
3
along [CD].
2
__
(24) = 16
3
The centre of gravity is 16 cm
from C.
1
1 R + __
S=W
4

1
R = W __S
4

2 mR = S
1
3 W(8) = S(7) + __
S(24)
4
8W = 13S
8
S = ___W
13
11
R = ___W
13
(ii)

( 13 )

8
11W = ___
m ___
W
13
8
m = ___
11

( 3a ) =
1
__

1
S
4

25 cm
B

18

m
1
a
2

a2

__

3
x = __ a
2

__

( )
( )
3
__

1__
a = ___
a
3
__
1 3
1__
|gm| = __ ___a = ____
a
3 2
23
1 R=W
2 F=S

( )

1
1__
3 S __
a = W ____
a
2
2 3
1__
S = ___
W
3
1__
The reactions are ___
W, W
3
If it is on the point of slipping, then F = mR.
Equation 2
mR = S
1__
mW = ___
W
3
1__
m = ___
3

1__
.
The least value of m is ___
3
Q.
Q 6. (a) See text
(b)

T1 p(0,3)

4,
(2,1)(3 1)
T2

4
W
3

W
T3 r(0,0)

q(4,0)

Centroid is at

( 0 + 30 + 4, 0 + 33 + 0 ) = ( 43, 1 )
_________ _________

__

## Component of weight acting down the

3
plane = 200 sin A = 200 __ = 120 N
5
Component of weight acting perpendicular
4
to the plane = 200 cos A = 200 __ = 160 N
5
R = 160 N

4
1 T1 + T2 + T3 = __
W+W
3
7
T1 + T2 + T3 = __W
3
2 Taking moments about the y-axis:
4
4
T2(4) + T1(0) + T3 (0) = __W(2) + W __
3
3
4T2 = 4W

()

()

()

Friction = mR

T2 = W
3 Taking moments about the x-axis:
4
T1(3) + T2(0) + T3(0) = __W(1) + W(1)
3
7
__
T1 = W
9
7
__
But T1 + T2 + T3 = W
3
5
__
T3 = W
9
5
7
__
__
9
9

1
= __(160)
2
= 80 N
F + 80 = 120
F = 40 N
Q. 3.
Q

on the particle
R

Exercise 8H

30
3R
5

Q. 1.

F
R

## Component of weight acting down

()

1
the plane = 100 sin 30 = 100 __ = 50 N
2

30

A
A

__

50

( )

4
tan A = __
3
cos A =

3
__
5

and sin A =

4
__
5

## Component of weight acting down the

4
plane = 50 sin A = 50 __ = 40 N
5
F = 40 N

()

Q. 2.

F
R
mR
A

160

## Component of F acting along

__
3

___
the plane = F cos 30 =
F
2
Component of F acting perpendicular to
1
the plane = F sin 30 = __F
2
__
1
R = 503 + __F
2
__

3
__

3
___

But, R + 50 =
F
5
2
__
__
3
3
1
__ 503 + __F + 50 = ___F
5
2
2
__

30 3 +

3
___

__

3
___

F + 50 =
F
2
10
__
3003 + 3F + 500 = 5 3 F
__

200
120

3
tan A = __
4

3
___

__2
= 50 3 N

40

100 N

30

3
4
cos A = __ and sin A = __
5
5

__

__

__

F=

100(3__ 3 + 5)
_____________
5 3 3

~
180 N

19

Q. 4.

Q
Q. 6.

tan a = 2
1__
2__
cos a = ___
sin a = ___
5
5

## Here is a diagram of the resolved forces

acting on the body:
R

Forces

mR

A
7 sin A

7cos A

14 cos A

14 sin A

7 cos A + 7 = 14 sin A

Resolved
W
3

cos A + 1 = 2 sin A

__________

cos A + 1 = 2 1 cos2 A
square both sides

2W
5

mR
W
5

## cos2 A + 2 cos A + 1 = 4 4 cos2 A

5 cos2 A + 2 cos A 3 = 0

2W
5

(5 cos A 3)(cos A + 1) = 0
3
cos A = __ OR cos A = 1
5
cos A = 1 is excluded because A is an
acute angle.

3W
2W
W__ ____
__ + ___
1 R = ____
= __
5
5
5
W__ ____
2W
2 mR + ___
= __
5
5
W
__
mR = ___
5
Dividing 1 by 2
1
m = __
3

Q. 7.
Q

## (i) Particle about to slip down the plane

R

mR
19.6

98 A

Q. 5.

98 cos A
98 sin A

R = 98 cos A

19.6 + mR = 98 sin A
l
R tan l
a
a

W cos a

## 19.6 + 98 m cos A = 98 sin A

2 + 10 m cos A = 10 sin A
10 sin A 10 m cos A = 2

W sin a

## The diagram shows the forces on the

particle. Since m = tan l, the friction force
is R tan l as shown.
Particle will slip down the plane if
W sin a > R tan l

but R = W cos a

## W sin a > W cos a tan l

divide by W cos a

20

98
mR
98 A
A

98 cos A
98 sin A

R = 98 cos A
98 = mR + 98 sin A

## tan a > tan l

98 = 98 m cos A + 98 sin A

a>l

10 = 10 m cos A + 10 sin A

10 sin A + 10 m cos A = 10 2
Adding equations 1 and 2 we get

3
4 = 10
10 __ + 10 m __
5
5

()

20 sin A = 12
3
sin A = __
5
3 = 36.87
A = sin1 __
5

()

6 + 8m = 10
8m = 4
1
m = __
2

()

## (iii) The force diagram therefore looks like this:

his:
R
1
R
2
98
A

F sin l
F
l

F cos l

78.4
58.8

R + F sin l = 78.4

1
__
2

R = 78.4 F sin l

R + 58.8 = F cos l
R = 2F cos l 117.6

## 78.4 F sin l = 2F cos l 117.6

F(2 cos l + sin l) = 196
196
F = _____________
2 cos l + sin l
= 196(2 cos l + sin l)1
dF
___ = 196(2 cos l + sin l)2 (2 sin l + cos l)
dl
dF 196(cos l 2 sin l)
___ = __________________
dl
(2 cos l + sin l)2
dF
Putting ___ = 0 we get
dl
cos l 2 sin l = 0
1 2 tan l = 0
1
tan l = __
2
1
2__
___
sin l = __ and cos l = ___
5

5
196
F = _____________
2 cos l + sin l
196
= ________
___
4__
1__
+ ___
5

196
= ____
5
___
__

196
__ N
= ____
5

21

Q. 8.

m = tan l
The diagram shows resolved forces acting on the particle.
F sin q
R

mR

F cos q
W cos a
W sin a

R + F sin q = W cos a

mR + W sin a = F cos q

R = W cos a F sin q

## R tan l = F cos q W sin a

F cos q W sin a
R = _______________
tan l
F cos q W sin a
_______________
W cos a F sin q =
tan l
cos l
W cos a F sin q = (F cos q W sin a) _____ multiply by sin l
sin l

## W cos a sin l F sin q sin l = F cos q cos l W sin a cos l

F(cos q cos l + sin q sin l) = W(cos a sin l + sin a cos l)
F cos(q l) = W sin(a + l)
W sin(a + l)
F = ___________
cos (q l)
(i) Force acting up along the plane q = 0
W sin (a + l)
F = ____________
cos (l)

cos(l) = cos l

W sin(a + l)
F = ___________
cos l
(ii) Horizontal force q = a
W sin(a + l)
F = ___________
cos(a l)
W sin(a + l)
= ____________
cos[(a + l)]
W sin (a + l)
= ____________
cos (a + l)
= W tan (a + l)
W sin (a + l)
(iii) F = ____________
cos (q l)
Minimum force will occur when cos(q l) is at its maximum value, i.e. cos(q l) = 1
FMIN = W sin(a + l).

22

Q. 9.

(i) The normal reaction, R, and the limiting friction, F, acting on a body which is either moving
or on the point of moving, can be added to form a resultant. The angle between this
resultant and the normal reaction is the angle of friction.
(ii)

S tan l
S

W
R
R tan l

1

R + S tan l = W
R = W S tan l

R tan l = S

## Wl sin a = S(2l cos a) + S tan l(2l sin a)

S(2 cos a + 2 tan l sin a) = W sin a
W sin a
S = ___________________
2(cos a + tan l sin a)

(W S tan l) tan l = S
W tan l S tan2 l = S
S(1 + tan2 l) = W tan l
W tan l
S = _________
1 + tan2 l
W sin a
W tan l
___________________ = _________
2(cos a + tan l sin a) 1 + tan2 l
(1 + tan2 l)sin a = 2 tan l(cos a + tan l sin a)
sin a + tan2 l sin a = 2 tan l cos a + 2 tan2 l sin a
tan2 l sin a + 2 tan l cos a = sin a

divide by cos a

## tan2 l tan a + 2 tan l = tan a

tan a(1 tan2 l) = 2 tan l
2 tan l
tan a = _________
1 tan2 l
tan a = tan 2l
a = 2l

23

Q. 10.

S
q
R

R tan l

## Let the length of the ladder be 2l.

We must firstly resolve R and R tan l into horizontal and vertical components:
The horizontal component of R is R sin a.
The vertical component of R is R cos a.
The horizontal component of R tan l is R tan l cos a.
The vertical component of R tan l is R tan l sin a
1

## S + R sin a = R tan l cos a

S
R = ________________
tan l cos a sin a

## W = R cos a + R tan l sin a

W = R(tan l sin a + cos a)

## W(l sin q) = S(2l cos q)

1
S = __W tan q as required
2
S
________________
W=
(tan l sin a + cos a)
tan l cos a sin a

1
tan l sin a + cos a
W = __W tan q ________________
2
tan l cos a sin a

1
tan l tan a + 1
1 = __ tan q ______________
2
tan l tan a

## tan q(tan l tan a + 1) = 2(tan l tan a)

tan l tan a
tan q = 2 ______________
1 + tan l tan a
tan q = 2 tan(l a)

as required.

Exercise 8I
Q. 1.

## Here is a diagram of the forces acting on

the rod PQ:
T

3
T
5

Y
X
W

4
T
5

3
1 Y = __T = W
5

24

... Equation 1

4
X + __T = W
5

3
W(2) = __T(4)
... Equation 2
5
Equation 3: 5W = 6T
5
T = __W
6

... Equation 2

Equation 1:

[ ]

3 5
Y + __ __W = W
5 6
2Y + W = 2W

3W (a sin q) = W(2a)
2
sin q = __
3

2Y = W
1
Y = __W
2
5
4
Equation 2: X = __ __W
56
2
__
X= W
3
reactions at the hinge are
2
1
__
W and __W. The tension in
3
2 5
the string is __W.
6

[ ]

Q. 2.

= 0.6667
q = 41 49
(iii) X = W cos q
__

( )

5
= W ___
3
__

5
___

W
3
Y = 3W W sin q

on the rod:

()

2
= 3W W __
3

7W
= ____
3
Q. 4.
Q

2W sin A

5W

## Taking moments about p, using

unresolved forces:

12
cos A = ___
13
2W

5
sin A = ___
13

2W cos A

Y + 2W sin A = 5W

X = 2W cos A

5
Since tan A = ___
12

Forces

## 5W(l sin A) = 2W(2l)

3
4
sin A = __
cos A = __
5
5
8
17
__
___
1 Y + W = 5W Y = W
5
5
6
__
2 X= W
5
4
1
(ii) A = sin __ = 53
5
Q. 3.

(i) Y
p

Resolved

5
T
13

Y
p X
W

12
T
13

5
1 Y + ___ T = W
13

X
q

p X

3W

12
2 X = ___
T
13

90 q

(W sin q)

(W cos q)

(ii) 1
2

Y + W sin q = 3W
X + W cos q = 0

25
25

slipping.

## 3 Taking moments about p:

5
W(6) = ___T(12)
13

F = mR
1
= __R
3

13
T = ___W
10

( )

( )

1 1
= __ 2__W
3 4

12 13
X = ___ ___W
13 10
6
= __W
5

3
= __W
4

( )

5 13
Y + ___ ___ T = W
13 10
1
Y = __W
2

(ii)
Q. 5.

10

1
R=2 W
4

(i)

a
R
A

2W

3W

Y B
a

2W

q
3
W
4

3
2 __W = X
4

a
S

## 3 Taking moments about B:

3
1
2W(a cosq) + __W(2a sin q) = 2__(2a cos q)
4
4

3
3
2 cos q + __ sinq = __ cos q
2
2

B X
Y

2W

1 R + Y = 2W

q
G

q
F

3 sin q = 5 cosq
3W

q
A F

q
a

3 tan q = 5
5
tan q = __
3

S
c

5
q = tan1 __
3

## (ii) From system ABC

= 592

1 R + S = 2W + 3W
R + S = 5W

Q. 6.
Q

2 F=G

## 3 Taking moments about a.

2W(a cos q) + 3W(3a cos q) = S(4a cos q)
4S = 11W
3
S = 2__W
4
1
__
R = 2 W, from Equation 1.
4
(iii) Since R < S, mR < mS
slipping will occur at A first.

26

6
1
5
2
13
___

X
q

R
A

2
T
W

5
T
2W

S
C

3
4
4
Since cos q = __, sin q = __ and tan q = __
5
5
3
The system ABC
1 R + S = W + 2W
R + S = 3W

1 R = W + 2W = 3W

2 T=T

2 mR = S

## 3 Taking moments about A:

( )

( )

1
1
W 1__ + T(2) + 2W 4__
2
2

## W(5 cos f) + 2W(10 cos f + 5 cos q)

= S(10 sin f + 10 sin q)
3W + 12W + 10W cos q
= 8S + 10S sin q
15W + 10W cos q = 8S + 10S sin q

= T(2) + S(6)
3
S = 1__W
4
1
R = 1__W, from Equation 1
4
X

Y
B

T
4

5 X=S
4

The rod AB
1
1 1__
W+Y=W
4
1
Y = __W
4
2 T=X

## 15W + 10S sin q = 8S + 10S sin q

15
S = ___ W
8

( ) ( )

1
1
T(2) + W 1__ = 1__ W(3)
4
2

mR = S
15
m(3W) = ___W
8
5
__
m=
8

1
__

T=1 W
8
1
8
1
__
R = 1 W,
4
3
__
S=1 W
4

Q. 8.

S
B

2W(5 cos q) = S(10 sin q)
10W cos q = 10S sin q

Q. 7.

4 Y = 2W

2W

q
B

## (i) Let the length of each rod be 2l.

Here are the forces acting on the rods
AB and AC:

Y2

5
f

2W

X3

X2

4
Since tan f = __,
3
4
sin f = __,
5
3
cos f = __
5

Y3

Y1
2W

X1

X1
A

Y1

f
A mR

2
1
1 W
4

Rod AB:
Taking moments around B we get:
2W(l cos b) + Y1(2l cos b)
= X1 (2l sin b)

## ... divide by 2l cos b

W + Y1 = X1 tan b

... Equation 1

27

## Taking moments around C we get:

Dividing Equation 3 by
Equation 4 gives:

## W(l cos b) = X1(2l sin b) + Y1 (2l cos b)

3W
4
tan a = ______ ____
4 tan b 5W

Rod AC:

## ... divide by l cos b

W = 2X1 tan b + 2Y1
W 2Y1 = 2X1 tan b ... Equation 2
2W + 2Y1 = 2X1 tan b ... Equation 1
( 2)
Add: 3W = 4X1, tan b
3W
X1 = _______ ... substitute into
4 tan b
Equation 2
3W
W 2Y1 = 2 ______ tan b
4 tan b
... multiply by 4

)( )

3
tan a = ______
5 tan b
7 tan b
3
______ = ______
3
5 tan b
35 tan2 b = 9
9
tan2 b = ___
35
3
___
tan b = ____
35
Q
Q. 9. (i) Force diagram for the system including
the friction force at C.

4W 8Y1 = 6W

8Y1 = 2W
W
Y1 = __ ... the minus sign
4
indicates that the actual
direction of Y1 is opposite
to the direction indicated
in the diagram.

## (ii) Looking again at the two rods

separately, we have the following:

CR

R2 a

R1
a

2W

3W

4 tan b

3W

4 tan b

W
R1 sin a + __ = 2W
4
7W
R1 sin a = ____
4
3W
______
R1 cos a =
4 tan b

( )(

3
4

28

3W
R2 sin a = ______
4 tan b
W
R2 cos a = W + __
4
5W
R2 cos a = ____
4

1
R = __ W tan f
2

W tan f = 2R

## Now, we look at the forces on the rod

BC in isolation:
X1

B
Y1

Dividing Equation 1 by
Equation 2 gives:
7W 4 tan b
tan a = ____ ______
4
3W
7 tan b
tan a = ______
3

l
2W __ sin f = R(2l cos f)
2
divide by l cos f

C R

## Taking moments around B we get:

1
F(l sin f ) = R(l cos f ) + W __ sin f
2
divide by l cos f
1
F tan f = R + __ W tan f
2
1
but R = __ W tan f
2
1
1
__
__
F tan f = W tan f + W tan f
2
2
divide by tan f

1
1
F = __ W + __ W
2
2

## Now, look at the ladder [AB] in isolation.

Here are the forces when it is just on the
point of slipping:

F=W
(ii) An additional force is now applied
downwards at C. The force diagram for
the BC now looks like this:

X1 B
R

Y1
mR

C
W

R(d) = W

## Taking moments around B we get:

1
W(l sin f) + W __ sin f + R(l cos f)
2
= mR(l sin f)
divide by l cos f
1
__
W tan f + W tan f + R = mR tan f
2
1
R = __ W tan f
2
1
__
W tan f + W tan f = m W tan2 f
2
divide by W tan f
1
2 = m __ tan f
multiply by 2
2
m tan f = 4
4
m = _____
tan f

## Q. 10. Note: The person will need to stand at

A to maximise the chance of slipping.
Because the system will then be
symmetrical, slipping will occur at B
and C simultaneously. Here are the
forces acting on the system:

( 2 ) + mR( l

W
W
F

S
G

( )

()

( )

4R = 6W
3
R = __W
2

3
__
R= W
2

_______

3d = d + 3m l2 d2
_______

3m l2 d2 = 2d
m=

2d
_________
_______

3 l2 d2

m2

d
_________
_______
3 l2 d2

Ring C

R
T sin a

T cos a

T cos a

T sin a

mR
W

## Taking moments about A we get:

4W(l cosa) = T cos a(2l sin a) +
T sin a(2l cos a)

## Taking moments around C we get:

3d
d
W __ + W(d) + W ___ = R(2d)
2
2
2
multiply by __
d
W + 2W + 3W = 4R

d2 )

_______
3
1
3
__
__
__
Wd = Wd + m W l2 d2
2
2
2
2
__
multiply by
W

4W

_______

d
__

l2 d2

## Because we are now at limiting

friction, the friction force is mR.

mR

Lengths

divide by 2l cos a
2W = T sin a + T sin a
2W = 2T sin a
W = T sin a

29

## From the diagram of forces on the ring

C we can see that
mR = T cos a

Equation 1

and R = T sin a + W
but W = T sin a
R = 2T sin a

Equation 2

Dividing Equation 1 by
Equation 2 we get:
1
m = _______
2 tan a
2m tan a = 1
1
tan a = ___
2m
(ii) W = T sin a

## (ii) Taking moments around the hinge

we get:

( )

1.5
__ = R(1)
80 ___
2

__
120
__ = 60 2 N
R = ____
2

R__
(iii) S = ___
+ 40
2
R__
mS = ___
2

R__
R__
m ____
+ 40 = ___
2
2
(i)

__

but R = 60 2
m(60 + 40) = 60

1
tan a = ___
2m

T = W/sin a

1
________
sin a = _________
1 + 4m2

100m = 60
m = 0.6

________

T = W 1 + 4m2

## Q. 13. Assume ladders are on the point of

slipping. We will then be at the smallest
value of m that will prevent slipping from
occurring. Here is the force diagram for
the system:

R
q q
80 N
Y
W

Hemisphere

mR

R
mS
40 N

mR

## Note: Because both ladders have the same

weight, both reaction forces are the same
and slipping occurs simultaneously at A
and C.
2R = 2W
R=W

Lengths

## Now, we examine the forces on the ladder

[AB] in isolation:
X
q

3
1

90 1
45

45

30

R
mR

## X is the supporting force from the other

ladder. There is no Y component as the
vectors in the Y direction already sum to
zero.
Taking moments around B we get:
l
R(l sin q) = mR(l cos q) + W __ sin q
2
2
multiply by ______ and let W = R
l cos q

## 2R tan q = 2mR + R tan q

divide by R
2 tan q = 2m + tan q
2m = tan q
1
m = __ tan q
2
This is the minimum value of q that will
prevent slipping from occurring.
1
__
m tan q
2
Q. 14. (i) Let x equal the distance from P to
where the block touches the rod.
0.8y
sin a = ____
x

4
tan a = __
3

4
sin a = __
5
0.8y
4
__ = ____
x
5
multiply both sides by 5x
4x = 4y

## (iii) Firstly, examine the diagram of the rod.

Taking moments around the hinge we
get:
3
cos a = __
5

18
R = ___g
5

## Now, examine the diagram of the

block:
1 S = R cos a + 6g

( )( )

18 3
S = ___g __ + 6g
5
5
204
S = ____g
25
2 mS = R sin a

) ( )( )

204
18 4
m ____g = ___g __
5
5
25

25
multiply by ___
g

204m = 72
6
72
m = ____ = ___
204 17
(iv) Looking at the diagram of the rod:
X = R sin a

( )( )

18 4
= ___g __
5
5
= 28.224

x=y

Y + R cos a = 2g

(ii) Rod

Y = 2g R cos a

( )( )

18 3
= 2g ___g __
5
5

= 1.568

2g
a
X

## i.e. 1.568 N downwards

Reaction at hinge
_

Block

= 28.224i 1.568j N
S

Magnitude
__________________

= (28.224)2 + (1.568)2

a R

= 28 N

mS
6g

31

Q
Q. 3.

Exercise 8J
Q. 1.

Forces:

Y
a

r
1
sin A = ______ = __
3r + r 4

A 3r

(ii)
X
A

cos A =

2.

___

15
____
4

240

R
r

b
P

1.5

Resolved Forces:

## |ak|2 + |kb|2 = |ab|2

|ak|2 + 2.25 = 6.25
|ak| = 2

15
T
4

(1) Y = 240

1
T
4

(2) P + X = 0 X = P

R
W

240(0.75) = P(2)

___

(1)

15
____
4

T=W

T=

___

4W
____
___

P = 90 N
__ ___

15

______________

= (90)2 + (240)2

( )

= 256 N
Q. 4.
Q

(i) Forces:

Forces:
F
W
3

Resolved Forces:

1
T
2
__

(1)

3
___
2

T+

30
__

3
___
2

5
R
A
2

30 N

3
T
2

1
T
2

3
T
2

3
4
Since sin A = __, cos A = __
5
5
Resolved Forces:
F
W

T = 30

30
__
T = ___
3

3
R
5
__

= 10 3 N

4
R
5

32

___

## Resultant = 90i + 240j = | R |

1
(2) R = __T
4
1 4W
___
= __ ____
4 15
W
___
= ____
15
Q. 2.

__

X = 90i , Y = 240j

5
3
(iii) (1) __ R = W R = __W
5
3
5
4 __
4
4
__
__
(2) F = R =
W = __W
5
5 3
3

Resultant:

( )

Q. 5.

(a)

Forces:
x

100

## The sum of the moment = the moment of

the sum

150

A
150

1
mg
2

3g

( )

1
__
2

150 3
cos A = ____ = __
250 5
4
sin A = __
5
Resolved Forces:

1
1
mg __l + mg(l ) = 1 __mg(x)
2
2
5
__
x= l
6
O

y
x

3
T
5

T1

4
T
5

mg
2

3
The resultant weight, __mg acts through g,
2
which must be below in accordance with
Theorem 8.7

3g

## Step 1. To find centre of gravity:

Forces:

T1(x) = T2(y)
5
7
But x = __ l sin A, y = __ l sin A
6
6
5
__
7
__
T1 l sin A = T2 l sin A
6
6
T1 __
7
__
=
T2 5

15
4
(1) __ T = 3g T = ___ g
5
4
Q. 6.

5
R
6

Q. 7.
Q

) (

4
r
5
1
2l
1
mg
2

T2
A

7
l
6

1
2l

P
q
A
A

mg

3
r
5

4
sin A = __
5
3
cos A = __
5

33

## Taking moments about the top of the

obstacle:

W (2 sin A) = S(6 sin B)
8
24
___
W ____
= S ___
5
17
5W
_____
S = ___
3 17

( ) ( )

P
r sin (A + q)
A+q
r
OBSTACLE

( ) ( )

( )

3
W __r = P(r sin (A + q))
5
3W
P = __________
5 sin (A + q)
(i) In this case q = 0
3W
3W
P = ______ = ____
4
5 sin A
(ii) In this case we want a minimum value
3W
for ___________ . This value is attained
5 sin (A + q)
3W
when sin (A + q) = 1, and is ____
5

16
24
___ = S ___
W ____
5
17
10W
_____
R = ___
3 17

Q. 9.

Q. 8.

AB
W

r
S
y

R
x
A
c
5
B
a

5
4

g A
1 m
2 W

S
B

## Let m be the midpoint [ab].

|cm| = 4___
(by Pythagoras), |gm| = 1 and
|gc| = 17
4
4
___
sin A = ____
and sin B = __
5
17

34

1
1__
2__
Since tan A = __, sin A = ___
and cos A = ___
2
5

5
3
3
4
Since tan B = __, sin B = __ and cos B = __
5
5
4
Also, sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
3
1__ __
4
2__ __
= ___
+ ___
5 5
5 5
10__
= ____
5 5
2__
= ___
5

( ) ( ) ( )( )

1__
2__
W ___
r = S ___
r
5
5
1
S = __ W
2

( ) ( )

Q.E.D.