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Monsignor Henry E. Manning and Th e First Vatican Council
The role of Cardinal Manning in obtaining the definition of Papal Infallibility at the First Vatican Council

Sous la direction de

Monsieur Christopher


Mémoire de Master Langues, Littérature et Civilisation Etrangères Mention Mondes Anglophones
Université Marc Bloch (Strasbourg II) UFR des Langues vivantes




................................................................ INTRODUCTION ........................... Germany and England: 24 A) The reactions in Germany: ..................................................................................... C) Ultramontanism: ...................................................... D) The “chief doctrinal error of the time: ” ............... C) The reactions in England: .................................................................................................................................... B) The reactions in France: ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. a) The Catholic revival in England after centuries of Protestantism and persecutions of the Catholic population: ............. II) The reactions to the question of papal Infallibility in France.................................... B) Gallicanism: ......................TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS...... 4 ................................................................... PART ONE: BACKGROUND OF THE FIRST VATICAN COUNCIL ............ b) The contributing factors towards the Catholic revival in England: ........................... I) The political context at the opening of the Council: 16 II) The various trends and controversies prevalent within the Catholic Church at that time: 19 A) Liberalism: ....... 1) The Catholics in England from the Reformation to the Eve of the First Vatican Council: ....................................

.................................................... Pope Pius IX and the definition of papal Infallibility: 67 PART THREE: DEFINITION OF PAPAL INFALLIBILITY . PART TWO: PROCEEDINGS AND ACTORS OF THE COUNCIL .......... The rules of the Council and its opening: 46 A) The proceedings of the Council: ................. Manning: ........................................................... IV.................................................................................. 2) The question of papal Infallibility: ............................................ III............................................ IV.... The pressure exercised by governments on the Council Fathers: 70 5 ................. B) The main question: the opportunity of the definition: .......................... and the subsequent answer of Msgr........... Msgr............. B) His writings about the Holy Ghost and papal Infallibility prior to the Council: .............. The two parties at the First Vatican Council: 50 A) Minority and Majority: .............................. I. Manning: ............... The letter sent to some of the Cardinals:...................................................... Manning: 55 A) Presentation of Msgr...... C) The letter sent to some of the bishops.......................................... B................................................................................................ I......... The convocation to the Council: 39 A) The first announcement and the reasons for its convocation: ............................................c) The law of emancipation: ............................................ C) The champion of Papal Infallibility: .......................................................... II......................... B) The opening of the Council: ...

................................................................... Reasons why the definition is thought to be opportune and necessary: 123 6 ... General studies and various writings: 112 Books about Catholicism in England: 113 Books about the First Vatican Council: 115 Books about Cardinal Manning: 116 Works by Cardinal H........................................... Manning at the Council: ....... B) The text of the definition: ................. Manning linked to Papal Infallibility: 117 Web Sources: 119 APPENDIX . III............... Toward some progress: 80 A) Advancing the timing of the discussion: ............................... IV...................II................ B) The famous speech of Msgr... Appendix I...E................................................. C) The decision of the Congregation of postulates: ................... C) The acceptance of the Decrees of the Council:............................. BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................................... B) The counter project against the definition: ................................. CONCLUSION ..................................................................... Minority and Majority at the Council: the main actors: 120 Appendix II................................................. C) The deliberations on the Constitution of the Church: .... The postulates for and against the definition: 74 A) The project of postulates for the definition: ................................................ The solemn definition of papal Infallibility: 90 A) The ceremony of the definition and its vote: ....

Act of Condemnation by the Council of Certain Pamphlets: 142 7 . Pastor Aeternus.Appendix III. First Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ: 128 Appendix IV.

3 Pius IX (1792-1878).. and having condemned the modern religious errors in the Syllabus. The council can be provincial. He is mainly known for having defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception in 1854. 5 The date chosen is not anodyne. Cardinals. The First Vatican Council was an ecumenical council. 6 A cardinal is the second highest ecclesiastical office in the Roman 1 8 . 1854. from the country or the whole world. Pius had defined that “the most Blessed Virgin Mary. 4 A council is a regular gathering of bishops and theologians who decide on questions of doctrine or ecclesiastical discipline. national or ecumenical according to where the bishops convoked to it come from: the province. Amen”1.. in 1864 and having defined the dogma of papal Infallibility in 1870.INTRODUCTION “In nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti.was preserved free from all stain of original sin. It is by these words that Pope2 Pius IX3 opened the First Vatican Council4 on the Feast of the Immaculate Conception5 (December 8) in 1869. on December 8.. Pius IX decided to open the Council on the feast celebrating the dogma of the Immaculate Conception. in honor of the Blessed Virgin. because. Amen” 2 A Pope is the Head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Bishop of Rome... became pope in 1848.6 “In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. the first to be held since the Council of Trent more than 400 years before.” That is why.

voices rose up against the definition. France and England. The bull8 Aeterni Patris issued on June 29. It did however provoke much discontent in various places. was received with joy by the bulk of the Catholic masses. Vatican Council. most notably in Germany. 7 According the Catholic and of these no less than seven hundred and seventy-four appeared during the course of the proceedings. "In these countries.htm.”9 Soon. written by the pope. the world press and especially the European press reported and conveyed daily the different opinions about the current or future decisions which were taken by the Council Fathers. 9 . as well as the controversies which they aroused. “Vatican Council. it was feared that the council would promulgate an exact determination of the primatial prerogatives of the papacy and the definition of papal Infallibility. Vatican Council. 8 A bull is an apostolic letter with a leaden seal. The debate about it Catholic Church. 9 Kirch.7 It became a worldwide event. Catholic Encyclopedia. Abbreviation: Kirch.newadvent. They alone can elect a cardinal to become the new Pope at the death of the previous Pope. just below the Pope. The cardinals are appointed by him as a member of the Sacred College of Cardinals during a consistory. 1868 to summon the Council. “There were in the entire world approximately one thousand and fifty prelates entitled to take part in the Council. http://www.” Kirch.theologians and canonists from all the corners of Christendom were convoked to it.” New Advent. K.

who indeed influenced some of the prelates who took part in the First Vatican Council. Msgr. The opponents of the definition were mostly non-Catholics. Internal Mission. We shall particularly center our analysis upon the role he played in obtaining a definition of papal Infallibility. The Internal Mission of the Holy Ghost. it would be incorrect to conclude that everyone was a fierce opponent to the definition of papal Infallibility."10 The reason why we shall focus only on that definition is that at the time. "That which we call Infallibility is nothing but this: the Church cannot err from the path of revealed truth. the most famous and the most important 10 Cardinal Henry Edward Manning. 10 .became turbulent. (London: Burns & Oates. Catholics also formed part of this opposition. However. The press did not closely examine the other decisions that were taken by the Council Fathers. We wish to analyze this heated and wide-ranging debate by examining the main protagonists and groups. 301. but most surprisingly. the partisans and opponents to the Council focused only on the definition. The Holy Church found many great defenders all around Europe such as Bishops Dechamps of Mechlin and Senestrèy of Ratisbon. In England. Abbreviation: Manning. Both. Manning's role at the First Vatican Council will be the subject of this present study. Ltd.. the debate was almost exclusively concentrated upon the question of papal Infallibility. 1875).

dogmas. 11 Nowadays.remains Cardinal Henry Edward Manning. Manning" instead of Archbishop Manning. this Council is known almost solely for the definition of the dogma of papal Infallibility. was turning from an exclusively religious society. but surely. even among Catholics. It was unexpected in a country that had been Protestant since the Reformation in 1533. There was a wave of new ideas. Archbishop of Westminster. people who do not consider the pope as infallible when he speaks in matters of faith and morals. Manning. Millions of people – Catholics included – still violently attack this dogma. It is very common to find. as it is the name under which he is best known. The 19th century saw the beginning of a very strong de-Christianization theme. and many people brought into question values. 11 . new debates. However. and centuries old beliefs. into a largely de-Christianized society. That is why the subject is still an appropriate topic at the dawn of the twenty-first century. On the contrary. The attacks against papal Infallibility are not a new phenomenon. a very strong Catholic revival occurred in England in the 19th century. despite de-Christianization. Society as a whole was changing. they were as violent in the 19th century as they are today. so during the Council he was only Archbishop of Westminster. It slowly. He 11 Henry Edward Manning was made a cardinal only in 1875 by Pope Pius IX. The Catholic revival had a tangible effect on Msgr. Surprisingly. I deliberately choose to call him “Cardinal Manning” or "Msgr.

the opposition he faced and in turn the degree of zealousness. because that is where Msgr. the spirit of the time and the different debates and concerns. The study of the role of Msgr. Manning. By placing our examination in context. in perspective. we can conclude about the extent of the role played by Msgr. and the attitudes of those both inside of and external to the decision-making process. we must examine the attitudes and roles of his contemporaries and fellow citizens.converted from Protestantism to Catholicism in 1851 and soon began to become very active and zealous in attempting to revive the Catholic faith in England. He took part in the Vatican Council. By doing this we can draw conclusions about the difficulty of the task facing those who proposed a definition. The survey will attempt to be a mirror of the religious and intellectual state in the nineteenth century and more precisely in England. and the definition of the dogma of papal Infallibility was largely due to his zeal. the support that he garnered. This is what this present study shall attempt to illustrate: the role of Msgr. Manning in the definition of papal Infallibility at the First Vatican Council. which he espoused. In order to truly appreciate and assess the role of an individual in such a huge process (i. the defining of such a wide-ranging definition). Manning lived. Manning will allow the reader to familiarize himself with and in turn to understand. The reactions to the Vatican Council in Germany and in France have been largely studied.e. but this is not 12 .

In addition. the political context at the opening of the Council. despite the fact that it was one of the three countries where one could find the strongest discontent. This study shall lead to a better understanding about the important role the Council played in the history of the Holy Catholic Church and among Catholics. for example. That is to say successively. The intention is to examine the aforementioned issues by virtue of primary sources which refer to the subject. Manning have focused on his social works or on his conversion rather than on the role he played at the First Vatican Council. Such sources were close to the Council and therefore their information has not been distorted or altered through the passing of centuries. the various religious trends and controversies prevalent within the Catholic Church at the time. We refer to and have used many works written by contemporaries of the Vatican Council in order to inform our study. almost all the biographers of Msgr. Historians have been usually more interested in studying the Catholic revival in the 19th century in England rather than the reactions toward the Council. Germany and England at the announcement of the Council.the case for England. The original text. and last. It is essential to analyze in the first part the background of the Council. of an opponent to the Council has a stronger force and realism than a text explaining decades later that there were some opponents. the 13 . the reaction to the question of papal Infallibility in France.

Manning. The fourth chapter will picture this famous day. 1870.convocation to the Council and the reasons invoked to summon it. a first chapter on the rules of the Council to help the reader to understand its functioning. The second chapter is central. in the third chapter. The pressures exercised by governments on the Council Fathers will be particularly revealing. we shall examine more closely his ideas concerning papal Infallibility. We shall refrain from giving his biography. We shall devote in part two. It will first be imperative to briefly examine the agitation outside the Council provoked by a possible definition. we shall consider the process of the definition of papal Infallibility. an unfailing conviction and a tremendous love for the Holy Ghost and the papacy 14 . converted to the Catholic faith. We hope to recreate the incredible journey of an Anglican ministry. because it describes the two parties present at the Council. we shall examine the different steps leading to the definition. Finally. In the last part. but we shall center our study on his attitude toward the definition of papal Infallibility. who they were. After a presentation of Msgr. and what were their motivations. in the second and third fourth chapters. Then. it would be impossible to speak about the Council without mentioning its major actor: Pope Pius IX. July 18. when the dogma of Infallibility was solemnly defined. who. by a fantastic energy.

became the major defender and partisan of the definition of papal Infallibility. 15 .

the state of affairs was so grave that the Commission of Direction and most of the prelates were wondering if it was going to be possible to hold the Holy Council at all. Austria and Italy.PART ONE: BACKGROUND OF THE FIRST VATICAN COUNCIL I) The political context at the opening of the Council: The political context of the Council was one of violent upheaval and widespread wars. was to break the old alliances. and to trouble 16 . An English hand described the condition of Europe at the time on 12 November 1866: The immediate consequence of the last war (between Prussia and Austria). On May 1865. Consequently. all of Europe was anxiously awaiting the result of the conflicts between Prussia. which caused Queen Isabella II to flee to France. Prussia and Denmark clashed. a revolution raged in Spain. In 1864. In 1870. and of the peace which followed it. the Franco-Prussian war was to burst out. in 1868. Various wars were simultaneously tearing apart different countries and shedding the blood of thousands of human beings. in 1866. the American Civil War ended.

Russia is raising three hundred thousand recruits. E. and only the necessity of defense hinders the desire of attack. Austria is remodeling and reforming. The Continental press shows us one-half of Europe in array against the other. 1996). …The whole of Europe is arming. and ambition has no limit to the extension of its own power. in Cardinal H.every European State. everywhere the armaments are in training. 39. and new systems of warfare are being elaborated. a representative of the pope came to the United States. Every man‟s hand is against his brother.”12 In the United States. he was mobbed by members of this party in Cincinnati. The True Story of the Vatican Council. on the contrary. the “Know-Nothing” Party persecuted Catholics and immigrants during the mid-19th century. November 18. and the subsequent quarrel between Prussia and Austria annihilated the barriers of international law. increases its armies. The art of slaying threatens to become the sole industry of Europe. Prussia is reorganizing four new army corps. 1866. All nations are on the watch. Manning. When in 1853. There followed a bitter persecution of 12 The Times. (Fraser. Michigan: Real View Books. Their motto was “Americans must rule America” and they gained political prominence in many states. From henceforth there no longer exists a principle of general policy in Europe. and order is maintained because everybody is afraid of his neighbour. 17 . The invasion of Denmark gave the first shock to public morality. but. France does not disarm.

429. In Bangor. Italy and Portugal. a Jesuit priest was tarred and feathered. Cardinal H. the various governments showed themselves to be so anti-Catholic that it was feared that they would not allow the bishops to attend the Council in any event. the first was a doubt as to the disposition of the civil powers to permit the bishops of their respective jurisdictions to attend. Story of the Church. everything possible was done to prevent Catholics from holding public office or even voting. 15-16. Churches were destroyed. Abbreviation: Manning.14 It is thus in this delicate political situation that the Council was summoned. There were riots at Louisville and St. The True Story of the Vatican Council. (Fraser. in spite of the fact that the Constitution of the United States guarantees religious liberty. As to the obstacles in the way of holding the Council.Catholics all over the country. and everywhere. Maine. Michigan: Real View Books. therefore. 18 . E. It was remembered that in 1862 the government of Italy hindered the Italian bishops from coming to Rome for the canonization of the martyrs of Japan. little wonder that Pope Pius IX and his counselors hesitated to confirm the day for the opening of the Council. Fear was especially entertained on this point in respect to the government of France.13 It is. George Johnson. 1996). True Story. The religious context was not 13 14 Fr. Louis in which there was bloodshed. Furthermore. Manning.

”15 According to Ann Carroll and many Catholics. Anne Carroll defines Liberalism as “a philosophy which rejects moral absolutes and authority. Many trends and controversies were prevalent within the Catholic Church. (Manassas: Trinity Communications. Christ the King: Lord of History. Many popes have repeatedly 15 Anne Carroll. by violence if necessary. Liberalism is fundamentally based upon the absolute independence of the individual. society and the State from God and His Church. 19 . 1986). It is usually opposed to hereditary monarchy. It emphasizes that men should be free to do whatever they want in moral matters.unproblematic either. II) The various trends and controversies prevalent within the Catholic Church at that time: A) Liberalism: In order to fully understand the Vatican Council it is important to appreciate that many political leaders and prelates of the 19th century were impregnated with the Liberalism of that era. The Catholic Church is founded on the absolute subjection of the individual and society to the revealed law of God. It usually approves the elimination of opposition. These two ideologies are irreconcilable.

and in such a disposition of mind.”17 In short. 20 . any liberty except that which consists in submission to God and in submission to His will is unintelligible. Gallicanism “tended to restrict the authority of the Church regarding the State (Political Gallicanism) or the authority of the pope regarding the council. Libertas Humana (On the Nature of True Liberty). means to act. 108. 1988. 16 Leo XIII. (Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Company. Gallicanism was widespread in France and in several other countries. B) Gallicanism: The ideology of Gallicanism had assailed Papal Infallibility for more than 400 years prior to the Vatican Council.condemned Liberalism. the chief and deadly vice of Liberalism consists. is wholly subject to the most faithful and ever enduring power of God.16 In the meantime. as a consequence. 1951). and clergy (Ecclesiastico-Theological Gallicanism). but as one who treasonably abuses his liberty. 36. To deny the existence of this authority in God. or to refuse to submit to it. Dictionary of Dogmatic Theology. Gallicanism. it was a theory of the superiority of a national general council over the pope. Leo XIII describes the inherent evil of this philosophy: …Man. like Anglicanism was a form of religious nationalism. bishops. June 20. by a necessity of his nature. 17 Pietro Parente. no. not as a free man. and that.

These teachings were widely professed by the clergy of France and later spread to Flanders, Ireland and England. Some prelates at the Council followed the Gallican ideology and wished to make papal authority dependent upon the bishops and the approbation of national general councils.

C) Ultramontanism:
Many Italians who opposed Gallicanism and defended the primacy and Infallibility of the Roman Pontiff became known as Ultramontanists. It was a pejorative term given by the enemies of the Catholic Church or by those who wanted a certain degree of administrative independence from Rome. “Ultramontanism [is] a term used to denote integral and active Catholicism, because it recognizes as its spiritual head the pope, who, for the greater part of Europe, is a dweller beyond the mountains (ultra montes), that is, beyond the Alps.”18 Ultramontanism stressed the monarchial role of the pope, his universal jurisdiction, his primacy over the Catholic Church and his Infallibility in ex cathedrâ pronouncements.

D) The “chief doctrinal error of t he time: ”


Charles Herbermann, Catholic Encyclopedia, (New York: The Encyclopedia Press, 1908), Vol. 15, 125.


However, according to Msgr. Manning and many Catholics, the principal doctrinal error of the time was the denying of papal Infallibility and the distance, and freedom many would take with the papal teachings. the Msgr. Manning described thus the conflict between the two groups: Each council was convened to extinguish the chief evil of the time. And I do not hesitate to affirm that the denial of the Infallibility of the Roman Pontiff was the chief intellectual or doctrinal error as to faith, not to call it more than proximate to heresy, of our times. It was so because it struck at the validity of the pontifical acts of the last 300 years, weakened the effect of papal decisions of this period over the intellect and conscience of the faithful. It kept alive a dangerous controversy on the subject of Infallibility altogether, and exposed even the Infallibility of the Church itself to difficulties not easy to solve. As an apparently open or disputable point, close to the very root of faith, it exposed even the faith itself to the reach of doubts. Next, practically, it was mischievous beyond measure. The divisions and contentions of „Gallicanism‟ and „Ultramontanism‟ have been a scandal and a shame to us. Protestants and unbelievers have been kept from the truth by our intestine controversies, especially upon a point so high and so intimately connected with the whole doctrinal authority of the Church. Again, morally, the division and contention on this point, supposed to be open, has generated more alienation, bitterness and 22

animosity between Pastors and people, and what is worse, between Pastors and Pastors, than any other in our day.19 This can very well explain why the reactions to the question of papal Infallibility were so strong even before the Council was opened.


Cardinal Manning, The Vatican Council and its Definitions: Pastoral Letter to the Clergy, (London: Longmans, Green, And Co., 1870), 41-42. Abbreviation: Manning, Vatican Council and its Definitions.


(Dublin: M. 24 . 1910). in order to understand the Council itself. Even in Catholics circles very sharp controversies broke out.II) The reactions to the question of papal Infallibility in France. Germany and England: It is essential to understand the mentality of the bishops who attended the Vatican Council. Abbreviation: MacCaffrey. Ltd. Gill and Son. especially in Germany: “The convocation of the Council. 443. especially in France and in Germany. H. roused the bitter enmity of the radical-liberal party throughout Europe. James MacCaffrey..”20 20 Fr. while pleasing to the vast body of Catholic clergy and people. Fr. James MacCaffrey and Msgr. History of the Church in the Nineteenth Century (1789-1908). Hughes explain how the conflict over Infallibility raged. History of the Church.

22 Johann Friedrich (1836-1917) was a German theologian who. and In 21 Johan Ignaz von Döllinger (1799-1890). the liberal historian and theologian Ignaz von 21 Döllinger led the controversy against papal Infallibility. He left Rome before the Council closed.A) The reactions in Germany: Dr. Döllinger: Germany. in 1869. and took an active part in opposing the dogma of papal Infallibility. he wrote in conjunction with Johan Friedrich.22 the Letters of Janus in which they attacked the 23 Syllabus and the doctrine of papal Infallibility. 1864. In 1869. He was one of the most ferocious adversaries of papal Infallibility. notably by supplying the opposition bishops with historical and theological material. 25 . went to the Vatican Council as secretary to Cardinal Hohenlohe. was excommunicated for his heretical writings. 23 The Syllabus is the name of the series of propositions containing modern religious errors condemned by Pius IX on December 8.

not even Döllinger himself could have foretold where they would lead him. As early as 1850 he had propounded his grandiose dream of a German national church. He was a protagonist. S. for „public opinion.”24 In one of these articles. not schismatic. 37. Michael.” Döllinger had not been sparing in his criticism of Rome. The world still admired his immense learning and his undoubted intellectual powers.claimed its incompatibility with modern thought. Döllinger Eine Charakteristik.‟ As he became more and more infatuated with „liberal‟ ideas he simultaneously became the source of anxiety to many of his former friends. He had been bitter in his contempt for Scholastic Theology. Ignaz v. However. J. of the Curia. He had developed something very near hatred towards the Jesuits.‟ He threw his great weight into a most 24 E. Manning that he “gave himself to the theory of Infallibility with the fervent zeal of a convert. “Döllinger wrote in the Allgemeine Zeitung and in the Neue Freie Presse several polemical and hateful articles against the Church and its organization. Only by reading history backwards does one get the full significance of his appeal for deference to public opinion at the Munich assembly of 1863. it is true. too. Manning. …His exclusion from the deliberations preparatory to the Council was the final „insult. but hardly Catholic with its domineering self-sufficiency. They also criticized Msgr. of the Papal States. 26 . he wrote of Msgr. (Innsbruck: 1892).

325-1870. who had been appointed to the See of Rottenburg. they issued a pastoral letter to the Catholics of Germany. (New York: Hanover House. Church in Crisis: A History of the General Council.determined opposition. it was thought best to hold a meeting of their own body at Fulda in September 1869. one bishop-elect. Sixteen bishops. At the same time. 1961). and the procurators of three absent bishops. 190-191. 350. 27 .25 Döllinger became one of the most ardent opponents of papal Infallibility. They determined to send a private letter to the Pope. not only to the definition of it. The Church and the Nineteenth Century. especially in so far as it would affect the Church in Germany. (Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Company. This document was signed by about two-thirds of those present. Whether personally in favor of Infallibility or opposed to it. but also to the dogma itself. attended the assembly Professor Hefele.”26 The bishops of Germany were in a peculiarly difficult position. and who grew more and more antipapal with each year that passed. in which the arguments against the advisability of the definition. Philip Hughes. 1938). 26 Msgr. Under the circumstances. a very small number of great scholars who defiantly held that the pope was not infallible. which was well calculated to allay the excitement and uneasiness that Döllinger and his friends 25 Raymond Corrigan. should be set forth. “Also there were in Germany. they could not fail to be alarmed at the dangerous tendency of the movement.

it was still very virulent. if not against papal Infallibility itself. […] The pastoral letter was read in all the Catholic churches of Germany. Dupanloup welcomed with joy the papal Bull of indiction.27 In France. Dupanloup In France. in 27 28 MacCaffrey. in which no mention was made of Infallibility. Felix Dupanloup (1802-1878). was a French prelate who was one of the leaders of liberal Catholicism.28 Bishop of Orleans. Msgr. 446-447. and made an excellent impression. History of the Church.had so industriously instigated. even if the effect was not as extreme as in Germany. Dupanloup. directed the debate. 28 . B) The reactions in France: Msgr. Msgr. He transmitted the papal Bull to his flock. “At the Council he was the leader of that Minority which. for political reasons stood. at least against the timing of its definition.

29 The newspaper Civiltà Cattolica was founded on April 6. by making known in advance the position he intended to take. a Protestant country used to hating the papacy and to rejecting its authority. For more information. http://www.newadvent. http://www. Felix-Antoine-Philibert Dupanloup. “Pius IX declared himself in favor of that journal.htm. Tavernier.a dignified pastoral see Tavernier. he appended to his pastoral letter certain observations which. Louis Veuillot. Eugene. by Pius IX himself and confided by him to the conduct of the Fathers of the Society of Jesus. New Advent: Catholic Encyclopedia. Nevertheless. He founded the journal the Univers where he ardently defended the Catholic faith. 1850. He was a zealous defender of papal Infallibility.”32 Seeing these reactions in Catholic countries. 32 Sollier. “when the Catholic sentiment. 31 Louis Veuillot (1813-1883) was a French Catholic journalist and writer. Louis Veuillot. involved him in a petty controversy with Louis Veuillot31.F. it is not surprising to observe such strong effects in England. http://www. voiced by such organs as the Civiltà Cattolica29 and the Univers30. while many others defended it”. New Advent: Catholic Encyclopedia. which several bishops were attacking vigorously. began to petition for the definition.newadvent. 30 The journal the Univers was founded by Louis Veuillot. 29 . New Advent: Catholic Encyclopedia.

England became Protestant following the Latin adage. but this role is infinitely more awe-inspiring given the aforementioned context by which he was surrounded. It means that a ruler has the right to determine the religion of his territory. Msgr. Catholicism blossomed. the country had been separated from the Holy See. Manning must be analyzed within the national context at that time. In fact.C) The reactions in England: 1) The Catholics in England from the Reformation to the Eve of the First Vatican Council: a) The Catholic revival in England after centuries of Protestantism and persecutions of the Catholic population: The role in and indeed reaction to the universal debate on papal Infallibility by Msgr. ejus religio” (whose rule. The principle trampled on all rights of conscience. his religion). Despite centuries of Protestantism and discriminations against the Catholics in Britain. Manning had a widely recognized central role in the debate. In the 19th century. “cujus regio. It is essential to underline the importance of the rehabilitation of Catholic hierarchy in 1850 by Pius IX. 30 . a significant Catholic revival in England occurred. His subjects have the alternative of moving to a section where their religion is supreme. since the Schism of Henry VIII in 1534 and the founding of the Church of England.

The Reformation. It allowed Roman Catholics in Great Britain to own property. London: Penguin. Parliament voted the Catholic Relief Act that revoked part of the anti-Catholic legislation. in 1778. The government knew that Catholics did not represent a great danger because they were not numerous or organized and because the 33 Chadwick. Owen. The Test Act of 1673 also excluded Catholics from public jobs. under the reign of Elizabeth. However. 31 . severe laws were enacted against Catholics. stricter penal laws were implemented against English Catholics. As Owen Chadwick33 underlines. The English Bill of Rights of 1689 stated that Roman Catholics could not be King or Queen of England since "it hath been found by experience that it is inconsistent with the safety and welfare of this Protestant Kingdom to be governed by a papist prince. In 1606. They were considered as enemies of the Crown. and build chapels with no exterior signs. 1964. and in 1585. It caused many problems because the citizens were forced to swear allegiance to the King and repudiate pontifical authority. What followed were vexations and laws to discourage anyone from being Catholic.The remaining Catholics endured many persecutions and discriminations in Britain. capital punishment was decreed for priests and for new converts. in 1571. inherit land. the distrust toward Rome became an integral part of patriotism. join the army." The Sovereign was required to swear a coronation oath to maintain the Protestant religion. For example.

John Wilmot presided over it and the committee counted amongst its members William Wilberforce. etc. “Another consequence of the French Revolution was that English Catholic institutions as well as French religious congregations sought refuge in England. More Roman than Rome. some five and a half thousand French priests were receiving help from the Relief Committee.”34 It was thus evident that if the Government was helping the French Catholics it could not keep persecuting its own Catholics. schools and seminaries previously scattered throughout Europe would eventually prove to be an 34 Holmes Derek.” “The reestablishment of some forty religious houses. 134. (London: Burnes & Oates. Portugal and the Netherlands. William Pitt and Edmund Burke. fleeing the French armies in France. “At the beginning of 1800. Thousands of priests and nuns migrated to England. b) The contributing factors towards the Catholic revival in England: The French Revolution of 1789 had great influence upon the revival of Catholicism in Britain. The English Government was very favorable towards the refugees. 1978). Spain.repressive laws had deprived them of any power and by virtue of this any subsequent means of action. A comittee of support was created (the Committee for the Relief of the Suffering Clergy of France). 32 .

Sir Robert Peel. Numerous priests were French teachers of rich young people and thus had a palpable influence. removing many of the remaining substantial restrictions on Roman Catholics in the United Kingdom. In March 1829. O‟Connell up the Catholic Association in 1823 and campaigned for Catholic emancipation.. The Government had to choose between civil war and emancipation. had a French-Catholic teacher. That was the price to pay for security in Ireland and the peace in the British and Irish relations. and to occupy almost any public function. the Law of Emancipation was enacted. Catholics obtained the right to vote. Their arrival brought with it a more daring Catholicism. the right to sit in Parliament. 33 . doing much social good and winning the gratitude of the popular classes. It was important because it was the first real contact English Catholics had made with the ideas of continental Catholicism since the Reformation. The agitation in Ireland was at the origin of the emancipation. 156.important factor in the transformation of the Catholic Church in England during the nineteenth century. c) The law of emancipation: It is only in 1829 that Catholics became full citizens of the United Kingdom. the French Catholic clergy started to become very active.”35 Furthermore. and for the repeal of all anti-Catholic legislation enforced in Ireland. who had the law of emancipation of the Catholic enacted in 1829. As 35 Ibid.

36 34 .early as 1833. which happened in 1850. England. Ireland was hit by a potato blight in 1846 that brought about a terrible famine. Faber. since the Schneider. The growth of the Catholic population in the 184550‟s and the quick evolution of the Catholic community imposed a reorganization of the ecclesiastic administration of the country. The effect of the Oxford converts on the Catholic Church was that the Church became more Roman and more Italian in its appearance. Converts were often more zealous for their new Church than others and they sometimes pushed their views to extremes. Delphine. (Nancy: 2005). a certain number of laymen promoted Catholicism and the renaissance of ecclesiastical life. Unlike Ireland that preserved its Episcopal hierarchy. 10. License research paper. The massive Irish immigration also played a very important part in the Catholic revival. “Britain and the Great Irish Famine”. Nicholas Patrick Wiseman. The Oxford movement also contributed in a sense to the Catholic revival. That is why hundreds of thousands of Irish people migrated to England. Many of its members converted to Catholicism: Newman. the Apostolic Vicars asked Pope Gregory XVI to establish a diocesan hierarchy and were at the origin of the restoration of the hierarchy. There were many converts to the Catholic Church after 1841. a change greatly encouraged by Msgr. and Ward were among the most famous converts. In 1837. Archbishop of Westminster. 35 pages. An “alternative to death and squalor was emigration”36.

2) The question of papal Infallibility: In England. 35 . Manning as Archbishop of Westminster. One archdiocese and twelve auxiliary bishops replaced the eight apostolic vicars. Seeing the advances and the development of Catholicism in England. As early as 1868. the Pope named Msgr.37 He attacked Pope Honorius in his book Pope Honorius before the Tribunal of Reason and History to demonstrate that a pope can err and proffer heresies and thus cannot be declared infallible. Pope Pius IX announced on September 29. However. a series of pamphlets and newspapers began with the appearance of Le Page Renouf‟s pamphlet opposing papal Infallibility. At the death of Msgr. had been under the regime of the countries of mission. Wiseman. Wiseman. A few extracts from the aforementioned book highlights how excited and passionate his reaction 37 Sir Peter Le Page Renouf (1822-1897). The press conveyed the different opinions about the subject. 1850. he opposed the promulgation of the dogma of Papal Infallibility in his book The Condemnation of Pope Honorius that was placed upon the index of prohibited books.Reformation. was an Egyptologist who under the influence of Dr Newman became a Roman Catholic. that he restored the English Roman Catholic hierarchy under the Primacy of Msgr. the question of papal Infallibility provoked an ongoing and fervent debate.

39.43 It is impossible to speak without contempt of a certain “assertion” which has repeatedly been made by great writers”44. to whose great virtue S. Mr. secretary to two Popes... 45 Ibid. that Honorius Letter to Sergius was not ex cathedrâ”.14. 40 Ibid. teacher of theology in Saint38 P. Maximus gave testimony. 41 Ibid.. The Condemnation of Pope Honorius. 39 Ibid. It is impossible to quote all the newspapers and periodicals which declared themselves in favor or against it.. 44 Ibid.”39 “Nothing can be more grossly untrue than the assertion that Honorius was misled by Sergius. 43 Ibid. (London 1868). 32. Father Botalla.”40 “This very man” the Abbot John. what all Ultramontanists say. “It is a mockery to say. ignorant and unscrupulous convert. 15-16. to say that he was condemned for neglect.. Veuillot is “a fiery. Le Page Renouf. aroused animated discussions.”45 This pamphlet unsurprisingly...against Infallibility was: The arguments “used by the first apologists of Pope Honorius cannot have been sincerely believed in by their authors.18. 7. 42 Ibid. 21. 36 . being an interested and mendacious witness”41 “Stupid bigotry alone can urge a certain plea for Honorius”42.”38 “It is a simple untruth. 11. relayed “a lying account” of the controversy.

Benno‟s College, directly refuted it in a special book46. Renouf responded in the form of a second book47. Other refutations followed48. The emotions provoked amongst the Catholic congregation were both powerful and indeed significant. Another extract from the Dublin Review gives an idea of just how passionate the debate was: “When we say that the views advocated by Mr. Renouf are most untrue and mischievous, he will accept this as the greatest compliment we can pay him; but we must further give our opinion, that his pamphlet is passionate, shallow and pretentious. Every reader will have been struck by its passion.49” It is surprising to note that people who were not even theologians pondered upon its theological questions and emphasized their own opinions on the subject. A certain number of Catholics, especially convert Catholics, followed the liberal movement and maintained friendly relations with the liberal theologians of

Botalla, Paul. Pope Honorius before the Tribunal of Reason and History. (London, 1869). 47 P. Le Page Renouf. Honorius Reconsidered with Reference to Recent Apologies. London 1869. 48 Dublin Review vol. XV. (1870, I.II), in Granderath, Théodore: Histoire du Concile du Vatican. 3 tomes in 6 volumes, (Brussels: Librairie Albert Dewitt, 1907), T. 3, 342. 49 Dublin Review. Vol. XI. 1868 II, in Granderath, Théodore: Histoire du Concile du Vatican. 3 tomes in 6 volumes. (Brussels: Librairie Albert Dewitt, 1907). T. 3a, 348.


Germany, particularly Döllinger. As Granderath50 highlights it, a proof of the activity of the Catholic liberal party and of its relations with Döllinger was the extraordinarily swift appearance of the English translation of the Letters of Janus. The press published countless articles in favor of and opposing it. The Dublin Review,51 talking about liberal Catholics, wrote at the opening of the Council: We have always maintained that there is an organized, though small, band of professing Catholics in England, who are as truly enemies to the Church as avowed Protestants can be and who are immeasurably more dangerous than avowed Protestants, from the very fact, that Catholics in general are not duly on their guard against them.52 Msgr. Manning was well aware of this and was a determined adversary of the liberal movement. When the quarrels on the doctrine of Infallibility began to blossom, he believed it to be his duty to devote a pastoral letter on


Granderath, Théodore: Histoire du Concile du Vatican. 3 tomes in 6 volumes. (Brussels: Librairie Albert Dewitt, 1907), T. 3a, 367. Abbreviation: Granderath. 51 The Dublin Review was founded by Michael Joseph Quin in 1836. It “has ever since remained the leading Catholic periodical in the British Isles”. Burton, Edwin. Michel Joseph Quin. New Advent: Catholic Encyclopedia 52 Dublin Review XV (1870 I) 212, in Granderath, T. 3a, 392.


that sole question.53 In this letter, Msgr. Manning examined distinctly the pros and cons of the definition of Infallibility. He was particularly careful to follow the teachings on Infallibility through ecclesiastical tradition and to uncover Gallicanism.54

IV. The convocation to the Council:
A) The first announcement and the reasons for its convocation:
On December 6, 1864, Pope Pius IX secretly announced to a part of the Sacred College his intention to open a General Council to face the rise of new heresies. In fact, Atheism, Naturalism and Materialism had become intensively developed. “False doctrines, born in those times, about the connection between the pope and the council reappeared to a large extent in Gallicanism,


Cardinal Henry Edward Manning. The Ecumenical Council and the Infallibility of the Roman Pontiff, (London: 1869), 132. Abbreviation: Manning, Ecumenical Council. 54 “This term is used to designate a certain group of religious opinions which tended chiefly to a restraint of the pope's authority in the Church in favour of that of the bishops and the temporal ruler.” A. Degert, Gallicanism. New Advent: Catholic Encyclopedia


"58 Furthermore.” J.htm 55 40 . T. 59 It was the Ecumenical Council of Trent opened on December 13.” Friedrich Lauchert. Kirsch. The Council of Trent. In fact. http://www. 58 Manning. New Advent: Catholic Encyclopedia. New Advent: Catholic Encyclopedia http://www.56”57 It may be said that the nineteenth century has no heresy. a further object was the execution of a thorough reform of the inner life of the Church by removing the numerous abuses that had developed in it. the last Ecumenical council59 went back to the 16th century. True Story. His doctrine tended to submit the internal affairs of the Church to the control of the temporal power. “Its main object was the definitive determination of the doctrines of the Church in answer to the heresies of the Protestants. Auxiliary Bishop of Trier. 57 He wanted to place religion under his control. 25. had the Holy Church waited so “This politico-ecclesiastical system was outlined by Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim. 20. He develops in this work a theory of ecclesiastical organization founded on a denial of the monarchical constitution of the Church. The ostensible purpose was to facilitate the reconciliation of the Protestant bodies with the Church by diminishing the power of the Holy See. Febronianism.Febronianism55 and Josephism.newadvent. because it is the century of unbelief. under the pseudonym Justinus Febronius. P. 1545 and closed on December 4. 1. Never in Church history. or rather that it has all heresies.htm 56 Josephism is the name given to the political religious doctrine of the Emperor Joseph II. the spiritual needs of the faithful had increased since the end of the Middle Ages.

lots of principles had fallen into disuse and in many points. T. 1. True Story. Kant. Wolff. “The divinity itself of its origin. 41 ."62 "The line of philosophy from Leibnitz. Schelling. and the heresy of the day is a heresy against the order of even natural truth. Hegel.”60 “In our time. it is the assertion that reason is sufficient to itself. were denied or cast doubt on a little more every day. and Strauss. and even the existence of God. to Schleiermacher. the spirituality and the immortality of the soul. but rather a universal perversion and confusion of first truths and principles which assail the foundations of truth and the preambles of all belief. Fichte.long to convoke a council. 124. The Catholic Church and the Catholic faith were under constant and sustained assault. seemed to need a transformation.”61 "The intellect of man for three hundred years has broken loose from faith."63 Another revealing action was the meeting of an anti-council entitled the concile des athées-matérialistes (council of the materialistic atheists) convened in Naples 60 61 Granderath.. 62 Ibid. 15. In the disciplinary field. exhibits the same steady advance to the rejection of all that is above the level of reason or of nature. 127. the changes that happened since the last council. 63 Ibid. Manning. there exists no new or special heresy in matters of faith. basis of all religions.

B. John Chrysostom. 1887). the whole world was committed saw in the Council of the Vatican the only adequate remedy for the world-wide evils of the nineteenth century. in the words of St.”65 Pope Pius IX believed that the Council was called “to find an extraordinary remedy for the extraordinary evils of the Christian world. Pope Pius IX sent a letter to twenty-one cardinals Yriarte. 1869 to fight the Council. Rothschild Editeur. and of its will against his law.64 “Pope Pius IX saw the world which was once all Catholic tossed and harassed by the revolt of its intellect against the revelation of God. 147. True Story. by the revolt of civil society against the sovereignty of God.”66 The majority favored the idea of a general council. (Paris: J. This council even had its own journal: Giornale dei Atei. souvenirs et croquis d’un artiste à Rome. Autour du Concile. but six out of forty-seven cardinals believed it was inopportune and a mere two cardinals strongly opposed the idea. 65 Manning. The letter sent to some of the Cardinals: After his announcement to the part of the Sacred College.on December 29. 66 Ibid. He to whom. and by the anti-Christian spirit which is driving princes and governments towards anti-Christian revolutions. Charles. 37. 31. 64 42 .

only two cardinals mentioned papal Infallibility. C) The letter sent to some of the bishops. 1. nor held it as false. it will be possible to provide for all the coming difficulties without the need to convoke a new council. 68 The fact that only two out of twenty-one cardinals mentioned papal Infallibility is revealing. he sees in it the firm warranty of the unanimity of the Fathers and draw from it “the hope that for the good of the Church. 43 . The other nineteen cardinals neither were against Infallibility. the Infallibility of the pope will eventually be the object of a definition. “In fact. Manning: 67 68 Granderath. but they found that the time and context were not opportune for a full and all encompassing definition. It also proves wrong the adversaries of the Church who claimed that the Council was summoned for the sole purpose of defining Infallibility. T. wrote Cardinal Asquini. and the subsequent answer of Msgr.” That being done.”67 Cardinal Ugoli was delighted about the attachment of the people and of the episcopate to the Holy See. In their gauge their opinion on the subject and to ask them which issues should be addressed at the Council. we cannot deny”. “that there is Infallibility. Ibid. 52.

” wrote Msgr. “a few only suggested the Infallibility of the head of the Church. 27. to make the condemnation even more solemn. Manning. It shows that the one subject for which. However. Pope Pius IX sent letters on April 10.Having received the opinion of the main cardinals. Communism.” notes Msgr. 1865. the false theories on inspiration. spiritism. The letters exhibit a wonderful harmony of judgment. to thirty-six bishops throughout Christendom. Regalism. Manning. Although the injunction contained in the letters regarded only the matters to be treated. yet the bishops. indifference in matters of religion. 25.”69 They exposed the errors (Pantheism. “The answers. though his primacy could not be treated without it [… ]. etc. “were all returned to Rome by the month of August. 44 . the Council was assembled. Ibid. and the jurisdiction of the Roman Pontiff.) that were widespread in their countries and expressed the desire that the errors therein condemned should be condemned in the Council. could not refrain from expressing their joy that the Pope had decided to hold an Ecumenical Council. Rationalism. magnetism. They also proposed to address the primacy.”70 69 70 Manning. True Story. civil marriage. was hardly so much as mentioned. “out of thirty-six bishops. in their replies. Naturalism. on the authority of the Scripture and on interpretation. Socialism. the license of conscience and of the press. we are told.

21. Manning replied to the Pope that he wished the Council to define solemnly the doctrine of the supernatural government of the Church by the Holy Ghost. Congregazione del Concilio intorno alla idea di un futuro Concilio ecumenico.71 It is interesting that Msgr. as if he had been already mysteriously chosen to accomplish a major work at the Council. 45 . Manning was among those thirty-six bishops chosen among hundreds of bishops to send their opinions on the convocation of the Council. 71 Rapporto sulle riposte date da varii Vescoci alla lettera del 20 Aprile 1865 diretta ai medesimi dall’emininentissimo Cardinale Prefetto della S. He even gave the wording of the propositions to define.Msgr.

Cardinal Filippo de Angelis became first President on 3 January 1870. and public sessions. the Pope held a preliminary session in the Sistine Chapel.72 The Constitution Multiplices Inter announcing the conciliar procedure contained ten paragraphs. Giuseppe Bizarri. 46 . 1869. which was attended by about five hundred bishops. after the death of Reisach on December 29. Antonion de Luca. under the presidency of a cardinal president. presided over by the pope himself for the 72 Cardinals von Reisach. The rules of the Council and its opening: A) The proceedings of the Council: On 2 Dec. Luigi Bilio. The Council received five presidents. At this assembly the officials of the Council were announced and the conciliar procedure was made known. According to this the sessions of the Council were to be of two kinds: private sessions for discussing the drafts and motions. and Annibale Capalti.PART TWO: PROCEEDINGS AND ACTORS OF THE COUNCIL I.

73 73 Kirch. Secrecy was to be observed in regard to the proceedings of the Council. Vatican Council. The first drafts of decrees debated were to be the dogmatic and disciplinary ones laid before the assembly by the pope. these petitions or postulates were to be examined by the committee and then recommended to the pope for admission or not. altered the draft as seemed best. The voting in the congregation was by placet. Each of these four sub-committees or deputations was to consist of twenty-four persons selected from the members of the Council. or for Oriental Rites. and a cardinal president appointed by the Pope. In the public sessions the voting could only be by placet or non placet. Proposals offered by members of the Council were to be sent to a Congregation of Petitions. or religious orders. placet juxta modum (with the corresponding amendments). either to the one for dogmas or for discipline. The deputation examined the proposed amendments. 47 . If the draft of a decree was found by the General Congregation to need amendments. This procedure was to continue until the draft met with the approval of the Majority.promulgation of the decrees of the Council. and presented to the general congregation a printed report on its work that was to be orally explained by a member of the deputation. it was sent with the proposed amendments to the respective subcommittee or deputatio. and non placet.

The Opening of the Council on December 8. cardinals kissing his hand. After the Mass. It was approximately 4:00 p. 1869: …Cardinal Constantino Patrizi celebrated Mass at 10:00 a. The Te Deum was then sung. The fathers gave unanimous approval to this by voice vote. T. 2.B) The opening of the Council: A beautiful passage written by Granderath gives an idea about how majestic and solemn this Council was. The service had taken seven hours.74 74 Granderath. a full hour after the start of the procession. read a formal decree declaring the Council to be opened. A second decree announced the next public session would be held on January 6. Bishop of Fabriano and Matelica in the Papal States. each of the Fathers made his obedience to the Pope. but the presence of a number of royal personages and ambassadors and the tribunes made this awkward. The session should have been closed to the public. It illustrates the respect and the pomp that the hierarchy of the Holy Church granted to God and to sacred things. and so the hall was not cleared when Antonio Valenziani. Before the Last Gospel a sermon was preached by Archbishop Luigi Puecher Passavalli.. 48 . and the meeting adjourned..m. a curial official. bishops of all ranks his knee. p 20-23. A series of prayers and litanies followed and Pope Pius gave a brief exhortation. OFM Cap.m. and abbots and religious superiors his foot.

Histoire du Concile du Vatican. (Paris: Librairie Victor Lecoffre. December 8. Detailed story of 49 . Eugène. 1887). 8 volumes. 1869 Solemn opening of the Ecumenical Council We shall refrain from entering into more detail about the preparation of the Council mainly because it has been perfectly done by Eugène Cecconi75 and 75 Cecconi. the Most Rev.Rome.

“The Preparatory Commission had drawn up an exhaustive order of procedure for the debates of the Council. II. The two parties at the First Vatican Council: A) Minority and Majority: the Council.”77 The lists of the persons having the right to attend the Council. Five special committees each presided over by a cardinal and having together eightyeight consulters. The authors studies at length the different reactions in the countries and provides numerous important documents.Théodore Granderath. 50 . Essential work to study the Council. Vatican Council. gathering all the documents and archives of the Council. of the persons who should receive a letter announcing the Council had been written after long studies. All the general and minute details had been the object of careful and scrupulous organization. discussion and decisions of the Commission of Direction created for the preparation of the Council. prepared the plan (schemata) to be laid before the Council.76 They wrote extremely complete reports on the course of the Council. 76 Granderath. Both studies illustrate that the Council had been meticulously prepared. The author gives hundreds of details and texts on the Council. 77 Kirch.

considering the great controversies that this doctrine had been the object of. For some. others were afraid of the hostility of their government toward the Catholic religion. many prelates and laymen were very strongly opposed to the definition of papal Infallibility. 172-73. As we have seen above.78 Within a short period two groups had emerged. Some were worried about the fatal consequences predicted by the adversaries of the definition. 2.” They comprised about one-fifth of the total number of the Fathers.” Those opposing its definition were in turn labeled as “the Minority. Those in favor of the definition were referred to as “the Majority” or as the “Party of the Infallibilists. Others. on the contrary. Germany and England were among the fieriest countries. but fear prevented many from speaking of this sensitive issue. which had preceded the Council. The great Majority of the Fathers truly desired the definition. (See Appendix I for a more detailed 78 Granderath. the Fathers allowed the divergence of their opinion on the matter to become evident. As soon as they were gathered in Rome. T. France.The debate on Infallibility. 51 . those in favor of the definition of papal Infallibility and those who believed that it was not an opportune time to define it. the matter of the definition had become urgent. obliged the bishops to deal with it at an early stage in proceedings. deluded themselves by promises or threats or did not grasp the importance of the question.

He believed in papal Infallibility. tells Msgr. in Dessain. and others (editors) The Letters and Diaries of John Henry Newman. Purcell. C. (which I do not see is anywhere promised) as well as guides them into all the truth. as He certainly does. See Appendix II for a detailed account of the reasons why the definition was thought opportune and necessary. „I believe that even if the Holy Ghost protects the Fathers from all inexpedient acts. who did not attend the Council. 453. on June 27. 1961). began to hold meetings in order to observe and thwart the French and German bishops who had formed an international comity. the Party of Infallibilists believed that the definition was urgent for many reasons. Carcassonne. 79 52 .S. Life of Cardinal Manning. He illustrates a certain mentality and position among the Church. II. he was especially very critical of the timing of the definition.‟79 On the other hand. 1870. 150 80 E. there are truths which are inexpedient. Manning. Abbreviation: Purcell.”80 Newman to O’Neill Daunt 27 June. Life. Newman. adopted a position very similar to Dupanloup‟s. XXV. but did not think it was expedient to define it in those troubled times. (New York:Thomas Nelson Publishers. “Ratisbon. The Infallibilists were thus quite active.‟ he wrote to O‟Neill Daunt. Paderborn and I. Malines.analysis by country of the members of the Minority and Majority). „I certainly think this agitation of the Pope‟s Infallibility most unfortunate and ill-advised.S.

and not even absolutely to the defining of it.”81 “And we can add that there was not even one single person who denied it. Their opposition was not to the doctrine. prudent. 53 . almost all the bishops believed in the 81 Manning. 99-100..”[. that both camps did not deny papal Infallibility.. Msgr. of the nations of Europe.] “Not five bishops in the Council could be justly thought to have opposed the truth of the doctrine.. before the commencement of an inclusive analysis... of the Christian in separation from the Church to put this truth in the form of a definition. regard being had to the condition of the world.”[. seasonable. Manning highlighted this in his book The True Story of the Vatican Council: “A grave injustice has been done to the bishops who opposed the definition. Before the Council. that is absolutely sure. but to the defining of it at this time.B) The main question: the opportunity of the definition: It is essential to emphasize. The only question was whether it was expedient.] “The question whether the Infallibility of the head of the Church be a true doctrine or not was never discussed in the Council nor even proposed to it. but to the defining of it.. True Story. and timely.] “They were united in declaring that Peter spoke by Pius” [.

truth of this dogma. without doubt."83 In order to understand better Cardinal Manning. were something forbidden or even unusual. among the Majority of the members of the Minority. 54 . to grant to the objections against the doctrine an undeserved importance. 2. Their efforts to discover some motives against the opportunity of the definition unconsciously brought them. but in itself. Ibid. a few Council Fathers may have. the Minority could believe that it was better not to discuss the question of papal Infallibility because the definition was not necessary and because in the actual state of affairs. exceeded the just limits. a quick biography and a brief study of his ideas is necessary. in defending their opinion. However. was being attacked and fought with the utmost ferocity. On the other hand. nor the efforts made by each party to tip the scales in favor of their opinion. it could be harmful. The Majority had of course the right to propose the definition of a dogma. neither the formation of parties at the Council. 334-335. T. 82 83 Granderath. and which besides.”82 "In the controversy on papal Infallibility. based on the Holy Writ and on the Tradition. seems to have become hesitant in the course of the debates. more than one.

1892. England on July 15. after some years of 55 . 1807 and died on 14 January. In 1841. He was ordained in 1832 to the Anglican ministry. he married Caroline Sargent. Msgr. Manning: Cardinal Henry Edward Manning Henry Edward Manning was born at Copped Hall. Totteridge.III. In May 1833. Herts. Manning: A) Presentation of Msgr. She died in 1837.

“The new Archbishop was consecrated at Archbishop of Westminster died on February 1865. on June 8. the Pope himself decided to appoint Msgr.htm 56 . and dominated and molded his whole life and character. He then founded in 1857 the Congregation of the Oblates of St. His faith in Anglicanism had already been somewhat shaken by other doctrinal or historical difficulties. 6 April 1851. However. and the eloquence which had made him one of the foremost Anglican preachers of the time now helped to spread and strengthen the Catholic Faith in England. Mary Moorfields. H. he studied the writings of the early Fathers. http://www. In his case. a wider field was opened to him by his appointment to the office of Archdeacon of Chichester. On Passion Sunday.simple parish work. the Truth that came home to him with special force. the provost and superior accomplished a great amount of work for the diocese and for his own community.newadvent. He was ordained a priest. on June 14. provost of the Westminster Metropolitan Chapter. He was the superior of this new community of secular priests. In the same year.”84 When Cardinal Wiseman. W. Henry Edward Manning. Pius IX appointed him. Manning. 1865. “During the eight years of his tenure of these two offices. 84 Kent. Catholic Encyclopedia. Charles. 1851. he joined the Catholic Church. was the abiding presence of the Holy Ghost in the Church of God. only two months later. New Advent.

which he had described so well in his words on Wiseman.” “In 1875 he was summoned to Rome to receive the cardinalate and the title of Sts. “A striking proof of the hold he had on the hearts of the poor and the working people of London was given when thousands thronged to get a last glimpse of him as he lay in state in his house at Westminster. he was once more brought back to Westminster and given his last earthly resting place in the crypt of the cathedral. Later in the year he traveled to Rome to receive the pallium. 57 .by Bishop Ullathorne of Birmingham. Andrew and Gregory.”85 85 Ibid.” He died on January 14. 1892. After some years in that field of the dead. and to follow his funeral to Kensal Green Cemetery.

The voice of that body. Abbreviation: Manning. 1865). because indeed. with a perpetual divine voice and perpetual sanctifying power…the living Church is every age in the sole divine channel of revelation of God.86 And this Office of enunciating and proposing the Faith is accomplished through the human lips of the pastors of the Church. 59f. not as many individuals. 58 . the role of the Holy Ghost is closely linked to papal Infallibility as Manning exposes it. the mission of the Holy Ghost in the Church. The Temporal Mission of the Holy Ghost. but as body. constitute an organized body. and infallible witness and teacher of the truths therein revealed. He particularly explained. Temporal Mission.B) His writings about the Holy Ghost and papal Infallibility prior to the Council: In parallel to his vast social work. (London. The pastoral authority of the Episcopate. and both teaches and sanctifies. divinely ordained to guard the deposit of the Faith. Msgr. together with the priesthood and the other orders. is the voice of the Holy 86 Cardinal Henry Edward Manning. without intermission. Manning wrote numerous books or pastoral letters to defend the Catholic faith or to reply to incorrect statements. He [The Holy Ghost] is present personally and substantially in the body of Christ. That detail is essential. in several writings.

The Ecumenical Council and the Infallibility of the Roman Pontiff. of the members with each other. […] It is constituted further by His union with the mystical body. because the Holy Spirit. and lastly. namely. First. however. I published a Volume of Sermons. of the Head with the members. but upon the Divine will alone.Ghost. but absolute. the reason why he had such a love for and interest in the Holy Ghost. and therefore indissoluble to all eternity. of the Holy Ghost with the body will be likewise eternal88 Msgr. who is indissolubly united to the mystical body. 59 . 59f. is imperishable. namely that the unanimous witness of the universal Church is the 87 88 Manning. After five or six years I reached the last step to which reason alone could lead me. Temporal Mission. There will never come a time when that body will cease to be united to it […] These Divine unions. I went over the book and found the question to be well founded. which. as a body. depending upon no finite will. About the year 1841 or 1842. that the union of the Holy Ghost with the Church is not conditional.87 It is manifest. is eminently and above all united to the hierarchy and body of its pastors. The pastoral ministry as a body cannot err. From that day I have never passed a day without acts of reparation to the Holy Ghost and studied them. A simple soul asked me why I had so seldom spoken of the Holy Ghost. though individuals in it may perish. Ibid. next. Manning explained in his book.

AAW: see also Manning.” To him. Its ruler must be also infallible. H. 1865: […] “It may be said that the heresies of our time 89 90 Manning. and therefore of all divine faith. And to Him I submitted in the unity of the one Faith and Fold. raises the witness of the Church from a human to a Divine certainty.89 Msgr. Manning described papal Infallibility “as the only true and perfect form of Infallibility of the Church. unity. “If the Head on earth could err. I saw that the perpetual presence and office of the Holy Ghost. 12 December 1862. Religio Viatoris. “The Voice of the Church is the Voice of God. Then. 795. Manning to Bradley. Manning replied to his request on November 15. 1888). historical evidence is only human. Manning received a letter from Cardinal Caterini asking him to send some suggestions for the forthcoming Council. etc. (London. how could he be the Vicar of the Divine Head. Since then the Holy Ghost has been the chief thought and devotion of my whole soul. But. and not before. and human evidence is fallible after all.90 As early as September 1865..E. he told one of his correspondents. Ecumenical Council. if the Church is infallible. Manning‟s theological views on papal Infallibility were simple and direct.maximum of historical evidence for the revelation of Christianity. and obedience”. and I submit myself to it as I should have submitted to Jesus himself. Msgr. In 1862. Who is the Truth?” Msgr. 60 . Msgr.

that is. in Pereiro. 1998).concern mainly the last paragraph of the creed. it seems most opportune to me that the supreme authority [of the Council] should make some pronouncements about the temporal mission of the Holy Spirit and about his perpetual and infallible assistance. Mxlix. Thus taking into consideration the circumstances of my country. (Oxford: Clarendon Press. seems to demand urgently the promulgation by the supreme authority of the Infallibility of the Church and of the Supreme Pontiff speaking ex cathedrâ Petri”91 The Definitions and Decrees of Pontiffs. all those divine things that hung on it perish. 61 . Cardinal Manning: An Intellectual Biography. once the tree is cut the fruits and the leaves fall down. then. 170D-171D. Abbreviation: Pereiro. This is what has happened in England that the notion of the Church as a body perpetually endowed and supported with supernatural gifts by the action of the Holy Spirit has almost completely disappeared from the minds of the English people. All the heresies of the Pseudo-Reformation can be included under this heading: once the Infallibility of the Church – the necessary corollary of the Holy Spirit‟s presence in the Church – has been rejected. cols. […] the present times. speaking ex cathedrâ. or as the Head of the Church and to the 91 Letter from H. 15th November 1865. the Holy Spirit and His temporal mission.E. Manning to Cardinal Caterini. the exposition of the faith and t he ripeness of the matter itself. James.

or apostolic letters. the First General Congregation for business was held and the names of those Council Fathers appointed by the Pope to the Congregation of Postulates or Propositions were given. according to the regulations of the Council. Manning manifested such a zeal in the defense of papal Infallibility and why he tirelessly worked for its definition. Temporal Mission. 1969. CLXVI (Jan 1920). C) The champion of Papal Infallibility: On December 10. 13-14. to many or to one person. Dublin Review. fifth day. to the traditions. “Their task. Manning: “I desire to be in the most perfect conformity to the Dogma of Faith. I desire to speak in its accents and to act upon its precedents. 81f.whole Church. whether by Bull. to the Theology of the Schools in its approved and pious opinions.”93 These profound beliefs partially explain why Msgr. undoubtedly emanate from a divine assistance. I desire always to derive my guidance and counsel immediately from Rome […] I desire to hold inviolate the doctrines and laws of the Church without compromise. and are infallible. or Brief. or Encyclical.92 The Dublin Review quoted Msgr. instincts and spirits of the Holy See. was to consider the bishops proposals on new topics to be 92 93 Manning. 62 .

273. Bishop of Ratisbon. Msgr.introduced in the Council. two distinguished themselves. a certain discouragement manifested itself sometimes within the ranks of the Majority. T. these two prelates revived their colleagues and did not allow themselves any rest until the day when their zeal of all started a new life. and to report them. As the result of the great resistance encountered by the project inside and outside the Council.”94 The Segretaria di Stato had notified Msgr. 2. Senestrèy. on December 20. 368. with their opinion. Manning and Msgr. amid all. Bishop Senestrèy “Among the Fathers of the Majority. 63 . the most important commission. to the Pope.”95 94 95 Pereiro. As these dispositions put into question the success of the work already accomplished. Granderath. Manning was also elected by the universal suffrage of the Council. to the Commission of Faith. Manning of his appointment to the Congregation of the Postulates. by their tireless zeal to provoke the definition: the Archbishop of Westminster. on whom the final decision rested.

” (diabolus concilii)”98 96 97 Manning.' said his biographer. Liberatore. The formula of the vow with my signature is bound up in my copy of Petri Privilegium”96 “In Manning.Msgrs. 64 . to do all in our power to obtain the definition of papal Infallibility. 2. 370. one of the most determined fighters for the definition of the dogma. 420. “I and the Bishop of Ratisbon were assisting at the throne of the Pope at the first Vespers of St. Manning and Senestrèy made a vow to consecrate all their forces to the definition of Infallibility. 'and that he had developed by its practice. the partisans of the Infallibility had found an outstanding champion. an Italian Jesuit. At the Council and before. as he declared it several times. the rapidity of conception were in his hands a wonderful help to avert the obstacles. the diplomatic flexibility. We undertook to recite everyday certain prayers in Latin contained in a little book still in my possession. II. Peter. Granderath. Mgr Manning had the firm conviction that God was on his side. His strong faith in the Infallibility of the Pope like a revelation of the Divine Will made the prelate. we then made the vow drawn up by P. Life. “On the eve of Saint Peter‟s Day. defeat the opposition and win the others over to their party.'"97 “The members of the Minority knew what a powerful adversary they found in him and gave him the title of “devil of the Council. 98 Purcell. T. 418. Ecumenical Council.” states the English Prelate. „The art of persuasion that he got from nature. inside and outside the Council.

Is the definition opportune? What is most opportune. Life. 414.”101 He believed it was necessary because of the moral state of his times and because of the future conditions in which society could be. 2. The social structure being undermined. Manning smiled at the opinion common to most of the German and Austro-Hungarian prelates. we might have wars and revolutions that will shake the society to her basis.” 99 “Msgr. relates to us a few passages of a conversation Msgr. Ibid. 100 65 . theologian to the Bishop of Mainz. 101 Purcell. Manning had always been an enthusiastic supporter of Infallibility.Granderath gives an insight of Manning as “working day and night with a willingness that nothing could shake and an ardor that nothing could slacken in order to bring a happy issue. the definition of the dogma. 369. he had worked for it. the order and the government wished by God being attacked.. he had predicted. 370. Manning had in Rome during the Council about the opportunity: Msgr. more essential. using a tone and terms of absolute certitude. which day and night was working to destroy all political and religious authority? Tomorrow.”100 “He had preached on it. T. and more necessary than to strengthen the authority opposite the political and religious revolution. II. what can we find more opportune than to concentrate in the pope all 99 Granderath. Canon Moufang.

102 102 Purcell. unless they behead him.the power of the Church? If the whole of Europe is in a state of war and revolution what would be the use of an Ecumenical Council? The triumphant enemies of the Church and of the civil society would not be foolish enough to allow the meeting of a Council. 416. Then. we would elect in the catacombs another martyr to defend Christian society. But they will not be able to close the mouth of the pope. 66 . II. Life. like the first faithful.

As Pope. I believe in the Infallibility of the Sovereign Pontiff. However. The Holy Ghost will enlighten the Fathers…”103 103 In Emil Friedberg. John Mary Mastaï.IV. 188. Cardinal Schwartzenberg was attempting. I have nothing to ask to the Council. 1872). Sammlung der Aktenstücke zum ersten vatikanischen Konzil. he did nothing to promote or interfere with this initiative and allowed the assembly complete freedom to decide whether or not to define the doctrine. Pope Pius IX interrupted his interlocutor and is said to have replied: “I. 67 . An anecdote highlights well the line of conduct observed by the Holy Father. during an audience. (Tübingen. to convince the Pope that the definition was inopportune and full of inherent dangers. Pope Pius IX and the definition of papal Infallibility: Pope Pius IX shared without reservation the opinion of the prelates who wanted to see the Council define the doctrine of papal Infallibility.

Pope Pius IX “As an individual. 372. 68 . „I had access by private passage into the 104 Granderath. as Supreme Chief of the Church. Nevertheless.”104 Pope Pius IX and Msgr. he did not bring pressure to bear on the Council and left the assembly with the direction of the Holy Ghost. he believed in papal Infallibility and shared the opinion of the Majority on the subject of the definition. It is among the bishops that the initiative to submit to the Council the question of Infallibility was freely born. The Pope did not provide this step with any opportunity. T. Manning had an excellent relationship. 2.

a Biography (New York.. 549.‟106”107 105 106 Purcell. Cardinal Manning. 547. I went into his bedroom and found him somewhat raised in his bed. and his face calm and I passed out into the Antechamber where they were awaiting an audience of his Holiness. 260.‟ Manning would later recall. St. Life. He was motionless.Pope‟s apartments. Abbreviation: Gray. II. It was at once evident that the end was near. breathing with difficulty. I bent down and kissed his hand. „I went in at once. „On one occasion. He said ‘Addio. Martin’s Press. Ibid. 1985).‟105 A moving account of the last moments of Pope Pius IX illustrates the affection the Pope had for the Cardinal: “Manning arrived at the Vatican on the morning of 7 February 1878 to be told that Pius IX was struggling for breath. On reaching the Antecamera I found many of the Cardinals already there. I remember the surprise shown by Cardinals and Ambassadors-they had not seen me go in. 69 . 107 Robert Gray. Manning a Biography. carissimo.

Liberalism.PART THREE: DEFINITION OF PAPAL INFALLIBILITY I. but very much a liberal Catholic. who was Catholic. who 108 See picture on the left. Religious Indifferentism. Others feared that the Council would consolidate or increase the power of the pope. and who was in Rome during the Council. or other contemporary movements. Lord Acton The historian Lord Acton108. Rationalism. was so agitated when he discovered what was on the agenda. The pressure exercised by governments on the Council Fathers: Powerful figures throughout Europe feared the convocation of a General Council of the Church since it might condemn Communism. 70 . The Chancellor of the Austrian Empire. that he did all he could to persuade [English Prime Minister] William Gladstone to act in concert with the French government to cause the Council to be dissolved. Beust.

Russell telegraphed to the Foreign 109 E. During the Council. and if the Paris government had agreed with London and Vienna it is difficult to see how the Council could have been continued. led by Dupanloup. though unofficial representative of England at the Vatican. 111 In Shane Leslie. (London: Burns Oates & Washbourne Limited. It was thus that Ollivier saved the life of the Vatican Council. 1921). and then only to intervene in the eventuality that the Council passed decrees inconsistent with a Frenchman‟s loyalty to the principles of his government. Henry Edward Manning. was strongly in favor of the same action. (who was also Protestant) that it would be wiser to let the Council run its course and to reserve political action until later. Hales. (Houston: University of Saint Thomas. But Napoleon III was persuaded by his Premier. A few quotations reveal the ferment of the time: Lord Odo Russell110 informed Clarendon: “It is confidently expected by the French that the Opposition. Gladstone. Abbreviation: Leslie. 19-20. for a time. was a British diplomat and ambassador.109 It is enlightening to study the exchange of letters or telegraphs between the different political leaders. 1962). will triumphantly carry the fallibility of the Pope!”111 The majority of the statecraft directed their efforts against the Definition. 71 . since it depended on the protection of French troops at Rome. 217. was persuaded by Acton. The First Vatican Council.was Protestant. 110 Lord Odo Russell. Emile Ollivier. he was the real. His Life And Labours.

and that the Italian Revolution would be let in.” Cardinal Manning retold the conversation particularly revealing. Rome was full of rumors as to the intentions of governments. A leader of this conspiracy [against the Church] said the other day. which said that the Austrian Government would forbid and punish 112 Manning. „the net is now drawn so close about the Church of Rome that if it escape this time I will believe it to be divine.E. The Vatican Decrees in their Bearing on Civil Allegiance. It was believed that the French army would be withdrawn. Letters came from France threatening the withdrawal of the French troops.. I have hope of his conversion. 1870. 113 Manning. H.”113 “As soon as the original draft of the decree "De ecclesia" with its canons was published in the Allgemeine Zeitung. 72 . 147. Count von Beust. „Do they think that the Vicar of Christ unworthy as he is. he said to an English bishop.‟ If God grant him life.112 “During the eight months of the Council. can be moved by such threats?‟ Renewed attempts were made to introduce the government to join in a final and united pressure upon the Council. Chancellor of Austria. (London: 1875). 175. sent a protest against it to Rome on 10 Feb.Office (March 1. True Story. 1870): “Lord Acton is anxious the French Government should know that further loss of time will be fatal to the Bishops of the Opposition. When these tidings reached Pius the Ninth.

Austria. Pope Pius IX and many of the Council Fathers were terrified at the prospect of armed intervention by European powers that would effectively dissolve the Council. the ambassador at Rome. Ibid.the publication of all decrees that were contrary to the laws of the State. Pius IX answered: "Full steam ahead-I have the Holy Virgin with me: I will go on.”114 Although Napoleon III stationed imperial troops in Rome to protect the Vatican Council from political or outside interference. notwithstanding the urgency of von Arnim. would not change his attitude of reserve. “Toward the end of March. Bavaria. The President of the Prussian ministry. Spain and Portugal declared their agreement with the memorandum.”115 By the middle of March. and notified the other Governments of his steps in Rome. Count Daru sent a threatening dispatch on 20 February to the French ambassador in Rome. Vatican Council. England. the Catholic French foreign minister.” 114 115 Kirch. Bismarck. 73 . “He demanded the admission of an envoy to the Council. the political situation became so tense and strained that some of the Council Fathers suggested omitting treatment of papal Infallibility.

„For the sake of us all. The postulates for and against the definition: A) The project of postulates for the definition: As.Gladstone “Msgr. for your own sake. or impelled into words or acts hostile to the Council. II. warning him against any intervention with the Council. 1870. 74 . (London: Oxford University Press.‟116117 It is thus. 117 Gray. for the peace of our country. implicit and explicit threats. since the beginning of the Council. the 116 Manning to Gladstone. the English Prime Minister. for your future.A. 69. do not allow yourself to be warped. on April 6. within this cauldron of wars. 6 April 1870. Manning wrote directly to Gladstone. that the Holy Council was held. Manning a Biography. 1962). political turmoil. the bishops opposed to the definition did not leave any doubt as to their resolve to do absolutely anything to prevent it. McClelland V. Cardinal Manning: His Life and His Public Influence 1865-92. 233.

Msgr. "They had the firm and unshakeable resolution to lead to the definition. Mgr Manning attended it with ten other 118 119 Granderath. relating to the Church].”118 The legitimate or constitutional course opens to the bishops who desired that the doctrine of the Infallibility should be introduced [in the Schema de Ecclesia. was to present a petition to the Commission of Postulates or Propositions. 173.bishops who desired the definition believed that they had to take an overall step to obtain it. Manning. in which Msgr. It seemed to them that it was vitally necessary to give courage to the shies.. Senestrèy was staying. True Story. 1869. asking that a chapter on the subject of Infallibility should be added to the schema. schema on faith. 75 . Manning was among them. to obtain a happy issue on such a grave affair that upset the whole world.119 The partisans of the definition held a meeting at the villa Caserta. 172-73. Msgr. “As if he was called by God to be the postulator and the promoter of the cause.”120 On December 23. 120 Ibid. they gathered again at the villa Caserta. 2. 98. Manning worked day and night with a will that nothing would shake and an ardor that nothing could slow. It was necessary therefore to frame such a petition and to obtain the signature of any members of the Council who desired the addition to be made. T.

in Granderath. 76 .121 The prelates decided that the two projects of postulates on the definition of papal Infallibility and a brief refutation of the objections against the opportunity of the definition were to be printed and transmitted in order to be examined by the members of the meeting. Stahl.prelates. Martin. “humbly and earnestly beg the holy Ecumenical Council of the Vatican to define clearly. T. T. he declares and defines what is to be believed and held. when. The text of the project was relatively short: The undersigned Fathers.V. Dechamps. 179. in matters of faith and moral. 2. the final draft of the project was produced. Senestrèy. Leonrod. which started to circulate with the project for the purpose of obtaining the signatures of the Council Fathers. 924 a. On December 28. de Preux. (See Appendix II for the complete text of the address). 174) 122 C. and in words that cannot be mistaken. and what is to be rejected and condemned by all the faithful122 The project was followed by a short statement of the motives that explained why the definition was opportune and necessary. and therefore exempt from error.” stated the text. Heiss. that the authority of the Roman Pontiff is supreme. Manning at the meeting: Mgrs. following extensive discussions. The bishops added a letter of petition. Marilley and Meurin. 2. (Source: Granderath. Adames. 121 Here is the list of the ten prelates present with Msgr.

were not inactive. the Catholics were being attacked by numerous adversaries.2. T. One hundred and thirty six prelates 124signed five letters. also forwarded letters to lobby for the definition. Furthermore as. T. 123 124 Manning. 98. Granderath. 187. Some bishops. obtained four hundred and eighty signatures of bishops seeking the definition of papal Infallibility. 4° High Italy. the bishops who thought the discussion of the Infallibility would be. 184-190). whose four exemplars had been distributed rapidly. 125 The five letters were written by 1° the bishops of France. (Source Granderath. 77 . There can be no Council without a pope and that all obeyed wholeheartedly to the prescriptions of the pope."123 They decided to write directly to Pope Pius IX to explain to him the reasons why they believed papal Infallibility should not be defined and the inherent dangers they felt a definition would inherently bring. B) The counter project against the definition: "While these things were being done. 2. 3° America.The address. 5° Orient. it was not prudent to add further distracting obligations. inopportune. as they said.125 The arguments developed in the letters to the Holy Father were that all the Catholics already knew. True Story. who were absent. 2° the bishops of Germany.

The Church. in history and even in Church history. is always infallible. in accordance with them. which necessity at 78 . according to the words of the Council of Florence is “the teacher of the whole Church and of all Christians. “They who held these opinions said:” Let that suffice which has been already declared and has been believed by all – namely. encounters difficulties with the writings of the saints. “it is impossible to propose to the Christian people as revealed by God the dogma which is asked to be defined. without the need for the approbation of the Churches. some new weapons to excite the hate of the religion in the best intentioned men. It is not expedient or opportune to make further declarations unless a proved necessity demand it.” But as to the mysterious gifts of Infallibility. and the Supreme Pontiff. This is why. that the Church. whether in an Ecumenical Council. whether congregated in Council or dispersed throughout the world of the Council of Florence. it may be left at it is. or by the Pope alone. of the doctors. and Fathers of the Church. which by God is bestowed in a special manner on the Supreme Pontiff. as all Catholics believe. It could be a pretext for them to take away the remaining rights the Church had. without a Council. guards and explains the truths of revelation.Moreover. according to those against defining doctrine that the teachings of the successors of Saint Peter speaking ex cathedrâ remain unchanging.” Otherwise the enemies of the Church would find in the definition that is being asked.

104. which would hinder the apostolic activities and would risk rendering sterile for the Catholics the whole Vatican Council. It would also lead to never-ending discussions. The important role that the Infallibilists played counterbalances such a strong opposition. It is important to understand the reasons they invoked because it clarifies what arguments Msgr. 79 . 126 Manning.126 The American bishops added also in their letter that the definition would make the Church appear as divided and therefore would move the heretics further away from the Church. True Story. Manning and the partisans of the definition had to combat.present does not appear to exist.

. All. “All the Fathers who were part of the Council received a copy and had to study it to be ready to give their opinion at the session of February 9.”127 Msgr. entitled 'Chapter to be added to the Decree on the Primacy of the Roman Pontiff: That the Roman Pontiff. T.C) The decision of the Congregation of postulates: At the beginning of the month of February. 80 . in defining matters of faith and moral. 197. cannot err. Toward some progress: A) Advancing the timing of the 127 128 Granderath. agreed with him and were of the opinion that they had to ask the Pope to receive the petitions in favor of the definition. 121. Manning made a speech explaining why the definition was so important. the Congregation asked the Pope to accept the postulate on March 6” 128 "On the 7th of March. an additional chapter was distributed to the Council. 190. III. True Story.'"129 It was an initial victory and an integral first step towards the definition. but Cardinal Rauscher from Vienna. Ibid. “Therefore. 129 Manning. 2. the Congregation of postulates had the petitions against and in favor of the definition of Infallibility printed.

It was thus urgent to address the definition of papal Infallibility. Ibid. the bishops had to go back to their respective diocese where many troubles had burst. Infallibility would not be defined. 8. because if the Council. or even to prevent. T. 10. This was of major importance. As the Minority was rapidly obliged to recognize its powerlessness. “They asked an appropriate amount of time for the preliminary examination of the question.”130 In fact. as we have seen above. to the CardinalPresidents and to the Congregation of the Postulates. “Soon a great number of petitions were sent to the Sovereign Pontiff. 81 . a decision as long as possible. for political reasons had to be suspended.discussion: Seeing the political context. It was asked that the schema on Infallibility be immediately discussed. it endeavored by protracting the discussions of the Council at least to delay. Manning and several other bishops wanted to advance the discussion on papal Infallibility. Furthermore.3a. it had been accepted by the Congregation of the postulates to treat the subject of papal Infallibility.”131 One could wonder when the adversaries of the 130 131 Granderath.. it came in eleventh position in the order of discussion. Six Hungarian bishops of the Minority also sent a petition on March 14 to the first President Philip Cardinal De Angelis. Msgr. Nevertheless.

definition would declare themselves ready to start the debates. The question of Infallibility is not a difficult question of theology. The theological studies, even elementary, done by each bishop were sufficient. […] Furthermore, since the opening of the Council the question of Infallibility predominated the Council. If since that time a bishop had not made his opinion one could not hope that he comes to a firm conviction. This is the reason why the postulate seems to have been written for the sole purpose, as several other practices of the Minority, to delay the discussion so much that it would not come to the order of the day.132 The Majority was not happy to see the discussion put back “because they knew that the Bishop of Orleans, the Archbishop of Paris and the other bishops of the opposition had persuaded Cardinal Bilio [the President of the Deputation of the Faith] to prorogate the debates only to gain time and to render the definition impossible.”133 The Cardinal-presidents were rather influenced by the Minority. Cardinal de Luca recommended great prudence, Cardinal Bilio showed more and more new hesitations, and Cardinal De Angelis thought it was necessary to wait for the report written by Cardinal Cardoni. Cardinals Calpalti and Bizzari alone were resolutely for the urgency of the definition. Cardinal Bilio was the one who decided in what order the different parts
132 133

Ibid., 12. Diarium : Quae de definitione Infallibilitatis acta sunt, n. 25, in Granderath, T.3a, 12.


of the schema were to be prepared and presented to the General Congregation. This is why the Minority pressured him to delay the debate and to treat other subjects before papal Infallibility. “If the Majority did not continue the realization of its plan with an untiring perseverance, one would not have reached a discussion of Infallibility.”134 A meeting was held during Holy Week (10-16 April) at the residence of Msgr. Manning to ponder on the redaction of the schema. “Toward the end of the week, Msgr. Senestrèy of Ratisbon went again at Cardinal Bilio. He wanted to ask him to set up a session of the Deputation of the Faith for the Easter Monday or Tuesday in order to start the deliberations on the schema. What a change! The Cardinal was afraid, anxious, full of scruples, he hesitated, he feared and hardly dared to do one step!”135 There was nothing to hope from Cardinal Bilio. “Msgrs. Manning and Senestrèy, the two most ardent partisans of the definition deliberated on the measures to take.”136 On Easter Monday (18 April), Msgr. Senestrèy tried to persuade Cardinal De Angelis to intervene, but talking with him, he soon realized that the presidents had been won over to the convictions of the Minority. Bishops Manning, Senestrèy and some other Bishops of the Majority asked for an audience to the Holy
134 135

Granderath, T.3a, 12. Ibid., 14-15. 136 Ibid., 16.


Father. “They were received with kindness by Pius IX who told them he was going to take the necessary measures.” 137 The Pope sent his orders to the presidents. However, as after several days, Cardinal Bilio had not yet submitted new propositions to the Deputation of the Faith, the Archbishop of Westminster, the Bishop of Ratisbon and the other Fathers of the party met at the Bishop of Carcassonne on April 22. They decided to address to the Pope a petition to hasten the proposition of the schema on Infallibility. In less than twenty-four hours, the petition was covered by hundred fifty signatures138 and as early as the evening of April 23, it was presented to the Holy Father. […] This request succeeded. 139 Cardinal Bilio announced that the Presidents decided to open the debates on the Constitution de Romano Pontifice. All the Fathers present, but two, approved. On that day, the debates were opened, soon followed by the deliberations in General Congregation. On 9 May a draft was distributed among the Fathers in printed form as the Constitutio prima de ecclesia, consisting of 4 chapters and 3 canons.

B) The famous speech of Msgr. Manning at the Council:
137 138

Ibid., 17. The petition which circulated in several editions collected much more signatures than the copy sent to the Council. 139 Granderath, T.3a, 17-18.


Manning helped to prepare the „schema‟ for debate by the General Congregation of bishops. He translated extracts from the English press to show that Protestants regarded the Ultramontanists and not the Gallicans as the real Catholics. 227.“As a member of the Deputation de Fide. which treated papal Infallibility.” The members of both parties made speeches to defend their opinion.”143 The Archbishop of Paris made a speech for the Opposition. in 22 congregations. 142 Leslie. 143 Kirch. 85 . Manning. 144 Leslie. “It lasted through fourteen sessions”141 “The opposition made a large use of their liberty. while the Infallibilists mildly 142 expostulated. True Story. “He asked if the Infallibility would raise the African Churches from the dead. Manning rose (on May 25. Manning a Biography.”140 The general debate took place in the period between May 13 and June 3.”144 At this point. 1870. 234. Vatican Council. “Not less than a hundred speakers took part in the discussions. 226. 137. which were carried on from 6 June to 13 July. Most of the speeches were on the fourth chapter. Msgr. He asked the Council to do what the 140 141 Gray. 1870) and asserted that the understanding of Infallibility had converted him. and that the Catholic progress in England was hindered by indecision. if it would convert Protestants or Schismatics.

"146 His speech was a great success. who became more Irish than the Irish themselves. he knew that the doctrine of Infallibility. Infallibility was already a fact. far from scaring Protestants away from the Church. He spoke [in Latin] for an hour and fifty minutes. Before I got up.‟147”148 The bishops never moved until he had finished. as such. Manning. Abbreviation: Butler. Manning emphasized that he was the only convert at the Council. I was nervous: but once up. (New York: Longmans. II.Council of Trent had done.”145 "I had no knowledge of its length. “The Definition would unite the Church in face of a crumbling Protestantism. Manning a Biography. In any case. Green & Co. Louis compared him to the Normans in Ireland. It was the great effort of his life. 148 Gray. accepted by all Catholics: „To hold back from defining it would be a sign and source of weakness in the Catholic position. The Vatican Council. “Would to God that he was on our side!” Kenrick of St. 50. 234. which. 223. perfectly calm. 1930). Ecumenical Council. “I recall as if it were but yesterday his memorable speech. 145 146 Leslie. A convert had become more Catholic than the Catholics. 86 . would be a powerful attraction for all who wished to escape from confusion and chaos. Ollivier records that some of the Opposition cried out. Vatican Council. 455. which was 1 hour and 50 minutes. and ratify the Decree of Florence. 147 Dom Cuthbert Butler.

C) The deliberations on the Constitution of the Church: “The general debate was ended by closure. and that had been in winter. 234. Ten of their number had died in the first months of the Council. 154 Manning. 138.. was sent to the Commission of Faith. “the introduction. 150 Butler. 239.though in a foreign tongue and the longest one made at the Council. 125. applied on 3 June. 134. It was now high summer. held us spellbound by its beautiful diction. second and third chapters. James. True Story. 87 .”154 149 Gibbons. Vatican Council . and the amendments proposed.152”153 During the month of June.151 Manning himself remained indefatigable. Manning a Biography. 1916). I. 153 Gray.150 Now the English bishops began to suffer. (Baltimore. 151 Ibid. and several bishops were flagging in the Roman heat.”149 wrote Cardinal Gibbons after nearly fifty years. There was little to be said about the introduction and the first three chapters. 152 Ibid. II. the Fathers of the Council deliberated the four different chapters of the First Pastoral Constitution of the Church. together with the first. 69. On June 9. A Retrospect of 50 Years.

but also of the minority. Cullen.156 The imposition of the Definition became a certainty.”155 Many amendments were suggested and some were accepted. and the cardinal president was able. The latter was selected and sent to the Council. Manning and Msgr. Ratisbon wanted a more extended Infallibility than Cardinal Bilio. Kirch. Cullen‟s proposal with the addition of the famous words 155 156 Ibid. Consequently in the eighty-second general congregation held on 4 July. and the only question was the exact formula. Franchi and the other one written by Msgr. Vatican Council. but by July 11 the Commission agreed upon Msgr. amid general applause. Manning and Msgr. most of those who still had the right to speak. Msgr. renounced the privilege. The session was closed on July 4. 88 . to close the debates. Cardinal Bilio read the two formulas to the Commission. on the Infallibility which occupied eleven sessions. even to such matters as canonizations and minor censures. Scarcely in any parliament have important matters ever been subjected to as much discussion as was the question of papal Infallibility in the Vatican Council in the course of two months all the reasons pro and con had been again and again discussed.On June 15 began the discussion of the fourth chapter-that is. not only of the majority. one worded by Msgr. and only what had been already often said could now be repeated.

or ayes were 451. that is aye with modifications. The whole was then reprinted and distributed. a very precise and accurate definition of Papal Infallibility. 160 Ibid. were 88. were 62. True Story.D. on which ninety-six amendments had been proposed. under the guidance of the Holy Ghost. a number of fathers of both opinions had returned home. the Placets juxta modum. 138-139. were passed by a great Majority and “the whole schema was then printed and distributed to the Council. and the final vote was taken. “On account of the war which threatened to break out between Germany and France. The Placets. 89 . 138.”159 There were present 601 fathers of the Council.160 The number of times when the Constitution was closely examined and printed out truly shows the care the Fathers manifested to elaborate. Many were adopted together with two amendments proposed by the Commission. the Non placets or noes. 228. N. Msgr. Manning was the only English Bishop voting Placet. were sent as usual to the Commission. Shortly before the 157 158 When he speaks ex cathedrâ. Each single word was selected with attention and consideration by the Fathers. to the number of 163.cum ex cathedrâ loquitur157”158 At the preparatory vote of 13 July the third and fourth chapters. put once more to the vote and passed. Leslie. 159 Manning.T. These written amendments.

(one day before the beginning of the Franco-Prussian war). They did not oppose the dogma of papal Infallibility itself. but were against its definition as inopportune. 1870. Vatican Council. and the under-secretary of the Council called on every father of the Council by name to vote. Each. The Bishop of Fabriano then read the Decree de Romano Pontifice from the ambo. the Veni Creator 162was sung as usual. a large number of the bishops of the Minority left Rome with the permission of the directing officers of the Council.fourth public session. The solemn definition of papal Infallibility: A) The ceremony of the definition and its vote: On Monday July 18. rose 161 162 Kirch. The Veni Creator is a hymn in Latin to implore the assistance and guidance of the Holy Ghost. Pius the Ninth presiding in person. 90 . took off his mitre. as his name was called. the Definition was solemnly read. After the solemn Mass the Holy Scriptures were placed open upon the lectern on the high altar. Cardinal Manning described the scene: It was held with all the usual solemnities.”161 IV.

Manning humorously replied that the Pope promulgated the dogma like Moses on Mount Sinai. underlines Shane. the thunder and lightning burst over the Vatican and Msgr. Msgr. and voted… No less than 535 bishops voted Placet. Edward Fitzerald of Little Rock. 233. As the Pope was reading the definition.from his seat. 91 . they still submitted themselves to it because it was infallible. Only two bishops. An amusing detail is retold. Aloisio Riccio of Cajazzo. They wanted to render their subsequent obedience to the dogma even more striking. Even if they did not agree on the Definition. Arkansas voted nonPlacet. 163 Leslie. “The Day was won and the Truth was safe as it was after the Council of Nicea.”163 said Msgr. Italy and Msgr. Manning.

The Fathers at the First Vatican Council 92 .

not in virtue of the consent of the bishops and other prelates of the Church. The pontiff cannot proffer heresies or errors. he is infallible. the First Dogmatic Constitution of the Church of Christ declared the Pope infallible and his decrees irreformable of themselves and not in virtue of the Church.B) The text of the definition: Pastor Aeternus. His teachings are free from errors and untainted by heresy. When the Pope is speaking in matters of faith and morals. This is the promise Christ made to Saint Peter when He instituted him as the first Pope and Chief of His Church. that is to say. 93 .

by his assistance.Saint Peter by Peter Paul Rubens Here is a part of the text of the definition of Infallibility: Pastor Aeternus. but that. by his revelation. make known some new doctrine. First Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ Chapter IV: On the Infallible Teaching Authority of the Roman Pontiff: For the Holy Spirit was promised to the successors of Peter not so that they might. 94 .

This gift of truth and never-failing faith was therefore divinely conferred on Peter and his successors in this See so that they might discharge their exalted office for the salvation of all. confirm thy brethren [60]. But since in this very age when the salutary effectiveness of the apostolic office is most especially needed. we judge it absolutely necessary to affirm solemnly the prerogative which the only-begotten Son of God was pleased to attach to the supreme pastoral office. in accordance with the divine promise of Our Lord and Savior to the Prince of His disciples: I have prayed for thee that thy faith fail not. for the glory of God Our Savior. Peter always remains unblemished by any error. the exaltation of the Catholic 95 . and. Thus the tendency to schism is removed and the whole Church is preserved in unity. and so that the whole flock of Christ might be kept away by them from the poisonous food of error and be nourished with the sustenance of heavenly doctrine. when thou art converted. their apostolic teaching was embraced by all the venerable Fathers and reverenced and followed by all the holy orthodox Doctors. not a few are to be found who disparage its authority. Indeed. for they knew very well that this See of St. Therefore faithfully keeping to the tradition received from the beginning of the Christian faith. resting on its foundation.they might religiously guard and faithfully expound the revelation or deposit of faith transmitted by the apostles. can stand firm against the gates of Hell. and.

that is. We teach and define that it is a dogma divinely revealed: that the Roman Pontiff. but simply unavoidable.‟164 (See Appendix IV for the complete text of Pastor Aeternus). when he speaks ex cathedrâ. by the divine assistance promised to him in Blessed Peter. when in discharge of the office of Pastor and Doctor of all Christians..which may God avert presumes to contradict this Our definition. Illinois: Tan Book & Publishers. let him be anathema. chapter 4. The Church Teaches: Documents of the Church in English Translation. by virtue of his supreme Apostolic authority he defines a doctrine regarding faith or morals to be held by the Universal Church.religion. is possessed of that Infallibility with which the divine Redeemer willed that His Church should be endowed for defining doctrine regarding faith or morals: and that therefore such definitions of the Roman Pontiff are irreformable of themselves. 96 . 102. the Sacred Council approving. the doctrine of Infallibility is neither extreme nor illogical. “Granted that the premise that God established the Roman Catholic Church on earth as the voice of revelation that should endure to the end of the world. Canon: „But if anyone . and the salvation of Christian peoples. It would be certainly be perverse to postulate that the Almighty should have created this 164 The Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ. and not from the consent of the Church. Inc. 1973). Jesuit Fathers of St Mary’s College. (Rockford.

Infallibility. 1870. Following the defeat of Napoleon III at Sedan on September 2.‟166 It transpires thus that Pius IX was right. and then allowed it to err in its fundamental principles. led by King Victor Emmanuel II. and recognized as such by generation after generation of Catholics. Cardinal H. ceased to exist after the Piedmontese decree had been issued. 165 166 Gray. 1870. the war between France and Prussia ignited the next day. E. annexed Rome on September 20.”165 As Manning put it. Postquam Dei Munere. had been inherent in the Church‟s claim from the moment of Christ‟s declaration to St Peter. and the Fathers of the Council had just time to define solemnly papal Infallibility on July 18. the Lateran and Castel Gandolfo. 135. therefore. 226. Pope Pius had only being assured of the free disposal over the Vatican.mighty organization to proclaim his ordinances to mankind. The Papal States had on that same day. organizing the Patrimony of Peter as a Roman province. the bull. He then issued on 20 October. He waited a month longer. and made Pope Pius IX prisoner in the Vatican. Caesarism and Ultramontanism. obedience to it might be the worst of bondage. which prorogued the Council indefinitely. (London: 1873). the Italian troops. Manning. „If the Church were not infallible. 2. Manning a Biography. Miscellanies vol. he had “the Holy Virgin” with him. Interestingly. 97 .

167 Giuseppe Garibaldi‟s revolutionaries captured Palermo and Naples. Visconti Venosta. as the enemies of the Council desired would they persist in their opposition? As a matter of fact.A circular letter issued by the Italian minister. A very remarkable letter was sent from London on the same day by Archbishop Spalding to Cardinal Barnabo. Parliament declared Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy in 1871 and. C) The acceptance of the Decrees of the Council: Once papal Infallibility had been defined. In this letter he made the proposition. nine years later. Archbishop Manning. on 22 Oct. to continue the Council in the Belgian city of Mechlin. not a 167 Kirch. 98 . or. which met the approval of Cardinal Cullen. and gave ten reasons why this city seemed suitable for such sessions. to assure the Council of the freedom of meeting. the press was eager to see if the members of the Minority who had opposed the definition up to the last moment were going to sign and accept the Decree on papal Infallibility. naturally met with no credence. Vatican Council.. Rome became the capital of a united Italy. Would they recognize the decision of the Council. prefect of the Propaganda at Rome. and Archbishop Dechamps. Unfortunately the general condition of affairs was such that a continuation of the Council even at the most suitable place could not be thought of.

168 On the other hand. Döllinger also apostatized and died excommunicated. refusing on his deathbed to recognize his errors and to receive the last rites. and Austria used it as an excuse to abrogate its concordat with the Holy See. and finally.g. Montalembert. in Germany a number of Döllinger's supporters apostatized from the Church and formed the sect of the Old Catholics. had expressed opinions antagonistic to the promulgation of Infallibility. In France a small group headed by Père Hyacinthe (Charles Loyson) also seceded. the two bishops who on 18 July had voted non placet advanced to the papal throne at the same session and acknowledged their acceptance of the truth thus defined. Newman. Gratry. Acton. In the same way the distinguished Frenchmen and Englishmen who. also submitted after the decision had been made. without exception. as it appears. and sought to carry them into effect. outside of the Council. which was acceded to by 168 Ibid. As long as the discussions lasted they expressed their views freely and without molestation. The French government denounced it in a memorandum.single one of them was disloyal to his sacred duties. 99 . In Switzerland. the adversaries of the Council founded a sect called the Christian Catholics. “The political results were numerous: Otto von Bismarck gave the definition as the reason for the Kulturkampf. they came over to it. After the decision. e.

171 Gladstone. The Columbia Encyclopedia. First. 1968).R. accepted the decision of the Council with great joy and willingness. Sixth Edition. 2004).171 in which he raised the old antiCatholic specter of the inability of English Catholics to be good English citizens. E. 172 Norman. 100 . both clergy and laity. 169 Vatican Council. Anti Catholicism in Victorian England. 170 Norman. 212. Spain. The anger of the states reflected the chief political effect of the enunciation of papal Infallibility: since the doctrine made Gallicanism and similar claims obsolete. 1874). who had a good "record of righteous opposition to anti-Catholic bigotry and intolerance"170 gave angry vent to his feelings in a powerful criticism of the declaration on Infallibility. E. Anti Catholicism in Victorian England. (New York: Barnes and Noble. (New York: Barnes and Noble.. The Vatican Decrees in their bearing on Civil Allegiance: A Political Expostulatio. (London.Britain. and Portugal.R. "Gladstone's pamphlet was one of the most celebrated criticisms of the claims of Rome made during the nineteenth century. (New York: Columbia University Press.”169 In England. 81. 1968). governments could no longer use them to interfere in Church affairs. Gladstone."172 Apart from these dissenters. the Catholics of the entire world. William E. The Vatican Decrees in their Bearing on Civil Allegiance: A Political Expostulation.

173 101 . 1877). a French Protestant. Ollivier describes the fabulous activity of Cardinal Manning. In fact. 233. we find very puzzling the attitude of the biographers toward Cardinal Manning‟s role in the Council. it would be the Archbishop of Westminster.. 214.”174 wrote Nielson.2.CONCLUSION Emile Ollivier. 175 Ibid. In it. He took “a greater part than any Englishman before in a Church Council”175 Having measured the importance of the role of Cardinal Manning at the Council. Manning‟s merits and central role in gaining the definition or Papal Infallibility: “If any single man were able to ascribe to himself the honor of this victory. His activity is prodigious. he writes indefatigably. Prime Minister of France in 1870. apart from James Ollivier. and he does not neglect the fashionable world in which he is so pampered and sought after. vol. he speaks about everything and upon everything. the Scandinavian Protestant Bishop. 8. (Paris. 174 Leslie. E. wrote an excellent book about the Council. he is involved with everything.173 Friends and enemies alike recognized and respected Msgr. L’Eglise et l’Etat au Concile du Vatican.

The least we can say about those sources is that they have the merit of being relatively impartial. Adrian Lüchinger. It is bewildering to be able to measure the importance of his role at the Vatican Council mostly in the contemporary stories and documents on the Council. Why have so few writers have been interested about that role? Why are most writers. like Leslie Shane. Cardinal Manning: an Intellectual Biography.Pereiro. (Oxford: Clarendon Press. Päpstliche Unfehlbarkeit bei Henry Edward Manning and John Henry Newman. James. in his book Päpstliche Unfehlbarkeit bei Henry Edward Manning and John Henry Newman177. who have done it. acknowledges the 176 Pereiro. Some famous biographers. so apparently contradicting the contemporary works on the Council by giving importance to false accusations that have been largely proven wrong by the Fathers and witnesses of the Council and by dozens of historians and simply by common sense? For example. devote a meager ten pages chapter to the subject. It is mostly the reading of the huge and detailed works about the Vatican Council that Manning‟s role appears to be major. because they had absolutely nothing to gain in putting Msgr.176 very few highlight it. 1998). Some completely skip it and give more attention for example to the social role of Manning or to his influence in the political sphere. 177 Adrian Lüchinger. Manning in the center of the battle and showing his key role. (Universitätsverlag Freiburg 102 .

one can mention among his major works: The Ecumenical Council and the Infallibility of the Roman Pontiff. 1880. The True Story of the Vatican Council. Manning‟s self-effacing attitude could also explain why Lüchinger and some other writers have been mistaken. 103 . 1870. in his books about the Council. However. Manning had a very humble behavior and barely talked about his role. The Vatican Council and its Definitions. 2001). The Internal Mission of the Holy Ghost. but not as the prominent actor he had been. 90. the only fact that Manning devoted over sixteen books. pastoral letters. 1878. The Vatican Decrees and their Bearing on Civil Allegiance. skipped the major studies about the Council. hundreds of letters and other writings to papal Infallibility should make any serious writer suspicious. Religio Viatoris.important role of Manning. 1869. but it is for him the occasion to attack the Council and to present Manning under the traits of a Machiavellian character who wanted to obtain with the manipulative Majority the definition by any means possible. He referred to himself as part of the active Majority. Msgr. One explanation could be that Lüchinger. like many. “Manning devoted two lengthy pastoral letters to the propagation of the great cause. hundreds of pages dedicated to investigating and drawing out this absorbing Schweitz. The Temporal Power of the Vicar of Jesus Christ. London: 1875. In fact. 1888. 1875. On the only subject of the Council.

(2) All such official documents relating to the Council as may serve to illustrate its methods and progress.truth. it confirms that the Council was really one of the major events of the decade. It is extremely rare to find a single newspaper.. It occupied numerous headlines of the biggest newspapers. The study of the newspaper published during the Council is also extremely revealing. founded on the letters of our own correspondents. It will contain each week (1) A record of the Council. 104 . etc. a weekly record of the Council. which does not mention the Council or does not display articles about it. (3) Occasional reports and anecdotes current in Roman society...(4) Such extracts from foreign journals as are likely to interest English readers. (5) Critical 178 Gray.”178 That sole fact proves that at least... A journal was specially created in England for the Council: The Vatican. Here is an extract of the no. who have access to the surest sources of information. 228. Manning a Biography. "A few words will suffice to explain our purpose in establishing a new journal. 1 explaining to the readers the purpose of the journal. It was printed by Henry Filmer. of which the sole object is to provide a weekly record of all which can be lawfully known of the proceedings of the Vatican Council. with special information. The first issue was published on 10 December 1869 and the last in October 1870.. Manning largely contributed to spread the teachings of the Council and thus played an essential role. official documents. by his writings..

and whose arguments it may be expedient to examine" (To Our Readers 1:1. which had been erected in the Vatican. The most extreme opponent was Professor Döllinger of Bavaria. p. whose Catholic population is a minority.. 1870. attracted much attention. it may be useful to correct. About this time the French Oratorian Gratry and Archbishop Dechamps of Mechlin opposed each other in controversial pamphlets. in which he attacked so severely the address on 105 . Johann Friedrich and Lord Acton. 1870. in which he spoke of an idol.1) It first shows the immense importance of the Catholic Church and how. he used information sent him from Rome by his pupils. by scorn and ridicule.notices of the reports and statements of adversaries. The petitions concerning Infallibility called forth once more outside the Council a large number of pamphlets and innumerable articles in the daily papers and periodicals. A letter published by Count Montalembert on 27 Feb. under the pseudonym of "Quirinus". whose errors. even in a Protestant country like England. This was especially so in an article of 19 Jan. 1870). voluntary or otherwise. In these letters he did everything he could by distorting and casting doubts upon facts. people were interested in the debates. published in the Allgemeine Zeitung and issued in book form (Munich. discussions and results of the Council. to turn the public against the Council. In his "Römische Briefe vom Konzil".

219. Msgr. if you read his “Protestations. which had just become known. protested publicly against it.” he 179 180 Kirch. 181 Ibid.”181 On the Punch cartoon on the left. an old pupil of Döllinger's and a member of the minority. Gibbons from South Carolina.. “What could French Gallicans and courtly Bonapartists do against the freelance from Westminster?”180 “Sitting close to the youngest Bishop in Council. 106 . Vatican Council.) And in spite of all temptations.179 Msgr. Manning bared his arm to him and remarked it was tanned by the blows of his adversaries.Infallibility. that even Bishop Ketteler of Mainz. 219. Manning also roused animosities at the Council. Leslie. Many attacked him or could not stand the idea that a simple prelate from England could take the lead. one can read: His Eminence Cardinal Manning (Regarding a Fancy Portrait of what he might have been.

remains “an Englishman.” (Vide an “Englishman‟s Protest” in the “Nineteenth Century”) Dozens of other cartoons mocking the Cardinal might be found in the press. courage. Msgr. at first. shallowness. intellectual power. nobleness of mind. culture. deaf to reason. The Council was composed. Another general characteristic is that. its participants and on what was happening there. independence of spirit. it was so ordered that the theology. prejudice. were all to be found in the Minority. of 767 Fathers. philosophy. and elevation of character in the Council. with a herd of „Curial 107 . The Majority was naturally a Dead Sea of superstition. or eloquence.‟ bigoted. the Council was divided into a Majority and a Minority: and by an even more beneficent and admirable provision. science. […] Then. science. The illustrators presented him almost always under the traits of a lean and ascetic prelate. eloquence. ignorance. gathered from „old Catholic countries. Manning humorously described the biased view of the English newspapers on the Council. tyrannical. by a wonderful disposition of things. no doubt. logical acumen. narrowness. the presentations of the different participants were clearly unfair. philosophy. of the human race. for the good. without theology. and above all of the Church itself. in most newspapers. candour.

there was only one rule for both Majority and Minority. Manning in its book The Vatican Council and Its Definitions uses very simple and clear arguments to reply to them. It has been loudly declared. for many reasons. both were. Having read the minutes of the Council. It is also interesting to notice that Msgr. Dupanloup was employing. Vatican Council and its Definitions. Msgr. 24. If either were deprived if liberty. These false accusations against the Council and its Fathers have been defeated by numerous prestigious writers. that a tyrannical Majority deprived the Minority of liberty of discussion.‟ and mere „Vicars Apostolic.and Italian Prelates. dozens of secretaries to write about the subject and to attack. during the Council. not papal Infallibility. this seems particularly unfair and false. as long as he did not break the promise of secrecy all the Fathers of the Council had to swear. but the opportunity of the definition itself. if 182 Manning. It shows that he had the liberty to talk and write as much as he pleased.‟182 The newspapers were eager to develop false accusations and unjust rumors about the Council and pictured a Council where liberty was only given to the partisans of papal Infallibility. 108 . Now it is hard to believe this allegation to be sincere. First. An analysis of those texts perfectly shows that the actors of the Minority had the right to speak and largely used their right to do so.

but if both were not. and when found to be pertinent were admitted.both were. reiterated all the allegation that the enemies of the council had aroused against it. In that letter. The other. The subject matter was distributed in print to every Bishop. on which every Bishop in the Council had a free right to speak. either to modify or to reform the original schema.183 The Council Fathers also wrote. with a view to denying its authority. 28-29. two anonymous pamphlets. which calumniated the Council in a virulent manner. and a period of eight or ten days was given for any observations they might desire to make in writing. 109 . it could not be unjust. on the motion of the President. they denounced the calumnies the Council was the object and refuted them. it might be unwise. a letter adopted by an immense Majority to reply to the pamphlets in which. The text so amended was then proposed for the general discussion.. the liberty of the Vatican Council was denied. the mode of conducting the discussions afforded the amplest liberty of debate. and urged the bishops of the Minority to resist and 183 Ibid. These observations were carefully examined by the deputation of twenty-four. One. entitled Ce qui se passe au Concile. and the discussions lasted so long as any Bishop was pleased to inscribe his name. then neither […] But secondly. affirmed that there was no freedom of discussion at the council. They especially condemned. La dernière heure du Concile.

Socialism. Apart from a few Catholic newspapers. and especially “errors” about civil society. such as The Univers. This partially explains why governments and many journalists who supported some of these views. 1870. Communism. This can be particularly seen by the reaction to the announcement of the definition.bravely vote non placet in the public session. The 110 . A sensible change of tone was then perceived. could fail the Council. were anxious to prevent and denounce the definition. It is important to remember that a few years prior to the Council Pope Pius IX condemned in the Syllabus the most prominent views of the time. If papal infallibility were to be defined. Quanto Coficiamur. etc. the hope that the joint influence of so many powers and diplomatists. (See Appendix IV). considered both in itself and in its relations to the Church. false Ecumenism. Most of them thought they had good reasons to criticize what was happening at the Council. Indifferentism etc. false religious freedom. was broken.. Rationalism. When papal Infallibility was once defined on July 18.) were infallible and irreformable. it would mean that the Syllabus and all the other encyclicals condemning modern “errors” (Qui Pluribus. It would be simplistic to deduce that governments and journalists were attacking the Council and papal infallibility out of basic nastiness or stupidity. those whose positions were in favor of papal Infallibility were thus few. Namely freedom to publish for non-Catholics.

and then the correspondents of the English journals. he became the major defender and partisan of the definition of papal Infallibility. every man is a pilot. the governments and the press had not been so active. they exchanged the tone of confidence and triumph for a tone of irritation and of no little bitterness. 19.correspondents wrote of everything but of this unanimity. but as the saying goes. one by one. if the Minority. “In a calm sea. storms and tempests that the successful and illustrious journey of an Anglican minister. Ibid. By a fantastic energy. converted to Catholicism took place. it would have been certainly easier. an unfailing conviction and a tremendous love for the Holy Ghost and the papacy. The game was over and the last hope of an intestine conflict in the Church was over185 The epilogue could conclude that if Msgr. Manning had not endured all those attacks. From that time. left Rome. 111 . The leading articles almost ceased. 184 185 Ibid. The newspapers became almost silent.184 A period of supercilious disdain followed.” It is through rough seas.

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1929 Leys. London: Burns and Oates.Y: Barnes and Noble. 1908.England: Dayras. 3 volumes. Derek Holmes. Paris: Ch. Christiane. Norman.R. Biographical and Bibliographical Dictionary of the English Catholics. Thureau-Dangin. Guibert Jean. Paris: Armand Colin. London: Burns & Oates. More Roman than Rome: English Catholicism in the Nineteenth Century. Denis. David. Mathew. Gillow. 1985. Paris: Plon. J. & others. Catholics in England (1559-1829). Roman Catholicism in England from the Elizabethan Settlement to the Second Vatican Council. Le réveil du Catholicisme en Angleterre: conférences prêchées dans l'Église SaintSulpice 1901-1906. Gwinn. Catholicisme anglais. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode. A hundred years of Catholic Emancipation 1829-1929. Le Catholicisme en Angleterre. N. 1907. 114 .D. Poussielgue. Paris: Les Editions du Cerf. Mathew. 1978. N. Joseph. Edward. Anti Catholicism in Victorian England. 5 vol. 1955. London: Longmans. Paul. London: Longmans. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1958. Edward. La Renaissance Catholique en Angleterre au XIXe siècle. 1968. 1885. 1961. 1970. Norman. Solange & D‟Haussy. Catholicism in England. D.

2 volumes. and the Vatican in the Late Nineteenth and early Twentieth Centuries. The Vatican Decrees in their bearing on Civil Allegiance: A Political Expostulation. Eugène. New York & London: Garland Publishing. Tübingen: 1872.Schoenl. Histoire du Concile du Vatican d’après les documents originaux. Paris: Librairie Victor Lecoffre. Emil Friedberg. 1982. Green & Co. Théodore. Granderath. 1916. 1887. The Story Told from Inside in Bishop Ullathorne’s Letters. Brussels: Librairie Albert 115 . William. William E. 8 volumes. Gibbons. 1930. Cecconi. Books about the First Vatican Council: Butler. Paris: Les Editions du Cerf. 1961. Brussels: Desclée De Brouwer. Dom Cuthbert. Le Concile Vatican I. London: 1874. Georges. Sammlung der Aktenstücke zum ersten vatikanischen Konzil. The Intellectual Crisis in English Catholicism: Liberal Catholics. Dejaifve. New York: Longmans. Baltimore. the Most Rev. Histoire du Concile du Vatican. 2000. Gladstone. The Vatican Council. Pape et Evêques au Premier Concile du Vatican. 3 tomes in 6 volumes. Christophe. A Retrospect of 50 Years. James. Paul. Modernists.

Ollivier. Watkin. London: Oxford University Press. 1957. The True Story of the Vatican Council. E. 1996. Manning. N. J. 49-53. Houston: University of Saint Thomas. Books about Cardinal Manning: 116 . And Co. Henry Edward. Emile. London: 1875. Henry Edward. I. Garden City. the Most Rev. 1877. Roman Catholicism in England from the Reformation to 1950. 1907. Autour du Concile. Rondet. Michigan: Real View Books. The First Vatican Council. Arnheim-Leipzig: 19231927. Hales. Green. 1st edition 1878 in The Nineteen Century. the Most Rev. The Catholic Church in the Modern World. Charles. The Vatican Decrees and their Bearing on Civil Allegiance. Manning.D. Henry. Paris: J. Hales. The Vatican Council and its Definitions: Pastoral Letter to the Clergy. 1962. E. L’Eglise et l’Etat au Concile du Vatican.Y. Paris: Lethielleux. 1870. the Most Rev. souvenirs et croquis d’un artiste à Rome. 1887. The edition used in this paper is: Fraser.Dewitt.. London: Longmans. Mansi. Rothschild Editeur. Paris. Vatican I. Henry Edward. 1958 Manning. 1962. T. Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collection.: Doubleday. Yriarte. E.

London: Burns. Oates and Washbourne. Cardinal Manning. 1985. London: Macmillian. Manning linked to Papal Infallibility: The Rule of Faith.E. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1993. Vincent Alan. Pereiro. J. London: Chatto & Windus. Robert Gray. 1912. Adrian Lüchinger. 2001 Newsome. Päpstliche Unfehlbarkeit bei Henry Edward Manning and John Henry Newman. Works by Cardinal H. New York: St. S. Eminent Victorians: Cardinal Manning. James. 1838. 1921. Freiburg. Lytton. Cardinal Manning: His Public Life and Influence 1865-1892. London: Oxford University Press. Martin‟s Press. 1998. Cardinal Manning and Other Essays.E. Cardinal Manning: an Intellectual Biography. 1896.Bodley. Archbishop of Westminster. 117 . McClelland. Florence Nightingale. 1918. Purcell. E. 2 vols.S. The Convert Cardinals: John Henry Newman and Henry Edward Manning. Henry Edward Manning: His Life and Labors. 1962. etc. London: John Murray.C. David. Life of Cardinal Manning. a Biography. Leslie. London. Strachey. London: Longmans. Switzerland: Universitätsverlag.

The Centenary of Saint Peter and the General Council. London: Longmans.Sermons. Dublin. 1865. Edition used: Fraser. Tomes 1-4. Petri Privilegium: Three Pastoral Letters to the Clergy of the Diocese. And Co. London. 1875. London. London. 1996.. 1867. Ltd. The True Story of the Vatican Council. The Temporal Mission of the Holy Ghost or Reason and Revelation. 1870. London. 1865. The Unity of the Church. London. Truth before Peace: A Sermon. Caesarism and Ultramontanism. 1873. Sermons on Ecclesiastical subjects. London. Miscellanies. The Ecumenical Council and the Infallibility of the Roman Pontiff. Green. The Reunion of Christendom. The Temporal Power of the Vicar of Jesus Christ. Michigan: Real View Books. London. London: Burns & Oates. The Vatican Decrees and their Bearing on Civil Allegiance. London. 1871. 1845. The Internal Mission of the Holy Ghost.. A Pastoral Letter to the Clergy. The Vatican Council and its Definitions: Pastoral Letter to the Clergy. 1852. London. 118 . London. 1869. 1st edition 1878 in “The Nineteen Century”. 1870. 1844-1850. London. London: 1875. 1866. 1862. The Grounds of Faith.

org 119 . Web Sources: New Advent.Religio Viatoris. London. Catholic Encyclopedia Online. http://www. 1888.newadvent. One of the biggest. most serious and most visited Catholic website in the world. It is surprising and astounding to consider the great amount of books and Pastoral letters written in the meantime of a major social and Episcopalian role. but this sole short bibliography shows the importance of the Holy Ghost and papal Infallibility for him. Manning. There are numerous other books on different matters and hundreds of private letters written by Msgr.

Augustine. and 1 Swiss bishop. It had no opponents among the bishops from Spain. While only a few Armenian bishops opposed the definition. belonged to the Minority. and Central and South America. The most prominent members of the Minority from the United States were Archbishops Kenrick of St. 3 bishops from British North America. 2 each of the English and Irish bishops. these were joined by Archbishop Connolly of Halifax. Greith. most of the Chaldean and Greek Melchites sided with the Minority. About 7 of the Italian bishops. Belgium. Minority and Majority at the Council: the main actors: Most of the German and Austro-Hungarian members of the Council were against the definition. Holland.APPENDIX Appendix I. Louis and Purcell of Cincinnati. Prominent members of the Majority were Archbishop Spalding of Baltimore. and Bishop Vérot of St. Bishops 120 . Nova Scotia. as well as nearly half of the American and about one-third of the French fathers. Portugal.

121 . Bishops Pie of Poitiers. Majority. Majority. Stahl of Würzburg. Archbishops Cullen of Dublin and Leahy of Cashel. Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. Freppel of Angers. and Conroy of Albany. Archbishop Nazari di Calabiana of Milan. Archbishop Guibert of Tours. and Bishop Strossmayer of Diakovár. Archbishop MacHale of Tuam. Majority. Conspicuous members of the Council from other countries were: France: among the Minority. Italy: Minority. Bishop Clifford of Clifton. Losanna of Biella. Bishops Gasser of Brixen. Bishops Moreno of Ivrea. and David of Saint-Brieuc. Dinkel of Augsburg. Archbishop Manning of Westminster. Zwerger of Seckau. Majority. Bishops Martin of Paderborn. Ketteler of Mainz. among the Majority. Ireland: Minority. Senestréy of Ratisbon. Ginoulhiac of Lyons. England: Minority. Haynald of Kalocsa. Bishops Gastaldi of Saluzzo. Majority. Plantier of Nîmes. Fessler of Sankt Pölten. Raess of Strasburg. Cardinal Schwarzenberg of Prague. Germany: Minority Bishops Hefele of Rottenburg. Riccabona of Trent. Archbishops Cardinal Rauscher of Vienna. Valerga. Wood of Philadelphia. Bishops Dupanloup of Orléans. Archbishops Darboy of Paris.Williams of Boston. Austria Hungary: Minority. Gandolfi of Loreto.

Bishop Mermillod of Geneva. Majority. Vatican Council. Majority. Hassun. Patriarch of the Armenians. Bishop Greith of St-Gall. Important champions of the definition from the countries which sent no members of the Minority were Archbishop Dechamps of Mechlin. Belgium. 186 186 Kirch. 122 . Jussef.The East: Minority. Spain. Switzerland: Minority. Greek-Melchite Patriarch of Antioch. and Bishop Payà y Rico of Cuenca.

was given by Jesus Christ the plenitude of power to rule and govern the Universal Church. and that to him. teaches that the judgments of the Roman Pontiff in matters of faith and morals are irreformable. which declares: “When controversies in matters of faith arise. and. it was defined that “the Roman Pontiff is Christ‟s true Vicar. over the whole Church of Christ. they must be settled by the decision of the Roman Pontiff. with the consent of both Greeks and Latins. Reasons why the definition is thought to be opportune and necessary: The Sacred Scriptures plainly teach the primacy of jurisdiction of the Roman Pontiff. some of which were ecumenical.Appendix II.” Moreover.” Sound reason. too. also his primacy of supreme teaching authority. therefore. the successor of Saint Peter. and father and teacher of all Christians. in blessed Peter. as well as in the manner of acting and speaking adopted by many Councils. as seen both in facts and in the teachings of the Fathers. the head of the whole Church. in the Ecumenical Synod of Florence. The universal and constant tradition of the Church. In the Second Council of Lyons. teaches that no one can remain in communion of faith with the Catholic Church who is not 123 . a profession of faith was agreed upon.

But the more clearly Catholic truth has been declared. boasting of the name of Catholic. all unity of faith dissolved. hitherto many might have doubted the opportuneness of declaring this doctrine in the present Ecumenical Council. to defend in their synodal decrees. who. Yet some have been found. Though. Wherefore the bishops. Anyone can see that by this perverse doctrine the authority of the Roman Pontiff is overturned. and are even now to be found. and preventing the Council of the Vatican from defining it. then. and using that name to the ruin of those weak in faith. have endeavoured. especially now-a-days. For 124 . are bold enough to teach that sufficient submission is yielded to the authority of the Roman Pontiff if we receive his decrees in matters of faith and morals with an obsequious silence. with a provisional assent. as it is termed. without yielding internal assent. the supreme authority of the Apostolic See.of one mind with its head. it would seem now to be absolutely necessary for it to have been defined. at most. since the Church cannot be separated from its head even in thought. and by theirs united testimony. until the approval or disapproval of the Church has been made known. a wide field open to errors. the guardians and protectors of Catholic truth. and time afforded for spreading them far and wide. the more vehemently has is been attacked both in books and in newspapers. or. for the purpose of exciting Catholics against sound doctrine.

the Florentine decree. though calling themselves Catholics. They would. then Catholics would. Nay. and explaining more fully. is to assert that the Synod of Florence. is frequently added the most violent abuse of the Apostolic See. that the authority of the Roman Pontiff is supreme. moreover abuse this silence on every occasion. If then the Council of the Vatican. which so clearly declares the supreme authority of the Roman Pontiff. professing once again. more. used against it in old times. and in words that can admit of no doubt.Catholic doctrine is now once more assailed by those same arguments which men. if carried to their ultimate consequences. were to be silent. would bring to the ground the very primacy of the Roman Pontiff and the Infallibility of the Church itself. begin to doubt the true doctrine. and to which. the most bitter attack assailants of Catholic doctrine. also. being thus challenged. should define clearly. when in matters of faith and morals the pope decrees and ordains 125 . under pretext that the judgment of the Roman Pontiff is fallible on such points. arguments which. and openly deny the obedience due to the judgments and decrees of the Apostolic See in matters of faith and morals. condemned by their own conscience. and the lovers of novelty would triumph. Wherefore the public good of Christianity seems to require that the holy Council of the Vatican. was not ecumenical. and therefore exempt from error. and omit to give testimony to the Catholic doctrine on this point. in fact.

For if these seek the truth in sincerity. These are they who have never shrunk from disturbing our Catholic people. these will be few in number. lest schismatics and heretics should be repelled yet further from the Church. and such as have already suffered shipwreck in the faith. on the contrary. they will not be repelled. and what to be rejected and condemned by them. and from the snares of such men the Council of the Vatican ought to protect the faithful children of the Church. when they see on what foundations the unity and strength of the Catholic Church chiefly repose. lest this pernicious error should in the end infect simple minds and the masses of people unawares. But. which they plainly show they have deserted already in heart. notwithstanding the offence that might be taken by schismatics and heretics. such are only seeking a pretext to abandon that Church by an overt act. drawn towards us. For all true Catholics. but. and one which has been of late so iniquitously attacked. above all other considerations. But should any leave the Church in consequence of the true doctrine being defined by the Ecumenical Council. indeed.what is to be believed and held by all the faithful of Christ. some who think that this Catholic truth should not be defined. taught and accustomed to render the fullest obedience both of thought and word to the Apostolic decrees of the 126 . There are. Hence it was that the fathers of Lyon and of Trent deemed themselves bound to establish the doctrine of the truth. Catholics have a right to be taught by the Ecumenical Council what they are to believe in so weighty a matter.

187 187 Manning. will receive with joyful and devoted hearts the definition of the Council of the Vatican concerning his supreme and infallible authority. 167-169. Vatican Council and its Definitions. 127 .Roman Pontiff.

all the faithful should be linked by the bond of one faith and charity. with the approval of the sacred Council. in like manner it was His will that in Church there should be shepherds and teachers until the end of time. He besought his Father. Pastor Aeternus. even as He had been sent by the Father [40]. So then. servant of the servants of God. Therefore. just as He sent apostles. by the union of the clergy. but also for those who were to believe in Him through their word. bishop. that they all might be one as the Son Himself and the Father are one [38].Appendix III. whom He chose out of the world [39]. The Eternal Shepherd and Guardian of our souls [37]. then. in order to render permanent the saving work of Redemption. determined to build a Church in which. not for the apostles only. before He was glorified. In order. that the Episcopal office should be one and undivided and that. First Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ: PUBLISHED IN THE FOURTH SESSION OF THE HOLY ECUMENICAL COUNCIL OF THE VATICAN Pius. as in the house of the living God. the whole multitude of believers should be held 128 . for an everlasting record.

and for the protection. defense and growth of the Catholic flock. upon which the strength and coherence of the whole Church depends. we shall proscribe and condemn the contrary errors. permanence and nature of the sacred and Apostolic primacy. And since the gates of Hell trying. if they can. to propound the doctrine concerning the institution. Upon the strength of this foundation was to be built the eternal temple. CHAPTER I: On the Institution of the Apostolic Primacy in Blessed Peter: We teach and declare that. Furthermore. and the Church whose topmost part reaches heaven was to rise upon the firmness of this foundation [41]. This doctrine is to be believed and held by all the faithful in accordance with the ancient and unchanging faith of the whole Church. to overthrow the Church. we judge it necessary. a primacy of jurisdiction over the whole Church of God was immediately and directly promised to the 129 . which are so harmful to the Lord's flock. He set blessed Peter over the rest of the apostles and instituted in him the permanent principle of both unities and their visible foundation.together in the unity of faith and communion. make their assault with a hatred that increases day by day against its divinely laid foundation. according to the gospel evidence. with the approbation of the Sacred Council.

after his confession. in preference to the rest of the apostles.blessed apostle Peter and conferred on him by Christ the lord. the Son of the living God. and whatever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in Heaven. saying: Feed my lambs. It was to Simon alone. that the Lord. confided the jurisdiction of Supreme Pastor and ruler of His whole fold. Simon Bar-Jona. taken singly or collectively. that thou are Peter. To this absolutely manifest teaching of the Sacred Scriptures. and whatever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven [43]. The same may be said of those who assert that this primacy was not conferred immediately and directly on 130 . And I say to thee. For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you. spoke these words: Blessed are thou. feed my sheep [44]. You are the Christ. are clearly opposed the distorted opinions of those who misrepresent the form of government which Christ the Lord established in His Church and deny that Peter. was endowed by Christ with a true and proper primacy of jurisdiction. to whom He had already said thou shalt be called Cephas [42]. and the gates of the Hell shall not prevail against it. but my Father who is in heaven. and on this rock I will build my Church. I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of Heaven. after His resurrection. as it has always been understood by the Catholic Church. And it was to Peter alone that Jesus.

received the keys of the Kingdom from Our Lord Jesus Christ. the Savior and Redeemer of the human race.blessed Peter himself. Therefore. by Christ's authority. For no one can be in doubt. Prince and Head of the apostles. and that it was through the Church that it was transmitted to him in his capacity as her minister. CHAPTER II: On the permanence of the primacy of blessed Peter in the Roman Pontiffs: That which Our Lord Jesus Christ. in the Church which. must of necessity remain for ever. if anyone says that blessed Peter the apostle was not appointed by Christ the lord as Prince of all the apostles and visible Head of the whole Church militant. which He founded and consecrated with His blood [46]. the Prince of Shepherds and Great Shepherd of the sheep. will stand firm until the end of time [45]. established in the blessed apostle Peter. founded as it is upon a rock. the pillar of faith and the foundation of the Catholic Church. but rather on the Church. or that it was a primacy of honor only and not one of true and proper jurisdiction that he directly and immediately received from our lord Jesus Christ himself: let him be anathema. for the continual salvation and permanent benefit of the Church. and that to this day and for ever He lives and presides and exercises judgment in His successors the bishops of the Holy Roman See. indeed it was known in every age that the holy and most blessed Peter. 131 .

supported by the clear witness of holy scripture. we promulgate anew the definition of the ecumenical Council of Florence [49]. it has always been necessary for every Church--that is to say the faithful throughout the world--to be in agreement with the Roman Church because of its more effective leadership. they will grow together into the structure of a single body [48]. which must be believed by all faithful Christians. or that the Roman Pontiff is not the successor of blessed Peter in this primacy: let him be anathema. In consequence of being joined. if anyone says that it is not by the institution of Christ the Lord Himself (that is to say.Therefore whoever succeeds to the Chair of Peter obtains by the institution of Christ himself. So what the truth has ordained stands firm. with that see. and adhering to the manifest and explicit decrees both of our predecessors the Roman Pontiffs and of general Councils. by divine law) that blessed Peter should have perpetual successors in the primacy over the whole Church. Therefore. namely that the Apostolic See and the Roman Pontiff hold a world-wide 132 . the primacy of Peter over the whole Church. from which the rights of sacred communion flow to all. CHAPTER III: On the power and character of the primacy of the Roman Pontiff: And so. and blessed Peter perseveres in the rock-like strength he was granted. For this reason. as members to Head. and does not abandon that guidance of the Church which he once received [47].

rule and govern the Universal Church. the Church of Christ becomes one flock under one Supreme Shepherd [50]. To him. In this way. by unity with the Roman Pontiff in communion and in profession of the same faith. true Vicar of Christ. and no one can depart from it without endangering his faith and salvation. Head of the whole Church and Father and teacher of all christian people. are bound to submit to this power by the duty of hierarchical subordination and true obedience. and this not only in matters concerning faith and morals. in blessed Peter. This is the teaching of the Catholic Truth. Wherefore we teach and declare that. All this is to be found in the acts of the ecumenical Councils and the sacred canons. Both clergy and faithful. full power has been given by Our Lord Jesus Christ to tend. of whatever rite and dignity. both singly and collectively. This power of the Supreme Pontiff by no means detracts from that ordinary and immediate power of 133 . the Roman Church possesses a pre-eminence of ordinary power over every other Church. and that this jurisdictional power of the Roman Pontiff is both Episcopal and immediate. but also in those which regard the discipline and government of the Church throughout the world. by divine ordinance.primacy. and that the Roman Pontiff is the successor of blessed Peter. the Prince of the apostles.

this power of theirs is asserted. by which bishops. when it is denied to none of those to whom honor is due. tend and govern individually the particular flocks which have been assigned to them. Since the Roman Pontiff. supported and defended by the supreme and universal pastor. it follows from that supreme power which the Roman Pontiff has in governing the whole Church that he has the right. Then do I receive true honor. On the contrary. we likewise teach and declare that he is the Supreme judge of the faithful [52]. so that they may be taught and guided by him in the way of salvation. and that in all cases which fall under 134 . to communicate freely with the pastors and flocks of the entire Church. has no force or effect unless it is confirmed by the agreement of the civil authority. for St Gregory the Great says: "My honor is the honor of the whole Church. in the performance of this office of his. or that it should be dependent on the civil power. who have succeeded to the place of the apostles by appointment of the Holy Spirit.Episcopal jurisdiction." [51] Furthermore. And therefore we condemn and reject the opinions of those who hold that this communication of the Supreme Head with pastors and flocks may be lawfully obstructed. governs the whole Church. which leads them to maintain that what is determined by the Apostolic See or by its authority concerning the government of the Church. My honor is the steadfast strength of my brethren. by the divine right of the Apostolic primacy.

And so they stray from the genuine path of truth who maintains that it is lawful to appeal from the judgments of the Roman Pontiffs to an ecumenical Council as if this were an authority superior to the Roman Pontiff. So. and this not only in matters of faith and morals. or that he has only the principal part. or that this power of his is not ordinary and immediate both over all and each of the Churches and over all and each of the pastors and faithful: let him be anathema. if anyone says that the Roman Pontiff has merely an office of supervision and guidance.ecclesiastical jurisdiction recourse may be had to his judgment [53]. includes also the supreme power of teaching. but not the absolute fullness. The sentence of the Apostolic See (than which there is no higher authority) is not subject to revision by anyone. but also in those which concern the discipline and government of the Church dispersed throughout the whole world. the constant custom of the Church demonstrates it. This Holy See has always maintained this. CHAPTER IV: On the infallible teaching authority of the Roman Pontiff: That Apostolic primacy which the Roman Pontiff possesses as successor of Peter. and not the full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the whole Church. the Prince of the apostles. nor may anyone lawfully pass judgment thereupon [54]. and the 135 . of this supreme power. then.

the Prince and chief of the apostles. cannot fail of its effect. we hope that we may deserve to remain in that one communion which the Apostolic See preaches. for in it is the whole and true strength of the Christian religion. together with the fullness of power. And since before all others She has the duty of defending the Truth of the Faith. whose successor the Roman Pontiff is. have declared it. with the approval of the Second Council of Lyons. so if any questions arise 136 . published this solemn profession of faith: “The first condition of salvation is to maintain the rule of the true faith. Since it is our earnest desire to be in no way separated from this faith and doctrine. following the footsteps of their predecessors. the words spoken are confirmed by their consequences. particularly those in which East and West met in the union of faith and charity. thou are Peter. and sacred doctrine been held in honor. and upon this rock I will build my Church [55]. And since that saying of our lord Jesus Christ. the Greeks made the following profession: "The Holy Roman Church possesses the supreme and full primacy and principality over the whole Catholic Church. So the Fathers of the Fourth Council of Constantinople.” [56] What is more. She truly and humbly acknowledges that She received this from the Lord Himself in blessed Peter. For in the Apostolic See the Catholic religion has always been preserved unblemished.ecumenical councils.

the full power of tending. The Roman Pontiffs. it is by Her judgment that they must be settled. and to him was committed in blessed Peter. sometimes by special synods. sometimes by summoning ecumenical councils or consulting the opinion of the Churches scattered throughout the world. and with equal care they made sure that it should be kept pure and uncontaminated wherever it was received. ruling and governing the whole Church. by our lord Jesus Christ. This was to ensure that any damage suffered by the faith should be repaired in that place above all where the faith can know no failing [59]. It was for this reason that the bishops of the whole world. sometimes individually." [58] To satisfy this pastoral office. sometimes gathered in synods. according to the long established custom of the Churches and the pattern of ancient usage referred to this Apostolic See those dangers especially which arose in matters concerning the faith.concerning the Faith. too. defined as doctrines to be held those things 137 . the Head of the whole Church and the Father and teacher of all Christians." [57] Then there is the definition of the Council of Florence: "The Roman Pontiff is the true Vicar of Christ. our predecessors strove unwearyingly that the saving teaching of Christ should be spread among all the peoples of the world. as the circumstances of the time or the state of affairs suggested. sometimes by taking advantage of other useful means afforded by divine providence.

when thou art converted. Thus the tendency to schism is removed and the whole Church is preserved in unity. by his assistance. make known some new doctrine. not a few are to be found who disparage its authority. can stand firm against the gates of Hell. they might religiously guard and faithfully expound the revelation or deposit of faith transmitted by the apostles. For the Holy Spirit was promised to the successors of Peter not so that they might. Peter always remains unblemished by any error. This gift of truth and never-failing faith was therefore divinely conferred on Peter and his successors in this See so that they might discharge their exalted office for the salvation of all. their apostolic teaching was embraced by all the venerable Fathers and reverenced and followed by all the holy orthodox Doctors. we judge it absolutely necessary to affirm 138 . and so that the whole flock of Christ might be kept away by them from the poisonous food of error and be nourished with the sustenance of heavenly doctrine. and. in accordance with the divine promise of Our Lord and Savior to the Prince of His disciples: I have prayed for thee that thy faith fail not. But since in this very age when the salutary effectiveness of the Apostolic Office is most especially needed. by God's help. and. they knew to be in keeping with sacred scripture and the apostolic traditions. resting on its foundation. Indeed. by his revelation. for they knew very well that this see of St. but that. confirm thy brethren [60].which.

let him be anathema. the Sacred Council approving. We teach and define that it is a dogma divinely revealed: that the Roman Pontiff. in the twenty-fifth year of our Pontificate. FOOTNOTES 139 .‟ Given at Rome in Public Session solemnly held in the Vatican Basilica in the year of Our Lord One thousand eight hundred and seventy.solemnly the prerogative which the only-begotten Son of God was pleased to attach to the supreme pastoral office. and the salvation of Christian peoples. Therefore faithfully keeping to the tradition received from the beginning of the Christian faith. by the divine assistance promised to him in Blessed Peter. that is.which may God avert presumes to contradict this Our definition. by virtue of his supreme Apostolic authority he defines a doctrine regarding faith or morals to be held by the Universal Church. when in discharge of the office of Pastor and Doctor of all Christians. when he speaks ex cathedrâ. Canon: „But if anyone . for the glory of God Our Savior. and not from the consent of the Church. the exaltation of the Catholic religion. on the eighteenth day of July. is possessed of that Infallibility with which the divine Redeemer willed that His Church should be endowed for defining doctrine regarding faith or morals: and that therefore such definitions of the Roman Pontiff are irreformable of themselves.

4 (elsewhere 3). to be found among: Ambrose. 150). Council of Aquilea (381). 146). 19 40 Jn 20. (Letter to 140 . 48 46 From the speech of Philip. 42 Jn 1. 52 Pius VI. 528). Lk 6. ad Eulog. 15-17 45 See Mt 7. Adv. 50 See Jn 10. 3 (elsewhere 2). Letter Super soliditate dated 28 Nov. 21 41 Leo 1. 1786. 466). 42. at the 3rd session of the Council of Ephesus (D no. 49 Council of Florence. 25. 51 Ep. (Sermons). Ep. 20-21 39 Jn 15. 43 Mt 16. haeres. 3 (PL 54. ad Michaelem imp. 112). PL 77. session 6 (see above p. ch. 2 for the day of his birth (PL 54. Alexandrin. (Sermons). 48 Irenaeus. 11 (PL 16. Ep. 31 28-30. Serm. Vlll 29 (30) (MGH.37 1 Pt 2. the Roman legate. 16 19 44 Jn 21. ch. 16. Epistolae (Letters). (Letter to Eulogius of Alexandria). (Against Heresies) 1113 (PG 7. 2. 54 Nicholas 1. 849). 47 Leo 1. Serm. 933). 53 From Michael Palaeologus's profession of faith which was read out at the Second Council of Lyons (D no. 946).25 38 Jn 17.

1053). 1053). 57 From Michael Palaeologus's profession of faith which was read out at the Second Council of Lyons (D no. 60 Lk 22. (Letters) 190 (PL 182. 18. 954). 171). session 6 (see above p.the emperor Michael) (PL 119. 157 n. 55 Mt 16. Ep. (Letters) 190 (PL 182. 56 From Pope Hormisdas's formula of the year 517 (D no. 32. 141 . 466). 59 Bernard. 1. 528). S Bernard. 58 Council of Florence. Ep. see above p.

Ce qui se passe au Concile. But among anonymous pamphlets of this kind there are two especially. which for the arts of calumny and license of detraction bear away the palm from all others. For in these not only is the dignity and full liberty of the Council assailed with 142 . a most bitter warfare instantly broke out against it.Appendix IV. From the time that the Holy Vatican Synod opened by the help of God. among even its sacred ministers. and that. so that we have no need to recount one by one. if it could be. published in all places and stealthily distributed. The infamous falsehoods which have been heaped together in this matter in public newspapers of every tongue. Act of Condemnation by the Council of Certain Pamphlets: Most Reverend Fathers. and what is most to be deplored. not only among the heterodox and open enemies of the Cross of Christ. many writers vied with each other in attacking it by contumelious detraction. and in order to diminish its venerable authority with the faithful. and La dernière heure du Concile. but also among those who give themselves out as sons of the Catholic Church. al men well known. and in pamphlets without the author‟s name. and entitled. to destroy it altogether. and by the foulest calumnies. and. written in French.

President. Capalti. De Angelis. 1870. Card. Wherefore we. being mindful of our office. and before you all. Card. De Luca. Andreas. From the Hall of the Council. lest our silence if longer maintained. Aloysius.the basest falsehoods. to protest and to declare all such things as have been uttered in the aforesaid newspapers ad pamphlets to be altogether false and calumnious. Card. Most Reverend Fathers. President 143 . Bilio. Philip. Bizzari. Hannibal. Card. President. President. whether in contempt of our Holy Father and of the Apostolic See. and the rights of the Holy Father is attacked with the gravest insults. President. are compelled to lift up our voice. and on the score of its asserted want of legitimate liberty. Antoninus. the 16th day of July. or the dishonor of this Holy Synod. should be perversely interpreted by men of evil will. Card.