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SCHIEHALLION OPERATIONS

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND OPERATING PROCEDURE:

WATER INJECTION SYSTEM


Document no. Z-8000-BB-4076
2005 BP Exploration UK

Z1
C6
C5
C4
C3
C2
C1
B1
A1
Rev

20/01/2005
2/12/2004
19/12/2003
14/12/2001
9/3/2001
28/12/00
7/7/98
20/5/98
2/7/97
Date

Revised
Addition of 4th WI pump
4th WI pump study
Risk assessed
Revised onshore
Revised Offshore
Validated for Use
Issued for Review
Issued for Comment
Description
REVISION

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

RL
RL
RL

RL
RL
RL

CD

RL

DH
RL
DH
RL
AS
DH
By Check
Originated

CD

RL

PS

RL

By
Check
Validated

CD

RL

By
Check
Risk Assessed

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WATER INJECTION SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION & OPERATING PROCEDURE


Contents
1.

2.

INTRODUCTION

1.1
1.2

4
5

DESCRIPTION

2.1
2.2
2.3

7
8
10
11
11
11
13
15
18
18
19
22
26
28
30
34
36
38
39
39
40

2.4

2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
3.

4.

Purpose of Equipment/System
List of Reference Documents

Summary of Equipment
Water Injection Deaeration Package Z-44101
Water Injection Pumps P-45001A/B/C
2.3.1 Water Injection Pumps P-45001A/B/C Drive Motors
2.3.2 Water Injection Pumps P-45001A/B/C Lube Oil System
4th Water Injection Pump Package
2.4.1 4th Water Injection Pump Gas Turbine
2.4.2 GT Combustion Air Intake System
2.4.3 GT Combustion Exhaust System
2.4.4 Gearbox
2.4.5 Water Injection Pump P-45001D
2.4.6 Lubricating Oil System
2.4.7 Gas Turbine Enclosure
2.4.8 Gas Turbine Local Control Room & LER
2.4.9 Gas Turbine Enclosure Fire Protection System
2.4.10 Wash Cart
Water Overboard Discharges, Monitoring & Reporting
Chemical Injection
Turret Water Injection, Swivel and Turret Valves
Water Injection Flexible Risers
Subsea Water Injection System
WI Wellheads (Tree, Choke, Master & Subsurface Valves)47
Well Injectivity Decline
Water Injection Subsea Flowlines
Water Injection Wells

50
50
51

WATER INJECTION SYSTEM CONTROL PHILOSOPHY

53

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6

53
54
55
56
59
60

Deaerator Tower V-44101Control


Stripping Gas Regeneration Control
Water Injection Pumps P-45001A/B/C Control
Gas Turbine Control System
Water Injection Pump P-45001D Control
Subsea Water Injection Valve Control

WATER INJECTION SYSTEM & GAS TURBINE OPERATION

61

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7

61
62
63
64
67
73
73

Pre-Start Checks
De-Aerator Package Purge Procedure
De-Aerator Package Start-up
Water Injection Pumps P-45001A/B/C Start-up
Solar Gas Turbine & Water Injection Pump P-45001D Start-up
Exhaust Gas Purging
4th Water Injection Pump & Turbine Start-up from CCR

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4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14

4.15
4.16
4.17
5.

97

5.1

97
98
99
100

Subsea Control & Monitoring


5.1.1 Interlocks
Control & Monitoring of Water Injection System
Monitoring of Pump P-45001D & Gas Turbine

ALARMS & SHUTDOWNS

109

6.1
6.2

109
112
112
115
118
121
126
129
130
131
131
132

6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
7.

75
77
83
85
86
86
86
89
90
91
91
92
94
95
95
95
95
96

CONTROL & MONITORING

5.2
5.3
6.

Gas Turbine Compressor Cleaning using Wash Cart


Routine Operations of the 4 th Water Injection Pump and GT
Subsea/Well Operating Limits
Water Injection Pump P-45001D Speed Control
Water Injection Pump P-45001D Standby Mode
De-Aerator & Pumps P-45001A/B/C Shutdown
4.13.1 Normal Shutdown
4.13.2 Emergency Shutdown
Water Injection Pump P-45001D & Turbine Shutdowns
4.14.1 Normal Shutdown or Trip Turbine to Idle Speed
4.14.2 Manual Emergency Stop
4.14.3 Control System Stops
4.14.4 Back-up Active Shutdown
4.14.5 GT Enclosure Fire Detection
4.14.6 Turbine Back-up Overspeed
Isolation for Maintenance
Winterisation
Video Display Computer Operation

De-Aerator HIPS
Pumps P-45001A/B/C Alarms and Actions
6.2.1 Pump P-45001A Alarms & Actions
6.2.2 Pump P-45001B Alarms & Actions
6.2.3 Pump P-45001C Alarms & Actions
Pump P-45001D & Turbine Local & Remote Alarms
Pump P-45001D Alarms, Actions, Shutdowns & Resets
Pumps P-45001A/B/C Shutdowns
ESD Actions & Valve Closure Sequences
6.6.1 Yellow ESD Shutdown
6.6.2 Water Injection Pump Trip PSD
Design Parameters

FAULT FINDING

133

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4

133
134
134
134

Water Injection Pumps Malfunctions


Gas Turbine Malfunctions
Control System Malfunctions
Gas Turbine Acoustic & Filtration Package Malfunctions

APPENDIX A - VALVE POSITION TABLES

137

4TH WI PUMP GAS TURBINE EXHAUST DISPERSION STUDY

144

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1

Purpose of Equipment/System
As Schiehallion oil is produced, the space once occupied (reservoir voidage)
is filled up by natural aquifers attached to the reservoirs, but not at a
sufficient rate to maintain the required reservoir pressure/voidage
replacement. Produced water and seawater is therefore injected from the
FPSO through subsea equipment to the wells to assist the natural drive. The
aquifers provide edge drive from the west on Schiehallion and the North and
West for Loyal. Water injection minimises loss of productivity and increases
Gas Oil Ratio (GOR). All produced water is normally re-injected into the
reservoirs. However, de-aerated seawater is used as make-up feed to the
water injection system to maintain production.
Three 13.8kV motor-driven water injection pumps each of capacity 630m 3/hr
pump water at high pressure (over 200 bar) to the subsea water injection
wells. They are fed with a combination of produced water and de-aerated
sea water, depending on well fluids BS&W, reservoir performance, process
separation and operational requirements. To cater for the requirements of
the future North West production centre water injection wells, a new Solar
Taurus 70 gas turbine-driven water injection pump has been installed of
capacity 930 m3/hr. The turbine burns fuel gas from production.
The water injection system receives filtered seawater from the seawater
distribution system and removes oxygen from this water to prevent
contamination of the reservoir. The water injection pumps serve to drive the
treated seawater and/or produced water into selected water injection wells.
Well fluids from the reservoirs contain entrained water that must be
separated out, treated and disposed of prior to the oil being stored in the
cargo tanks. If this produced water was not removed, the cargo would be
adulterated with water, cause possible corrosion in the FPSO storage tanks,
and be of unmarketable quality for export. Currently excess water is drained
off at Sullom Voe Terminal. Produced water production is expected to rise
and plateau at 217,000 bbl/day (1438m3/hr) in year 15 of production.
The produced water system can process 225,000bbl/day (1490m 3/hr) of
produced water from the separation trains, with the facility to upgrade to
270,000bbl/day (1790m 3/hr). Produced water is processed using
hydrocyclones to 25 ppmv oil-in-water and is then injected into the reservoir
with de-aerated seawater. Some may be discharged overboard if clean
enough do so and if it cannot be re-injected.
The water injection system total capacity has now been increased to
2820 m3/hr following the addition of the 4 th Water Injection Pump.
The volume of water required for water injection is greater than the volume
of produced water obtained from the production profile. A water injection
rate of 1.1 times total fluid production rate is required, so de-aerated sea
water is always used to supplement the produced water (the pumps are not
designed to pump produced water only).

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All water injection valving within the turret system is manually operated with
no associated automatic control.
Treated produced water is utilised for water injection into the reservoirs
under normal operations.
Two hydrocyclone trains reduce the free oil
content of the main flow of produced water; a separate hydrocyclone being
utilised for water from the test separator. Both streams of treated water are
then co-mingled, de-gassed, and fed to the water injection pumps.
When any produced water is discharged overboard, it is cleaner than current
legislation requires thus minimising pollution and maximising recovery of oil
back to the process system.

1.2

List of Reference Documents


The following drawings and documents have been referred to in the
preparation of this System Operating Procedure.
L-8000-GF-0004.00

UFD - Water Injection System

L-8000-GF-0104.00

PFD - Deaeration Plant

L-1000-GP-0041.01

Produced Water Degasser

L-1000-GP-0041.02

Produced Water Booster Pumps

L-1000-GP-0043.00

P&ID - Water Injection Deaeration Tower V-44101

L-8000-GP-0044.00

P&ID - Compression & De-Oxidiser Vessels

L-8000-GP-0046.01

Water Injection Pumps P-45001 A/B/C

L-8000-GP-0046.02

P&ID - Water Injection Pumps Interfaces

L-8000-GP-0004.01

SBM/B&R/ and B&R/H&W Interface P&ID

L-8000-GP-0076.03

Seawater Distribution

M-5031-MA -8007.00

12 Water Injection Swivel (Turret)

M-5021-GP-8004.00

Water Injection P&ID (Turret)

S-9000-NP-9203.02

Water Injection Tree (Type 1) sheets 1&2

S-9000-NP-9220.01

Water Injection Tree (Type 2) sheets 1&2

S-9000-NP-9221.01

Water Injection Tree (Type 3) sheets 1&2

S-9000-NP-9213

P&ID - Schiehallion Central Manifold

S-9000-NP-9215

P&ID - Schiehallion FPSO West Manifold

S-9000-NP-9216

P&ID - Schiehallion FPSO Loyal/North Manifold

S-9000-NP-9224

P&ID - Schiehallion Loyal Manifold

S-9000-NP-9225

P&ID - Schiehallion West Manifold

S-9000-NP-9226

P&ID - Schiehallion North Manifold

L-8000-JC-0002.024

Process CPS Cause and Effect WI System

L-8000-JC-0002.037

Process CPS Cause & Effect Chemical Injection

S-9000-GC-9200

Subsea/Wells Cause and Effect

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1.2

List of Reference Documents (continued)


Solar Turbine Operators Guide, Volumes 1&2
Solar Turbine Data, Volumes IIIA, B & C
Solar Turbine Illustrated Parts List, Volume IV
Veritec Engineering, O&M manual for the LER
Sulzer Pumps O&M manuals, Volume 1, 2 & 3
WG Process Design Report, Volumes 1&2
Renk operation and maintenance instructions
Gas Turbine Filtration and Acoustic Package
Installation and Maintenance manual, Altair Filter
Technology
Wood Group
37W022F0146/P/OP/00
07/000

GT Driven 4th WI Pump Project

Z-8000-BB-4001

Plant & Instrument Air Systems

Z-8000-BB-4007

Chemical Injection Systems

Z-8000-BB-4051

Methanol System

Z-8000-BB-4052

Nitrogen Generation & Distribution

Z-8000-BB-4054

Produced Water System

Z-8000-BB-4057

Seawater Circulation Systems

Z-8000-BB-4035

Fuel Gas System

Z-8000-BB-4023

Non-Haz Open Drains Collection System

Z-8000-BB-4077

Fresh Water System

Z-8000-BB-4029

Flare Systems

Z-8000-BB-4012

Cooling Medium System

Training and Competency in understanding this system is covered by


documents Z-8000-BQ-4176/4276 which include questions and answers on
the system.

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2.
2.1

DESCRIPTION
Summary of Equipment
The following table provides data on equipment in the water injection system:
Equipment
Water Injection
Deaerator Tower
V-44101
Water Injection
Stripping Gas Blowers
P-44201A/B
Stripping Gas
Exchanger
X-44201
Stripping Gas
De-oxidiser Vessel
V-44201
Start-up Heater
EEH-44201
13.8kV 5200kW Motordriven Water Injection
Pumps P-45001A/B/C
Gas Turbine-driven
Water Injection Pump
P-45001 D

Gear Box

Solar Taurus 70 gas


turbine (burns fuel gas)
Wash Cart

Rating
Seawater Flow - 2250 m 3/hr
Operating Pressure - 5 barg
Height - 15m
Diameter - 3.1m increasing to 4.2m
5 barg inlet - 6.4 barg outlet
Motor rating 55 kW
356 mm OD x 5180 mm
Shell side - 5.7 barg
Tube side - 6.4 barg
1200 mm OD x 3000 mm
187 mm x 1780 mm
Power - 20 kW
Max capacity 750 m 3/hr (each)
Differential Pressure - 202 bar
(dependent on start-up DP or normal
running DP)
Capacity 3 x 33%
Normal Case (100% Speed) 930 m 3/hr
Overspeed Case (105% Speed) 1150
m3/ hr.
Differential pressure: 202 Bar
(Dependant on the start-up DP or
Normal Running DP)
Rated for 6910 KW
Input Speed 11051 RPM
Output Speed 3650 RPM
Can be run continuously 5% above the
rated speed.
6700-7800kW, depending on ambient
temperature
Tank Capacity: 100 litres
Operating Pressure: 6.9 barg
Operating Temperature: Ambient
Design Temperature: 93.3 C
Design Pressure: 9 barg
Size (DxL): 0.406m x 0.483m

Location
Package Z-44101
Fire Zone 201
(Port Aft)
Package Z-44101
Fire Zone 201
(Port Aft)
Package Z-44101
Fire Zone 201
(Port Aft)
Package Z-44101
Fire Zone 201
(Port Aft)
Package Z-44101
Fire Zone 201
(Port Aft)
Packages
Z-45001A/B/C
Fire Zone 251
(Starboard Aft)
Installed forward of the
aft Crane pedestal at
frame 40
(Palette 7)
Fire Zone 258
Palette 7

Palette 7
Palette 7

Table 1 Water Injection System Equipment Data

Note:
Information given in this document does not include details of the new
North-West drill centre.

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2.2

Water Injection De-aeration Package Z-44101


Refer to P&ID L-8000-GP-0043.00.
Z-44101 de-aerates seawater to an oxygen content of below 20 ppb prior to
the seawater being injected into the reservoir. The de-aeration package is
based on Minox technology and uses nitrogen stripping gas to remove
oxygen from the seawater. Oxygen is subsequently removed from the
stripping gas using a catalytic de-oxidising process. This system was
selected in preference to the more normal vacuum de-aeration systems as
the Minox column operates with a single stage of packing which leads to a
lower column height. The height of the column was a concern due to its
location adjacent to the helideck. Alternative designs all had columns which
were above helideck elevation.
The system uses conventional counter-current flow (stripping gas against
seawater) within a compact deaerator tower which contains structured
packing to promote contact between the nitrogen and seawater. The
oxygen-contaminated stripping gas leaves the tower and passes through
blowers and a heat exchanger before being purified (i.e. its oxygen removed)
through a catalytic reaction with methanol vapour. The purified stripping gas
is then recycled to the deaerator tower. The de-aerator package comprises:

water injection de-aeration tower V-44101


water injection stripping gas blowers P-44201A/B
stripping gas exchanger X-44201
stripping gas de-oxidiser vessel V-44201
start-up heater EEH-44201.

Seawater is supplied to V-44101 from downstream of the cooling medium


coolers X-81501A/B/C. The seawater is normally supplied between 22C
and 27C with a minimum supply temperature of 5C and a maximum supply
temperature of 33C (design temperatures. -10/+50C). The oxygen content
of the seawater entering de-aeration is approximately 10 ppm.
Seawater enters V-44101 via an 18 line at the top of the tower after passing
through the inlet flow control valve. Seawater leaving V-44101 is normally
routed to the water injection pumps P-45001A/B/C/D. In the event that the
seawater demand of P-45001A/B/C/D is low, seawater from V-44101 is
routed overboard via the overboard dump valve.
Seawater entering V-44101 falls under gravity through a distributor and a
bed of structured packing, and exits at the bottom of the tower before being
routed the water injection pumps. Over-pressure protection of V-44101 is
provided by PSV-441005 or PSV-441006 (set at 10 barg) which relieve to a
safe location.
The deaerator is protected by a HIPS system which shuts the seawater inlet
valves XXV-441040 and XXV-441002 on high vessel level, initiated by
LAHH-441013 and LAHH-441014.
Note:

A HIPS system is required on the deaerator as the vessel relief


valves are not designed for full seawater flow relief.

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The water passes down through the tower and mixes with a counter-current
flow of stripping gas (nitrogen) fed into the tower at a mid-vessel point, below
the packing column. The stripping gas absorbs oxygen contained in the
seawater and then passes through a demister in the top of V-44101 before
leaving the tower via a 6 line. Nitrogen is supplied to the deaerator tower at
a flow of approximately 4,900 kg/hr. As the nitrogen passes through the
tower packing, some of it is dissolved in the seawater and, therefore, there is
a requirement to add nitrogen to the system to maintain the required
stripping gas flowrate.
In addition, to achieve the required oxygen
concentration in the stripping gas, so as to maintain reactor efficiency, more
oxygen must be added. The required nitrogen and oxygen make-up is
achieved by using a combination of instrument air and nitrogen top-up lines.
Refer to P&ID L-8000-GP-0044.00.
Stripping gas is drawn off from V-44101 by the water injection stripping gas
blowers P-44201A/B, which are rotary lobe, positive displacement type
blowers. P-44201A/B are each fitted with their own single dedicated safety
relief valve (PSV-442003 and PSV-442006 respectively) which have a
setpoint of 10 barg and relieve to a safe location. P-44201A/B operate in
duty/standby mode with auto-start of the standby blower initiated by the low
flow alarm FAL-442008. P-44201A/B cannot be started until a normal
operating level (i.e. flow and level healthy) is established in V-44101.
On leaving the blowers, the stripping gas passes through the tube side of the
stripping gas exchanger X-44201 where it is pre-heated against stripping gas
returning from the stripping gas de-oxidiser vessel V-44201.
Stripping gas from X-44201 enters the de-oxidiser vessel V-44201. The
temperature of the gas entering V-44201 is controlled by TIC-442014. The
gas flows downwards into a de-oxidiser catalyst bed in which is embedded
the electric start-up heater EEH-44201. The catalyst is palladium pellets on
an aluminium oxide core supported on a perforated plate.
To create the catalytic effect in V-44201 which is required to purify the
nitrogen, methanol is added, as a fuel, to the stripping gas. This is injected
as a side stream into the main stripping gas flow at an entry point upstream
of the reactor V-44201. The catalyst within V-44201 needs to achieve a
threshold temperature before the required catalytic reaction can take place.
The catalyst bed is pre-heated by EEH-44201 to this threshold temperature
of 150C. Once this temperature is achieved then the power supply to the
start-up heater is shut-off as the resulting reaction within V-44201 is an
exothermic reaction during which temperatures of 240C to 260C may be
produced. Stripping gas leaving V-44201 is virtually oxygen-free (i.e. oxygen
content below 20 ppb).
Stripping gas from the bottom outlet of V-44201 passes through the shell
side of X-44201 and returns (via the restriction orifice RO-442022) to the
deaerator tower, forming a closed loop for the circulation of stripping gas.
The gas path through the shell side is protected by a single relief valve
PSV-442011 (set at 10 barg) which relieves to a safe location.
Some of the stripping gas in the tower is dissolved in the seawater.
Additionally, the stripping gas oxygen concentration may fall below that
required to maintain reactor efficiency. Nitrogen make up is supplied via
XV-441024 on the 2 feed line from the nitrogen distribution system.
PIC-441021 on the deaerator outlet line controls nitrogen top-up via
PCV-441023 or vents to safe location via PCV-441021.

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Seawater as Deaerator Oxygen Scavenger Carrier


When oxygen scavenger injection is needed to reduce the oxygen content of
the injection water, produced water taken from downstream of the booster
pumps is used as the normal oxygen scavenger carrier. There are
situations, however, when it may be necessary to inject oxygen scavenger
into the deaerator and if there is either no, or insufficient, produced water
available. This will occur during early production before the produced water
cut increases, on de-aeration system start-up and also during seawater
injection, when the separation trains are down. A facility has therefore been
included to substitute deaerated seawater as the carrier by routing seawater
into the degasser from the outlet of the deaerator.
The manually-operated cross-over line 2-WI-450010-A10B is designed to
transfer water from the discharge of the deaerator to the inlet line of the
degasser. The rate is controlled by the manual globe valve downstream of
XV-540010, which will pass about 30 m3/hr when fully open. The scavenger
carrier, (pumped in this mode by a single produced water booster pump),
and taken from upstream of LCV-430010B via 2-PW-441006-A01B, has a
rate set at 15 m3/hr, controlled by RO-441029. The globe valve should be
set such that deaerated seawater accumulates in the degasser.

2.3

Water Injection Pumps P-45001A/B/C


Refer to P&ID L-8000-GP-0046.02.
3 x 33% Water Injection Pumps P-45001A/B/C are fed with a combination of
de-aerated seawater and produced water.
The Sulzer 13.8kV 5200kW electric motor-driven water injection pumps take
suction from deaerator V44101; or from produced water booster pumps P43001A/B/C and filters F-43001A/B via a 24 common inlet. The injection
pumps then discharge via the oxygen analyser AT-450020 into a common
16 line which reduces to a 12 prior to entering the turret and turret swivel N45080. Downstream of the turret, the water flows to a 12 water injection
manifold and then down 10 flexible water injection risers.
Subsea
distribution routes the water to the water injection wells. The number of WI
pumps in service is governed by the number of injection wells being fed.
If any of the injection pumps supply more water than can be injected subsea,
the excess will be discharged overboard via minimum flow dump valves
FCV-450145/245/345 (fitted to each pump A, B, C) through a common 10
overboard discharge with vent. There is no flow monitoring or sampling on
this common line.
Each pumps discharge pressure will depend upon the pumped fluid density,
and this in turn varies both with the different proportions of seawater and
produced water and with temperature. The expected pump performance
may be calculated as follows:
P in bar = Head (m) x water density (kg/m3) x 9.81/1 x 10 5
During seawater-only injection at a normal temperature of 22C, the pumps
could generate 246 barg at 750 m3/hr. Currently, the nominal output from
each pump is 630m3/hr. The pump performance curves and associated
documentation show two duty points. The higher head duty point is
indicative of an early field life case when there are only a few injection wells
and the water injection requirement has not peaked.

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However, even for low injection water demand at the wells, a significant flow
is required through the pump to reduce the system pressure and minimise
the peak pressure which may be obtained due to pressure surge/locked-in
pressure due to inadvertent wing valve closure. This is accomplished via a
high set point for the minimum flow FCVs. At full capacity, the system is set
up with four pumps operating. It is advantageous to inject as much water as
possible into the reservoir and therefore no standby or auto-start operating
mode is provided. The system can, however, be configured with any number
of pumps (1, 2 ,3 or 4) as running duty pumps.
2.3.1

Water Injection Pumps P-45001A/B/C Drive Motors


Each water injection pump A/B/C is driven by a 13.8 kV electric motor
PM-45001A/B/C rated at 5200 kW and fed from the main switchboard
ESW-83401. Each motor winding is cooled by air circulation to vent using a
GEC Purgepak system. A heat exchanger cools the circulated air and is fed
by water from the cooling medium system. High winding temperature is
indicated locally. A casing high-level alarm and an anti-condensation heater
are also fitted.

2.3.2

Water Injection Pumps P-45001A/B/C Lubricating Oil System


The water injection pump support and thrust bearings, together with the drive
motor bearings, are lubricated by a self-contained lubricating oil system,
integral with each unit. Oil is supplied by a main shaft-driven pump, backed
up by a motor-driven auxiliary lubricating oil pump P-450100/200/300.
Lubricating oil is stored in a lubricating oil tank fitted with heater and level
and temperature indicators. The auxiliary lubricating oil pumps are sited
within the tank and supply oil to the bearings on starting. These pumps are
automatically stopped when the shaft-driven pumps P-450101/201/301
supply sufficient lube oil pressure. Excess pressure flows back to the sump
via PCV-450137/237/337.
Oil flows through oil cooler X-450100/200/300 to lube oil filters A & B and
PCV-450138/238/338 and then to the bearings. Low oil pressure, high oil
temperature, oil filter high differential, and high pump bearing alarms are
indicated at the local control panel in the Aft Equipment Room. Sight
glasses show oil flow back to the lube oil tank.

2.4 4th Water Injection Pump Package


Currently, three 13.8kV motor-driven water injection pumps each of capacity
630m3/hr pump high pressure water (over 200 bar) to the subsea water
injection wells. They are fed with a combination of produced water and deaerated sea water, depending on well fluids BS&W, reservoir performance,
process separation and operational requirements.
To cater for the requirements of the North West production centre water
injection wells, a new Solar Taurus 70 gas turbine-driven water injection
pump has been installed forward of the aft Crane pedestal at frame 40 in
Fire Zone 258, fuelled by fuel gas. This is fitted with a 900mm exhaust
discharging at an elevation of 55m and pointing forward at an angle of 10
above horizontal, thus creating minimal impact on Helideck operations. The
output of the new engine is 6700-7800kW, depending on ambient
temperature. The forward-pointing exhaust directs gases away from the
Helideck and the elevation eliminates any problems with hot gases on the
Crane boom.

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Figure 1 4th Water Injection Pump Package Plan View


The blast wall (capacity 0.5 bar) is not affected by the installation of the gas
turbine-driven water injection pump. The fuel gas supply to the skid is high
on the starboard outboard side, allowing any potential leaks to be dispersed
away from the FPSO. High integrity joints have been used to connect the
minimal number of pipe sections.
Further details of the 4 th Water Injection Pump exhaust dispersion
arrangements can be found in the 4th Water Injection Pump Gas Turbine
Exhaust Dispersion Study (enclosed at rear of this document).
Water injection pump P-45001D is a gas turbine-driven pump using a Solar
Taurus 70 as the driver and operates in parallel to the existing three electric
driven water injection pumps P-45001A/B/C. The pump suction line is
connected from the existing water injection suction manifold and the
discharge line is connected to the existing water injection discharge line to
the turret. Injection water supplied to the 4th water injection pump suction is a
mixture of seawater and produced water.
The three electric-driven water injection pumps P-45001A/B/C were
designed for a capacity of 2025 m3/h and the new water injection pump P45001D is designed for a capacity of 930 m 3/h normal operating case and
1150m 3/hr overspeed case. The total designed maximum water injection
capacity is now 2955m3/h (444,500 bbl/day).

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The 4th water injection package & system comprises:


1. 4th water injection pump gas turbine
2. combustion air intake system
3. combustion exhaust system
4. gearbox
5. water injection pump
6. lubricating oil system
7. gas turbine enclosure
8. 4th water injection pump gas turbine LCR & LER
9. CO2 deluge system
10. wash cart.
2.4.1

4th Water Injection Pump Gas Turbine

The 4th water injection pump driver is a Taurus 70S gas turbine which
contains the following main components:

Accessory Drive Gear box


Air inlet plenum
Axial flow compressor
Annular Combustor with Fuel Injectors
Two Stage Gas Produce Turbine / Two Stage Power Turbine
Exhaust Collector
Output Drive Shaft to Gearbox and 4th Water Injection Pump.

The gas turbine is mounted on a steel base frame. The accessory drive is
attached to the air inlet assembly and is driven by the gas turbines axial
compressor. This then supports and drives the lube oil pump and other
accessories, which are initially driven by the start system. The turbine speed
is directly related to the engine power level due to its two-shaft engine
configuration and is electronically adjusted. Air enters the air inlet and is
compressed by the 12-stage axial flow compressor. Pressurised air in the
annular combustion chamber is injected with fuel and the mixture is ignited
during the start cycle.

Figure 2 4th Water Injection Pump Package Looking to FPSO Port Side

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If there is a sufficient flow of pressurised air the burning of fuel is maintained.


Hot pressurised gas from the combustion chamber expands and drives the
turbine. As it exits the chamber its pressure and temperature drop.
Approximately a quarter of the total air compressed is required to completely
combust the fuel. Excess air is used to cool the combustion chamber and
mixes with the combustion products to reduce the gas temperature
downstream at the inlet to the first stage turbine. The gas turbine is
supported by the following auxiliary equipment:

Start System
Fuel System
Electrical Control System
Lube Oil System
Engine drain system
Acoustic and Filtration Package

Gas Turbine Start System


The start system consists of an AC direct start system, which includes a
starter motor with variable frequency drive. It provides the torque to initiate
rotation and enables the engine to reach a self-sustaining speed, after which
the starter shuts down, the starter clutch overruns and the engine is able to
accelerate under its own power to loading speed.
The starter motor (B330) is a squirrel-caged induction 15-minute inverter
duty, polyphase-type motor which can accelerate the engine from standstill
to starter dropout speed. The motor power is provided by the variable
frequency drive (VFD430). This motor speed controller operates on 380460V AC 3-phase power at line frequencies of 48-62 Hz. It is rated at 231
amps (maximum) and incorporates a keypad/display, which can be used to
program configuration adjustments through software. When the start cycle
is initiated a timed pre-lube sequence is activated. On expiry of this the
control system directs power to the variable frequency drive, which provides
power to the starter motor.
A low frequency and voltage is generated which begins rotation. The
frequency and voltage are then ramped up to accelerate the engine to
purging speed which is maintained by a programmed fixed current. Once
purged, the engine coasts down to light-off speed. When light-off speed is
detected the VFD430 is re-energized and it increases the motor velocity to
starter drop-out speed. VFD430 is then deactivated by the control system,
cuts power and the motor clutch is disengaged.
Gas Turbine Fuel System
The fuel system controls the fuel pressure and automatically regulates the
fuel flow according to operating requirements in conjunction with the control
system whilst the air system automatically schedules fuel for flow during the
engine acceleration and load operation. Over-temperature and overspeed
topping control of fuel flow and automatic shutdown is also provided by the
fuel system, which comprises:

Gas fuel metering and control


Instrument air for the operation of the pilot-operated shutoff valves
SoLoNOx low-emissions system.

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Before the engine cranks a valve check sequence is performed to confirm


that the shut-off valves are operational. If the shut-off valve malfunctions, the
control system initiates a valve failure and aborts the start cycle.
Once the valve check is complete the purge crank cycle is initiated; this
removes all combustibles from the engine exhaust system. The start system
cranks the engine and creates air movement through the exhaust system.
The purge crank cycle timer is programmed to correspond to the package
exhaust system volume.
Following this, gas flows through the torch and is ignited in the presence of
combustion air. The torch flares in to the airflow in the engine combustion
liner. Equally-spaced fuel injectors mix fuel in the air stream and in the
combustor liner. The torch then ignites the fuel/air mixture and the engine
temperature increases rapidly. The control system increases fuel flow and
consequently increases the engine temperature and the engine speed.
When the engine speed reaches approximately 60-65%, the start system is
de-energized. The engine continues to accelerate and the inlet variable
vanes move toward the fully-open position. The compressor bleed valve also
closes, which increases the engine temperature further. The control system
then increases the fuel supply until the engine speed reaches 90% at which
point the engine is ready for load.
Once the system is at 50% load and the engine speed is above 88% the fuel
system transfers to the SoLoNOx mode. The inlet variable vane position, fuel
flow and compressor bleed valve position are adjusted by the control system
to maintain the engine temperature.
If the engine temperature exceeds the preset limit, a 20 second time delay is
imposed. If the engine temperature remains above this limit, a high
temperature alarm is initiated which shuts down the engine. A time delay is
incorporated to allow for momentary over-temperature. If the temperature
shutdown timer fails and the turbine temperature increases further, a backup
high temperature circuit initiates engine shutdown.
2.4.2

GT Combustion Air Intake System


Air enters the engine through the air inlet plenum. Air through the annular
opening is redirected from the radial flow path to an axial flow path. A heavy
mesh screen minimises the entry of the large solid foreign material in to the
engine compressor air inlet.
A Variable Inlet Guide Vane (IGVs) system is provided to avoid compressor
surge and to maintain maximum engine performance over the full gas
producer range. The variable vane control positions the angle of IGVs and
the variable stator vanes (VSVs) of the first five compressor stages as a
function of corrected gas producer speed (NgPcorr). This is done to
aerodynamically match the effect of the air density changes over the -40 oC
to 60oC range of the compressor inlet temperatures.
The variable vane system uses a slave cylinder positioned by a hydraulic
positioner connected to the engines actuator arm. The positioners electronic
control signal has a range of 4mA fully closed to 20mA fully open. If the
electrical signal is lost, the IGVs and the VSVs move to a closed position
(minimum variable vane angle).

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Acoustic and Air Filtration Package


To ensure clean air is supplied to the turbine (and to reduce noise
surrounding the gas turbine) an acoustic and filtration package is employed.
The acoustic and filtration package (designed and manufactured by Altair
Filter Technology Ltd) is a modular system and is made up of the following
major system components:

Combustion Intake System -Mini Module


Gas Turbine Enclosure
Gas Turbine Enclosure Ventilation System
Combustion Exhaust System -Mini Module
Electrical / Instrumentation / Fire Protection System
Structural Steelwork and Access Facilities
Lube Oil Pipe work assemblies

The system is designed to withstand the following conditions:

High wind speed


Wind strength changes & gusting
Chloride attack by the atmosphere
Turbine process conditions
Thermal growth
Static & installation loading

The filtration system provided is an Altair System High Efficiency Filtration


package and comprises 4 stages:

1st stage - Marine Vane Separator and Snow Hood


2nd stage - PBR pre filter (12)
3rd stage - HVX bag filter (12)
4th stage - Vane Separator

A manometric drain system is provided for the 4th stage vane separator and
the housing drains.
1st stage - Marine Vane Separator and Snow Hood
The function of the Marine Vane Separator is to reduce the quantity of
driving rain or heavy spray which may otherwise enter the intake under
adverse weather conditions. A snow hood is fitted prior to the 1st stage
separator to provide protection against driving snow.
The vane stage comprises stainless steel vanes held apart by spacers. The
high inertia of the water droplets causes them to be thrown out of the air
stream onto the vanes. The droplets collected on the vanes are then drained
down into the drain trough situated at the base of the vanes. Drain slots are
provided in the bottom of the separator for self-draining

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2nd Stage Pre-filter Bag Type PBR


The Altair PBR Cleanable Prefilter bag is a synthetic bag filter designed to
retain large particles of dust and hydrocarbons which may enter the intake.
The PBR prefilter bags make up the first stage of filtration and fit into a 316grade stainless steel holding frame. The PBR pre-filter has 4 polyester
pockets which fit inside the HVX high efficiency filter located immediately
behind.
3rd Stage - High Efficiency Filter Bag Type HVX
The Altair HVX bag is made up of two layers of filter media, is disposable
and should not be washed. The initial layer is an open-density polypropylene
filter mat which stores the majority of the dust collected. The final filter is a
high-density polypropylene filter material which captures the smallest
particles. The HVX bag also acts as a coalescer and collects fine salt
particles in the airstream. The aerosol salt which enters the bag is coalesced
into larger droplets which either drain away or are re-entrained into the air
stream and removed by the vane separator downstream of the filter bags.
The two layers are made up into individual pockets and fitted into a stainless
steel frame, which fits into the holding frame.
4th Stage - Vane Separator
The purpose of the Vane Separator is to intercept droplets re-entraining from
the upstream stages under conditions of high humidity. The water droplets
collected on the stainless steel vanes are drained down through pockets into
a drain trough situated at the base of the vanes and then flow into the drain
system
Drain System
The drain system removes any water caught within the air intake from:

The filter access housing


The interspace between the 3rd stage filter and 4th stage
The 4th stage - vane separator

No drainage is required between the 2nd and 3rd stage filter. Drains are fed
into a drain trap, which allows drainage but prevents air being sucked into
the drain system by the provision of a water seal.
Intake Silencer and Transition
The intake silencer and transition provide acoustic attenuation for the
combustion intake to the gas turbine. The silencer comprises a series of
vertical splitters and a lined duct which reduces external noise levels. The
intake silencer can only be inspected internally during engine shut down and
via the personnel access panel in the gas turbine collector duct.
Intake Elbow & Flexible Intake Silencer
The intake elbow is lined for acoustic attenuation and turns the combustion
intake air through 90 degrees into the silencer. The system ensures an even
distribution of air at the inlet to the flexible intake silencer which directs clean
air into the turbine inlet. A weather seal and acoustic bolster is fitted around
the interface within the acoustic enclosure.

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2.4.3

GT Combustion Exhaust System


The combustion exhaust system consists of a diffuser duct connected to the
enclosure exhaust flange and has a support mechanism to allow for thermal
growth of the duct section. A high temperature flexible compensator is fitted
between diffuser duct and exhaust silencer. The compensator is designed to
accommodate lateral, radial and axial movements set up by the hot gases
discharging through the exhaust volute into the exhaust system.
The ducting system above the silencer is routed to suit the adjacent
equipment and crane location and a 90 elbow diverts the exhaust gases to
a safe location.
The exhaust collector receives the axial flow of exhaust gases from the
exhaust diffuser and turns them in a radial direction. The exhaust collector
and most other external areas that have high temperature surfaces are
covered with an insulating stainless steel blanket to minimize heat rejection
and to cover exposed surfaces.

2.4.4

Gearbox
A Renk gearbox is located between the turbine and the WI pump:
Rated Power: 6910 KW
Rated Speed:
Input: 11051 rpm
Output: 3650 rpm
Maximum Continuous Speed:
Input: 11604 rpm
Output: 3832 rpm
The gearbox can be run continuously 5% above the rated speed (overspeed
design case for the pump) and has a mechanical efficiency of 98.7%.
Measuring and control instruments include:

Insufficient oil pressure at the gear unit inlet


Excessive oil temperature at gear unit oil inlet
Failure of the oil pump
Excessive bearing temperatures
Excessive shaft vibration

Oil enters the system on the suction side of the oil pump via a filler neck. The
oil system must be operating before the gearbox is started and once it is
stopped the oil pump must remain running until the unit has come to a
complete standstill. A separate auxiliary pump is available during start-up
and shutdown to ensure enough oil is supplied. This pump remains operating
until the gearbox has reached nominal speed or until it has come to a
complete standstill during shutdown.

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2.4.5

Water Injection Pump P-45001D


Refer to P&ID L-8000-GP-0046.03. This section is to be read in conjunction
with the earlier text describing WI pumps P-45001A/B/C. P-45001D is fed
with a combination of de-aerated seawater and produced water from a
common suction line feeding the motor-driven water injection pumps, P45001 A/B/C. The pump then discharges into a common 16 line, which
receives water from pumps P-45001A/B/C. The flow control valve FCV450445 protects the pump if the flow drops below a set value. The valve
discharges any excess water overboard through a common 10 overboard
discharge.
Pump Discharge Characteristics
The GT-driven pump discharge pressure depends not only upon the pumped
fluid density, but also on the speed of the gas turbine. The expected pump
performance may be calculated as follows:
P in bar = Head (m) x water density (kg/m3) x 9.81/1 x 10 5

During seawater-only injection mode and at a normal temperature of 22C,


the GT-driven pump P-45001D can generate 222 barg at 745 m 3/h, when
two out of three electrically-driven pumps P45001A/B/C are in operation. The
total injection capacity in this mode will be 1890 m3/h.
During combined Seawater and Produced water injection mode and at a
normal temperature of 22C, P-45001D can generate 207 barg at 930m 3/h.
The total injection capacity in this mode will be 2955 m3/h.
P-45001D can also operate in an overspeed mode, when it can generate
207 barg at 1150 m3/hr.
Note:
The GT-driven pump can be run either with combined seawater and
produced water or with seawater only. It is not designed to run with
produced water alone.

Graph 1 overleaf shows pump discharge pressure as a function of pump


speed and flow rate, based on a suction pressure of 5.5 bara.

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PUMP DELIVERY PRESSURE


300

250

PRES BARA

200

150

100

50

0
200

400

600

800

1000

1200

FLOWRATE M3/H

3833 RPM
3200 RPM
2250 RPM

3650 RPM
3000 RPM
TRIP-PRESSURE

3400 RPM
2750 RPM

Pump Speed Characteristics


The expected flow, head and power as a function of speed can be
calculated as follows:
QNEW = New Flow Rate, QOLD = Old Flow Rate
HeadNEW = New Head, Head OLD = Old Head
PowerNEW = New Power, POWER OLD = Old Power
NNEW = New Speed of pump, NNEW = Old Speed of pump
The relationship for flow rate:

N NEW
N OLD

QNEW = QOLD*

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The relationship for pump head:

N NEW
N OLD

HEADNEW = HEADOLD*

The relationship for power:

N NEW
POWERNEW = POWEROLD*
N
OLD

The minimum flow rate for the pump is 330m3/h. When the pump discharge
pressure exceeds 260barg, the pump will trip on high pressure.
Graph 2 below shows required power from the gas turbine as a function of
speed and flow rate. The turbine has a power limit of 6755 kW at 23 oC.
Note: If low ambient temperatures are experienced the power limit increases,
Sulzer have specified a maximum overspeed power limit as 8075 kW.

REQUIRED TURBINE POWER


9000

8000

7000

6000

KW

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
200

400

600

800

1000

1200

FLOWRATE M3/H
3833 RPM
3400 RPM
3000 RPM
2250 RPM

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

3650 RPM
3200 RPM
2750 RPM
POWER LIMIT @ 20 Deg C

Page 21 of 158

Graph 3 below shows turbine power as function of air temperature. As the air
temperature drops, more water can be injected in the wintertime. The turbine
is designed for a maximum air temperature of 23 oC.

The pump design speed is 3650 rpm


Pump overspeed is 3833 rpm
Pump idle speed is 2555 rpm (70% turbine speed)
TURBINE POWER
9000

8500

KW

8000

7500

7000

6500

6000
-6

10

15

23

AIR TEMPERATURE oC

2.4.6

Lubricating Oil System


The lube oil system supplies filtered lubricating oil to the turbine engine
bearings, the speed reducing gearbox, the pump bearings and various
package components within specified operating temperature and pressure
limits. In addition, the system supplies oil at engine inlet pressure to related
hydraulic subsystems. The lube oil system consists of the lube oil reservoir,
oil cooling system, pumps, filters, pressure control devices and temperature
control valves and is monitored by the package control system.
Lube oil is pumped from the reservoir by the main lube oil pump to the lube
oil manifold. The main lube oil pressure control valve regulates oil pressure
in the manifold. If the oil temperature becomes low the temperature control
valve diverts flow from the water/oil cooler. As the temperature rises the
control valve gradually diverts the flow of oil back in to the water/oil cooler.
From the cooler oil flows through the main lube oil filters to the oil supply
manifold and through various supply lines to points of lubrication.

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Lube Oil Pump Checks


When the start cycle begins the control system tests the Backup Post Lube
Pump/ Motor Assembly. If the pressure at the assembly reaches 4 psi, the
control system de-energises the Pump/ Motor assembly and energises the
Pre/Post Lube Oil Pump. When the oil pressure reaches 6 psi the control
system allows the Engine Pre-lube Cycle to begin.
Pre-lube Cycle
Following the lube oil pump checks the pre-lube timeout timer (60 seconds)
is started, this is the allowable time for the Pre/Post Lube Pump to complete
the Pre-lube cycle. When the lube oil pressure exceeds the pre-lube lowpressure limit of 6 psi the pre-lube timer (30 seconds) is started. The engine
must be pre-lubed at 6 psi continuously for the full 30 seconds and it must
occur within the pre-lube timeout period (60 seconds). If it is not completed
within the 60 seconds the start is aborted and a pre-lube Fast Stop nonlockout alarm is enunciated.
Lube Oil Supply when Engine Running
On completion of the Pre-lube Cycle the Pre/ Post Lube Pump de-energises
when the engine is above the starter dropout speed and when the lube oil
pressure is above 35 psi. At this point the Engine-Driven Pump begins
supplying Lube Oil Pressure and continues to steady state condition. Once
this pump reaches steady state the Lube Oil Schedule become active.
During steady state condition the Pre/Post Lube Oil Pump energises if:

The engine is below the starter dropout speed and the lube oil
pressure is at or below 25 psi.

Engine speed of greater than 5% engine speed (Ngp) is detected.

The Pre/Post Lube Pump will not be annunciated as failed during steady
state engine running condition when the Lube oil pressure is less than the
Post Lube Low Pressure Shutdown Limit because the Engine Driven Pump
may be at fault.
Run protection for the engine is provided during steady state engine running.
This achieved by energising the pump/motor assembly at any time the lube
oil is below the lube oil low-pressure alarm limit. The pump runs for 30
seconds and is then de-energised. The following scenarios are possible:

If the lube oil pressure continues to fall below the allowable limit to
the shutdown limit, a Fast Stop Lockout engine shutdown is initiated
and the pump/motor BP 903 helps to protect the engine bearings
during shut down.

If the lube oil pressure continues to drop below the allowable low limit
but stabilises between this limit and the shutdown limit continuously
for 5 seconds again this initiates a Fast stop Non-lockout engine
shutdown and the pump aids bearing protection during shutdown.

If the lube oil pressure increases above the low pressure limit after 30
seconds or when pump/motor BP 903 is de-energised and the
pressure once again decreases, the pump/motor is energised again.

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Lube Oil Reservoir Separator/Filter


Lube Oil Reservoir Separator/Filter (FSA901), located in the lube vent stack,
is a coalescing-type separator/filter which collects oil mist droplets and drains
oil back to the lube oil reservoir. The oil mist eliminator is a freestanding
vessel with the oil reservoir vent ducted to it. The vented air stream enters
the bottom of the case and passes through a glass-fibre element where the
oil particles are captured. The clean air exits from the top of the vessel and
oil collected drains to a liquid seal and back to the lube oil reservoir.
Figure 3

1
2
3&4
5&6
7

Main Lube Filter Assembly

Equalising Hand valve VH903


Lube Oil Filter Transfer Valve VT901
Filter
Filter Bleed Valve VH902-1 & VH902-2
Nut (16 off)

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

8
9
10
11

Stud (8 off)
Filter Case Cover
Filter Case Spiral Gasket
Filter Element

Page 24 of 158

The main lube oil filter assembly FS901, located downstream from
Temperature Control Valve (TCV901/TCV01409D), is a non-bypass,
pedestal-type oil filter assembly containing replaceable filter elements. Lube
oil flow, as manually selected by positioning Lube Oil Filter Transfer Valve
(VT901), may be directed through either, or both, filters in the assembly. To
facilitate filter element replacement, each filter case cover includes a Bleed
Valve (VH902-1, VH902-2). A Drain Valve (VH902-3, VH902-4) is installed at
the bottom of each filter case. The two filters are interconnected by a line
with a Cross Feed Valve (VH903) which enables equalizing the pressure
within the cases during filter changeover and element replacement. The filter
case should be completely drained before replacing filter elements.
Bellows-type Differential Pressure Gauge PDI902/ PDG01418D is connected
in parallel with Main Lube Oil Filter Assembly Alarm Differential Pressure
Switch (S397-1/PDSHO1417D).
The gauge indicates the differential
pressure across the inlet and outlet of Main Lube Oil Filter Assembly
(FS901). Instrument Isolation Hand Valve (VI9011) is used to isolate the
differential pressure gage from the system for calibration, testing, or
replacement. After the first 1000 hours of engine operation and as
appropriate thereafter, the following should be performed in addition to
routine inspection items (shutting down engine prior to performing checks):

Replace lube oil and, if applicable, servo oil filter elements. Lube
oil and servo oil filter elements should be replaced when visible
contamination is present, when the differential pressure "pop-up"
indicators are popped, or when differential pressure limits are
exceeded. If none of these conditions occur, the filters should be
replaced at least annually.

Check sample of lubrication oil for contamination and, if required,


drain and refill oil reservoir with oil as specified on Mechanical
Installation Drawing 149708.

Check the oil cooler for accumulation of foreign material that could
obstruct cooling airflow. Clean per manufacturers instructions.

Inspect all oil lines and oil system components for security and
condition.

Top off oil reservoir as required.

Since the Main Lube Oil Filter Assembly is designed to operate using one
filter of Main Lube Oil Filter Assembly (FS901) at a time, filter service may be
performed during engine operation or during shutdown. It is preferred to shut
the unit down and have the post lube cycle completed prior to servicing. This
arrangement also permits the unit to be started while filter element
replacement is in progress.
Filter elements should be changed when the filter dp indicates a need for
service, whenever the oil is changed, or as annual maintenance. Increasing
dp will activate an alarm.

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REMOVAL OF FILTER ELEMENT


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Open Equalising Hand Valve VH903


Position Transfer Valve VT901 to isolate the desired filter
Close hand valve VH903
Attach drain hose or place suitable container beneath drain outlet.
Remove cap from drain line and open Filter Drain Hand Valve VH9023 or VH902-4 for filter being serviced
Lube oil may be hot and squirt out as pressure is relieved.
Open Filter Bleed Valve VH902-1 or VH902-2 for filter being serviced.
Drain oil from filter.
Remove nuts and studs from filter case cover.
Swing filter case cover up and to one side from filter body
Remove spiral gasket and filter element
Clean filter case cover and filter case sides.

INSTALLATION OF NEW FILTER ELEMENT


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.

2.4.7

Install new filter element


Install new spiral gasket and swing filter case cover closed
Install case cover retaining studs and nuts. Torque nuts to 100 ft-lb
(135.6 Nm) torque
Replace cap on drain line & close hand valve VH902-3 or VH902-4
Leak check filter by opening hand valve VH903 slightly to allow
transfer of oil into filter.
When oil is seen draining from hand valve VH902-1 or VH902-2,
close hand valve VH902-1 or VH902-2 and then close valve VH903.
Do not transfer oil filter to operating lube oil system until all air
has escaped from filter body.
Move transfer valve VT901 to desired position.
If required, repeat procedure for second filter.

Gas Turbine Enclosure


The gas turbine enclosure is designed and constructed primarily to provide
acoustic attenuation of the noise emissions from the gas generator and the
gas turbine, and to meet hazardous area limitations. The enclosure is
constructed in a panel form to provide maximum access for maintenance. All
side panels can be removed. One plain end panel is nominated for
electrical/instrumentation equipment and hook-up. The end panels around
the drive coupling are split for access/installation to the drive coupling if
required. The roof panel is fixed and has a number of penetrations for each
pipework and ducting.
Personnel access doors are provided in each side of the gas turbine
enclosure for periodic maintenance and inspection. An access hatch is also
provided for easy access to the intake collector duct.
Each door is fitted with a lock and an internal panic release, which is able to
override the door lock if the door is inadvertently closed and locked.
An internal lighting system is fitted and operated by two-way switches
located between each pair of doors. Mains and emergency lighting is
installed for maintenance. The enclosure is fitted with a ventilation system to
reduce the temperature within the enclosure.

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Gas Turbine Enclosure Ventilation System


The GT enclosure ventilation system maintains a negative pressure of (-)700
Pa inside the enclosure; a maximum air outlet temperature of 39C and a
maximum inlet temperature of 25C. The intake system and silencer allows
clean air to be drawn in through the filters and into the enclosure. All
construction is in grade 316L stainless steel. The ventilation exhaust system
includes 2 x 100% AC axial flow fans, an exhaust silencer, gravity exhaust
louvre interconnecting ducting and a flexible connection to the GT Enclosure.
Shut-off dampers are provided at the inlet and outlet to the enclosure. The
damper is automatically closed by the LER fire protection control panel,
preventing system airflow if a fire occurs.
Gas Turbine Enclosure Ventilation Intake System
Two axial flow fans located within the ventilation exhaust ductwork provide
cooling air for the gas turbine enclosure. One fan only is used in normal
operation; the second fan provides a stand-by facility in the event of a fan
failure. The air is drawn from atmosphere into the intake filter system. The
system comprises of two stages. The first stage storm-proof weather
louvre and the second stage - GT2 bag filter.
Water drainage 'U' traps are provided in the base of the weather louvre. The
filter house has a side access panel for filter withdrawal for maintenance:
access to the panel is achieved by use of the platform adjacent to the filter
house. A vent intake system silencer reduces the noise emissions from the
gas turbine enclosure. The silencer is specifically designed to meet the
system flow rates and noise levels generated by the gas turbine. The airflow
from the silencer passes through an elbow and into the gas turbine
enclosures. A flexible connection is installed at this interface to the enclosure
for isolation and alignment of the equipment. An intake shut-off damper is
provided on the inside of the Enclosure.
Gas Turbine Enclosure Ventilation Exhaust System
An exhaust shut-off damper is fitted inside the enclosure, at the air outlet
connection on the gas turbine enclosure. When the CO 2 system is activated
the shut-off damper will close sealing the enclosure ventilation apertures. An
exhaust flexible is fitted for isolation and alignment of the equipment. The
main and standby fan assemblies are mounted onto the end of the elbow
duct. The vent fans are supported between the elbow and silencer transition.
The lower elbow has adjustable support brackets for use during fan removal.
The fans take the exhaust air into the exhaust silencer. The fans are fitted
with a flow or no-flow status device. Each fan has a local emergency stop
button. System Instrumentation monitors:
Combustion Intake Filter Condition
Filter differential pressure gauge - local indication/monitor
Filter diff pressure (high) transmitter - alarm/trip with LCD display
GT Ventilation System, Filter Condition and Air Flow Status
Filter differential pressure gauge - local indication/monitor
Filter diff pressure transmitter - local indication/monitor & LCD display
Flow failure switch - alarm/control
GT Enclosure Pressure & Temperature
Operating pressure transmitter - MCC & local indication / monitor
Operating temperature - resistance temperature detector - alarm

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2.4.8

Gas Turbine Local Control Room & LER


The electrical control system operates on 24V dc power and provides
automatic starting, acceleration to operating speed, engine and driven
equipment monitoring during operation and normal and emergency
(malfunction) shutdown. The system also controls safe operating parameters
such as temperatures, pressures, flow, speed and vibration. Start-up and
shutdown also require controlled sequenced processes.
The control system is operated from the local control room, which has a
turbine control panel, with all the necessary switches, pushbuttons and
indicators for engine operational status on the front; plus a programmable
logic controller (PLC) and a computer adapted for control tasks which
controls the turbine engine package systems. The PLC reads inputs such as
control panel pushbuttons, makes decisions and sets the outputs such as
indicators, positioners, or heating coils. Pressure and temperature sensors,
speed, vibrations, pick-ups and other sensors, transfer measured data to the
PLC which evaluates the inputs and sends commands to control devices.
Communication modules accommodate data transmission between control
system devices using dissimilar data formats.
The local control room is located above the 4 th water injection pump and
performs various operations of the turbine package. It contains:

Batteries & Charger


Turbine Control Panel
Motor Control Centre
Variable Frequency Driver
Fire and Gas Panel
HVAC System

The Local Equipment Room (LER) provides a stand-alone self-contained


room to house the equipment for the various operations of the turbine
package. The LER structure is built on a carbon steel base raised at one end
to allow the LER to be positioned clear of pipe work. The main walls are
stainless steel outer, thermally insulated with Rockwool and finished
internally with Capeboard. The main elements of the LER are as follows:

External weather cowls to inlet and exhaust


1 no. multivane coalescer / water separator
1 no. air filter
2 no pneumatically operated fire dampers and 2 fans /motors.
1 no 3 kW duct heater with T3 rating
EE xd pressurisation/F&G control panels with alarm outputs
Firemans panel: includes vent valve & air supply regulator
assembly
2 no. Eexi fan speed sensors
2 no. Eexd local fan motor isolators
External high gas purge button

The turbine is remotely controlled and monitored from the CCR.

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LER Ventilation / Pressurisation


Two EE xd pressurisation fans (duty and standby) are located internally
within the floor void. A connecting duct on the intake side joins the fans. Air
is drawn through an external cowl located at the base of the LER. Air then
flows through a coalescer, fore damper and filter before entering the intake
plenum that connects both fans. Air passes through the duty fan and is
expelled in to the supply duct, through a non-return back draught damper
and finally through the 3 kW heater before entering the floor void. From the
floor void air passes through two ventilation panels.
The pressurisation system maintains a positive pressure within the LER
during normal operation. The fans deliver airflow of 0.1 cubic meters per
second, which allows 12 air changes per hour within the LER. The
pressurisation and ventilation system is primarily controlled from a
pressurisation/F&G system comprising two EE xd rated panels. The control
panel also interfaces with F&G devices within the turbine enclosure.
Either fan may be selected as the duty fan. It is possible to change the duty
fan even when the system is running in normal mode. Engaging the start
button on the panel starts the system. The fire dampers open and allow
airflow and pressure to establish and the system energises the control power
at the two MCCB (Motor Controller Centre Breaker) panels, ready for manual
activation by the operator. If the duty fan fails the system will automatically
changeover to the standby fan. A HVAC common fault output signal will also
be activated so that the correct procedure can be followed to repair the failed
fan. If there is a loss of LER air pressure or airflow, the system alarms for a
period of 30 seconds (adjustable at the PLC controller in the control panel).
After this time the fire dampers are closed and the duty fan is stopped.
Gas Purge of LER
The LER must be purged occasionally to remove any residue gases. There
is a keyswitch fitted in the local control panel and also remotely on the
exterior of the LER for this function. Engaging either switch will open the fire
dampers and run the selected duty fan for an indefinite period. When the
gas has been purged the keyswitch is returned to the normal position and
the normal start-up sequence initiated. During gas purge, gas levels are
monitored at the control panel.
LER Gas & Smoke Detection
If 20% LEL gas is detected in the LER the system alarms. If 60% is detected
the system will alarm, close the fire dampers, and stop the duty fan. If
smoke is detected in the LER the system will alarm, close the fire dampers
and also stop the duty fan (refer to Solar Installation & Maintenance Manual
104.471.253 Volume 3 for details regarding HVAC system).
The selector switch on the control panel must be set to Fan 1 or Fan 2.
Either fan can be selected as the duty fan while the other becomes the
standby fan. To run a fan for duty the start button must be pushed to
commence the purge period, then the selected fan will energise. The LER
exhaust inlet and exhaust dampers then open and the damper status will be
displayed on the screen. The fan will run when the fan speed has increased
through the RPM monitor set point.

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2.4.9

Gas Turbine Enclosure Fire Protection System


A CO2 deluge system is provided for emergency use should a fire be
detected within the turbine enclosure and comprises this equipment:

An extinguishant skid complete with bottles, weight monitoring, valves


and actuation/monitoring electrical equipment

Piping with isolation valve and position switches

Discharge nozzles (positioned within the acoustic enclosure)

Extinguishing agent
Type of system
Actuation method at the skid

System operating pressure


Extinguishant quantity
Engine requirements
Fire Zone

Carbon dioxide
Total flooding
a) Electrical solenoid actuator/Pilot
nitrogen
b) Manual lever actuator
c) Refer also to electrical operating
instructions covering field devices and
the control system (Altair operating
manual 90398/L1327)
51 barg at 20 oC
45 kg capacity per cylinder
2 initial cylinders + 2 reserve cylinders
(each with a nitrogen Pilot cylinder)
258

GT Enclosure CO2 Fire Protection System


A How Fire CO2 Fire Protection System is provided for the 7.3m long x 3.0m
high x 2.7 m wide turbine enclosure which complies with NFPA 12 or BS
5306 Part 4. The system comprises:

CO2 Fire Protection System and CO2 bottles (by How)


Field Run Pipe work (by WG / others)
Turbine Enclosure CO2 Distribution System with nozzles.

The enclosure is fitted with seven personnel access doors. Visual indication
is provided locally, one on each side of enclosure. A CO 2 lockout switch is
provided each side of the enclosure should access to the enclosure be
necessary whilst the engine is running. The status of lockout is visually
indicated locally and in the CCR. Indications include:

System on Automatic Control (green)

System on Manual Control (amber)

System Operated - 1st shot (red)

System operated -2nd shot (red)

System Locked Out - (amber)

CO2 fire protection system audible and visual alarms are installed on each
side of enclosure. The CO2 cabinet is fitted with extinguishant bottle rack
and associated process hardware, and is located adjacent to the Gas
Turbine Enclosure. All equipment is suitable for open deck duty in a marine,
offshore environment.
The fire & gas panel in the LER controls the
operation of the CO2 system.

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Each cylinder is connected to an overhead manifold using flexible discharge


loops; each manifold port is fitted with an adapter and a check valve. The
adaptor is fitted prior to the check valve to provide a 3/16 flexible pilot loop
connection to the relevant discharge pressure switch (initial/reserve). The
check valve allows for cylinder removal whilst maintaining operation.
The manifold incorporates further check valves (100% redundancy) to allow
for positive differentiation between initial and reserve discharge signals. The
control/monitoring system is programmed to initiate reserve cylinder
discharge if confirmation of gas in the pipe is not received within 5 seconds
from instruction to release the initial system. The collector manifold is piped
to both sides of the skid, offering options for field pipe work connection, with
the unused port remaining plugged. The manifold is connected to a network
of discharge pipe work and nozzles.
Connections are provided off the CO2 pipework to operate dampers. An
isolation ball valve is installed within the discharge pipe work outside the
protected area at an accessible level. This device allows the CO2 supply to
be manually isolated. The ball valve is supplied with limit switches to provide
electrical confirmation of operation (open and closed) back to the turbine
control/monitoring system.
Note: The CO2 bottles are clamped to allow for movement of the ship. The
bottles are weighed periodically during calm conditions; the bottles are
unclamped to allow counterweights to confirm the bottles weight (details
relating to the weight monitoring system can be found in the Altair operating
manual 90398/L1327).
GT Enclosure Fire & Gas Detection System
The primary means of fire detection within engine compartments is electromechanical rate-compensated heat detectors located in the engine
compartment between ventilation air inlet and outlet ducting, and in the vent
exhaust duct.
To accommodate abnormal operating conditions (which could render the
detectors in the ventilation outlet ducting ineffective) additional detectors are
located in the engine compartment. 2 out of 3 voting is used.
Secondary fire detection is by optical beam smoke/oil mist detection
(Wormald model 6003/7). This is primarily for the detection of a release of
lube oil or diesel, or the early stages of combustion, and comprises a single
detector in the engine enclosure viewing across the ventilation air outlets.
The turbine enclosure is also protected with a gas detection system. Three
Infrared point-type detectors are installed at each of the following locations:

Combustion Air Intake


Ventilation Air Inlet
Ventilation Exhaust

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Figure 4
Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

4th Water Injection Pump Package Fire & Gas Detection System Cause & Effect Chart
Page 32 of 158

Figure 5
Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

4th Water Injection Pump Enclosure showing Fire & Gas Detectors
Page 33 of 158

2.4.10 Wash Cart


Contaminants such as dust, oil and salt can pass through the air filters and
adhere to the compressor blades thus decreasing engine performance. The
wash cart is used to supply demineralised water to the turbine for ingestive
cleaning to help eliminate performance problems:

Failure to accelerate to full speed/general lack of acceleration


Compressor surge/ loss of compressor discharge pressure
Inability to develop full output power
Increase in turbine temperature.

To determine if cleaning is required, engine performance is evaluated using


the following parameters:

Gas producer speed (Ngp)


Compressor inlet temperature
Barometric pressure
Turbine gas temperature
Compressor discharge pressure
Output power
Inlet and exhaust duct pressure drop
Water injection rate
Fuel gas flow/usage.

When to clean is best determined by measuring performance loss. A rule of


thumb is to clean before a 10% reduction in power occurs or the power
turbine temperature increase by 5% or there is a 8-10% reduction in output
power. Baseline conditions (output power and air inlet temperature) should
be used for comparison. Deposits should not be allowed to accumulate,
otherwise water-washing will become ineffective over time.
Water is used to remove water-soluble contaminants. Cleaning can be
carried out while the engine is cranking (on-crank cleaning) or while the
engine is operating in the simple cycle (on-line cleaning). On-crank
cleaning is when the engine operates at the maximum speed obtainable by
the starter alone with the fuel and ignition de-activated (providing turbine gas
temperatures are below 66 oC and/or gas producer speed is below 60%).
This type of cleaning is more effective than on-line cleaning. On-line
cleaning is when the engine operates at any power level ranging from idle to
full rated power with the temperature stabilized at operating speed.
Wash Cart Components
The wash cart is a horizontal stainless steel pressure injection vessel, which
is plumbed in to the on/crank / water wash and online manifolds. The tank is
constructed to the Pressure Vessel Code ASME VIII specifications and
PER /PED for a normal working pressure of 6.9 barg and up to 95 oC. In
addition to this the cart has the following components:

ASME UV stamped pressure relief valve set at 8.95 bar


Tank capacity of 26 gal (100L)
On-crank air and on-line air, water and chemical inlet ball valves with
check valves
Air, water and chemical Y inlet strainers with 100 micron insert
Wash fluid outlet connection with ball valve

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Wash fluid outlet filter Y strainer with 100-micron filter insert


Drain and vent with ball valves
Magnetic level gauge with dial face
Heavy-duty chemical-resistant hose with female quick disconnects
between injection tank and engine on-crank manifold ring and
water/chemical supply
Heavy-duty hose with female quick disconnect at each end for air
supply to tank
Hand-held spraying wand
Pressure Safety Valve (PSV)
Male quick-disconnect couplers for air, water and chemicals.

Figure 6 4th Water Injection Pump Turbine Wash Cart (without PSV)

There are two separate skid edge connections; one for on-line cleaning and
the other for on-crank cleaning. Each connection is plumbed to the
respective manifold with the following components:

Inlet strainer
Shutoff solenoid
Triple cartridge filter
Three-way hand valve (on-crank only).

The on-crank three-way hand valve is downstream of the shutoff solenoid


with a quick disconnect for the hand wand. The control system logic prevents
the on-crank solenoid from opening when the turbine gas temperatures are
above 66C and/or the corrected gas producer speed is above 60%.

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2.5

Water Overboard Discharges, Monitoring & Reporting


Not all overboard discharges from the Schiehallion FPSO process systems
are monitored for oil-in-water content, but this does not mean that oily water
is disposed of indiscriminately. There are several discharges to sea that
could contain oil:

Produced Water Degasser outlet (20) discharge overboard


De-aerator Tower outlet (10) overboard discharge & 3 drain
Water Injection Pumps (10/14) overboard discharge

For each discharge the information required for reporting is as follows.


Average monthly oil-in-water quality in ppm (wt) - by sampling
Average discharge rate in m3/day and number of days on

o
o
stream
o
o

Total volume of water discharged in m3


Weight of oil discharged in tonnes.

The Degasser 20 overboard discharge oil-in-water content is determined by


sampling on the Degasser outlet.
An oil-in-water analyser provides
continuous monitoring and initiates a high oil-in-water alarm if 30 ppmv oil-inwater is exceeded.
The De-aerator Tower V-44101 10 overboard discharge FCV-441019
controls the water flow overboard using a FIC which controls the flow
through the tower by modulating the tower seawater inlet to match water
injection demand. This opens the FCV which dumps water to sea to
maintain a minimum flow through the tower. The 3 De-aerator drain is
isolated by a manual valve and is only used for maintenance.
Each motor-driven water injection pump P-45001A/B/C 10 discharge has a
6 branch line FCV, which is modulated according to injection system
demand. Supply over-demand will open each pumps respective discharge
FCV and discharge water into a common 10 discharge line with vent and
through the 14 discharge pipe overboard. There is no flow monitoring or
sampling on this common line.
Minimum flow protection for the GT-driven pump is provided by an overboard
dump valve FCV-450445 which opens at a predefined minimum flow of 330
m3/h to protect the pump from damage.
The quantity discharged overboard is determined by calculation in the CPS,
being the difference between the total flow through the water injection
pumps (integrated over the same time period), less the amount discharged
down the water injection risers:
{ Integration of (FI 450145 + FI 450245 + FI 450345) }
- (FQI 180800 + FQI 182800)
Quantity is displayed at FQI-450004.
All environmental discharges from Schiehallion Installation are published on
the Schiehallion website.

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Anti-foam injection
Calcium Nitrate injection

Methanol Injection Pump


Stroke Control
FIC441001

Sea Water Filters


F-85401A/B/C

Stripping Gas to Blowers

Make-up Sea Water

XXV441040

From Sea Chests

FCV441
001

Cooling Medium Coolers


X-81501A/B/C

XXV441002

Sea Water Lift Pumps


P-85401A/B/C

Water

1st Stage Separator V-21101

Injection

LIC211101

To LP Compressor
Suction Scrubber
V-34001

XV211
354
Hydrocyclones
V-41001A&B

Oil
from
wells

LCV211101

Minox Unit
LIC441
010

Oxygen
Scavenger
Injection

Fuel Gas

Water Injection
De-aerator Tower
V-44101
FIC441019

1st Stage Separator V-22101

Backwash from filters


LIC221101

XV221
354

Stripping Gas from


De-oxidiser

8
Recycle

Hydrocyclones
V-42001A&B
LCV221101

Produced
Water
Booster
Pumps
P-43001A/B/C

Oil-in-Water
Analyser
AL-430017

Test Separator V-23001


LIC230107

XV230
356

Injection Water
to
Subsea Wells
via Turret

Produced Water
Degasser V-43001

Flow Meter
FQI-430016

Produced Water
Filters
F-43001A/B

AI441018
oxygen
content

3 Overboard
Discharge

FCV441
019

Water Injection
Pumps
P-45001A/B/C/D

10
Overboard
Discharge

10 Overboard
Discharge

Hydrocyclone
V-40001
LCV230107
Reject oil to 2nd Stage
Separators

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1

20 January 2005

Produced Water System

Scale Inhibitor Injection


Overboard
Discharge

Biocide Injection

Figure 7 Water Injection System Schematic


Page 37 of 158

2.6 Chemical Injection


Antifoam, biocide and calcium nitrate may be injected at the inlet to the
deaerator. A scale inhibitor injection point is provided at the outlet. Refer to Z8000-BB-4007 for details of the chemical injection system.
The biocide and anti-foam injection point is a common line. Biocide dosing must
only occur when the deaerator tower is off-line to prevent foaming in the column
and to ensure that biocide is not routed to the reservoir where it could negate the
benefit of calcium nitrate injection.
To maintain the quality of the injection water, scale Inhibitor may be required to
be injected at the outlet of the deaerator on a continuous basis to avoid the
scaling subsea which would result from the mixing of the produced water and
seawater. Any scales formed would be pumped into the reservoir. Antifoam can
be injected if required at the deaerator inlet. The chemical dosing rates are:
Antifoam
Scale Inhibitor
Oxygen Scavenger
Calcium nitrate

2 ppm (normal)
5 ppm (normal)
5 ppm (normal)
60 ppm (this will vary as the produced water
make increases)

The de-aeration system is designed to be capable of meeting the required


oxygen specification without the use of oxygen scavenger injection. However,
rough weather may cause poor distribution of seawater in the deaerator column
causing the unit to go off specification. Under these circumstances, the column
may be returned to specification by the injection of oxygen scavenger chemical,
which is fed into the tower by mixing via a 2 line from the discharge of the
produced water booster pumps P-43001A/B/C.
The chlorine analyser AT-441017 and the oxygen analyser AT-441018 monitor
water quality at the outlet of the deaerator. A manual sample connection is also
provided.
Sodium hypochlorite is injected to the seawater lift pumps
P-85401A/B/C suction and should not exceed 2 ppm(wt) of free chlorine. The
maximum oxygen level is 20 ppb.
The chlorine analyser AT-441017 is located in a purged cabinet. The purge gas
pressure is maintained at a constant pressure by an integral flow controller within
the purge system control unit, which is located in the field. In the event that the
purge pressure exceeds or falls below the set operating pressure then an alarm
will be generated PAH/L-441034 by a pressure switch located in the purge
cabinet. Initiation of this alarm will cause the power to the instrumentation within
the purged cabinet to be isolated by the purge system control unit.
To safeguard against any leaks in the purged cabinet, a liquid level instrument is
located at the bottom of the drip tray. In the event of liquids leaking into the
cabinet, an alarm LAH-441033 will be generated by the level switch LS-441033.
Initiation of the alarm will remove power from the instrumentation within the
purged cabinet. This is controlled by the purge system control unit.

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2.7

Turret Water Injection, Swivel and Turret Valves


Refer to P&ID M-5021-GP-8004.00. The 16 line containing produced water and
de-aerated seawater from pumps P-45001A/B/C/D is discharged at approx. 22 C
and up to 246 bar via a dedicated pressurised 12 turret water swivel N-45080 to
three 10 risers. The injection water then flows to the subsea distribution
system. PG-450803 is located downstream of the turret.
The 12 water injection manifold in the turret has four connections. One is for
future use and is currently blanked off. The remaining 12 line connects to three
10 nominal bore risers. Each 10 line has two sonic flowmeters (FE-180800A/B,
FE-181800A/B & FE-182800A/B), check valves (with 2 bypass to allow
depressurisation of the downstream pipeline), local flow indicators, and 10
isolating valves. The three 10 risers then connect to two 9.5 ID flexible risers
and one 11.5 ID flexible riser to form part of the subsea water injection
distribution system.

2.8

Water Injection Flexible Risers


The two 9.5ID risers connect at their bases with plastic-lined pipelines to
Schiehallion Central & North, and to Loyal and West via North. The third 11.5ID
riser connects at its base with plastic-lined pipeline to Schiehallion North West.
Refer to P&ID M-5021-GP-8004. Water from the turrets 12 water injection
manifold is passed down three 10 nominal bore flexible risers, each lined with a
carcass to protect against vacuum conditions on injection pump shutdown.
When the pumps are shut down, it is expected that the hydrostatic pressure in
the risers will exceed water injection well(s) pressure. Closing the injection wells
wing valves when the water injection pumps are shut down will minimise the
likelihood of vacuum conditions occurring in the risers.
The unbounded flexible pipe structure is built with the specific arrangement of
coaxial layers of different material. Each layer has its own function that helps
the flexible system to fulfil its main functional requirements. The basic design
used for the Schiehallion water injection lines is a smooth bore structure,
because no gas is involved in the transport fluid and it remains full all the time.
The structure comprises of the following layers:

Layer 1: Inner plastic tube for pipe leak resistance.

Layer 2: Spiralled steel layer to sustain the radial load generated by the
internal pressure.

Layer 3: An anti-collapse thermo-plastic sheath to submit the external


pressure onto the underlying steel layer - most of the time this layer is not
needed if the line remains full of the fluid.

Layer 4: Cross-wound armoured layers to withstand tensile and torque loads.

Layer 5: External thermo-plastic sheath to ensure the leak resistance to


environmental fluid.

Layer 6: Anti-friction layers for dynamic application.

The flexible risers and the flowline jumpers have essentially identical
construction, with an inner carcass of Grade 316L austenitic stainless steel,
which supports a pressure sheath of polyamide, or, for the WI risers, PE. The
inner layers are mechanically protected by a hydrogen sulphide-resistant
external wire armour layer, with polymer coating layers.

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Riser Group

Drill Centre

Drill Centre Duty

Riser/Flowline
Service

Schiehallion
Central

Schiehallion
Central

Production wells
Water injection
wells

Schiehallion
West &
Gas Disposal

Schiehallion
West

Production wells
Water injection
wells

Gas Disposal

Gas disposal well

Loyal

Production wells
Water injection
wells

Schiehallion
North
North West

Water injection
wells only
Production wells
Water injection
wells

Production line A
Production line B
Production line C
Production/Test
Gas Lift [1]
Water Injection
Umbilical
Production
Production/Test
Gas Lift [1]
Water Injection [2]
Umbilical [4]
Gas Disposal
Umbilical [4]
Spare Riser Base
Gas Lift
Production
Production/Test
Gas Lift
Water Injection [2]
Umbilical [3]
Water injection
Umbilical
Production
Gas Lift [5]
Water injection
Umbilical [6]

Loyal &
Schiehallion
North

North West

Riser
NB
(in)
9.5
9.5
9.5
7.5
9.5
n/a
9.5
7.5
7.5
5
9
9.5
7.5
7.5
9.5
n/a
9.5
11.5
-

Flowline
NB
length
(in)
(km)
10
2.65
10
2.65
10
2.65
8
2.65
8
2.90
12
2.65
n/a
2.630
10
4.30
8
4.30
6
4.75
10
4.80
n/a
2.989
8
9.30
n/a
5.009
10
8
6
10
n/a
10
n/a
10
8
10
-

5.90
5.90
5.90
4.90
4.920
2.40
2.313
6
2
2
2

Table 2 Water Injection Flowlines & Umbilicals Dimensions


Notes:

2.9

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]

Gas lift lines branched off Loyal Line


Loyal and Schiehallion West Water Injection Line Branches off Schiehallion North
Loyal Umbilical Branches off Schiehallion North
Schiehallion West & Gas Disposal Umbilical Branches off Schiehallion Central
North West gas lift is from West drill centre (HOLD)
North West umbilical is from West drill centre (HOLD)

Subsea Water Injection System


Refer to P&IDs S-9000-NP-9203/13/14/15/16/20/21/24/25/26
Subsea Water Injection System Equipment
The subsea water injection system consists of three sets of equipment: the first
to deliver injection water to Schiehallion Central, the second to deliver injection
water to Schiehallion West, North and Loyal, and the third (HOLD) to deliver
water to the new North-West Drill Centre. Water delivered to these drill centres
should have been filtered and the oxygen removed to the following specification:
Dissolved Gases
Maximum particle size

Negligible, i.e. < 20 ppb O2


80 microns.

Each drill centre is supplied by a dedicated flowline, except for Schiehallion


North and Loyal centres which share a flowline between the riser base and the
North Injection site. Distribution to individual wells is via a water injection
manifold at each drill centre.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

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Injection rates to individual wells is controlled at each injection wellhead by ROVoperated chokes with flow control provided by shutting in components of the
system - either individual wells or one of the four injection pumps. For operation
of the first two injection wells, the pump minimum flow FCVs also serve to control
the pump flow. The design is aimed at infrequent adjustments to the water
injection rates; the rates being monitored using a venturi-type flowmeter which is
mounted at each wellhead, upstream of the injection choke.
Note:

If ROV control of the injection chokes provides insufficient operational


flexibility, there is an option to provide actuated chokes on the later
water injection trees with some impact to the control systems.

Schiehallion Central
Schiehallion Central is located some 2.9 km South East of the FPSO. The eight
water injection trees are supplied individually from the 12 plastic-lined flowline
via two water injection manifolds M2 & M2A which are connected to the pipeline
FTA using 10 flexible jumpers. Each water injection tree is connected to the
manifold by a 6 flexible wellhead jumper.
Electro-hydraulic control functions and chemical supplies for the central manifold
and the production and water injection trees are provided by a control umbilical
from the FPSO. These services are distributed through the Controls Distribution
Trunking (CDT) which forms the upper section of the central manifold. The
water injection tree controls are supplied by two separate umbilicals, connected
to separate outlets on the CDT, each supplying an SCM on an injection tree,
each of which in turn controls another injection wellhead by direct hydraulic
control.
Schiehallion West
Schiehallion West is located 3.2 km to the South West of the FPSO and has five
water injection wells. The wells are connected to the FPSO by 10 & 12 plasticlined rigid flowlines. These flowlines are terminated by FTAs at both ends. The
water injection supply is provided from a 10 riser and a 12 riser via two FTAs,
located beneath the FPSO, which supplies Schiehallion North and Loyal. The
five water injection trees are supplied individually from the 10 & 12 plastic-lined
flowlines via two connected water injection manifolds M22 & M22A; these are
connected to pipeline FTAs with 10 and 12 flexible jumpers. The water injection
tree controls are supplied by an umbilical jumper from the UTA to an SCM on
one of the trees. This provides direct hydraulic control functions for all water
injection trees.
Schiehallion North
Schiehallion North is located some 2.7 km to the North East of the FPSO and
has three water injection wells. The wells are supplied with injection water
through a 10, plastic-lined flowline from the FPSO through a three-porch water
injection manifold via 6 bore flexible wellhead jumpers. The flowline also
extends via a 10 flexible jumper from one end of the manifold to the FTA on the
end of a 10 plastic-lined pipeline which is routed to the Loyal wellsite. Control
functions to the trees are provided from a UTA to an SCM on one of the trees.
This controls the other tree using direct hydraulics, and has a spare connection
for the third tree.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

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Loyal
Loyal is located 6.1 km North of the FPSO and has four water injection wells.
The water injection supply is provided from the FPSO by a 10 flowline which is
routed via the Schiehallion North manifold. The four water injection trees are
supplied individually from the 10 plastic-lined flowline via a separate four-porch
water injection manifold which is connected to the pipeline FTA with a 10
flexible jumper. The water injection tree controls are supplied by an umbilical
jumper from the UTA to the SCM on one of the trees. This provides direct
hydraulic control to the other three water injection trees.
16
From Water
Injection
Pumps P-45001A/B/C/D
12 Water Injection
Swivel N-45080
12 Water Injection Manifold

Future Riser
Connection (blanked off)
9 ID
Flexible
Riser

9 ID
Flexible
Riser

11 ID
Flexible
Riser

FTA

FTA

FTA
Injection water
to North-West Drill
Centre (HOLD)

FTA

FTA

Central Manifold

North Manifold

Schiehallion
Central WI Wells

Schiehallion
North WI Wells

FTA

West Manifold

Schiehallion
West WI Wells

FTA
KEY
Riser
FTA

Jumper
Flowline

Loyal
WI Wells

Figure 8 Subsea Equipment Schematic (prior to NW drill centre development)

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 42 of 158

Components

Location

ID No

Size

Common Water Injection manifold


One spare connector (for future use)

Turret
Turret

12-WI-450803
-

12"
12

Under FPSO
seabed
Seabed
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central

10-R-180
FTA-180-92
12-L-180
FTA-180-93
10-J-180
MAN-180-92
06-W-105-922
XTI-105-92P
06-W-105-923
XTI-105-92Q
06-W-105-921
XTI-105-92N
06-W-105-924
XTI-105-92R
06-W-105-923
XTI-105-92T
10-J-180-921

9.5
10/12
12
12/10
10
10
6
N/A
6
N/A
6
N/A
6
N/A
6
N/A
10

Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central

06-W-105-927
XTI-105-92U
06-W-105-925
XTI-105-92S
06-W-105-928
XTI-105-92V
06-W-105-929
XTI-105-92W

6
N/A
6
N/A
6
N/A
6
N/A

Schiehallion Central Water Distribution System


Schiehallion Central Riser (slot EC )
Schiehallion FPSO FTA
Flowline (FPSO FTA to Central FTA)
Schiehallion Central FTA (WI)
Flexible Jumper to Central Manifold
Central Water Injection Manifold
Flexible Jumper to Tree on Slot CW12
Water Injection Tree on Slot CW12 (Type 1)
Flexible Jumper to Tree on Slot CW10
Water Injection Tree on Slot CW10 (Type 2)
Flexible Jumper to Tree on Slot CW11
Water Injection Tree on Slot CW11 (Type 2)
Flexible Jumper to Tree on Slot CW13
Water Injection Tree on Slot CW13 (Type 1)
Flexible Jumper to Tree on Slot CW16
Water Injection Tree on Slot CW16 (Type 1)
Flexible Jumper, Central Manifold M2
to Manifold M2A
Flexible Jumper to Tree on Slot CW17
Water Injection Tree on Slot CW17 (DTHT)
Flexible Jumper to Tree on Slot CW15
Water Injection Tree on Slot CW15 (Type 3)
Flexible Jumper to Tree on Slot CW18
Water Injection Tree on Slot CW18 (DTHT)
Flexible Jumper to Tree on Slot CW19
Water Injection Tree on Slot CW19 (DTHT)

Schiehallion West, North & Loyal Distribution System


West, North & Loyal Riser (Slot NF)
FTA FPSO
Flexible Jumper to FTA-185-92
FTA FPSO to West WI
Flowline to West FTA
FTA West WI

Under FPSO
Seabed
Seabed
Seabed
West
West

Flexible Jumper to West Manifold M22


West WI Manifold
Flexible Jumper to Tree XTI-125-92Q
Well WW05 Water Injection Tree (Type1)
Flexible Jumper to Tree XTI-125-92P
Well WW04 Water Injection Tree (Type1)
Flexible Jumper to Tree XTI-125-92N
Well WW06 Water Injection Tree (Type 3)
Flexible Jumper to West Manifold M22A
Flexible Jumper to Tree XTI-125-92R
Well WW08 Water Injection Tree
Flexible Jumper to Tree XTI-125-92S
Well WW09 Water Injection Tree
Flexible Jumper from West FTA-185-96 F29

West
West
West
West
West
West
West
West
West
West
West
West
West
West

Table 3

10-R-182
FTA-182-92
10-J-185-921
FTA-185-92
10-L-185
FTA -185-93
FTA 26
10-J-185-93
MAN-185-92 M22
06-W-125-923
XTI-125-92Q
06-W-125-922
XTI-125-92P
06-W-125-921
XTI-125-92 N
10-J-185-923
06-W-125-924
XTI-125-92R
06-W-125-925
XTI-125-92S
12-J-185-926

Subsea Components and Sizes (prior to NW development)

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

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9.5
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
6
N/A
6
N/A
6
N/A
10
6
N/A
6
N/A
12

Schiehallion North & Loyal - Distribution System


Flowline to North FTA
FTA North WI
Flexible Jumper to North Manifold
North Water Injection Manifold
Flexible Jumper to Tree XTI-135-92P
Water Injection Tree NW02 (Type 1)
Flexible Jumper to Tree XTI-135-92N
Water Injection Tree NW01 (Type 3)
Flexible Jumper to Tree XTI-135-92Q
Water Injection Tree NW03 (Type 3)
Flexible Jumper from North Manifold to
FTA-186-92
Flexible Jumper from FTA-186-92 to
Loyal FTA-186-93
Flexible Jumper from FTA-186-93 to
Loyal FTA-186-92
Loyal Water Injection Manifold
Flexible Jumper to Tree XTI-145-92Q
Water Injection Tree LW06 (Type 1)
Flexible Jumper to Tree XTI-145-92P
Water Injection Tree LW05 (Type 1)
Flexible Jumper to Tree XTI-145-92N
Water Injection Tree LW04 (Type 3)
Flexible Jumper to Tree XTI-145-92R
Water Injection Tree LW04

Table 3

North
North
North
North
North
North
North
North
North
North
North to Loyal

10-L-182
FTA-182-93
10-J-182
MAN-182-92
06-W-135-922
XTI-135-92P
06-W-135-921
XTI-135-92N
06-W-135-923
XTI-135-92Q
10-J-186-921

10
10
10
10
6
N/A
6
N/A
6
N/A
10

North to Loyal

10-L-186

10

Loyal

10-J-186-922

10

Loyal
Loyal
Loyal
Loyal
Loyal
Loyal
Loyal
Loyal
Loyal

MAN-185-92
06-W-145-923
XTI-145-92Q
06-W-145-922
XTI-145-92P
06-W-145-921
XTI-145-92N
06-W-145-924
XTI-145-92R

10
6
N/A
6
6
6
N/A
6
N/A

Subsea Components and Sizes (prior to NW development)


(continued)

Normal Operation (Overview)


Once the chokes have been set by the ROV, the only operations will concern
start up and shutdown of either the entire system or of individual wells. Fine
tuning and optimisation of the water injection header can be controlled to an
extent by the adjustment of surface-controlled choke valves on CW17, 18 and
19. However, due to the design limitations of the water injection system, there
will be a defined maximum operating flow rate for any component. This is to
prevent over-pressurisation which can occur as a result of a hydraulic surge
during an unplanned shutdown.
The relatively high pump discharge pressure of approximately 200 barg (3000
psig) at the design water injection rate has been aimed at overcoming
uncertainties in the reservoir injectivity. Depending on the well injectivity and
required injection rate, the pressure drop across the water injection chokes
during normal operation could be high (i.e. up to 133 barg (2000 psig)). The
system operating temperatures will also be relatively high (28 - 60C). This is
due to the injection of produced water, the use of the injection water as a cooling
medium (i.e. used in the topsides cooling medium coolers) and the polyethylene
liner in the pipeline which provides a high level of insulation.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 44 of 158

Tubing Hanger 7 x 2, c/w 6.187 profile


7 TR-SCSSSV

2-3/8 By-Pass Tubing

11 60 lb/ft Casing

Nipple

11 x 9-5/8 Crossover
Perf. pup and bull plug

9-5/8 47 lb/ft L-80 Casing


7 29 lb/ft or 5-1/2 20 lb/ft NSCC
Tubing, L-80, GRP Lined
9-5/8 Permanent Packer
(Hydrostatic Pressure Set)

5 x 7 x 9-5/8 Liner Hanger, Packer.


9-5/8 Shoe
5 1/2 Tailpipe
Shearable Tailpipe Centrailser

Liner Top Isolation Valve (LTIV)

5 1/2 Sand Control Screens


(crossed over to 7 Tbg & Hgr)

Figure 9 Typical Water Injection Well Completion Schematic

System Start up (Overview)


Start-up of the water injection system is based around ensuring the main water
injection pumps are not started against a vacuum condition in the injection riser.
To achieve these aims, the produced water booster pumps or seawater lift
pumps are employed to overcome any vacuum condition prior to starting the
main pumps, but with the main pump discharge open to allow flow. If the well
annulus pressure exceeds 275 barg, the wing valve will need to be closed before
opening the cross-over valve otherwise it will not be possible to relieve sufficient
pressure from the annulus.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 45 of 158

System Shutdown (Overview)


On shut-down of the WI system there are four key considerations:

The potential for a vacuum condition in the water injection system due to
reservoir under-pressure.

Hydraulic surge due to closure of the wing valves, with the potential for the
shut-in pressure to exceed the system design pressure under certain
circumstances and for the transient pressures during the shut-in process to
exceed the maximum over-pressure allowances on some components.

Closure of the wing valves is required to ensure that cross-flow between


injectors via the respective Xmas trees is prevented. Thus, reducing the
potential for damage to the lower completion due to sand ingress. (Note that
this is protected against to some extent by the use of sand screens within the
water injection wells).

Excessive wear of WI wing valve if it is closed against the main pump.

Due to the above points, the shut-in of the wells is a compromise between the
requirement to shut-in quickly to prevent a vacuum in the riser and cross-flow
between wells and the requirement to shut-off slowly to prevent hydraulic surge
in the system. To this end, any water injection trip will also close all subsea
water injection wing valves with wing valve closure staggered over a period of 60
seconds to reduce the surge problem. This allows the run down of the pump
and the closure of the pump discharge valve to occur before the closure of the
last wing valve (once the water injection system is fully operational). The set
point for opening the overboard dump valve on each pump ensures that the
system pressure prior to shut down is relatively low thus reducing the risk of
over-pressure due to surge.
Protection of the wing valves against erosion is not possible and therefore
closure against full operating pressure will occur under some circumstances.
However, on a planned shut down of the water injection system, it is beneficial to
close the wing valves and shut in pumps in a sequence that minimises the wear
on the valves. To ensure that surge considerations are taken into account, safe
operating limits for each well must be adhered to.
Corrosion Management
Refer to the Corrosion Management Strategy Z-8000-ZS-4027.
The subsea components of the water injection system are constructed from
corrosion resistant alloys. The flexible risers and flowline jumpers have a duplex
carcass, the flexible well jumpers have a stainless steel 316 carcass, the carbon
steel flowlines are provided with polyethylene lining and all other major
components are alloy 625 clad carbon steel. Injection water is de-oxygenated to
a level of <20 ppbv and OS-2 scavenger is employed, if required, to ensure that
the sweet service design of the subsea system is satisfactory. During operation,
corrosion management of the water injection system is limited to monitoring of
the oxygen content of the injected water. There is no capability to intelligent pig
the water injection system.
The well tubing is fibre glass-lined. However this lining can be damaged during
well workovers giving the potential of the L80 carbon steel tubing to corrode.
The maintenance of the water injection oxygen specification is primarily to
protect against this corrosion potential.
No subsea chemical injection is required in the water injection system.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 46 of 158

Injection of Oxygen Scavenger


These guidelines are used to determine when oxygen scavenger is required:
Oxygen Level (ppb O2)

Duration

Condition

< 20 ppb
> 20 ppb

> 2 hours

50-500 ppb
> 500 ppb

> 3 hours
> 1 hour

Normal Operations
Inject Oxygen Scavenger to
bring down level
Shutdown Injection
Shutdown Injection

Table 4

Oxygen Scavenger Injection Decision Table

Scale Deposition
The potential for scale deposition is relatively low. However, to mitigate against
the risk of deposition, the subsea system will be protected from scale deposition
by the continuous injection of scale inhibitor on the FPSO.
2.10

Water Injection Wellheads (Tree, Choke, Master & Subsurface Valves)


Water Injection Tree Assembly (refer to P&IDs S-9000-NP-9203, S-9000-NP9220 & S-9000-NP-9221).
Three different types of water injection tree are installed subsea. The X-mas
tree valving arrangement is the same for each tree, what does differ is whether a
tree has a Subsea Control Module (SCM) and how many trees are controlled
from that SCM.
Type 1 has no SCM and control is via a Type 2 tree configuration
Type 2 has an SCM and controls one other Type 1 trees
Type 3 has an SCM and controls two other Type 1 trees.

Components
Slot Number
Tree Tag No.
SCSSV
UIMV
IWV
AMV
XOVT
Injection pressure &
temp.
Annulus Pressure
WI Flowmeter
MP Hydraulic Supply
Pressure Sensor
HP Hydraulic Supply
Pressure Sensor

Schiehallion Central
CW12
CW13

Schiehallion Central
CW16

XTI-10592P
105931P
105933P
105934P
105935P
105937P
PTT-105922P

XTI-10592R
105931R
105933R
105934R
105935R
105937R
PTT-105922R

XTI-10592T
105931T
105933T
105934T
105935T
105937T
PTT-105922T

PT-105923P
FT-105929P
PT-105991N

PT-105923R
FT-105929R
PT-105991Q

PT-105923T
FT-105929T
PT-105991T

PT-105992N

PT-105992Q

PT-105992T

Table 5

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Type 1 Water Injection Wells

Page 47 of 158

Components
Slot Number

Schiehallion West
WW04
WW05

Tree Tag No.


SCSSV
UIMV
IWV
AMV
XOVT
Injection pressure &
temp.
Annulus Pressure
WI Flowmeter
MP Hydraulic Supply
Pressure Sensor
HP Hydraulic Supply
Pressure Sensor

Schiehallion North
NW02
NW03

XTI-12592P
125931P
125933P
125934P
125935P
125937P
PTT-125922P

XTI-12592Q
125931Q
125933Q
125934Q
125935Q
125937Q
PTT-125922Q

XTI-13592P
135931P
135933P
135934P
135935P
135937P
PTT-135922P

XTI-13592Q
13591Q
135933Q
135934Q
135935Q
135937Q
PTT-135922Q

PT-125923P
FT-125929P
PT-125991N

PT-125923Q
FT-125929Q
PT-125991N

PT-135923P
FT-135929P
PT-135991N

PT-135923Q
FT-135929Q
PT-135991N

PT-125992N

PT-125992N

PT-135992N

PT-135992N

Components
Slot Number

Loyal

Tree Tag Number


SCSSV
UIMV
IWV
AMV
XOVT
Injection Pressure & Temp.
Annulus Press. Sensor
WI Flowmeter
MP Hydraulic Supply Pressure
Sensor
HP Hydraulic Supply Pressure
Sensor

Table 5

LW05

LW06

XTI-14592P
145931P
145933P
145934P
145935P
145937P
PTT-145922P
PT-145923P
PT-145929P
PT-145991N

XTI-14592Q
145931Q
145933Q
145934Q
145935Q
145937Q
PTT-145922Q
PT-145923Q
PT-145929Q
PT-145991N

PT-145992N

PT-145992N

Type 1 Water Injection Wells (continued)

Component

Schiehallion Central

Slot Number

CW11

CW10

Tree Tag Number


SCSSV
UIMV
IWV
AMV
XOVT
Injection Pressure & Temp.
Annulus Pressure Sensor
Water Injection Flowmeter
MP Hydraulic Supply Pressure
HP Hydraulic Supply Pressure

XTI-10592N
105931N
105933N
105934N
105935N
105937N
PTT-105922N
PT-105923N
PT-105929N
PT-105991N
PT-105992N

XTI-10592Q
105931Q
105933Q
105934Q
105935Q
105937Q
PTT-105922Q
PT-105923Q
PT-105929Q
PT-105991Q
PT-105992Q

Table 6

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Type 2 Water Injection Wells

Page 48 of 158

Components

West

Loyal

Slot Number

WW06

LW04

Tree Tag Number


SCSSV
UIMV
IWV
AMV
XOVT
Injection Pressure and
Temperature Sensor
Annulus Pressure Sensor
Water Injection Flowmeter
MP Hydraulic Supply Pressure
Sensor
HP Hydraulic Supply Pressure
Sensor

XTI-12592N
125931N
125933N
125934N
125935N
125937N
PTT-125922N

XTI-14592N
145931N
145933N
145934N
145935N
145937N
PTT-145922N

PT-125923N
FT-125929N
PT-125991N

PT-145923N
PT-145929N
PT-145991N

PT-125992N

PT-145992N

Components

North

Central

Slot Number

NW01

CW15

Tree Tag Number


SCSSV
UIMV
IWV
AMV
XOVT
Injection Pressure and
Temperature Sensor
Annulus Pressure Sensor
Water Injection Flowmeter
MP Hydraulic Supply Pressure
Sensor
HP Hydraulic Supply Pressure
Sensor

XTI-13592N
135931N
135933N
135934N
135935N
135937N
PTT-135922N

XTI-10592S
105931N
105933N
105934N
105935N
105937N
PTT-105922N

PT-135923N
PT-135929N
PT-135991N

PT-105923N
PT-105929N
PT-105991N

PT-135992N

PT-105992N

Table 7
Components
Slot Number
Tree Tag No.
SCSSV
UIMV
IWV
AMV
XOVT
CHI
Injection pressure & Temp. Sensor
Annulus Pressure Sensor
Injection Pressure Sensor
WI Flowmeter
Injection Choke Position Indicator
MP Hydraulic Supply Press. Sensor
HP Hydraulic Supply Press. Sensor

Table 8

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Type 3 Water Injection Wells


Schiehallion Central
CW17
CW18
XTI-10592U
105931U
105933U
105934U
105935U
105937U
105926U
PTT-105922U
PT-105923U
PT-105924U
FT-105929U
ZI-105926U
PT-105991U
PT-105992U

XTI-10592V
105931V
105933V
105934V
105935V
105937V
105926V
PTT-105922V
PT-105923V
PT-105924V
FT-105929V
ZI-105926V
PT-105991V
PT-105992V

Schiehallion Central
CW19
XTI-10592W
105931W
105933W
105934W
105935W
105937W
105936W
PTT-105922W
PT-105923W
PT-105924W
FT-105929W
ZI-105926W
PT-105991W
PT-105992W

Type DTHT Water Injection Wells

Page 49 of 158

Water Injection Tree Configuration


Refer to P&ID S-9000-NP-9203.
Each water injection tree has similar valves and instruments. The table below
identifies valves which can be operated from the CCR and those valves which
are ROV operated. Remotely actuated valves are fitted with an override device
which allows these valves to be operated by ROV if required. Injection Swab
Valve and Annulus Swab Valve are remotely operated from a workover vessel.
Component

Remotely
Operated

ROV Operated

WI Differential Pressure Flow Sensor


Injection Choke Valve
Injection Wing Valve (IWV)
Inlet Pressure & Temperature Sensor
Injection Swab Valve (SVI)
Annulus Swab Valve (ASV)
Crossover Valve (XOVT)
Annulus Pressure Sensor
Upper Injection Master Valve (UIMV)
Annulus Master Valve (AMV)
Lower Injection Master Valve (LIMV)
Hydraulic Supply Valve to SCSSV
Surface Controlled Subsea Safety Valve

N/A
CW17, 18, 19 only
Yes
N/A
Yes
Yes
Yes
N/A
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes

N/A
Yes
No
N/A
No
No
No
N/A
NO
No
Yes
Yes
No

Table 9
Note:

Water Injection Tree Valve Operation

Type 1 wells at the West, Loyal and North drill centres share the same
control function on the subsurface safety valves. Hence, opening of
the valve on one tree will also open the valve on the tree sharing this
function, i.e. the following valves are operating by the same command:
SCSSV125931P and SCSSV125931Q
SCSSV135931P and SCSSV135931Q
This implies that the interlock sequences for these two wells are
dependent on the position of valves on both Xmas trees.

2.11

Well Injectivity Decline


Injection of produced water can lead to a loss of injectivity of up to 40% relative
to sea water injection. Generally, the dirtier the water injected, the greater the
decline in injectivity. Thus, changing from produced water to sea water injection
may restore original well injectivity. If a decline in well injectivity is experienced,
it may be beneficial to revert to sea water injection for a period until injectivity
rates are back to normal. During this time, all produced water would have to be
discharged overboard. Further information on expected reservoir performance
can be obtained from the Schiehallion Well Operating Handbook.

2.12

Water Injection Subsea Flowlines


The water injection seabed flowlines are rigid pipe of 10 diameter. A 1mm
internal corrosion allowance has been included. No insulation is provided;
however the pipelines are provided with a barrier coating for external corrosion
protection. A system of sacrificial anodes supports the coating system.

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2.13

Water Injection Wells


Water injection wells are not horizontal, but high angle. Flow calculations
indicated that the majority of wells required 5 1/2 tubing, and some required 7"
tubing, made of GRP-lined, carbon steel.
Flow-wetted parts of crucial
completion equipment such as the tubing-retrievable safety valve are made of
25% Cr for maximum reliability.
Other completion equipment is made of ceramic-coated carbon steel. Due to low
reservoir temps (56C), an expansion device is not required above the packer. If
the wellhead is lost, downhole shut-in is achieved by a tubing-retrievable
subsurface safety valve. In water injection wells completed below the oil-water
contact (in a position where the well could not flow hydrocarbons if the wellhead
was lost) the SSSV may be omitted from the completion. Nipples and profiles
are included for testing the tubing, setting the packer and plugging the well for
Xmas tree removal.
As in production wells the tailpipe below the packer is landed in a receptacle
below the liner hanger. A permanent downhole gauge is not in the water injector
as reservoir pressures can readily be calculated from wellhead pressures (which
will always be higher than zero). For this purpose, a high-resolution injection
xmas tree quartz gauge is specified.
Sand strengths are such that sand control is required in injectors to prevent sand
fill due to possible cross flow during shut-in. sand control is achieved by using
screens. On loyal, where sand strengths are slightly higher, cased and
perforated injectors are installed instead, if necessary, for flow control.

Well
CW10
CW11
CW12
CW13
CW15
CW16
CW17
CW18
CW19
WW04
WWO5
WWO6
WWO8
WW09
NW01
NW02
NW03
LW04
LW05
LW06

IWV
Closed
Closed
Closed
Isol
Isol
Isol
Isol
Isol
Isol
Isol
Isol
Isol
Isol
Isol
Isol
Isol
Isol
Isol
Isol
Isol

Valve Status
IMV
SCSSV
Closed
Closed
Open
Open
Isol
Open
Isol
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Isol
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Isol
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Isol
Isol
Open
Open
Open
Open

Table 10

Date
Date
03/05/2004
03/05/2004
03/05/2004
03/05/2004
03/05/2004
03/05/2004
03/05/2004
03/05/2004
03/05/2004
03/05/2004
03/05/2004
03/05/2004
03/05/2004
03/05/2004
03/05/2004
03/05/2004
03/05/2004
03/05/2004
03/05/2004
03/05/2004

Time
16:30
16:30
16:30
16:30
16:30
16:30
16:30
16:30
16:30
16:30
16:30
16:30
16:30
16:30
16:30
16:30
16:30
16:30
16:30
16:30

Pressure after 1 hour


SIWHP (bar)
68.8

49.7
80.5
19.8
41.7
54.5
70.1
43.2
109.3
37
38.2
68.4
68.5
99.2

Pressure Fall-off Final Pressure Record May 2004

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

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Cluster

Slot name

DTI Name

Zone

Duty

Central

CW10

C08

T31a/T31b

Water Injector

CW11
CW12

C02
C04

T31a
T31a/T34/T35

Water Injector
Water Injector

CW13
CW15

C09
C14

T31a
T31 a

Water Injector
Water Injector

CW16
CW17

C16
C19

T31 a
T31 a

Water Injector
Water Injector

CW18
CW 19

WS29
C21

T31 a
T31a

Water Injector
Water Injector

WW04
WW05

W06
W07

T34a/T34b/T31a
T31qa

Water Injector
Water Injector

WW06
WW07

W03
W05

T31a/T31b
T31a

Water Injector
Water Injector

WW08
WW09

W08
W09

T31a
T31 a

Water Injector
Water Injector

NW01
NW02

N03
N02z

T34
T31 a

Water Injector
Water Injector

NW03
LW04

N01z
L02

T31a
T35b

Water Injector
Water Injector

LW04A
LW05

L02A
L05

T35b
T35

Water Injector
Water Injector

LW06
LW10

L06
TBC

T35

Water Injector
Water Injector

LW11
FP03

TBC
TBC

Water Injector
Water Injector

FP04
FW01

TBC
TBC

Water Injector
Water Injector

FW02
FW03

TBC
TBC

Water Injector
Water Injector

West

North

Loyal

North West *

* Proposed

Table 11

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Water Injection Wells Summary

Page 52 of 158

3. WATER INJECTION SYSTEM CONTROL PHILOSOPHY


3.1 De-aerator Tower V-44101 Control
The supply of seawater to and from the deaerator tower V-44101 is controlled
by:
FIC-441001 (seawater inlet)
FIC-441019 (seawater outlet)
LIC-441010 (V-44101 seawater level).
During normal operation, the outlet flow from V-44101 (i.e. the demand of the
water injection pumps P-45001A/B/C) is measured by FT-441019 and
transmitted to FIC-441019.
FIC-441019 supplies a remote setpoint to FIC-441001 which modulates
FCV-441001, as required, to match inlet flow to outlet flow. LIC-441010 also has
an input to FIC-441001 which affects the positioning of FCV-441001. In the
event that the level in V-44101 falls below the setpoint of LIC-441010, this
controller transmits a signal to FIC-441001 which tends to open FCV-441001
and increase the level in V-44101. Alternatively, when the level in V-44101 rises
above the setpoint of LIC-441010 then a signal is transmitted which tends to
close FCV-441001.
However, the operation of LIC-441010 is slow acting such that a small change
in level does not immediately result in a signal being sent to FIC-441001.
FIC-441001 and FIC-441019 are fast acting controllers which are capable of
responding quickly to changes in seawater demand and provide the main means
of control of flow through V-44101. LIC-441010 provides a fine tuning control
input which smoothes the action of FIC-441001.
V-44101 has a 50% turndown capacity. When the demand of the water injection
pumps P-45001A/B/C falls to less than 50% of the maximum throughput of
V-44101, the overboard dump valve FCV-441019 is opened, in response to a
signal from FIC-441019.
Note:

The control scheme described above ensures that the de-aeration


system can cope with large changes in demand for seawater by the
injection system.

FIC-441001 also provides output to the stroke control of the methanol injection
pumps P-82601A/B to ensure that the amount of methanol injected for
regeneration of the stripping gas (see below) is in proportion to seawater flow
through V-44101. The calibration of the methanol pumps should be periodically
checked to ensure that injection rates are correctly matched with seawater flow.
Refer to Z-8000-BB-4051 for details of the Methanol System.
Seawater outlet from V-44101 is continuously monitored for chlorine and oxygen
content by AT-441017 and AT-441018 respectively.
Note:

All actuated valves relay positional information to the CPS using limit
switches, with the exception of control valves.

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3.2

Stripping Gas Regeneration Control


The water injection stripping gas blowers P-44201A/B operate in duty/standby
mode to draw stripping gas from V-44101. P-44201A/B suction pressure is
controlled by the split level controller PIC-441021 which acts on PCV-441021
(vent valve) and PCV-441023 (nitrogen supply valve). Too high a suction
pressure will cause PCV-441021 to open and relieve pressure via a local vent.
Too low a suction pressure will cause PCV-441023 to open and admit nitrogen
into the suction line.
The stripping gas supply to P-44201A/B is monitored by hydrocarbon analyser
AI-441026 which will initiate and alarm if the hydrocarbon content of the gas
exceeds a preset limit.
Instrument air must also be added to the stripping gas to ensure that the
requirements of the de-oxidiser vessel reaction are met (i.e. sufficient oxygen is
contained in the stripping gas to support the catalytic reaction in the de-oxidiser
vessel). The addition of instrument air is controlled by FIC-441027 (locally
compensated by TE-441029) acting on FCV-441027, in the instrument air supply
line to provide a fixed flow of approximately 97.8 kg/hr.
The stripping gas blowers P-44201A/B can only be operated one at a time.
Start-up of the blowers is interlocked with level instrumentation in the deaerator
tower to ensure that the blowers cannot be started until normal deaerator tower
level has been established. The blowers are started via the CPS with no local
start facility, however, local emergency stops are provided. The methanol supply
to the Minox reactor is interlocked with the stripping gas blowers running signal.
Addition of methanol without an established nitrogen flow through the deoxidiser
could lead to excessive temperatures being generated in the vessel.
Discharge flow from P-44201A/B is monitored by flow transmitters FT-442008
and FT-442009 respectively. A minimum flowrate of 4410 kg/hr is required to
ensure a sufficient volume of stripping gas is supplied to the deaerator tower. If
the discharge falls below this minimum flowrate, FAL-442008 will initiate the
automatic start-up of the standby blower.
The electric start-up heater EEH-44201 is controlled by a gap action controller
TIC-442015 which has a set point of 150C. The heater is protected from
overheating by TS-442017 and TS-442028 which initiate power isolation of the
heater, via the MCC, if the heater temperature exceeds preset limits.
A high temperature in the deoxidiser indicates that there is an excess of oxygen
or methanol in the vessel. If this temperature reaches 350C, the methanol feed
will be shut off and the stripping gas blowers left running to quench the reaction
to avoid potential damage to the vessel, which has a design temperature of
400C.
Pre-heating of the stripping gas, prior to it entering V-44201, is controlled by
TIC-442014 acting on TCV-442014 which is located in the heat exchanger
bypass line. If the temperature exceeds the setpoint, TCV-442014 tends to open
to increase the flow of gas through X-44201 bypass. If the temperature falls
below the setpoint, the opposite applies.

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3.3

Water Injection Pumps P-45001A/B/C Control


Water injection pumps suction pressure is determined by the operating pressure
of the deaerator tower, and is approximately 5 barg. The booster pumps always
discharge water into the suction line at the expense of de-aerated seawater
drawn from the tower. The pump overboard dump valves will open to maintain a
minimum flow of 600 m3/hr through each pump: the pumps are also equipped
with low-low flow trips via transmitters FIT-450146/450246/450346 set at 200
m3/hr. The pump discharge valves XV-450146/246/346 are manually opened
following pump start. These valves will close automatically on a pump trip, but
will not close automatically on a normal pump stop. On a pump stop, the
respective minimum flow overboard dump valve FCV-450145/245/345 will at first
move to the open position, driven by the minimum flow controller. Following a
time delay of 60 seconds the dump valve will then be driven closed by the CPS
logic. Closing the dump valve after pump stop prevents water flowing through
the non-running pump casing, and the delay ensures the FCV will close only
after the discharge valve is fully closed to minimise transient/locked-in pressures.
On receipt of pump start signal, CPS will confirm that the main discharge valve is
closed, (by reference to the limit switch), open the respective overboard dump
valve, and send a signal to the pump ECP to initiate a pump start sequence.
Start-up Overrides
Field inputs which cause a trip and require plant to be running before the field
measurement goes healthy, require a start-up override applied and then to be
reset in the PSD system. This is achieved at the operator workstations:
1. On Main System graphic select PSD, this will display PSD
Shutdown/Reset Page.
2. On this page all the process systems status will be displayed, i.e. input trip,
output trip etc. On this page at the bottom there is a button for Start-up
Overrides Page 1, Start-up Overrides Page 2, etc. Select the page
required, the override can be applied on a process group basis or individually.
3. Return to PSD Shutdown/Reset Page. On this page against each process
system there is a reset pushbutton. Operation of this pushbutton should clear
all healthy field inputs which were active and the ones which require a start-up
override. Input trips should change from red to green.
Relative Speed of Control Loops
Whilst running, it is important that the water injection pumps are always supplied
with suction pressure whatever the injection demand. This pressure is primarily
ensured by flow from the de-aeration system and specifically the de-aeration
tower. The residence time in the base of the deaerator, at the design rate of
1890 m3/hr, between NLL and low alarm, is 15 seconds; between NLL and lowlow trip, around 25 seconds. The response of controllers FIC-441019 and FIC441001 must be fast enough to prevent system shutdown on step changes in
demand, such as start-up (and shutdown) of pumps. LIC-441010, which acts to
adjust for any miss-match between the flow measurement out and flow
measurement in, should be slow relative to the flow loops, to minimise overcorrection. The speed of LIC-430010, which is responsible for injecting the
produced water into the suction of the water injection pumps, should be relatively
slow to avoid introducing large changes in the deaerator flow loops.
The split range operation of the degasser level control will cause excess
produced water to be safely dumped overboard should the degasser be
subjected to a rapid influx from the separation trains.

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3.4

Gas Turbine Control System


The gas turbine control system functions are:

Sequence
Local Control
Protect
Local Display
Display pre selected parameters via serial link in the CCR.
Remote control pre selected parameters via hardwire from the CCR.

The turbine control panel is electrical switch-based and allows command input
and indicates status. In addition to this when included a video display device
exhibits control parameters.
Instrumentation is included in the turbine package to report operating conditions
to control the system and control devices to receive control outputs from primary
and backup control systems.
Pre selected parameters can be monitored via serial link in the CCR and pre
selected parameters can be controlled via hard wire in the CCR.
Figure 10 shows the control system block diagram for the gas turbine and link
with the CCR.
Sequence functions monitor and sense events and perform computations to
operate components in the system. Sequence elements include:

Start
Load
Stop
Post lube

Start includes the following manual actions:

Arm the system: - turning on the electrical supply and resetting any alarm
or shutdown malfunctions.

Reset malfunctions. Prior to start, all shutdown malfunctions must be


cleared. Uncorrected shutdown malfunction prevent the package from
being started. Only cool down and fast lockout malfunctions require
clearing from the LER.

Select operating mode: Achieved by putting the OFF/LOCAL/ REMOTE


key switch in a local or remote position. This package should always be
remote operation and can only be started from the CCR.

The turbine should only be started from the CCR and the Solar Turbine
Control Panel has had the key removed to the central control room. The
key can be issued from there under the permit to work system when
required for maintenance access or following a Cooldown Lockout or
Fast Stop Lockout.

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Initiate start: In summary, once a start has been initiated the control
system performs a lube and driven equipment system check, starts
package fans, performs a fuel shutoff valve test and pre-crank status
check.

In detail, when a Start is initiated the following occurs:


The fuel valve and lube pressures are checked, the purge is cranked, light off
(includes; torch ignition, combustion and acceleration to self sustaining speed),
starter dropout and lube monitoring.
The pre-crank check comprises of lube system and seal checks, confirmation of
lube oil pressure and fuel valve checks. On completion of this the engine is
cranked.
Once the start is set the post-lube back up and pre/post-lube oil pumps start on
a test cycle and the pre-lube timer starts, if a hot re-start is being performed the
pre-lube pump test is not carried out. Following this the control system performs
a pressure check on the gas fuel valves, to ensure that they open and close
correctly and fuel pressure switch/transmitter signals are verified.
Purge crank rotates the engine with the starter to circulate air and to purge gas
accumulated in the engine, air inlet and the exhaust duct. This reduces rotor bow
caused by an extended inactive period; on hot starts it cools the gas turbine hot
section. Once the purge crank is initiated the engine accelerates to a preset
speed typically 10-18% and the crank timer begins. If the engine fails to reach
10-15% within this time the start sequence is aborted and the fail to crank alarm
is initiated.
When the preset speed is reached the purge cycle and timer begin. Once the
liquid purge timer times out the liquid purge valve closes. The engine
accelerates, purging the engine, inlet and exhaust ducts. The crank duration is
determined by the exhaust duct volume and after time out of the purge time the
start cycle begins.
After light off, the fuel control valves gradually ramp open during the combustion
of the fuel gas. The inlet guide vanes ramp open and the bleed valve gradually
ramps closed based on the corrected engine speed. The bleed valve and the
guide vanes control the airflow through the engine to prevent surge.
If the correct engine temperature is not reached before the ignition times out an
ignition failure malfunction is enunciated and the start sequence aborted. Speed
and load is sensed by the controlling fuel valve and is regulated to accelerate
the engine and to increase the engine temperature.

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Operator control

CENTRAL CONTROL
ROOM

REMOTE
CONTROL

REMOTE
DATA

Figure 10 Gas Turbine Control Schematic

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3.5

Water Injection Pump P-45001D Control


Pump P-45001D is installed in parallel to the three existing electric-driven pumps
and its control philosophy is similar to that of the current pumps with the
additional facility to control the pump speed which can be adjusted to match the
required water injection flow rate. New and modified graphics have been
installed. The pump is started, controlled and stopped from the CCR. There is
no requirement to operate the pump from the LER, except for emergency stop of
the turbine.
Valve control functions on the Valve Access Platform are performed via the CPS
system in the CCR. The Turbine Control Panel TCP) in the LER provides a
dedicated control/monitoring facility for the gas turbine driven pump package,
with common fault and trip reporting back to the CPS.
The water injection pumps suction pressure is determined by the operating
pressure of the deaerator tower and is approximately 5 barg. The produced
water booster pumps always discharge water into the suction line at the expense
of de-aerated seawater drawn from the tower.
Minimum flow protection for the pump is provided by an overboard dump valve
FCV-450445, which will open at a predefined minimum flow of 330 m 3/h to
protect the pump from damage. The pump is also equipped with a low-low flow
trip, FT-450445 LL set at 280 m3/h.
The pump has a discharge double block & bleed valve isolation facility. The
discharge valve, XV-450446, start up equalisation line valve, XV-450501 and
overboard dump valve, FCV-450445 are actuated based on the pump start-up or
shutdown sequence. To prevent high flow rate in the start up equalisation line,
an orifice plate has been fitted. On receipt of a pump start signal, the CPS
confirms that the main discharge valve is closed (by reference to the limit
switch), open the respective overboard dump valve, and then send a signal to
the Pumps Electric Control Panel (ECP) to initiate the pump start sequence. The
differential pressure across the actuated discharge valve will be monitored to
provide a permissive to open the valve.
The existing pumps operate against backpressure from the wells and provide a
water injection rate and discharge pressure as required by the system. When
the DP between the outlet PT-450443 and the inlet PT-450441 to the pump is
less than 2.0 bar, the minimum flow control valve FCV-450445 is shut and the
minimum flow controller FIC-450445 is inhibited. When the DP is larger than 2.0
bar, the minimum flow controller is activated and FCV-450445 is allowed to
operate under automatic control. The minimum flow 330 m 3/hr is achieved in a
pre-determined time to prevent pump damage. This arrangement indicates when
the pump has started pumping.
4th Water Injection Pump Start-up Overrides
The 4th water injection pump package is independently controlled by an
associated TCP. The CPS provides routine control functions, which are carried
out from the CCR. Start-up overrides are:

TA 850005 LL (fuel gas system)

TA 850006 LL (fuel gas system)

PA 850005 LL (fuel gas system)

PA 450444 LL (pump suction side)

FA 450446 LL (pump discharge side)


These are automatically set and removed by the control system.

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Page 59 of 158

Figure 11 CCR Start-up Override Graphic

3.6

Subsea Water Injection Valve Control


The subsea valves operated from the FPSO are:
Wing Valves
Upper Master Valve
SSSV
Annulus Master Valve
Crossover valve
These valves have

a ROV override. Subsea valves operated by ROV are:


Choke Valves
Lower Master Valve
Vent valves (downstream of swab valves)
All WI manifold valves.

The choke is adjusted by ROV from the intervention vessel when the associated
well is on-line. The swab valves (annulus and tubing) are remotely operated but
only from an intervention vessel and not from the FPSO. These valves provide
flow paths into the water injection well for the intervention rig and are only
required to be operated when such work is ongoing. They must remain under
control from the intervention vessel and therefore cannot be operated from the
FPSO. The swab valves remain closed when the well is under control from the
FPSO and they have no part to play in any operational scenario. It should be
noted that once the workover riser is connected through the tree cap then all
actuated tree valves operable from the FPSO are operable from the Intervention
Vessel.

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4.

WATER INJECTION SYSTEM & GAS TURBINE OPERATION

4.1
Step
1
2

3
4
5
6
7
8
9

10

11
12

13
14
15
16
17

Pre-start Checks
Procedure
Confirm that water injection system is mechanically complete and that
all associated Work Permits have been closed out.
Purge deaerator tower if required.
Note:
Purging must be carried out following intrusive maintenance.
Purging is not required if the system is to be started after a
short-term shutdown (i.e. with a normal operating seawater
level in the deaerator).
Confirm that turret and subsea system are prepared for water injection.
Confirm that the manual valves are positioned as detailed in the Startup column of the Valve Position Tables.
Confirm that instrument air supply is available.
Confirm that the seawater distribution system is operational.
Confirm that a methanol supply is available to the de-aeration package.
Confirm that a nitrogen supply is available to the de-aeration package.
Confirm that power is available to the water injection pumps from the
HV switchroom (switchboard SWBDB(P)) as below:
P-45001A - cubicle A
P-45001B - cubicle W
P-45001C - cubicle X.
Confirm that power is available to the auxiliary lube oil pumps (water
injection pumping packages) from the LV aft switchroom (440V
switchboard SWBDA(P)) as listed below:
P-45002A - cubicle BF3
P-45002B - cubicle AHR5
P-45002C - cubicle BF11.
Confirm that power is available to the water injection pumps lube oil
heaters EEH-45001A/B/C from EDB-83801 in the LV aft switchroom.
Confirm that power is available to the stripping gas blowers from the LV
aft switchroom (440V switchboard SWBDA(P)) :
P-44201A - cubicle DF8
P-44201B - cubicle AGR8.
Confirm that power is available to the de-oxidiser vessel start-up heater
EEH-44201 from the LV aft switchroom (440V switchboard SWBDA(P) cubicle LR5).
Confirm that the de-aeration package trace heating system is
operational.
Confirm that FIC-441001 is set to manual and that FCV-441001 and
FCV-441019 are closed.
Confirm that power is available for 4th Water Injection pump and gas
turbine auxiliaries, control systems and the fuel gas heater.
Confirm that the following shutdown valves are closed.
XV-441024 - nitrogen supply
XV-442026 - methanol supply
XV-441028 - air supply.

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Signature

Page 61 of 158

4.2
Step
1
2

3
4

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

16

17

18
19
20
21

De-aerator Package Purge Procedure


Procedure
Confirm that water injection system is mechanically complete and that
all associated Work Permits have been closed-out.
Ensure that the following shutdown valves are closed as listed below:
XV-441024 - nitrogen supply
XV-442026 - methanol supply
XV-441028 - air supply
XXV-441040 - V-44101 seawater inlet.
Ensure shutdown valve XXV-441002 (V-44101 seawater inlet) is open.
Ensure the manual valves on the package chemical injection lines are
closed as listed below:
HV-441002 - biocide (V-44101 seawater inlet)
HV-441003 - antifoam (V-44101 seawater inlet)
HV-441088 - scale inhibitor (V-44101 water outlet)
HV-441019 - O2 scavenger (V-44101 produced water inlet).
Ensure V-44101 manual vent line valves HV-441024 and HV-441025
are closed.
Ensure stripping gas de-oxidiser vessel manual vent valves HV-442029
and HV-442030 are closed.
Ensure HV-441016 (V-44101 water outlet) is open.
Ensure that HV-441017 (V-44101 produced water inlet) is closed.
Ensure that HV-441014 (V-44101 overboard dump line) is closed.
Set PIC-441021 to manual and ensure that PCV-441021 (nitrogen/air
supply line vent valve) is closed.
Ensure stripping gas exchanger X-44201 bypass valves HV-442040 and
HV-442041 are open.
Set TIC-442014 to manual and ensure TCV-442014 is open.
Ensure de-oxidiser vessel outlet valve HV-442035 is open.
Ensure nitrogen supply manual block valves HV-441063 and HV441065 are open.
Ensure stripping gas blowers P-44201A/B isolation valves are open:
HV-442001 and HV-442006 (P-44201A)
HV-442007 and HV-442012 (P-44201B).
Connect a temporary nitrogen hose to HV-442026 on the stripping gas
exchanger X-44201 and open the utility station nitrogen valve to charge
the hose.
Note:
The system is now lined-up and prepared for purging.
CAUTION:
Ensure that the start-up heater EEH-44201 is not
energised throughout the purging procedure as
this could result in excessive nitrogen
temperatures which would damage the deaerator
tower packing.
Open HV-442026 to begin nitrogen purge. Monitor pressure using PG441022 (V-44101 stripping gas outlet line) until the pressure reaches
approximately 1.5 barg and then close HV-442026.
Note:
Although system purging causes a reverse flow across the
catalyst bed in V-44201, this should not cause any damage to
the bed.
Open HV-441024 and HV-441025 in V-44101 manual vent line to
depressurise the system and then close these valves.
Repeat steps 17 and 18 twice.
On completion of purging confirm that HV-441024, HV-441025 and HV442026 are closed.
Remove nitrogen hose and re-fit blank flange to HV-442026.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Signature

Page 62 of 158

4.3
Step
1
2
3
4

6
7
8
9
10
11
12

13

14

15

De-aerator Package Start-up


Procedure
Carry Pre-start Checks.
Confirm XXV-441002 (deaerator inlet) is open, then open XXV-441040.
Slowly open FCV-441001 to allow flow to V-44101 and set FIC-441001
to auto when the control valve is open. FCV-441001 must be opened
slowly to avoid water hammer.
Set FIC-441001 setpoint to approximately 945 m 3/h so that all flow
through V-44101 can pass through the overboard dump line. This is set
by adjusting FIC-441019. The flow should be greater than the water
injection pump(s) minimum flow.
Set controllers LIC-441010, FIC-441001 and FIC-441019 to auto.
Note:
LIC-441010 will send a diminishing signal to FIC-441001 as V44101 reached its normal operating level. This will cause
FCV-441001 to close. FCV-441019 in the overboard dump
line will tend to open to maintain V-44101 level and establish
flow though V-44101. FCV-441001 is a fail-closed control
valve while FCV-441019 fails open.
CAUTION: Seawater circulation must be established before
starting nitrogen circulation as heat generated by P44201A/B could cause localised overheating of
V-44101 packing.
Confirm that TIC-442014 (de-oxidiser vessel V-44201 temperature
controller) is set to auto.
Confirm that PIC-441021 (stripping gas blowers supply pressure
controller) is set to auto and controlling at a pressure of approx. 6 barg.
Open XV-441024 in the nitrogen supply line.
Confirm that FIC-441027 is in auto and then open XV-441028 in the air
supply line.
Confirm that FIC-441001 is maintaining a seawater flow through V44101 of approximately 945 m3/h.
Confirm that FALL-442009 (stripping gas blowers discharge flow) is
inhibited using the start-up over-ride and the PSD reset.
Start duty blower and monitor FI-442008 to confirm flow through X44201 and V-44201. Each of the blowers should not be started more
than four times in any one hour period.
Note: The minimum nitrogen flow required prior to energising the
start-up heater EEH-44201 is 50% of the design flowrate 2450 kg/h.
Energise the start-up heater EEH-44201.
Note: EEH-44201 is controlled by the gap action controller TIC442015 when temperature in V-44201 exceeds 150C. It is anticipated
that pre-heating should continue for 1-2 hours to ensure uniform heating
of the catalyst bed is achieved.
Circulate stripping gas with the heater on for 1 hour to ensure the
temperature is uniform throughout the bed and no longer rising. It will
probably settle out at 45 -50C from a cold start.

Signature

Confirm that HV-442021 is open and then open XV-442026 to establish


methanol flow to upstream of X-44201. Ramp up te methanol flow to
50 l/h over 30 minutes.
Note: Flow from the Minox methanol pumps is controlled by FIC441001 which varies pump stroke length dependent on the flow through
the deaerator tower.
Note: During start-up, the methanol injection rate should be manually
controlled to provide a gradual increase in methanol flow until the
setpoint is reached. The resulting exothermic reaction in V-42201 will
initially only occur local to the start-up heater until the flow of stripping
gas produces a uniform temperature across the catalyst bed.

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4.3
Step
16

17
18

19

4.4

De-aerator Package Start-up (continued)


Procedure
Monitor the temperature in V-44201 and when the exit temperature
reaches 250C, set the methanol flow to maintain this temperature.
Dosing rates are controlled by FIC-441001.
Note:
To ensure complete catalytic reaction, a 10% excess of
methanol is injected.
Remove standby stripping gas blower inhibit when stripping gas flow
is established.
Establish chemical injection, if required, by opening injection point
valves as listed below:
HV-441121 - calcium nitrate(V-44101 seawater inlet)
HV-441003 - antifoam (V-44101 seawater inlet)
HV-441088 - scale inhibitor (V-44101 water outlet)
HV-441019 - O2 scavenger (V-44101 produced water inlet).
Note:
O2 scavenger injection is required if the de-aeration package
fails to reduce the oxygen content of the seawater to below
20 ppb (vol). The use of oxygen scavenger impacts on the
type and amount of other chemicals used.
Monitor the oxygen content of the treated seawater using AI-441018.
Note:
When the oxygen content has been reduced to below 20 ppb
(vol), the water injection pumps can be started.

Signature

Water Injection Pumps P-45001A/B/C Start-up


Prior to starting the pumps, the deaerator package must in operation, the oxygen
content of the seawater be below 20 ppb (vol) and treated water be routed
overboard via FCV-441019. Start-up of the water injection system is based
around the following requirements:
Ensuring the main water injection pumps are not started against a
vacuum condition in the injection riser.
Ensuring that the water injection wing valves are open against a low
differential pressure.
To achieve these aims, the produced water booster pumps or seawater lift
pumps are used to overcome any vacuum condition prior to starting the main
pumps, but with the main pump discharge open to allow flow. To prevent wear
on the water injection wing valves, these are opened after the system has been
pressurised with the produced water booster pumps or seawater lift pumps, but
prior to the start-up of the main pumps.
Start Permissives
The motor-driven water injection pumps can be started in one of three ways
dependant upon mode selection at the electrical control panel (ECP):
Manual

The main drive motor & auxiliary lube oil pumps are manually
started/stopped via their start/stop pushbutton on the front of the
ECP. Manual control is for maintenance/testing purposes only.

ECP Auto

On operation of the injection pump start pushbutton on the ECP,


the auxiliary lube oil pump is automatically started. Once lube oil
pressure is established, the main drive motor automatically starts.

CPS Auto

The main drive and all auxiliaries are automatically started on


receipt of a start command from CPS.

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LOCAL/CPS START
Assuming all on-skid trips and PSD/ESD trips are healthy and all necessary
drives available, the pumps can be started. Irrespective of start mode, the CPS
start permissive is required. The CPS start permissive is dependent on:
suction pressure above 3 barg (measured by loop PI-450141)
discharge valve closed XV-450146)
activation of operator pushbutton.
This CPS start permissive is only valid for 20 minutes, if the pump has not
started by then it times out and the operator must reactivate the CPS pushbutton
(assuming the valve position and pressure have not changed).
Local Start: for either Manual or ECP Auto only the CPS start permissive is
required, all other status/indication can be monitored at the ECP.
CPS Start:

on the water injection start sequence pop-up, the following


indications aid start:
Water injection pump available - indication from ECP that all
onskid trips have been reset and start permissives are healthy
Injection pump CPS start available - indication from ECP that
CPS Auto has been selected
Operation off the CPS start permissive and then Start on the
pop-up start the pump
Start sequence initiated - indicates pump is in a start sequence
Water injection pump online - this indicates the pump start
sequence is complete.

Upon receipt of the pump running signal, CPS drives the overboard dump valve
FCV-450145 fully open for 20 seconds. Thereafter the FIC is placed in auto
FCV to control the FCV. The water goes overboard until the discharge valve XV450146 is manually opened via CPS and forward flow to the turret is established.
Start Sequence Summary
1. Pump Stopped.
2. Pump Permitted to Start AND (ECP Mode AND Start P/B) OR (CPS Mode
AND Remote Start).
3. Start Aux Lube Oil Pump, Reset Low Lube Oil Press Alarm, Injection Pump
Sequence Initiated Sent to CPS.
4. Lube Oil established and Aux. Pump Running, Start Timer running (10 secs).
5. Main Injection Pump Main Drive Started. Confirmed Running.
6. Command Discharge Valve to Open, enable minimum Flow Valve Control.
Repeat Pump Running to CPS. Remove Lube Oil Override.
7. Discharge Pressure Established.
8. Start Timer Initiated ( 10 Sec,)
9. Stop Auxiliary Lube Oil Pump. Start Sequence Complete.
The required water injection rate is set by the position of the ROV-operated
subsea choke valves on each water injection wellhead.
All stops are operable regardless of mode selected. The mode selector is keyoperated, the key being removable when in CPS Auto.

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Water Injection Pumps P-45001A/B/C Startup Checklist Summary


Step

Procedure

Signature

Confirm that the water injection pumps P-45001A/B/C are prepared for
operation. This procedure covers start-up of water injection using a single
injection pump A, B or C. Additional pumps can be started as required
when injection flow is established.

Ensure that water injection riser(s) are correctly lined up, eg:
Schiehallion Central riser selected:
HV-180855 open - riser 10 block valve
HV-180853 closed - NRV bypass 2 globe valve
Schiehallion West, North and Loyal riser selected:

HV-182855 open - riser 10 block valve


HV-182853 closed - NRV bypass 2 globe valve
HV-181503 open - riser 12 block valve
Check pressure downstream of the injection pumps using PI-450001.
Note:

If the pressure exceeds 5 bar, the water injection pump can be


started and steps 4, 6, 7 and 8 below can be ignored.

Confirm that injection pumps are fully primed. Vent valves on pumps
suction and discharge lines can be used to purge air from the pump.

Confirm associated lube oil pumps are running.

Open pump equalisation line valves to charge the water injection system
to 5 bar (i.e. de-aerator pressure). (HV-450133/4 or HV-450233/4 or HV450333/4).

Monitor de-aerator tower level as water injection system is charged.

After charging to 5 bar, close the pump equalisation line valves. (HV450133/4 or HV-450233/4 or HV-450333/4).

Start injection pump using correct start mode and sequence.


Note:

Pump discharge valve should be closed and pump discharge


water routed overboard via the minimum flow recycle valve.

10

Commence injection of Scale Inhibitor by opening HV-441088 (V-44101


water outlet).

11

Open pump discharge valve equalising line (HV-450133/4 or


HV-450233/4 or HV-450333/4) to charge the subsea system to 250 barg
on PI-450001.

12

When subsea system is charged, close the equalising line and open the
pump discharge valve (XV-450146 or XV-450246 or XV-450346).

13

For selected injection well, confirm wells upper master valve is open.
Notes:

Software interlocks prevent the upper master valve being


opened unless the wing valve is closed.
Subsea valves and indications are provided at the subsea
Master Control Station (MCS).

14

For the selected injection well, open annulus master valve.

15

For the selected injection well, open the wing valve.


Note:

16

Software interlocks prevent the wing valve being opened unless


the upper master valve is also opened.

Monitor FI-xxx929N to confirm flow into the injection well

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Step

Procedure

17

For the selected injection well, confirm that the surface controlled subsea
safety valve (SCSSV) is open.
Note:

Signature

Software interlocks prevent the SCSSV being opened unless


the wing valve and the upper master valve are open.

18

Monitor annulus pressure using PI-xxx923N until the injection water


temperature (TI-xxx922N) stabilises. The allowable annulus pressure
range is 0 to 310 barg.

19

If annulus pressure outside acceptable range, close injection wing valve.

20

Open crossover valve to equalise pressure.

21

Once pressure has equalised, close crossover valve and open wing valve
to continue injection.

22

Record pressure downstream of the choke (PI-xxx922N) and the injection


flowrate (FI-xxx929N)

23

Plot pressure and flow readings on graph provided with the Well
Operating Limits, associated with the selected injection well, to determine
whether operating conditions are within the allowable range.If conditions
are outside allowable ranges, stop injection and report findings.

24

If required, open additional injection wells.

25

Start additional pump(s) as required while monitoring injection pressures


and flow rates and confirming that conditions at each well are with
acceptable operating limits.

4.5

Solar Gas Turbine & Water Injection Pump P-45001D Start-up


WARNING: Before starting the pump drive engine, contact maintenance
personnel or verify from written records that all maintenance items have been
completed. A physical inspection should be performed by walking around the
package to verify that there are no maintenance tags attached to any
equipment, that indicate equipment should not be energised or started. Injury to
personnel or damage to equipment may result if this Warning is not observed.
The following pre-start checks should be performed prior to each engine start.
The combination of pre-start checks, start procedure and post start procedure
should reveal any abnormal conditions that may affect package performance:

Turbine package and gearbox


Water Injection Pump D
Local Control Room LER - (the pressurisation and ventilation system is
primarily controlled from a pressurisation / F&G system that comprises
two EE xd-rated panels. The control panel also interfaces with F&G
devices within the turbine enclosure)
Control System
There is a permissive to start in the fuel gas system: if the fuel gas
temperature is above 10 oC upstream of XV-850005, permissive to open
XV-850005 will be given even at the maximum delta P across the PCV850012, i.e. 55barg1 barg = 54 bar. If the fuel gas temperature is
below 10oC and the pressure above 17 barg downstream of PCV-850012
or the delta P is less than 38 bar across the PCV-850012, then a
permissive to open XV-850005 will be given.

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Gas Turbine Pre-Start Checks


Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Procedure
Confirm that the gas turbine and auxiliary system are mechanically
complete and that all associated work permits have been closed-out.
Verify that the water seals from the oil cooler drip pan are filled with
water and valves are open.
Verify that the water seal from the oil filter drain is filled with water and
the valve is open.
Verify that water seals from the combustion air coalescer and turbine
enclosure HVAC intake coalescers are water filled.
Verify that the valves from the lube oil system are closed. HV-864513,
HV-864514, HV-864515. Reference drg: 37W022F0146-A-8000-GP0090.02-2C.
Confirm that instrument air supply is available.
Confirm that the Fuel gas supply is available.
Confirm that the cooling medium is available
Confirm that the flare system is available.
Confirm that the open drain is available.
Confirm that power is available from the switch room.
Check inside the turbine enclosure for any signs of leakage.
Close Enclosure doors.
Confirm that the enclosure F&G system is operational,
Confirm that CO2 deluge cylinders are charged and armed.
Start selected enclosure ventilation fan and confirm flow rate is
acceptable by checking that the correct pressure is being maintained
using the operating pressure transmitter

Signature

Gear Box Pre-Start Checks


Step
1

Procedure
Confirm that the gearbox is mechanically complete and that all
associated work permits have been closed-out.

Signature

Local Control Room


Step
1
2

Procedure
Confirm that all associated work Permits are closed out.
Confirm HVAC air fan is running and that the fan and air pressure is
being sustained and is remaining above the LER set point. (Indication
lights should be green.)

Signature

Control System
Step
1

Procedure
Confirm that all associated work permits have been closed-out.

Signature

Valve Access Platform


Step
1

Procedure
Verify that the fence area on the main walk way below the valve
access platform is intact and present to prevent water up to 60 oC
dripping on to personnel during start up.

Signature

Pump D Pre-Start Checks include:


Step
1
2
3
4
5

Procedure
Confirm that the water injection system is mechanically complete and
that all associated Work Permits have been closed out.
Confirm that the manual valves for the pump are positioned for
normal operation as detailed in this document.
Confirm that valves XV-450501, XV-450446 & FCV-450445 are shut.
Confirm that the pump is fully primed. If necessary use the vent
valves on the pumps suction and discharge lines to purge air from the
pump. Confirm pump casing drain valve HV-450443 is closed.
Confirm that all instrument impulse line valves are open.

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Page 68 of 158

Pump D start-up logic is dependant on the turbine start-up sequence, which is


divided in to five main sections as shown by the start graphic in Figure 10.
1

Request Permissive to Start the Turbine is firstly initiated from the start-up
graphic by pressing the push button (XHS-450450). A signal is sent to set up the
following valve positions:

Pump Discharge Valve, XV-450446 SHUT


Pump Discharge Equalisation valve, XV-450501 SHUT
Turbine Fuel Gas Supply Valve, XV-850005 OPEN
Set Start-up overrides

If the fuel gas temperature in the supply system is above 10 oC upstream of XV850005, permissive to open XV-850005 will be given even at the maximum delta
P across the PCV-850012, i.e. 55barg1 barg = 54 bar.
If the fuel gas supply temperature is below 10 oC and the pressure above 17 barg
downstream of PCV-850012 or the delta P is less than 38 bar across the PCV850012, then a permissive to open XV-850005 will be given.
Once the Request Permissive to Start the Turbine is initiated there may be a
requirement for the water injection PSD Reset button to be pressed depending
on the status of the 4 th water injection system trips; e.g. if trips exist, overrides
will be required to be set before enabling reactivation of valves XV-450446, XV450501 and XV-850005.
2

Permissive to Start the Turbine is given once the status of the valve positions
is checked by the PLC:

Pump discharge valve XV-450446 confirmed closed


Pump discharge equalisation valve XV-450501 confirmed closed
Turbine fuel gas supply valve XV-850005 confirmed open.

In addition, the PLC will check whether the permissive to start the turbine is
given by the Solar Turbine Control Panel or not. This permissive is indicated by
XI-450407. All required permissives are indicated on the start-up graphic when
they are fulfilled. The request to start turbine to idle will only be given once the
Request to Start Turbine to Idle push button XHS-450451 has been pressed.
Once all the permissives are healthy XI-450450 illuminates, which is permissive
to start. This will be valid for 20 minutes; if this is exceeded and the request to
start the turbine is not given the following will occur;

XV-850005 closes
Start up overrides, which were set will be removed.

Request to Start Turbine to Idle from the start graphic may be requested by
using XHS-450451 pushbutton (when the start permissive is active). On
detection of this, the TCP will proceed through the start sequence to bring the
turbine to 70% of the design speed. A start request indication will be displayed
through XI-450408. Simultaneously, a request is sent to switch on the Fuel Gas
Heater ETP-85002. When the speed has reached idle status, the Solar Turbine
Control Panel will send a signal back to the CPS to indicate that the turbine is
ready to load through XI-450430. This forms the feed forward permissive.
When the differential pressure across the pump is larger than 2.0 bar, the
minimum flow controller FIC-450445 will be activated and the FCV-450445 will
be allowed to operate under automatic control. The minimum flow of 330 m 3/hr
will be achieved in a pre-determined time to prevent pump damage.

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Request to Feed Forward Flow: When the turbine is ready to load the operator
operates the Feed Forward pushbutton (XHS-450452) from the start-up screen.
When this has been initiated, the start-up graphics indicate Request to Feed
status through XI-450452. Feed Forward is based on the differential pressure
across the discharge valve XV-450446 (Differential Pressure Indicator PDI450446). There are two routes:

If the differential pressure is positive (the discharge pressure is greater


than the downstream pressure) the discharge equalisation valve XV450501 opens. The downstream pressure will slowly increase. When the
differential pressure is less than two bar the discharge valve XV-450446
opens; once fully open the equalisation valve XV-450501 is closed.

If the differential pressure is negative (the discharge pressure is lower


than the downstream pressure) the turbine set point will be increased
using the SIC-450453 until the differential pressure is less than 2 bar. At
this point, the CPS logic will open the discharge valve XV-450446.

Once the normal Feed Forward is established, the pump speed will be manually
entered from the Control and Safety System (C&SS). The CPS logic will switch
SIC-450453 from auto to manual control mode and XI-450453 will indicate the
set point speed of the turbine.
5

Request to Trip Turbine to Idle: To trip the turbine to idle pushbutton XHS450454 must be operated. This will generate an on screen indication that a Trip
Turbine to Idle has been requested. On detection of XHS-450454 the CPS will
close XV-450446 and XV-450501 after a 30 second time delay. The CPS output
XHS-450454 sends a signal to the TCP which will proceed through the slow to
idle sequence and bring the pump to idle speed. As XV-450446 closes, FIC450445 and FCV-450445 will open under PID (Proportional, Integral and
Derivative) control to protect the pump against low flow rates.
A cool down signal, indicated by XI-450410, will be generated to indicate a trip to
idle/ Normal stop has occurred. The TCP will remain at idle for 3 hours before
performing a full stop sequence, unless the feed forward button is pressed within
the 180 mins. Restart to Feed Forward can only occur under these conditions:

XV-450446 CLOSED
XV-450501 CLOSED
Turbine tripped to idle.

Once feed forward is re-activated, the CPS will automatically bring the turbine up
to idle speed and ready to load before re-feeding forward.
Start faults may include:
Permissive not given to open the inlet fuel gas valve XV-850005
Fault: The gas from the fuel gas heaters is less than 10 oC and 17 barg,
and too cold to enter the engine burner management system
Correction:
P&ID drawing: 37W022f0146-A-8000-GP-0090.00-2C
Open valve HV-850538 and HV-850539 until permission is given.
Permissive not given start the turbine
Fault: Fast stop or Cooldown lock-outs have occurred
Correction: Reset LER acknowledge & reset switches.
Table 12

Water Injection Pump P-45001 Gas Turbine Start Faults

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Figure 12 shows the turbine start-up graphic displayed in the CCR and can be
found in the screen for pump C and D, Figure 13.

Figure 12 CCR Turbine Start-up Graphic

Figure 13 CCR Graphic Display Screen for Water Injection Pumps C & D

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Refer to P&ID L-8000-GP-0046.03, A-8000-GP-0090.02.


Pump P-45001D valve positions for start-up and normal operation are listed below:
Valve Tag No.

Description

HV-450527
HV-450501
HV-450502
HV- 450505
HV-450506
HV-450411

P-45001D suction vent valve


P-45001D suction block valve
P-45001D suction drain valve
P-45001D air vent block valve
P-45001D discharge vent valve
P-45001D discharge drain valve

HV-450412
HV-450513

P-45001D suction automatic air vent valve


XV- 450446 (P45001D) drain valve

HV-450514
HV-450515
HV-450522

XV-450446 (P45001D) block valve


XV-450501 (P45001D) drain valve
FCV-450445 (P45001D) block valve

HV-450521
HV-450525
HV-450526

XV-450501 (P45001D) block valve


P-45001D vent system
P-45001D Bypass vent

Start-up
Position
Closed
Open
Closed
Open
Closed
Closed and
blanked off
Open
Closed and
blanked off
Open
Closed
(Locked)
Open
Open
Closed
Closed

Normal
Operation
Closed
Open
Closed
Closed
Closed
Closed and
blanked off
Closed
Closed and
blanked off
Open
Closed
(Locked)
Open
Open
Closed
Closed

Pump P-45001D turbine valve positions for start-up and normal operation are:
Valve Tag
Number
HV-804807
HV-520503
HV-520510
HV-520511
HV-815502
HV-815503

Description

Start-up
Position
Open
Open
Closed
Closed
Open
Closed and
blanked off
Open

Normal
Operation
Open
Open
Closed
Closed
Open
Closed and
blanked off
Open

G-45001 instrument air block valve


G-45001 LP flare block valve
G-45001 LP flare drain line
G-45001 LP flare drain line
G-45001 cooling medium supply valve
X-45003 cooling medium drain valve

HV-815515

G-45001 cooling medium return block valve

HV-815514

G-45001 cooling medium return drain valve


G-45001 oil origin drain valve

Closed and
blanked off
Closed

Closed and
blanked off
Closed

HV-864510
HV-864516

G-45001 oil train drain valve

Closed

Closed

HV-864511

G-45001 lube oil filter drain valve

Closed

Closed

HV-864512

G-45001 combustion drain valve

Closed

Closed

HV-864518

G-45001 sampling Valve

Closed

Closed

HV-864513

G-45001 lube oil tank drain valve

Closed

Closed

HV-864514

G-45001 lube oil tank drain valve

Closed

Closed

HV-864515

G-45001 lube oil tank drain valve

Closed

Closed

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4.6

Exhaust Gas Purging


If unburnt fuel or other combustibles are present in the exhaust system they may
ignite and cause damage. Fuel may accumulate in the exhaust system before a
start or after an engine flameout or ignition failure. Hence, the exhaust system
must be purged by following the procedure below.

The internal free volume of the exhaust path to be purged is 1236 cu ft.

A purge of a minimum 3 air changes in the exhaust is required.


Ensure that the normal gas producer speed (NGP) is reached during the
purge crank. Minimum speed is 15% and recommended speed is 20-25%.
Purging must not occur at speeds greater than 25%.

Purge Air Flow:

Crank Speed (NGP)


15%
20%
25%

Air Flow, SCFM


2250
3000
3750

Purge Crank time required is calculated to be: 98 seconds (based on a


crank speed of 15%)

The advised minimum purge time is 240 seconds.

If the engine is to be started after an engine flameout it must be ensured


that all corrective measures have been taken to correct any root causes
for the failure before any attempt is made to restart.

In addition, the following should be checked on a continuous basis:

4.7

Properly maintain and adjust all gas turbine, controls and exhaust system
as recommended by the manufacturer.

Ensure that any exhaust gas valves are installed correctly and are
working properly; particularly the free passage of exhaust gas to the
atmosphere must be maintained during the engine start-up and
operation.

Ensure that the exhaust collector and the exhaust system liquid drains
are operating properly.

Maintain fuel quality. Any deviation from the required specification could
lead to a malfunction of the fuel control system.

4th Water Injection Pump & Turbine Start-up from CCR


The table below describes the start-up sequence on the turbine control panel in
the LER, before the gas turbine can be started from the CCR.

Step
1
2
3
4
5
6

Procedure
Ensure all relevant personnel are aware that the 4 th water injection pump
is about to be started. Make a tannoy announcement.
Get the key to the turbine control panel from the CCR, under Permit to
Work
Rotate OFF/LOCAL/REMOTE Key switch (S101) to LOCAL position.
Verify LOCAL Light (DS101) is illuminated.
Select Operation Summary display screen.
Press LAMP TEST switch (S113). Verify all indicator lights illuminate.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Signature

Page 73 of 158

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Press and release the ACKNOWLEDGE Switch (S117) and then press
and release RESET Switch (S114) to acknowledge and clear any alarm
or shutdown indications.
Select alarm summary display screen and check for alarm and shutdown
indications. Correct any alarm and shutdown indications that remains
Verify that AUTO/MANUAL switch is in AUTO
Verify READY light (DS177) illuminates and [Ready] is highlighted on
Operation Summary Display screen
Rotate OFF/LOCAL/REMOTE keyswitch (S101) to REMOTE position.
Verify that Ready to start light turns green on the start up screen for the
turbine in the CCR.
Check fuel gas pressure on the LER control panel.
Return the key to the turbine control panel back to the CCR under Permit
to Work.

Note: If any malfunctions remain the READY light will not illuminate. If this
occurs the malfunction must be corrected and the ACKNOWLEDGE
Switch and RESET Switch (S114) must be pressed again to reset the
malfunction circuit.
WARNING: The turbine package is now ready for operation from the CCR.
When the turbine is ready to start, running and stopping, DO NOT
ROTATE the OFF/LOCAL/REMOTE keyswitch (S101) to the LOCAL position.
If the switch is rotated to the LOCAL position all remote operation functions
cease and all control is lost between turbine package and CCR.
When the turbine has totally stopped the OFF/LOCAL/REMOTE keyswitch
(S101) can be rotated to the LOCAL position.
On the turbine control panel there is a START Switch (S110) that has been
disabled. The reason for this is that if the turbine is started from the LER, the
water injection pump may be damaged.
The Key to the turbine control panel is held in the CCR and can only be
used under a Permit to Work. Under normal operation, Keyswitch S101
should be in the REMOTE position at all times.
Note: Finally perform the post start sequence and compare against norms. If
significant deviations are present shut down the engine and determine the
cause.
The control system monitors the temperatures, system pressures, engine speed,
vibration levels and other indicators. It also provides throttling (fuel topping) to
compensate if parameters are exceeded, indicators for malfunctions on the
operator display, and displays alarms providing automatic control of the engine
shutdown and the post lube unit.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 74 of 158

4.8

Gas Turbine Compressor Cleaning using Wash Cart


Reference drawing: 37W022F0146-A-8000-GP-0090.01-2C
As Schiehallions environment contains salt, cleaning needs special care. Online
cleaning must be systematic not sporadic. If cleaning is sporadic, concentrated
salt deposits will accumulate in the air compressor and then online cleaning will
send a slug of salt through the turbine. The slug acts as a catalyst for other
contaminants provoking an erosive reaction. Frequent on-line washing will be
required to prevent the build up of salt deposits.
It must be verified prior to cleaning that the Demineralised water plant is in
operation, to ensure a Wash water supply.
The cleaning system must be flushed prior to use to ensure all debris is removed
and to pressure check for leaks. Flush out as follows:

Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Procedure
Check that the water inlet that connects the demineralised water source
and the tank water inlet is opened.

Signature

Open the following valves: HV-803700, HV-803711, HV-803701, HV803702 and control the water rate by HV-803710.
The vent valve is also opened and the tank filled with water until it begins
to flow out of the vent valve.
Open valve HV-530501, vent line on the skid
Close the water inlet.
Close the following valves: HV-803700, HV-803711, HV-803701, HV803702 and globe HV-803710
Close the vent valve HV-530501
Open the on-line air inlet valve to pressurize the tank to normal working
air pressure 6.9 barg and then close the air inlet valve.
Open valve HV-804805 and HV-804808.
Leave the tank under pressure for 10 minutes. There should be no
pressure drop or leakage to any of the fittings.
Slowly open the drain valve and allow the water to safely run to the drain
until the tank pressure is zero.
Open valve HV-864517
Close the drain valve, remove and clean and replace filter inserts from
the air water and chemical Y inlet strainers
Close valve HV-864517

Engine on-crank or on-line wash nozzle/manifold ring assembly pressure is checked thus:
Step
1
2

3
4

Procedure
Open the demineralised water inlet valve and the vent valve and half fill
the tank.
Open the on-crank or online air inlet valve to pressurize the tank to 2.0
barg. Connect the corresponding hoses between the tank outlet and the
on-line or on crank wash manifold inlet and slowly open the tank wash
fluid outlet.
If any leaks occur tighten the fittings. Repeat this procedure increasing the
pressure each time until the max working pressure of 6.9 barg is reached
without leaks.
Pressure test the atomising nozzles to confirm correct spraying. If any of
them appear blocked disconnect them and back flush the nozzle tip
through the orifice with a commercial electrical instrument cleaner
followed by high-pressure air or water.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Signature

Page 75 of 158

On-Crank Engine Compressor Cleaning (maintenance only)


Cleaning
Method

Cleaning Solution
(Volume/Dosage)
Gallons

Solution
Rinse

16
252

Distilled
Water to
solution
Ratio.
4:1
N/a

Flow GPM

Air
Pressure
Psig1

Air Flow
SCFM

4.4
4.4

85-100
85-100

4.6
4.6

On-Line Engine Compressor Cleaning


The objective of on-line cleaning is to clean the engine compressor on a regular
basis to reduce the build up of deposits in the compressor, i.e. maintaining a
clean engine rather than allow it to become fouled. On-line cleaning extends the
period between on-crank cleaning. However incorrect on-line cleaning can
induce fouling and chemical cleaning frequency cannot be accurately estimated
hence a trial run period should be used to determine this and before on-line
cleaning commences the baseline fouling trend should be established.
Cleaning
Method

Cleaning Solution
(Volume/Dosage)
Gallons

Solution
Rinse

16
8

Distilled
Water to
solution
Ratio.
4:1
N/a

Flow GPM

Air
Pressure
Psig1

Air Flow
SCFM

1.7
1.7

85-100
85-100

1.8
1.8

Notes:
1) The optimum pressure at the injectors is between 90-100 Psig (6.1-6.9 barg)
measured at the skid edge connection.
2) This is the recommended dosage. Compressor should be rinsed until a clean waste
stream is noted in engine drains.

On-line Engine Compressor Cleaning Procedure


Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Procedure
Confirm that engine is stabilised and at operating speed
Confirm that ambient temperatures are above 4 oC
Close all valves on the pressure injection tank
Open the wash cart vent valve and the wash cart water inlet valve
Fill the cart with the required amount of water and then close the tank
water inlet valve and disconnect the water supply
Connect the hose to the chemical source and the chemical inlet
Open the cart chemical inlet valve and fill the tank as required
Close the chemical inlet valve and disconnect the chemical supply
Close the Cart vent valve
Pressurise the tank to normal working pressure by opening the cart air
inlet valve and leave the valve open for the duration of the on-line
wash to maintain a steady injection pressure and flow
By selecting the appropriate on-line wash key and by opening the fluid
outlet valve start the on-line wash
Use all the cleaning solution in the tank

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Signature

Page 76 of 158

Post Cleaning Procedure


Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

4.9

Procedure

Signature

Purge the line for 2-3 minutes by leaving the air inlet valve open.
Close the air inlet valve and leave the outlet open to allow the cart
pressure to drop between 1.4 and 2.1 barg.
Select the appropriate function key to switch off the on-line cleaning,
close the fluid outlet valve and disconnect supply hose
Slowly open the vent valve and allow the pressure to discharge to 0
barg.
Within 20 minutes of the chemical wash a water rinse should be
performed to ensure the Cart is free of the Chemical Solution/ Water
mixture.
Open the water inlet valve and fill the cart with the required amount of
demineralised water.
Close the water inlet valve, disconnect the hose and flush the system
as above when the chemical wash was completed.
Compare performance figures with those before the wash and confirm
the contamination factor has decreased below 5%.

Routine Operations of 4th Water Injection Pump and GT


A check out should be performed daily when the 4 th water injection pump
package is running in order to confirm normal operation. A summary of the
system condition is displayed on the operation summary screen. Normal
operating data, instrument ranges, alarms, trip points for the water injection
system, water injection pump, gear box, gas turbine, start motor, accessory gear
box, lube oil and enclosure are listed below. If significant deviations occur the
engine should be shut down and the cause of the deviation established.
Expected Operating Data for Water Injection System
Description

Instrument

Suction to pump

PI-450441

Suction to pump

PA-450442

Discharge from Pump

PI-450443

Discharge from Pump

PA-450444

Water Injection Rate FIC450445

FIC-450445

Discharge from Pump


Delta Pressure for
Valve XV-450501
Minimum flow valve position

FA-450446
PDI-450446

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

ZI-450445

Value
Normal: 4.6 Barg
High Alarm: 7 Barg
Low Alarm 3 Barg
Trip high: 8 Barg
Trip Low: 2 Barg
Normal: 207-223 Barg
High Alarm: 250 Barg
Low Alarm 100 Barg
Trip high: 260 Barg
Trip Low: 95 Barg
Normal: 930 m3/h
Over speed case: 1150 m3/h
Low Alarm: 290 m3/h
Trip low: 280 m3/h
Normal: 0
Start up: 0 to 256 barg
Normal value: 0 to 100 % open

Page 77 of 158

Expected Operating Data for Water Injection Pump P-4001D


Description

Instrument

DE Vibration

YI-450400X

DE Vibration

YI-450400Y

DE Seal Pressure

PI-450416

NDE Seal Pressure

PI-450417

DE Journal Bearing
Temperature

TI-450405

NDE Journal Bearing


Temperature

TI-450406

NDE Vibration

YI-450401X

NDE Vibration

YI-450401Y

I/B Thrust Bearing


Temperature

TI-450407

O/B Thrust Bearing


Temperature

TI-450408

Balance Return Line


Temperature

TI-450409

Pump Speed

SI-450404

Pump HP

XI-450425

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Value
Range: 0 to 150 m
Normal: 5 m
Alarm: 100 m
Trip: 125 m
Range: 0 to 150 m
Normal: 6 m
Alarm: 100 m
Trip: 125 m
Range: 0 to 2.5 Barg Normal: 0
Barg
Alarm: 0.3 Barg
Trip: 0.5 Barg
Range: 0 to 2.5 Barg
Normal: 0 Barg
Alarm: 0.3 Barg
Trip: 0.5 Barg
Range 0 to 200 oC
Normal: 59 oC
Alarm: 90 oC
Trip: 100 oC
Range 0 to 200 oC C
Normal: 37.6 oC
Alarm: 90 oC
Trip: 100 oC
Range: 0 to 150m
Normal: 11 m
Alarm: 100 m
Trip: 125 m
Range: 0 to 150m
Normal: 11 m
Alarm: 100 m
Trip: 125 m
Range: 0 to 200 oC
Normal: 42 oC
Alarm: 110 oC
Trip: 120 oC
Range: 0 to 200 oC
Normal: 42 oC
Alarm: 110 oC
Trip: 120 oC
Range: 0 to 200 oC
Alarm: 90 oC
Trip: 95 oC
Range: 0 to 4000 RPM
Normal: 3650 RPM Design
Over speed: 3833 RPM
Range: 0-11 MW
Normal: 6.56 MW Design
Overspeed: 8.075 MW

Page 78 of 158

Expected Operating Data for Turbine to Pump Gear Box


Description

Instrument

Value

Thrust Brg Outboard Temp


RDN

TI-450414B

Thrust Overboard BRG Temp

TI-450414A

LSS End Bearing Temp

TI-450412

Axial

ZI-450405

Accelerator

XI-450408

Bearing HSS Y axis

YI-450405Y

Range: 0 to 200 oC
Alarm: 70 oC
Trip: 75 oC
Range: 0 to 200 oC
Alarm: 70 oC
Trip: 75 oC
Range: 0 to 200 oC
Alarm: 100 oC
Trip: 105 oC
Range: 1-0-1 mm
Alarm: 0.1 mm
Range: 0 to 25 mm/s rms
Alarm: 7.0 mm/s rms
Trip: 18.0 mm/s rms
Range: 0 to 150 m

YI-450405X

Alarm: 63 m
Trip: 93 m
Range: 0 to 150 m

YI-450406Y

Alarm: 63 m
Trip: 93 m
Range: 0 to 150 m

YI-450406X

Alarm: 97 m
Trip: 142 m
Range: 0 to 150 m

Bearing HSS X axis

Bearing LSS Y axis

Bearing LSS X axis

LSS DE END Bearing Temp

TI-450413

Thrust inboard BRG Temp


RDN

TI-450415B

Thrust inboard Bearing temp

TI-450415A

HSS NDE end Bearing Temp

TI-450411

Alarm: 97 m
Trip: 142 m
Range: 0 to 200 oC
Alarm: 100 oC
Trip: 105 oC
Range: 0 to 200 C oC
Alarm: 70 oC
Trip: 75 oC
Range: 0 to 200 oC
Alarm: 70 oC
Trip: 75 oC
Range: 0 to 200 oC
Alarm: 110 oC
Trip: 115 oC

Expected Operating Data for Water Injection Pump P-45001D Gas Turbine.
Description

Instrument

Value

Power Turbine Speed

SI-450405

Gas Turbine Air Inlet

TI-450422

Gas Turbine Air Inlet Filter Delta


Pressure:
Gas Turbine Inlet Filter Delta
Pressure:
Gas Turbine Compressor Discharge
Pressure:

PDI-450401

Maximum: 100% (Design


Speed)
Range: 0 to 120 %
Normal: -6 to 23 oC
Range: -40 to 70 oC
Range: 0 to 24.9 mbar

PDI-450402

Range: 0 to 24.9 mbar

PI-450432

Normal: 3 barg
Range: 0 to 20.7 barg

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 79 of 158

Expected Operating Data for WI P-45001D Gas Turbine (continued)


Gas Turbine T5 Average

TI-450433

Fuel Gas Rate


Gas Turbine T5 Max- T5 average
Fuel Gas Pressure

FI-850005
TI-450434
PI-450433

Fuel Gas Temperature:


At the turbine inlet, assuming that the
superheater is online. (Trip low is to
prevent dewpoint being reached and
liquids reaching the turbine)

TI-850099

Power Turbine BRG 5-X-axis

YI-450415X

Power Turbine BRG 5-Y-axis

YI-450415Y

Power Turbine Axial

YI-450412

Power Turbine Thrust Bearing


Power Turbine BRG 4-X-axis

TI-450417
Y-450407X

Power Turbine BRG 4-Y-axis

Y-450407Y

Gas Producer NGP PV

SI-450406

Gas Producer BRG 3-X-Axis

YI-450408X

Gas Producer BRG 3-Y-Axis

YI-450408Y

Gas Producer BRG 2-X-Axis

YI-450409X

Gas Producer BRG 2-Y-Axis

YI-450409Y

Gas Producer BRG 1-X-Axis

YI-450410X

Gas Producer BRG 1-Y-Axis

YI-450410Y

Gas Producer Axial

YI-450411

Gas Producer Thrust Bearing

TI-450431

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Range: 0 to 1000 oC
Set point: 290 oC
0 to 2177 kg/hr
Range: 0 to 1000 oC
Normal: 24 barg
Alarm low: 22 barg
Alarm high: 27.6 barg
Trip low: 19.7 barg
Trip High: 28.6 barg
Range: 0 to 41.4 barg
Normal: 35.2 oC
Alarm low: 31 oC
Alarm high: 45 oC
Trip low: 28 oC
Trip high: 55 oC
Range: 0 to 150 oC
Normal: 13.5 m
Maximum: 100.5 m
Range: 0 to 150 m
Normal: 12 m
Maximum: 100.5 m
Range: 0 to 150 m
Range: -1 to 1 mm
Range: 0 to 150 oC
Normal: 9 m
Maximum: 100.5 m
Range: 0 to 150 m
Normal: 6 m
Maximum: 100.5 m
Range: 0 to 150 m
Maximum: 100%
Range: 0 to 120 %
Normal: 13.5 m
Maximum: 100.5 m
Range: 0 to 150 m
Normal: 13.5 m
Maximum: 100.5 m
Range: 0 to 150 m
Normal: 16.5 m
Maximum: 100.5 m
Range: 0 to 150 m
Normal: 15 m
Maximum: 100.5 m
Range: 0 to 150 m
Normal: 27 m
Maximum: 100.5 m
Range: 0 to 150 m
Normal: 24 m
Maximum: 100.5 m
Range: 0 to 150 m
Normal: -0.08 mm
Range: -1 to 1 mm
Range: 0 to 150 oC

Page 80 of 158

Expected Operating Data for Gas Turbine Start Motor


Description

Instrument

Value

Voltage
Current
Motor Speed

XI-450424
XI-450423
Si-450407

Range: 0 to 500 V
Range: 0 to 600A
Range: 0-5000 RPM

Expected Operating Data for Gas Turbine Accessory Gear Box


Description

Instrument

Value

Accessory Gearbox Velocity

XI-450428

Range: 0 to 20 mm/s

Expected Operating Data for Gas Turbine Lube Oil System


Description
Header Temperature RDN

Instrument
TI-450424

Header Temperature

TI-450425

Header Pressure RDN

PI-450434

Header Pressure

PI-450435

Oil Filter Delta Pressure

PDI-450405

Pre Post Pressure


Oil Tank Temperature

PI-450436
TI-450426

Oil Tank Pressure


Oil Tank Level

PI-450437
LI-450401

Accessory Gearbox bearing Drain


Temperature
Gas Producer Bearing Drain
Temperature
Gas Producer Bearing Drain
Temperature
Power Turbine Bearing Drain
Temperature
Scavenge Pump Pressure

TI-450427

PI-450438

Value
Normal: 57.6 oC
Maximum: 68 oC
Range: 0 to 150 oC
Alarm: 71 oC
Trip: 82.2 oC
Normal: 60.2 oC
Maximum: 68 oC
Range: 0 to 150 oC
Alarm: 71 oC
Trip: 82.2 oC
Normal: 3.4 barg
Range: 0 to 6.89 barg
Alarm: 1.86 barg
Trip: 1.03 barg
Normal: 3.45 barg
Range: 0 to 6.89 barg
Alarm: 1.86 barg
Trip: 1.03 barg
Range: 0 to 6.89 barg
Alarm: 2.07 barg
Range: 0 to 6.89 barg
Range: 0 to 150 oC Normal:
63.7 oC
Range: 0 to 37.3 mbarg
Range: 0 to 711 mm
High alarm: 550 mm
Low alarm: 483 mm
Maximum: 121 oC
Range: 0 to 150 oC
Maximum: 121 oC
Range: 0 to 150 oC
Maximum: 121 oC
Range: 0 to 150 oC
Maximum: 121 oC
Range: 0 to 150 oC
Range: 0 to 6.89 barg

Back-Up Lube Pressure Test

PI-450439

Range: 0 to 6.89 barg

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

TI-450428
TI-450429
TI-450430

Page 81 of 158

Expected Operating Data for Gas Turbine Enclosure


Description

Instrument

Value

Primary Vent Fan

XI-450426

On / Off

Enclosure Temperature

TI-450432

Range: 0 to 150 oC
High alarm: 75 oC

Backup Vent Fan

XI-450427

On / Off

Enclosure Pressure (note)

PI-450420

Range: 0 to 24.9 mbar

Enclosure Filter Delta Pressure


(note)

PDI-450404

Range: 0 to 24.9 mbar

Note: The enclosure pressure is negative.


WI Pump P-45001D Discharge Pressure for Different Operating Scenarios
Case

Flow
Produced
Water m3/h

Electric
pumps

Turbine
driven
pump

Pump Discharge
Pressure Barg
Total flow rate: m3/h

Flow from
Deaeration
Tower
m3/h
1411

1490

Running
A, B, C

Design
Speed

Pressure: 206.2
Flow rate: 2901

1890

Running
A, B, C

Design
Speed

Pressure: 234.9
Flow rate: 1890

1890

Running
A, B

Design
Speed

Pressure: 221.9
Flow rate: 1890

1890

Running
A, B

Over
Speed

Pressure: 231.8
Flow rate: 1890

1890

Running
A, B, C

Not
Running

Pressure: 210.7
Flow rate: 1890

300

Not running

Over
Speed

Pressure: 271.9
Flow rate: 300

300

Not running

Design
Speed

Pressure: 246.3
Flow rate: 300

1150

Not running

Over
Speed

Pressure: 208.6
Flow rate: 1150

1631

1490

Running
A, B, C

Over
Speed

Pressure: 206.1
Flow rate: 3121

10

930

Not running

Design
Speed

Pressure: 210
Flow rate: 930

Design speed for water injection pump P-45001D:


Over speed for water injection pump P-45001D:

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

3650 PRM
3833 RPM

Page 82 of 158

4.10

Subsea/Well Operating Limits


For each well there is a safe operating limit as defined on a graph of wellhead
injection pressure (from PI-sss922n) against well injection flowrate (FI-sss929n).
An example is shown below:

Well Operating Limits

WHIP (barg) - PIsss922n

300
250
200

BHIP Limit
Erosional Velocity Limit
Surge Limits
O pe rating Line
O p Pt

150
100
50
0

100

200

300

400

Flowrate (m3/hr) - FIsss929n


Figure 14

Well Operating Limits

The allowable operating envelope is bounded by the following key limits:


Bottom Hole Injection Pressure Limit (BHIP Limit) - This is the maximum injection
pressure allowable at the top of the completed zone. Injection pressures in
excess of this limit could lead to failure of the formation above the completed
zone and therefore permanent damage to the wells injection capability. This line
has been converted into a wellhead injection pressure limit which is flowrate
dependent.
Erosional Velocity Limit - This is the maximum allowable injection rate from an
erosion viewpoint. It also represents the maximum measurable rate on the
wellhead venturi.
Surge Limit - This represents the maximum allowable injection rate to ensure
that hydraulic surge on shutdown does not lead to an over-pressuring of the
subsea system.
The allowable operating envelope lies below the BHIP limit curve and to the left
of both surge limit and erosional velocity limit lines.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 83 of 158

The additional limes on this plot show the expected operating point of the water
injection based on the seawater injection choke position. This line covers the
range of possible injection indices expected for this well (dotted line) and the
most likely injection index range (solid line). This line is primarily for information.
Operation outside this line indicates incorrect choke position, an unexpected
choke performance or an unexpected reservoir performance.
If operation of the well is outside this limit, the well must be shut in and advice
obtained. It may be required that the ROV choke position will need to be
modified before injection can recommence.
Note:

The allowable operating envelope will change during field life and this
plot will be updated on a regular basis.

In addition to the above operating limits there is also a maximum allowable


injection rate to each drill centre (for Central it was 90mbd initially).
Well Annulus Operating Limits
The allowable range of operating pressures in the well annulus is 0 to 310 barg.
To ensure that annulus pressures are measurable using Pisss923n, the annulus
master valve AMVsss935n, must be open.
If these values are exceeded during start-up or shutdown of the well, the well
must be temporarily shut in at the wing valve and the tree cross-over valve must
be opened to relieve pressure into the tubing. Note that due to the high injection
temperatures at the tree, the pressure in the annulus may increase on shutdown
or start-up.
Well Start-Up and Shutdown
The main consideration (operating the wing valves when the water injection
pumps are running) applies equally to start-up and shutdown of individual wells.
Hence, prior to a wing valve on a water injection well being opened or closed,
the main injection pumps will be shutdown and flow is maintained through these
pumps using the produced water booster pumps and/or seawater lift pumps.
Once the wing valve operation has been completed, the main pumps can be restarted.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 84 of 158

4.11

Water Injection Pump P-45001D Speed Control


The pump will float on the system pressure, at the prevailing flow rate when the
system runs at constant speed.
The facility to adjust pump speed set point (SIC-450453) to match the flow rate
to water injection requirements is provided. The CRT can manually adjust the
speed of the turbine using the Manual Speed Set Point Controller SIC-450453.
Raising or lowering the speed would result in increase or decrease in flow rate.
Any adjustments to the speed set point will be carried out by sending a signal to
TCP SY-6000.
The rate of change of speed will be restricted within the TCP. The set point can
only be in the range between 70-105% of the turbine speed.
The pump discharge PT-450443 will be used as a process variable input to the
speed controller SIC-450443. If PT-450443 high discharge pressure alarm is
activated the speed set point will be reduced to 95% of the pump design speed
by the CPS, which will be done only once. This will reduce the pump shut in
pressure in the event the discharge is closed.
It is possible to increase the pump speed to 5 percent above the pump design
speed to allow the pump to flow at its maximum flow rate. This facility will only be
required when one, or more of the three motor driven water injection pumps are
not available and will only be possible to achieve when the ambient
temperatures are below 12C, allowing the gas turbine to generate sufficient
power, reference figure 6.3.
In addition, pump discharge PT-450444 will be used as a process variable input
to the Control and Process Shutdown System (CPS) to trip the pump to full stop
in the event the high high pressure set point is activated. Furthermore, the CPS
has to monitor and record the pressure and duration.
The CPS shall report the following for each year of operation:

Total duration of all pressure excursions that are above the design
pressure of 270 barg, and below a 20% overpressure threshold of 359.1
barg.

Total duration of all pressure excursions that are above the 20%
overpressure threshold of 324 barg, and below a 33% overpressure
threshold of 359.1 barg.

This can be achieved if the pump operates above its design speed or in an event
of the discharge being closed. Figure 13 shows the pressure excursion graphic
displayed on the screen in the CCR and can be found in the screen for pump C
and D.

Figure 15 Pressure Excursion Graphic

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 85 of 158

4.12

Water Injection Pump P-45001D Standby Mode


The ability to reduce the pump speed to idle whilst running the turbine has
several operating advantages. Primarily it will reduce restart time in the event of
a process trip or the need to reduce flow for operational reasons.
The CRT may trip the turbine to idle speed using the push button XHS-450453.
On detection, the CPS logic will send a signal to the Solar Turbine Control Panel
(TCP) to slow down the turbine to idle speed. When the turbine has reached idle
speed status, the TCP will send a signal to Cool down Indication XI-450410
and close XV-450446 and XV-450501 after a 30 second time delay.
As XV-450446 closes, FIC-450445 will open under PID control to protect the
pump from damage at low flow rates. Permissive to Restart Feed Forward XI450454 will be given under the following conditions:

XV-450446 and XV-450501 are closed

Turbine operates in idle mode


The TCP will keep the turbine running in idle mode for 180 minutes, before it
trips the turbine to full stop. If CRT presses Request to Restart Feed Forward
push button XHS-450455 during this period, the CPS logic will send a signal to
the TCP to restart the turbine to idle. When the turbine has reached idle status,
the Solar Turbine Control Panel will send a signal to the CPS logic to bring the
turbine automatically to the feed forward status and change Speed Set Point
Controller SIC-450453 from automatic to manual mode. This will bring the unit
back on line again and the speed controller set point can be adjusted as
necessary to suit the requirement.
If the CRT does not press Request to Restart Feed Forward push button XHS450455 during this period, the Solar Turbine control Panel will send a signal XI450411 to indicate that the Gas Turbine is totally stopped to the CPS.

4.13

De-aerator & Water Injection Pumps P-45001A/B/C Shutdown

4.13.1 Normal Shutdown


Following shutdown and valve isolation of the Deaeration Tower, XXV-441040
should be checked for leakage by using FCV-441001 drain valves. It is not
desirable to allow leakage into, and filling, of the tower as this causes high
stresses on the structural supports under severe weather conditions.
If leakage is found, either a double block and bleed should be set up on the inlet,
or FCV-441019 and downstream manual valve should be left open to drain the
tower overboard.
Excessive contact with oxygen will rapidly deplete the sensing elements of the
analysers AT-441018 and AT-442019 when these sensors are active. Therefore
the analysers should be de-energised to extend sensor life.
A planned shutdown of the de-aeration package can be initiated from the CPS:
Tag Number
P-44201A/B
XV-441024
XV-441028
XV-441040
XXV-441040

Description
Stripping Gas Blowers
Nitrogen Top-up Line
Instrument Air Top-up Line
Methanol Supply Line
Seawater Inlet Line

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Action
Stopped
Closed
Closed
Closed
Closed

Page 86 of 158

The system control valves can be moved to their shutdown positions thus.
Valve Tag No.
FCV-441001
FCV-441019
FCV-441021
PCV-441023
FCV-441027
TCV-442014

Shutdown
Position
Closed
Open
Closed
Closed
Closed
Open

Description
Seawater Inlet Valve
Overboard Dump Valve
Stripping Gas Vent Valve
Nitrogen Top-up Valve
Instrument Air Inlet
Stripping Gas Exchanger Bypass

Following shutdown of the deaerator package confirm the chemical injection


valves are closed as detailed below. Refer to P&ID L-8000-GP-0043.00:
Valve No.
HV-441002
HV-441121
HV-441008
HV-441019

Description
Antifoam
Calcium nitrate
Scale Inhibitor
Oxygen Scavenger

Signature

The deaerator package is now shutdown. However, the system trace heating
should not be isolated until the deaerator has been drained and vented.
Additionally, each of the drain valves within the seawater pipework should be
opened to ensure that no liquid is present.
The only subsea condition that will cause the water injection trees to close in is
loss of hydraulic fluid, typically due to umbilical snagging.
VACUUM CONDITIONS ON SHUTDOWN
When the water injection pumps shutdown and discharge valves are closed, the
reservoir pressure is such that water will be drawn into the formation, causing a
vacuum to be pulled in the flexible risers. To prevent this condition, injection well
wing valves are closed following shutdown of the injection pumps. Additionally,
the risers are reinforced with steel liners to cope with vacuum conditions.
ISOLATION FOR MAINTENANCE
The water injection pumps are only provided with a single discharge isolation
valve due to space limitations. The water injection pumps must therefore be
shut down and locked out to achieve positive isolation for maintenance. The
water injection wells are not capable of back-pressuring the FPSO and therefore
work may be carried out without closing the turret isolation valves. The subsea
well wing and master valves must be closed to prevent pulling a vacuum and
drawing air into the system.

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DEPRESSURISATION OF WATER INJECTION SYSTEM


Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Procedure
Shutdown of main pump using operating procedure
Ensure all well injection wing valves are closed.
Monitor annulus pressure on PI-105923n to ensure that it
remains within allowable operating range (0-310 barg)
Close UIMV
Close SCSSV
Re-open UIMV
Trend WHCIP on PI-105922n
Carry out flowline depressurisation back to FPSO using turret
drain valve.
Continue to trend WHCIP for 1 hour after full depressurisation
Close UIMV & AIMV

Signature

SHUTDOWN NOTES:

On shut-down of the water injection system there are four key considerations:
The potential for a vacuum condition in the water injection system due to
reservoir under-pressure.
Hydraulic surge due to closure of the wing valves, with the potential for
exceeding the over-pressure allowances on some components, if the system
is operated at above maximum steady state injection rate limits.
Closure of the wing valves against the main water injection pumps, leading
to a transient under-pressure in the well which could damage the downhole
sand screens.
Excessive wear of the water injection wing valve if it is closed against the
main pump.
The inclusion of a carcass in the water injection risers and subsea flexible
jumpers allows for vacuum conditions to exist in the system without the potential
for collapse of the internal liner in these components. However, the system
should be operated with the intention of minimising the potential for this
condition. This is primarily aimed at reducing the time taken to restart the
system, but also provides assurance against collapse of the polyethylene liner
within the water injection flowlines.
A similar philosophy to that used on the system start-up will be employed for a
planned shutdown. Therefore, the main pumps will initially be shutdown whilst
maintaining the water supply by using the produced water booster pumps or
seawater lift pumps. This will be followed by closure of all wing valves and then
shutdown of the produced water booster pumps or seawater lift pumps.
For an unplanned shut-down the water injection tree wing valves will be
automatically closed on loss of al l water injection pumps.

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4.13.2 Emergency Shutdown


In the event of an ESD/HIPS, the system is shutdown in the same way as for a
normal shutdown with the exception that XXV-441002 (seawater inlet) is also
closed. Once the cause of the shutdown has been investigated and rectified,
the valves can be reset. XXV-441040 and XXV-441002 must be reset manually
while the other valves are auto-reset. Additionally, there is a water injection
PSD, refer to C&E L-8000-JC-0002.24.
An emergency shutdown affects the subsea tree valves as follows:
Yellow Shutdown

IWV closes
UIMV closes
AMV closes
XOVT closes

Red Shutdown
as Yellow Shutdown above, but in addition

SCSSV closes

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4.14

Water Injection Pump P-45001D & Turbine Shutdowns

The CRT may initiate a Normal Shutdown from the CCR or LER. The
gas turbine will trip to idle speed, which will be indicated on the start up
graphics. When the turbine remains in idle speed for 180 minutes, it will
be totally stopped. If the CTR initiates request to restart feed forward
XHS-450455 before this time, the CPS logic will bring the pump
automatically back on line.

The CRT may Fast Stop the turbine using XHS-450456 from the CPS
(see Control System Stop, below). The CPS logic will send a signal to
TCP S511-1 to trip the turbine to full stop. When the turbine comes to a
full stop the CPS system will turn off the fuel gas superheater and shut
valve XV-850005 instantaneously, XV-450446 and XV-450501 will close
after a 30 second delay. (Note this does not depend on a return of a
turbine full stop signal. This will happen on detection of Fast stop the
turbine XHS-450456). As XV-450446 closes, flow rate through the pump
reduces and FIC-450445 will open under PID control to protect the pump
from damage at low flow rates.

The operator may Emergency Stop the turbine from the TCP in the LER
or from two different locations outside of the skid. The TCP will total stop
the turbine, the Solar Turbine Control Panel will send a signal to the CPS
and will be indicated on the start up graphics.

The turbine can be stopped from the CCR or LER, push buttons on the skid or
by the control system. The system has the following stop functions:

Normal Shutdown from the CCR or LER, or Trip Turbine to Idle Speed
from the CCR - the turbine will trip to idle speed, run for 3 hours and total
stop

Manual Emergency Stop from the LER or from skid pushbuttons - the
turbine will total stop

Control System Stop

Back-up Active Shutdown

Turbine Enclosure Fire Detection

Turbine Overspeed

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4.14.1 Normal Shutdown or Trip Turbine to Idle Speed


Normal shutdown involves a cool down period in which the engine runs at idle
speed for a preset time before the fuel is cut off and the engine coasts to a stop.
This can be done as follows:

By activating the Normal Stop switch (S111) on the Turbine Control


Panel, or
Request to trip turbine to idle from the Central Control Room.

This will be indicated by Cool down on the start-up screen for the pump in the
CCR. The Solar/Silvertech control systems will trip the gas turbine to idle speed,
reset speed controller to 70% of turbine design speed, run for 180 minutes and
total stop. The pump can be brought back on line by activating the request to
restart feed forward button on the start-up screen for the turbine in the central
control room. After the engine coasts to a stop and the rundown timer expires, a
preset lubrication cycle will be initiated.
When the gas turbine is brought to idle speed or a total stop, the CPS will initiate
the following for the water injection pump P-45001D:
Tag Number
P-45001D
XV-450446
XV-450501

Description
4th Water injection pump
Pump discharge valve
Pump discharge equalisation valve

Action
Stopped
Closed after a timer
delay of 30 seconds
Shut

The system control valves can be moved to their shutdown position thus:
Tag Number
FCV-450445

Description
Pump minimum flow valve

Action
Open

4.14.2 Manual Emergency Stop


The manual emergency stop is initiated by depressing the local, remote, or skidmounted emergency stop switch. When the stop is initiated, the start/run latch in
the microprocessor is reset and the fast stop latch in the backup control is set.
Fuel valves and guide vanes are closed and the bleed valve is opened. The
backup system controls lubrication oil for engine rolldown and post-lube. An
emergency stop does not include a cool down period, which allows the engine to
run with no load for a preset period before the engine is stopped. The
emergency stop shutdown should only be used when plant conditions require an
immediate shutdown. This can be done by:

Activating the emergency stop switch (S112-A or S112-B) on the


Turbine Control Panel in the LER, or by

Activating one of the two emergency stop switches (S522 or S522A) on


the skid.

Gas Turbine to Full Stop will indicate on the start-up screen for the pump in the
CCR. The engine shuts down immediately with no cool down cycle. After the
engine stop, the post lubrication cycle will be initiated.

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When the gas turbine is brought to a total stop, the CPS will initiate the following
for the water injection pump (P-45001D):
Tag Number
P-45001D
XV-450446
XV-450501

Description
4th Water injection pump
Pump discharge valve
Pump discharge equalisation valve

Action
Stopped
Closed after a timer delay
of 30 seconds
Shut

The CPS will initiate the following for the water injection pump P-45001D driver:
Tag Number
XV-850005
XS-850003

Description
Fuel Gas Valve
Fuel Gas Heater ETP 85002

Action
Closed
Trip

The system control valves can be moved to their shutdown position thus:
Tag Number
FCV-450445

Description
Pump minimum flow valve

Action
Open

4.14.3 Control System Stops


There are two main types of control system stops, depending on the severity of
the malfunction and urgency to stop the GT or pump:

cooldown stop (cooldown non-lockout & cooldown lockout)


fast stop (fast stop non-lockout & fast stop lockout)

If an unsafe operating condition is detected by the control system, the control


system will initiate a shutdown. Depending upon the severity of the shutdown,
the control system will initiate either a cooldown stop or a fast stop. If the control
system stop was initiated due to a condition that is self-correcting, the engine
can be restarted after the condition returns to normal. If the control system stop
was initiated due to a condition that is not self-correcting, contact maintenance
personnel to perform corrective actions.
The Cooldown Stop unloads the driven equipment and allows the engine to idle
for a cooldown period before shutting off fuel. The Fast Stop immediately shuts
off fuel and unloads the driven equipment.
A Lockout inhibits control system operation. The control system cannot initiate a
start until the malfunction is reset. Lockout-type malfunctions are generally more
severe and require attention before the system can be restarted. Non-lockout
malfunctions typically result from an operation disruption or an abnormal
condition. Non-lockout malfunctions can be reset when conditions return to
normal.

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Cooldown Stop
If a cooldown stop has been initiated, the engine is shut down in the same
manner as a normal stop. There are two types of cooldown stops; cooldown
non-lockout and cooldown lockout.

Cooldown Stop Non-lockout (CN) Cooldown non-lockout shutdowns


reduce engine speed to idle for a preset cooldown period before initiating a
shutdown. Cooldown non-lockout shutdowns include operator-initiated
normal stops, operating conditions that reached a shutdown limit because
maintenance was not performed, a momentary disruption that causes an
out-of-limits condition, and operating conditions that exceed alarm levels but
are not serious enough to cause any immediate damage. The turbine
control system will automatically acknowledge and reset the cooldown nonlockout shutdowns and the turbine can then be started from the CCR without
corrective action. Cooldown stop nonlockouts include normal stops as well
as stops responding to alarms not serious enough to cause immediate
damage. These conditions include operation out of sequence, or a
momentary out of limit condition.

Cooldown Stop Lockout (CL) - Cooldown lockout shutdowns reduce


engine speed to idle for a preset cooldown period before initiating a shutdown.
Cooldown lockout shutdowns typically result from a component failure and not
because operating conditions have exceeded alarm or shutdown levels.
Cooldown lockout shutdowns may not present immediate danger, but corrective
action must be taken to avoid damage resulting from a component failure. When
lockout shutdowns occur, the turbine can not be started until the shutdown is
acknowledged and reset using the local acknowledge and reset switches.
Cooldown stop lockout shutdowns typically result from a component failure and
not because operating conditions have exceeded alarm or shutdown levels.
Cooldown stop lockout malfunctions include:

sensor failure
lube tank level low
lube tank overpressure

Fast Stop
If a fast stop has been initiated, the engine is shut down in the same manner as
an emergency stop. There are two types of fast stops; fast stop lockout and fast
stop non-lockout.

Fast Stop Lockout (FL)


Fast stop lockout shutdowns initiate an immediate shutdown of the engine
and prevent package operation until the shutdown is acknowledged and
reset using the local acknowledge and reset switches.

In addition to using the local acknowledge and reset switches, fast stop
lockout shutdowns initiated due to a microprocessor failure, fire
detection, backup overspeed, or pressing of emergency stop switch
will require the backup relay system to be reset. Fast stop lockout
shutdowns are the most severe shutdown types and require corrective
action before the package can be restarted.

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Fast stop lockouts respond to conditions that can cause serious damage if
operation continues. Investigation for damage is required. Corrective action
may be required before restart. These conditions include high bearing
temperatures, high T5 temperature, node failure, transmitter failures, pump
high thrust bearing temperature, gearbox high thrust bearing temperature,
pump high vibration and gearbox high temperature.
WARNING: When a fast stop shutdown has been initiated due to fire
detection, the post-lube oil pump will remain energised for a preset
rundown period. After the preset rundown period expires, the post-lube
oil pump will be de-energized for 20 minutes. After the 20 minute time
period expires, the post-lube pump will cycle on and off for a preset
post-lube period. If unsafe conditions still exist, the operator must
manually abort the post lube cycle by opening the contactors for the
post-lube and back-up lube oil pumps.

Fast Stop Non-lockout (FN)


Fast stop non-lockout shutdowns initiate an immediate shutdown of the
engine. Fast stop non-lockout shutdowns typically result from a disruption in
operation due to abnormal operating conditions and may not require
corrective action.
The turbine control system will automatically acknowledge and reset the fast
stop non-lockout shutdowns and the turbine can be re-started from the CCR
without corrective action.
Fast stop non-lockouts respond to conditions that can cause damage if
operation continues. The conditions are caused by a momentary
disturbance in the system or an occasional sequencing related malfunction.
Momentary conditions typically include engine overspeed, flameout and high
vibration (engine). Sequencing-related malfunctions include fail to crank,
ignition fail, fuel valve check fail, yard valve fail, and pre-lube fail.

4.14.4 Backup Active Shutdown


The backup active shutdown is enabled if there is a microprocessor failure, fire,
backup overspeed, or manually initiated Emergency Shutdown (ESD). The
backup system immediately shuts off fuel, opens system valves to eliminate
driven equipment load, and controls lubrication oil for engine rolldown and postlube. After a backup active shutdown, the backup system must be reset with the
BACKUP RESET keyswitch. The ACKNOWLEDGE and RESET switches must
be pressed before the package can be restarted.
Microprocessor Fail
A microprocessor fail malfunction is detected by the controller. When
microprocessor failure is detected, a fast stop is initiated and backup control is
activated. Fuel valves and guide vanes are closed, the bleed valve is opened,
and the gas driven equipment is unloaded. The backup system controls
lubrication oil for engine rolldown and post-lube.

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4.14.5 GT Enclosure Fire Detection


When fire is detected, the backup system immediately sets the fast stop latch in
backup control. The shutdown sequence proceeds as with the manual
emergency stop except enclosure fans, are stopped, and lube continues for
engine rolldown. If the PLC is functioning after the 20-minute hold, a post-lube
cycle is completed.
4.14.6 Turbine Backup Overspeed
The turbine overspeed malfunction is sensed by the backup overspeed detection
module. The magnetic pickup speed sensor is independent from primary control
sensor. The backup overspeed monitor detects overspeed that indicates the
normal control and protect systems are not operating. When overspeed is
detected, the fast stop latch in the backup control is set and the stop sequence
proceeds as with manual emergency stop.

4.15

Isolation for Maintenance


Water injection pump P-45001D is provided with discharge double block and
bleed isolation and suction single isolation. The other three water injection
pumps P-45001 A/B/C are only provided with discharge single isolation. To
achieve positive isolation for maintenance of water injection pumps P-45001
A/B/C, a blank flange is to be fitted to the discharge non-return valve, when the
water injection pump P-45001D is in operation.
WARNING: In case of an instrument air failure and if maintenance on the
turbine fuel gas system is required, an entrapped pressure will occur and
care should be taken on opening up the system for maintenance.
To achieve positive isolation for maintenance of the turbine:

4.16

Valve HV-520503 for the warm up line to flare has to be closed

Valve HV-804807 for the instrument air has to be closed

HV-815500 & HV-815501 for the cooling medium system have to be


closed.

Winterisation
The demineralised water line to the wash cart should be emptied of water when
the temperature falls below 5 deg C, to prevent freezing in the pipe, by opening
valve HV-803709 (P&ID: 37W022F0146-A-8000-GP-0090.01-2C). There are
two sets of drain water traps underneath both the HVAC (two traps) and
combustion air Intakes (one trap) that are not winterised. A TQ has been raised
to have these winterised.

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4.17

Video Display Computer Operation


Use the following procedures to start up and shut down the video display
computer and TT4000 software.
Start-Up of Computer
1.
2.

Switch on power to computer to start up Windows program.


When prompted to begin login:
a.
Press Ctrl+Alt+Delete
b.
Type user name Operator
c.
Type password 1111 (four ones) and press Enter.

Start-Up of TT4000
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

From desktop, double-click TT4000 Designer icon.


From menu bar, click File.
From File pull-down menu, click Open Project.
Click C:\Jobs\70981\70981.ttprj.
From tool bar, click green Run button (right arrow).
NOTE: Project may take several minutes to load.
If Server Busy window pops up, click on Retry button.

Shutdown of TT400
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Move pointer arrow to bottom of screen. From Desktop Taskbar, click


TT4000 Designer Application button.
From toolbar, click red Stop button (square).
NOTE: Project may take several minutes to stop.
If Server Busy window pops up, click on Retry button.
From File pull-down menu, after Project has stopped, click Close Project.
When Project has closed, click Close button (X) at top right corner.

Shutdown of Computer
1.
2.
3.
4.

From Desktop taskbar, click Start button (bottom left corner).


From menu listing, click Shut Down (bottom of listing).
Select Shut down the computer and press Enter.
Wait for message. It is now safe to turn off your computer to appear.

Finally, switch off power to computer.

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5.

CONTROL & MONITORING

5.1

Subsea Control and Monitoring


The water injection system subsea is normally controlled and monitored from the
operator workstation console within the CCR. The subsea control system is
designed to be a stand alone system to the normal process control system
(CPS), with a simple data hand-off system which allows the CPS to monitor any
subsea data points as required.
The Master Control Station (MCS) provides appropriate well status indication to
the CPS only if the CPS requests the information over the data hand-off system.
The information passed to the CPS is not employed by the CPS but is passed
directly to the production information system. Any information displayed on the
CPS is indirectly obtained via the production information system.
Other topsides equipment supplied are the Hydraulic Power Unit (HPU), which
provides the appropriate hydraulic pressures for subsea distribution, and the
Topside Umbilical Termination Unit (TUTU), which provides the interface
between the umbilical systems and the platform cabling and piping. There is one
TUTU for the Schiehallion Central, West & Gas Disposal Well (GDW)
developments, and a second TUTU for the Schiehallion North and Loyal
developments.
Two dynamic umbilicals are used to transport the electrical power, control signals
and hydraulic supplies to the subsea systems. ROV installed and recoverable
Electro/Hydraulic/Chemical (E/H/C) jumpers are used to distribute the various
supplies to the Subsea Control Modules (SCM) mounted on the Xmas Tree (XT).
The SCM is mounted on the XT via an ST-001 John Brown standard interface.
The SCM utilises through-base hydraulic and electrical connections which
connect to the XT mounted E/H/C supplies stabplate and the Xmas Tree valves
and instrumentation.
From the Umbilical Termination Assembly (UTA) or manifold, an E/H/C supplies
jumper connection to each Xmas Tree. This jumper includes the following.

A dual power pair and a dual communications pair to the SCM.

A dual HP/MP hydraulic hoses to the SCM.

One multi-core cable for readback at the SCM of up to 3 off 4-20mA sensors
on the manifold (valve position sensor, pressure and temperature sensor).

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5.1.1

Interlocks
Interlocks serve to reduce valve wear. Interlocks when the MCS is in
OPERATOR mode are:
Wing valve cannot be opened unless the Upper Master Valve is open
Upper Master Valve cannot be opened or closed unless Wing Valve is
closed
SSSV cannot be opened unless upper master valve and wing valve are
open
SSSV cannot be closed unless the upper master valve is closed.
Note:

When the MCS is set to SUPERVISOR mode, these interlocks can be


overridden with the exception of the opening of the SCSSV, which can
still only be opened if the wing valve and the upper master valve are
open.
For the SCSSVs that share the same valve function, the upper master
valves and wing valves on both trees must be open to enable the
SCSSV to be opened.
The SCSSV must not be opened until a positive indication of flow is
obtained from the injection well venturi flow measurement. This
protects the valve from being opened against a high differential
pressure which could cause damage to the valve. Once flow is
indicated, identifying that the pressures have equalised and the
flapper type valve has opened, hydraulic pressure should be applied
by opening the valve from the control system.
Water injection maintains reservoir pressure to minimise loss of
productivity and maintain reservoir above the bubble point. The
subsea water injection system is normally controlled and monitored
from the operator workstation within the CCR. The subsea control
system is a stand-alone system to the normal (topsides) process
control system. The Master Control System (MCS) can provide the
CPS with well information if requested from the CP.

INDICATIONS, ALARMS AND TRIPS SUBSEA


Location
Swivel - upstream of the water injection
manifold
Swivel - upstream of the 10 ball valves

Tag No.
PG 450 803

Instrument Type
Pressure Gauge

FE 180 800A
FE 180 800B

Flow Element

(Central Riser)

FE 182 800A
FE 182 800B
(West/North/Loyal Riser)

xtree - venturi meter at the inlet to the


xtree block
xtree - downstream of the wing valve

dP sss929n

Flow venturi

PTT sss922n

xtree - downstream of the cross over


valve (tree) COVT

PT sss923n

Pressure/ Temperature
Transmitter
Pressure Transmitter

Table 11

Locations of Instruments on the Water injection system

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The following table explains what the setting is for each instrument on the xtree.
Instrument
PTT
d/s IWV

Setting on the Alarms


HiHi
Hi
Indicates that the
Indicates that the
pressure nearly at
pressure is
the design pressure approaching the
of the system
design pressure

pressure

Design
PTT
d/s IWV

0/ 380 bara
temperature

Design
PT
@ XOUT

-30/ 80 C
pressure

Design
FT
Design
PI
on MP
hydraulic
supply

0/ 380 bara
flowrate
0/ 331m3/d
pressure

Design

0/ 569 bara

PI
on HP
hydraulic
supply

pressure

Design

0/ 569 bara

Indicates that the


temperature near
the maximum
design temperature
of the risers

none

Indicates that the


temperature
approaching the
maximum design
temperature of
the risers
Annulus pressure
approaching
operating
pressure
none

none

none

none

none

Annulus pressure
near the maximum
operating pressure

Table 12

Lo
Indicates the
pressure is
getting near to
the riser drawing
a vacuum
Indicates that
the temperature
approaching the
minimum design
temperature of
the risers
Annulus
pressure near
min. operating
pressure
none

LoLo
Indicates that
the riser has
drawn a vacuum

Low pressure on
MP hydraulic
supply; valves
are closing , and
should be
closed under
controlled
manner
Low pressure for
the HP hydraulic
supply, close the
valves in
controlled
manner

Valves closing.
Hydraulic valves
should be closed

Indicates that
the temperature
near the
minimum design
temperature of
the risers
Annulus
pressure near
min. operating
pressure
none

Valves closing.
The valves
should be
closed.

Indication of Alarm Setting on the Xtree

For alarms set on each xtree see Doc: Schedule of Alarm Settings, Doc No: S-9000-GY-9200.

5.2

Control & Monitoring of Water Injection System


The settings for normal operation of the water injection system are:
Deaeration Tower
FIC-441001
FIC-441019
PIC-441021

Set by FIC-441019
945 m3/hr (minimum flow)
5 barg

Stripping Gas Regeneration


FIC-441027
TIC-442014 & 5
FIC-441001

98 - 140 kg/hr
150C
40 60 litres/hr

Water Injection Pumps P-45001A/B/C


FIC 450145
FIC 450245
FIC 450345

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

750 m3/hr design


750 m3/hr design
750 m3/hr design

Page 99 of 158

5.3

Monitoring of Pump P-45001D & Gas Turbine


These parameters can be monitored on the inlet and outlet of the pump.
Monitoring
P-45001D suction pressure
P-45001D discharge pressure
P-45001D flow rate
P-45001D minimum flow valve position
P-45001D main discharge valve position
P-45001D bypass valve position

Device
PI-450441
PI-450443
FIC-450445
ZI-450445
ZLH/ZLL-450446
ZLH/ZLL-450501

Location
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote

Figure 16 Pump D Monitoring


Ref. P&ID: 37W022F0146-l-8000-GP-0046.03-2C
The Turbine Control Panel (TCP) in the LER controls the turbine, the gearbox
and pump P45001D.
The CCR controls the turbine control panel, valves on the valve access platform
and the fuel gas system.
The following hardware connections exist between TCP and CCR:

Permissive to start turbine from TCP


Request to start turbine from CCR
Trip gas turbine to idle speed from CCR
Cool down indication from TCP
Request to fast stop the turbine from CCR
Speed control of the turbine from CCR
Ready to load indication from TCP
Fast stop indication from TCP
Turbine Full Stop from TCP

Monitoring of pre-selected operating data for turbine, gearbox and pump will be
carried out by using a serial link between TCP and CCR.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 100 of 158

The Solar TCP in the LER has the following functions:


Lamps:
Ready light illuminated indicates that the turbine is ready to start.
Starting & Local/Remote split-type, dual-function indicator. The correct mode is
selected by rotating the Off/Local/Remote switch. Normal operation is remote.
Cool down light illuminated indicates that Normal stop switch has been pressed.
Stopping light illuminated indicates that normal, emergency or control system
stop has been initiated.
Alarm Summary light illuminated indicates an alarm condition. The light remains
on until condition is cleared and system is reset.
Shutdown Summary light illuminated indicates that the shutdown was initiated
manually or automatically. The light remains on until control system is reset.
Back-up Active light illuminated indicates that the backup relay system has
been activated by the following events:

Failure of microprocessor
Detection of fire
Detection of engine overspeed by backup overspeed monitor
Pressing of emergency stop switch.
The backup relay system will maintain lube oil pump operation to avoid
possible damage to the engine or driven equipment.

Switches:
Off/Local/Remote switch can be in the following positions:
Off: start sequence is inhibited.
Local: Turbine can be operated from the LER, but this is FORBIDDEN.
Remote: Turbine should only be operated from CCR, normal operation. The
Turbine MUST NOT be operated from the LER.
Rotating the switch to the off position when the unit is operating will initiate a
control system stop of the engine with no cool down cycle.
The key to the panel is held in the CCR and is only released under a Permit to
Work.
The key is only required if Cool-down Lockout or Fast Stop Lockout occur,
and for maintenance.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 101 of 158

Pushbuttons:
Emergency stop: This initiates immediate engine shutdown, with no cool-down
cycle.
Horn Silence: This initiates the silence Audible Alarm Horn after an alarm or
shutdown has occurred. Additional alarm or shutdowns will re-activate the alarm
horn. To re-activate the horn silence, the button has to be pressed.
Acknowledge: This initiates the acknowledgement of alarms or shutdown and
activates the Reset switch, which allows the system to be reset when an alarm or
shutdown becomes inactive.
Reset: This initiates clearing of alarms or shutdown indicators, and the reset
control system.
Start is permitted only if shutdowns are inactive and the control system has been
reset.
Lamp Test: This initiates illumination of all indicator lights. If all of the lights are
illuminated it indicates that all of the light circuits are intact.

Other Switches:
Back-up Reset: Rotary, two-position (off, on) switch, rotated clockwise to reset
the back-up relay system. The back-up relay system cannot be reset until after
the acknowledge and reset buttons are pressed. The back-up light will indicate
when the back-up relay system has been reset.
Normal Stop: This initiates the cool down stop sequence. The engine speed is
reduced to idle speed. Idle speed is maintained for a pre-selected cool down
time before fuel gas is shut off and the engine shuts down.
Start: The Start switch on the local panel has been disabled and can only be
started from the CCR.
Auto/Manual: Split type, dual-function switch, with individual indicator lights,
illuminates to indicate mode selection. This switch should ALWAYS be in Auto.
Decrease: This initiates a decrease of speed from the LER, this is FORBIDDEN.
Increase: This initiates an increase of speed from LER, this is FORBIDDEN.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 102 of 158

Engine Gauge Panel


The engine gauge panel has the following instruments:
o

Lube Oil Filters Differential Pressure Gauge


Indicates differential pressure across the engine lube oil filter.

Lube Oil Pressure Gauge


Indicates lube oil header pressure.

Engine Compressor Discharge Press Gauge


Indicates engine compressor discharge pressure. Operating pressure
varies based on engine speed and inlet air temperature.

Lube Oil Temperature Gauge


Indicates lube oil header temperature.

Gas Fuel Pressure Gauge


Indicates the pressure of fuel gas prior to the primary shutoff valve.

Turbine Starting Horn


The Horn sounds the alarm for a preset period to alert the operator that a
start sequence has been initiated. The Alarm is silenced when the preset
time period expires.

Figure 17 Solar Local Control Panel


Ref. P&ID: 37W022F0146-l-8000-GP-0090.04/05/06/07-2C.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 103 of 158

Figure 18 Solar Local Control Panel (showing emergency stop)


The following parameters can be monitored for the gas turbine:
Monitoring
Permissive to start
Start/Restart to Idle from CCR
Ready to Load
Trip to idle from CCR
Trip to Idle from CCR
Trip gas turbine to full stop.
Fuel Purge
Start Initiate
Starting
Purge Crank
Ignition
Light Off
Running
On Load
Stopping
Post Lube
Fast stop remote from CCR.
Power turbine speed
Gas turbine air inlet
Gas turbine inlet filter delta P
Gas turbine inlet filter delta P
Gas turbine compressor discharge pressure
Gas turbine T5 average
Gas turbine T5 max-T5 average
Fuel gas rate
Fuel gas pressure
Fuel gas temperature
Normal stop
Power turbine BRG 5-X-axis

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Device
XI-450407
XI-450440
XI-450430
XI-450409
XI-450410
XI-450411
XI-450412
XI-450413
XI-450414
XI-450415
XI-450416
XI-450417
XI-450418
XI-450420
XI-450421
XI-450422
XI-450456
SI-450405
TI-450422
PDI-450401
PDI-450402
PI-450432
TI-450433
TI-450434
FI-850005
PI-450433
TI-850099
XI-450419
YI-450415X

Location
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote

Page 104 of 158

Monitoring
Power turbine BRG 5-Y-axis
Power turbine axial
Power turbine trust bearing
Power turbine BRG 4-X-axis
Power turbine BRG 4-Y-axis
Gas producer NGP PV
Power turbine BRG 3-X-axis
Power turbine BRG 3-Y-axis
Power turbine BRG 2-X-axis
Power turbine BRG 2-Y-axis
Power turbine BRG 1-X-axis
Power turbine BRG 1-Y-axis
Gas producer axial
Gas producer trust bearing

Device
YI-450415Y
YI-450412
TI-450450417
YI-450407X
YI-450407Y
SI-450406
YI-450408X
YI-450408Y
YI-450409X
YI-450409Y
YI-450410X
YI-450410Y
YI-450411
TI-450431

Location
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote

The following parameters can be monitored for the gearbox:


Monitoring
Thrust Brg Outboard Temp RDN
Thrust Outboard Brg Temp
LSS NDE End Bearing Temp
Axial
Accelerator
HSS DE End Bearing Temp
Bearing HSS Y Axis
Bearing HSS X Axis
Bearing LSS Y Axis
Bearing LSS X axis
LSS DE End Bearing Temp
Thrust Inboard Brg Temp RDN
Thrust Inboard Bearing Temp
HSS NDE End Bearing Temp

Device
TI-450414B
TI-450414A
TI-450412
ZI-450405
XI-450408
TI-450410
YI-450405Y
YI-450405X
YI-450406Y
YI-450406X
TI-450413
TI-450415B
TI-450415A
TI-450411

Location
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote

The following parameters can be monitored for the start motor:


Monitoring
Start motor voltage
Start motor current
Start motor speed

Device
XI-450424
XI-450423
SI-450407

Location
Remote
Remote
Remote

The following parameters can be monitored for the accessory gearbox:


Monitoring
Accessory Gearbox

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Device
XI-450428

Location
Remote

Page 105 of 158

The following parameters can be monitored for the lube oil:


Monitoring
Lube Oil Header Temperature RDN
Lube Oil Header Temperature
Lube Oil Header Pressure RDN
Lube Oil Header Pressure
Lube Oil Filter DP
Lube Oil Pre Post Pressure
Lube Oil Tank Temperature
Lube Oil Tank Pressure
Lube Oil Tank Level
Accessory Gearbox bearing drain temp
Gas Producer Bearing Drain temp
Gas Producer Bearing Drain Temperature
Power Turbine Bearing Drain Temperature
Scavenge Pump Pressure
Back-up Lube pressure Test

Device
TI-450424
TI-450425
PI-450434
PI-450435
PDI-450405
PI-450436
TI-450426
PI-450437
LI-450401
TI-450427
TI-450428
TI-450429
TI-450430
PI-450438
PI-450439

Location
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote

The following parameters can be monitored for the enclosure:


Monitoring
Enclosure Primary Vent Fan
Enclosure Temperature
Enclosure Back-up Vent Fan
Enclosure Pressure
Enclosure Filter DP

Device
XI-450426
TI-450432
XI-450427
PI-450420
PDI-450404

Location
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote

The following parameters can be monitored for WI pump P-45001D:


Monitoring
WI DE Vibration
WI Pump DE Vibration
WI Pump DE Seal Pressure
WI Pump NDE Seal Pressure
WI Pump DE Journal Bearing Temperature
WI Pump NDE Journal Bearing Temperature
WI Pump NDE Vibration
WI Pump NDE Vibration
WI Pump I/B Thrust Bearing Temperature
WI Pump O/B Thrust Bearing Temperature
WI Pump Balance Return Line Temperature
WI Pump Speed
Pump HP (Indicated in MW)

Device
YI-450400X
YI-450400Y
PI-450416
PI-450417
TI-450405
TI-450406
YI-450401Y
YI-450401X
TI-450407
TI-450408
TI-450409
SI-450404
XI-450425

Location
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote
Remote

Figures 19-21 show the graphic display screens for the gas turbine where the following
parameters can be monitored:

Pump power
Enclosure pressure & temperature
Enclosure vent fan on/off
Enclosure Filter DP
Gas turbine not running or running. When the speed of turbine is less than 5%
of the design speed, this will be indicated as not running
Gas turbine air inlet filter DP
Operating data in the fuel gas system.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 106 of 158

Figure 19 4th Water Injection Pump Gas Turbine Graphic Display

Figure 20

Gas Turbine Monitoring & Lube Oil System Graphic Display

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 107 of 158

Figure 21

Gas Turbine to 4th Water Injection Pump Gearbox Graphic Display

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 108 of 158

ALARMS AND SHUTDOWNS

6.1

De-aerator HIPS
The de-aerator HIPS shutdown valves XXV-441002 and XXV-441040 must be
manually reset following activation.
Note:

When the seawater inlet shutdown valve XXV-441002 is used as part


of an isolation, the air supply to the actuator should be locked off and
disconnected.

A high-high level HIPS is installed on the inlet to the deaerator tower to prevent
the column overfilling. The support pallet steelwork is adequate for the
occasional (less than once a year) flooding of the tower, however, no appraisal
for fatigue has been performed. Therefore, it is important that each flooding
occasion is logged.
The HIPS is arranged as a level transmitter initiated a one-out-of-two voting
system acting on two independent ESD valves and located on the inlet to the
vessel. The HIPS level transmitters and shutdown valves are driven via the
hard-wired ESD system.
The deaerator also has a primary protection system in the form of a high high
level shutdown switch acting on the upstream shutdown valve, XXV-441040, via
a dedicated CPS solenoid. The primary shutdown system operates via the
software based CPS system.
The HIPS comprises the following:
HIPS Transmitters
LT-441013
LT-441014

High-high Setpoint

3050 mm
3050 mm

HIPS ESD Valves


First Valve
Second Valve

XXV-441002
XXV-441040 (via a dedicated ESD solenoid)

Primary Protection Transmitter


LT-441032

High-high setpoint

2600 mm

Primary Protection Shutdown Valve


Upstream Valve

XXV-441040 (via a dedicated CPS solenoid)

The HIPS is installed on the deaerator as the vessel relief valves are not
designed for full seawater flow relief.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 109 of 158

PSD Resets
Field inputs which have caused a trip, after the measurement goes healthy,
require to be reset in the PSD system. This is achieved at the operator
workstations as follows:
1. On Main System graphic select PSD, this will display PSD
Shutdown/Reset Page.
2. On this page all process systems status will be displayed, i.e. input trip, output
trip etc. On this page against each process system there is a reset
pushbutton. If all field inputs for the process are healthy, the reset can be
pressed and the status of input trips should change from red to green.
Note: Any field inputs which require a start-up override, and are therefore active
due to plant not running, require a start-up override applied before the reset is
pressed.
SUBSEA AND WATER INJECTION TREES
Refer to Cause and Effect S-9000-GC-9002
Input Cause
Red Shutdown

Input
F&G or Manually
from CCR

Yellow Shutdown

F&G or Manually
from CCR

Water Injection Pumps Trip

PSD

Action
Closes all wells, wing
valves, master valves,
annulus valves, SCSSV
and crossover valve.
Closes all wells, wing
valves, master valves,
annulus valves, SCSSV
and crossover valve.
Closes wing valves.

Table 13 ESD actions on tree valves


Alarm

Input

Action

Deaerator tower de-aerated seawater


LAH-441010
Deaerator tower de-aerated seawater
LAL-441010
Deaerator tower seawater inlet
FAH-441001
Deaerator tower seawater inlet
FAL-441001
Deaerator tower seawater outlet
FAH-441019
Deaerator tower seawater outlet
FAL-441019
Deaerator tower pressure
PAH-441003
Deaerator tower pressure
PAL-441003
Deaerator tower temperature
TAH-441008
Deaerator tower temperature
TAL-441008
Departed seawater outlet oxygen content
AAH-441018
Departed seawater outlet chlorine content
AAH-441017

LT-441010

CPS

LT-441010

CPS

FT-441010

CPS

FT-441010

CPS

FT-441019

CPS

FT-441019

CPS

PT-441003

CPS

PT-441003

CPS

TT-441008

CPS

TT-441008

CPS

AT-441018

CPS

AT-441017

CPS

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 110 of 158

Alarm

Input

Action

Purge system pressure PAH/L-441034

AT-441017
PS-441034
AT-441017
LS-441033
PT-441021
PT-441021
AT-441026
PDT-442027
PDT-442027
PDT-442004
PDT-442004
TT-442002
TT-442005
FT-442008
FT-442008
TT-442014
TT-442014
TT-442015
TT-442015
PDT-442016
AT-442019
FT-442025
FT-442025
FT-441027

Purge controller in
field
Purge controller in
field
CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS

FT-441027

CPS

Purge system liquid leak


LAH-441033
Blower inlet pressure PAH-441021
Blower inlet pressure PAL-441021
Blower inlet hydrocarbon analyser
Blower P-44201A dp PDAH-442027
Blower P-44201A dp PDAL-442027
Blower P-44201B dp PDAH-442004
Blower P-44201B dp PDAL-442004
Blower P-44201A temp TAH-442002
Blower P-44201B temp TAH-442005
Blower outlet flowrate FAH-442008
Blower outlet flowrate FAL-442008
Heat exchanger outlet temp TAH-442014
Heat exchanger outlet temp TAL-442014
De-oxidiser V-44201 temp TAH-442015
De-oxidiser V-44201 temp TAL-442015
De-oxidiser V-44201 dp PDAH-442016
De-oxidiser outlet O2 content AAH-442019
Methanol Inlet flowrate FAH-442025
Methanol Inlet flowrate FAL-442025
Instrument air inlet
(process) mass flow FAH-441027
Instrument air inlet
(process) mass flow FAL-441027

Alarm

Input

Action

Deaerator Tower Seawater


Level LAHHH-441013
Deaerator Tower Seawater
Level LAHHH-441014
Deaerator Tower Seawater
Level LAHH-441032
Deaerator Tower Seawater
Level LALL-441015
Deaerator Tower Temperature
TAHH-44107
Blower Inlet Pressure
PAHH-441020
Blower Inlet Pressure
PALL-441020
Blower Outlet Flowrate
FAHH-442009
Blower Outlet Flowrate
FALL-442009
De-oxidiser V 44201 Temperature
TAHH-442018
De-oxidiser V-44201 Temperature
Thermostats (in series)
Heater Tube Sheet Terminal Box
De-oxidiser V-44201
Heater Element Temperature
De-oxidiser outlet Temperature TAHH-441030
De-oxidiser Outlet Oxygen Level AAH-442019

LT-441013

ESD

LT-441014

ESD

LT-441032

PSD

LT-441015

PSD

TT-441007

PSD

PT-441020

PSD

PT-441020

PSD

FT-442009

PSD

FT-442009

PSD

TT-442018

PSD

TS-442017

MCC

TS-442016

MCC

TT-441030
AT-442019

PSD
CPS

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 111 of 158

6.2

Pumps P-45001A/B/C Alarms & Actions

6.2.1

Pump P-45001A Alarms & Actions

Alarm
GEC Purgepak PM 45001A
(mounted on front of UCP) PAL-450163
Injection pump P-45001A
DE journal bearing vibration high
YAH-450100 x/y
Injection pump P-45001A
DE journal bearing
vibration high sensor fail YA-450100 x/y
Injection pump P-45001A
NDE journal bearing
vibration high YAH 450101 x/y
Injection pump P-45001A
pump NDE journal bearing vibration high sensor
fail
YA 450101 x/y
Injection pump motor
PM-45001A motor
DE journal bearing
vibration High
YAH-450102 x/y
Injection pump motor
PM-45001A DE journal bearing vibration high
sensor fail
YA-450102 x/y
Injection pump motor
PM-45001A NDE journal bearing vibration high
YAH-450103 x/y
Injection pump motor PM-45001A NDE journal
bearing vibration
high sensor fail
YA-450103 x/y
Injection pump P-45001A
DE journal bearing
TAH-450105
Injection pump P-45001A
DE journal bearing
temperature sensor fail
TA-450105
Injection pump P-45001A
NDE journal bearing
TAH-450106
Injection pump P-45001A
NDE journal bearing
temperature sensor fail TA-450106
Injection pump P-45001A
I/B thrust bearing TAH-450107
Injection pump P-45001A
I/B thrust bearing
temperature sensor fail TA-450107

Input
PT-450163

Action
EPS

YT-450100X/Y

ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link

YT-450100X/Y
YT-450101X/Y
YT-450101X/Y

YT-450102x/Y

ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link

YT-450102x/y

ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link

YT-450103 x/y

ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link

YT-450103 x/y

TT-450105
TT-450105

TT-450106
TT-450106
TT-450107
TT-450107

ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link

(contd)

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 112 of 158

6.2.1

Pump P-45001A Alarms & Actions (continued)


Alarm
Injection pump P-45001A
O/B thrust bearing TAH-450108

Input
TT-450108

Injection pump P-45001A


O/B thrust bearing
temperature sensor fail TA-450108
Injection pump P-45001A
balance return line temp TAH-450109
Injection pump motor PM-45001A air circuit
temperature TAH-450110

TT-450108

Injection pump motor PM-45001A


air circuit temp sensor fail TA-450110

TT-450110

Injection pump motor PM-45001A DE


journal bearing temp high TAH-450111

TT-450111

Injection pump motor PM-45001A DE


journal bearing temp sensor fail
TA-450111
Injection pump motor PM-45001A NDE
journal bearing temp high
TAH-450112
Injection pump motor PM-45001A NDE
journal bearing temp
sensor fail TA-450112
Injection pump motor PM-45001A winding
temp high
TAH-450113
Injection pump motor PM-45001A winding
temperature sensor fail
TA-450113
Injection pump motor PM-45001A winding
temperature high
TAH-450114
Injection pump motor PM-45001A winding
temperature sensor fail
TA-450114
Injection pump motor PM-45001A
winding temperature high
TAH-450115
Injection pump motor PM-45001A winding
temperature sensor fail
TA-450115
Injection pump P-45001A DE
seal pressure high
PAH-450116

TT-450111

TT-450109
TT-450110

TT-450112
TT-450112
TT-450113
TT-450113
TT-450114
TT-450114
TT-450115
TT-450115
PT-450116

Action
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
CPS
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link

(contd)

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 113 of 158

6.2.1

Pump P-45001A Alarms & Actions (continued)


Alarm

Input

Action

Injection pump P-45001A DE


seal pressure high
pressure sensor fail PA-450116

PT-450116

Injection pump P-45001A


NDE seal pressure high
PAH-450117

PT-450117

Injection pump P-45001A


NDE seal pressure high sensor fail
PA-450117

PT-450117

Injection pump motor PM-45001A coolant leakage level


LAH-450120
Injection pump P-45001A
lube oil reservoir temperature TAH-450128
Injection pump P-45001A
lube oil reservoir temperature TAL-450128
Injection pump P-45001A lube oil reservoir temperature
sensor fail TA-450128
Injection pump P-45001A lube oil cooler outlet
temperature
TAH-450131

LT-450120

ECP Mounted
hardwired
available in CCR
via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired
available in CCR
via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired
available in CCR
via Data Link
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
hardwired
available in CCR
via Data Link
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS
ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ECP

TT-450128
TT-450128
TT-450128
TT-450131

Injection pump P-45001A


lube oil supply pressure PAL-450134
P-45001A lube oil supply pressure
sensor fail PA-450134
P-45001A lube oil supply pressure sensor fail PA-450135

PT-450134

P-45001A lube oil filter differential pressure PDAH450136


P-45001A lube oil filter differential pressure sensor fail
PDA-450136
P-45001A
lube oil reservoir level LAL-450139
P-45001A lube oil reservoir level sensor fail LA-450139

PT-450136

P-45001A suction pressure alarm PAL-450141


P-45001A suction pressure alarm PAH-450141
P-45001A discharge pressure alarm PAL-450143
P-45001A discharge pressure alarm PAH-450143
Pump DE journal bearing vibration YAHH-450100 x/y
Pump NDE journal bearing vibration YAHH-450101 x/y
Pump DE journal bearing vibration YAHH-450102 x/y
Pump NDE journal bearing vibration YAHH-450103 x/y
Pump DE journal bearing vibration YAHH-450105 x/y
Pump NDE journal bearing vibration YAHH-450106 x/y
Motor Air circuit temperature TAHH-450110
Motor DE journal bearing TAHH-450111
Motor NDE journal bearing TAHH-450112
Motor winding temperature TAHH-450113
Motor winding temperature TAHH-450114
Motor winding temperature TAHH-450115
Lube oil supply pressure PALL-450135

PT-450141
PT-450141
PT-450143
PT-450143
YT-450100
YT-450101
YT-450102
YT-450103
YT-450105
YT-450106
TT-450110
TT-450111
TT-450112
TT-450113
TT-450114
TT-450115
PT-450135

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

PT-450134
PT-450135

PT-450136
LT-450139
LT-450139

Page 114 of 158

6.2.2

Pump P-45001B Alarms & Actions


Alarm

Input

Action

GEC Purgepak PM-45001B


(mounted on front of UCP) PAL-450263
Injection pump P-45001B DE
journal bearing vibration high
YAH 450200 x/y
Injection pump P-45001B DE
journal bearing vibration high sensor fail
YA 450200 x/y
Injection pump P-45001B NDE journal bearing
vibration high YAH 450201 x/y
Injection pump P-45001B NDE journal bearing
vibration high sensor fail YA 450201 x/y
Injection pump motor PM-45001B
DE journal bearing vibration high
YAH-450202 x/y
Injection pump motor PM-45001B
DE journal bearing vibration
high sensor fail YA-450202 x/y
Injection pump motor PM-45001B NDE journal
bearing vibration high
YAH-450203 x/y
Injection pump motor PM-45001B
NDE journal bearing
vibration high sensor fail YA-450203 x/y
Injection pump P-45001B
DE journal bearing TAH-450205
Injection pump P-45001B DE journal bearing
temperature sensor fail TA-450205
Injection pump P-45001B
NDE journal bearing TAH-450206
Injection pump P-45001B NDE journal bearing
temperature sensor fail TA-450206
Injection pump P-45001B
I/B thrust bearing TAH-450207
Injection pump P-45001B I/B thrust bearing
temperature sensor fail
TA-450207
Injection pump P-45001B
O/B thrust bearing TAH-450208
Injection pump P-45001B O/B thrust bearing
temperature sensor fail TA-450208
Injection pump P-45001B
balance return line temperature
TAH-450209
Injection pump motor PM-45001B
air circuit temperature
TAH-450210
Injection pump motor PM-45001B
air circuit temperature sensor fail
TA-450210
Injection pump motor PM-45001B DE journal
bearing temperature high
TAH-450211
Injection pump motor PM-45001B DE journal
bearing temperature sensor fail
TA-450211

PT-450263

EPS

YT 450200X/Y
YT-450200X/Y

ECP Mounted
hardwired available
in CCR via Data Link
Ditto

YT-450201X/Y

Ditto

YT-450201X/Y

Ditto

YT-450202x/Y

Ditto

YT-450202x/y

Ditto

YT-450203 x/y

Ditto

YT-450203 x/y

Ditto

TT-450205

Ditto

TT-450205

Ditto

TT-450206

Ditto

TT-450206

Ditto

TT-450207

Ditto

TT-450207

Ditto

TT-450208

Ditto

TT-450208

Ditto

TT 450209

CPS

TT-450210

ECP Mounted
hardwired available
in CCR via Data Link
Ditto

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

TT-450210
TT-450211
TT-450211

ECP Mounted
hardwired available
in CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available
in CCR via Data Link

Page 115 of 158

6.2.2

Pump P-45001B Alarms & Actions (continued)


Alarm

Input

Action

Injection pump motor PM-45001B


NDE journal bearing temperature high
TAH-450212
Injection pump motor PM-45001B NDE
journal bearing temperature sensor fail
TA-450212
Injection pump motor PM-45001B winding U
temperature high
TAH-450213
Injection pump motor PM-45001B winding U
temperature sensor fail
TA-450213
Injection pump motor PM-45001B winding V
temperature high
TAH-450214
Injection pump motor PM-45001B winding V
temperature sensor fail
TA-450214
Injection pump motor PM-45001B
winding W temperature high
TAH-450215
Injection pump motor PM-45001B winding W
temperature sensor fail
TA-450215
Injection pump P-45001B
DE seal pressure high
PAH-450216
Injection pump P-45001B DE seal
high pressure sensor fail
PA-450216
Injection pump P-45001B
NDE seal pressure high
PAH-450217
Injection pump P-45001B
NDE seal high pressure sensor fail
PA-450217
Injection pump motor PM-45001B coolant
leakage LAH-450220
Injection pump P-45001B lube oil reservoir
temperature
TAH-450228
Injection pump P-45001B lube oil reservoir
temperature TAL-450228
Injection pump P-45001B lube oil reservoir
temperature sensor fail TA-450228
Injection pump P-45001B lube oil
cooler outlet temperature TAH-450231

TT-450212

ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator

Injection pump P-45001B lube oil


supply pressure PAL-450234
Injection pump P-45001B lube oil
supply pressure sensor fail
PA-450234
Injection pump P-45001B lube oil
supply pressure sensor fail
PA-450235

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

TT-450212
TT-450213
TT-450213
TT-450214
TT-450214
TT-450215
TT-450215
PT 450216
PT 450216
PT 450217
PT 450217
LT 450220
TT 450228
TT 450228
TT 450228
TT-450231
PT 450234
PT 450234
PT 450235

ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator

Page 116 of 158

6.2.2

Pump P-45001B Alarms & Actions (continued)


Alarm

Injection pump P-45001B lube oil filter


differential pressure PDAH-450236
Injection pump P-45001B lube oil filter
differential pressure sensor fail
PDA-450236
Injection pump P-45001B
lube oil reservoir level LAL-450239
Injection pump P-45001B lube oil reservoir
level sensor fail LA-450239
Injection pump P-45001B
suction pressure alarm PAL-450241
Injection pump P-45001B
suction pressure alarm PAH-450241
Injection pump P-45001B
discharge pressure alarm PAL-450243
Injection pump P-45001B
discharge pressure alarm PAH-450243
Pump DE journal bearing vibration
YAHH-450200 x/y
Pump NDE journal bearing vibration
YAHH-450201 x/y
Pump DE journal bearing vibration
YAHH-450202 x/y
Pump NDE journal bearing vibration
YAHH-450203 x/y
Pump DE journal bearing vibration
YAHH-450205 x/y
Pump NDE journal bearing vibration
YAHH-450206 x/y
Motor air circuit temperature TAHH-450210
Motor DE journal bearing TAHH-450211
Motor NDE journal bearing TAHH-450212
Motor winding temperature TAHH-450213
Motor winding temperature TAHH-450214
Motor winding temperature TAHH-450215
Lube oil supply pressure PALL 450235

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Input

Action

PT 450236

ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator

PT 450236
LT 450239

PT 450241

ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
CPS

PT 450241

CPS

PT 450243

CPS

PT 450243

CPS

YT-450200

ESD via ECP

YT-450201

ESD via ECP

YT-450202

ESD via ECP

YT-450203

ESD via ECP

YT-450205

ESD via ECP

YT-450206

ESD via ECP

TT-450210
TT-450211
TT-450212
TT-450213
TT-450214
TT-450215
PT-450235

ESD via ECP


ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ECP

LT 450239

Page 117 of 158

6.2.3

Pump P-45001C Alarms & Actions


Alarm

Input

Action

GEC Purgepak PM-45001C


(mounted on front of UCP)
PAL-450363
Injection pump P-45001C DE journal bearing
vibration high
YAH-450300 x/y
Injection pump P-45001C DE journal bearing
vibration high sensor fail
YA-450300 x/y
Injection pump P-45001C NDE journal bearing
vibration high
YAH-450301 x/y
Injection pump P-45001C NDE journal bearing
vibration high sensor fail
YA-450301 x/y
Injection pump motor PM-45001C DE journal
bearing vibration high
YAH-450302 x/y
Injection pump motor PM-45001C
DE journal bearing vibration
high sensor fail
YA-450302 x/y
Injection pump motor PM-45001C
NDE journal bearing vibration high
YAH-450303 x/y
Injection pump motor PM-45001C
NDE journal bearing
vibration high sensor fail
YA-450303 x/y
Injection pump P-45001C
DE journal bearing
TAH-450305
Injection pump P-45001C DE journal bearing
temperature sensor fail
TA-450305
Injection pump P-45001C NDE
journal bearing
TAH-450306
Injection pump P-45001C NDE journal bearing
temperature sensor fail
TA-450306
Injection pump P-45001C
I/B thrust bearing
TAH-450307
Injection pump P-45001C I/B thrust bearing
temperature sensor fail
TA-450307
Injection pump P-45001C
O/B thrust bearing
TAH-450308
Injection pump P-45001C O/B thrust bearing
temperature sensor fail
TA-450308
Injection pump P-45001C balance
return line temperature TAH-450309

PT-450363

EPS

YT 450300X/Y

ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

YT-450300X/Y
YT-450301X/Y
YT-450301X/Y
YT-450302x/Y
YT-450302x/y

YT-450303 x/y
YT-450303 x/y

TT-450305
TT-450305
TT-450306
TT-450306
TT-450307
TT-450307
TT-450308
TT-450308
TT-450309

ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
CPS

Page 118 of 158

6.2.3

Pump P-45001C Alarms & Actions (continued)

Alarm
Injection pump motor PM-45001C
air circuit temperature
TAH-450310
Injection pump motor PM-45001C
air circuit temperature sensor fail
TA-450310
Injection pump motor PM-45001C DE journal
bearing temperature high
TAH-450311
Injection pump motor PM-45001C DE journal
bearing temperature sensor fail
TA-450311
Injection pump motor PM-45001C NDE journal
bearing temperature high
TAH-450312
Injection pump motor PM-45001C NDE journal
bearing temperature sensor fail
TA-450312
Injection pump motor PM-45001C winding U
temperature high
TAH-450313
Injection pump motor PM-45001C
winding U temperature sensor fail
TA-450313
Injection pump motor PM-45001C
winding V
temperature high TAH-450314
Injection pump motor PM-45001C
winding V
temperature sensor fail TA-450314
Injection pump motor PM-45001C
winding W temperature high
TAH-450315
Injection pump motor PM-45001C
winding W temperature sensor fail
TA-450315
Injection pump P-45001C
DE seal pressure high
PAH-450316
Injection pump P-45001C
DE seal pressure high
sensor fail
PA-450316
Injection pump P-45001C
NDE seal pressure high
PAH-450317
Injection pump P-45001C
NDE seal pressure high
sensor fail PA-450317
Injection pump motor PM-45001C
coolant leakage LAH-450320
Injection pump P-45001C
lube oil reservoir temperature
TAH-450328

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Input
TT-450310
TT-450310
TT-450311
TT-450311
TT-450312
TT-450312
TT-450313
TT-450313
TT-450314
TT-450314
TT-450315
TT-450315
PT-450316
PT-450316

PT-450317
PT-450317
LT-450320
TT-450328

Action
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
hardwired available in
CCR via Data Link
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator

Page 119 of 158

6.2.3

Pump P-45001C Alarms & Actions (continued)

Alarm
Injection pump P-45001C
lube oil reservoir temperature TAL-450328
Injection pump P-45001C
lube oil reservoir temperature
sensor fail TA-450328
Injection pump P-45001C
lube oil cooler outlet temperature
TAH-450331

Input
TT-450328

Injection pump P-45001C


lube oil supply pressure PAL-450334
Injection pump P-45001C
lube oil supply pressure sensor fail PA-450334
Injection pump P-45001C
lube oil supply pressure sensor fail PA-450335
Injection pump P-45001C
lube oil filter differential pressure PDAH-450336
Injection pump P-45001C lube oil filter differential
pressure sensor fail PDA-450336
Injection pump P-45001C
lube oil reservoir level LAL-450339
Injection pump P-45001C
lube oil reservoir level sensor fail LA-450339
Injection pump P-45001C
suction pressure alarm PAL-450341
Injection pump P-45001C
suction pressure alarm PAH-450341
Injection pump P-45001C
discharge pressure alarm PAL-450343
Injection pump P-45001C
discharge pressure alarm PAH-450343
Pump DE journal bearing vibration
YAHH-450300 x/y
Pump NDE journal bearing vibration
YAHH-450301 x/y
Pump DE journal bearing vibration
YAHH-450302 x/y
Pump NDE journal bearing vibration
YAHH-450303 x/y
Pump DE journal bearing vibration
YAHH-450305 x/y
Pump NDE journal bearing vibration
YAHH-450306 x/y
Motor air circuit temperature TAHH-450310
Motor DE journal bearing TAHH-450311
Motor NDE journal bearing TAHH-450312
Motor winding temperature TAHH-450313
Motor winding temperature TAHH-450314
Motor winding temperature TAHH-450315
Lube oil supply pressure PALL-450335

PT-450334

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

TT-450328
TT-450331

Action
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator

PT-450341

ECP Mounted
hardwired
available in CCR
via Data Link
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
ECP Mounted
Annunciator
CPS

PT-450341

CPS

PT-450343

CPS

PT-450343

CPS

YT-450300

ESD via ECP

YT-450301

ESD via ECP

YT-450302

ESD via ECP

YT-450303

ESD via ECP

YT-450305

ESD via ECP

YT-450306

ESD via ECP

TT-450310
TT-450311
TT-450312
TT-450313
TT-450314
TT-450315
PT-450335

ESD via ECP


ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ESD via ECP
ECP

PT-450334
PT-450335
PT-450336
PT-450336
LT-450339
LT-450339

Page 120 of 158

6.3

Pump P-45001D & Turbine Local and Remote Alarms


Ref. P&IDs:

37W022F0146-A-8000-GP-0090.05/06/07-2C
37W022F0146-A-8000-GP-0090.03-2C
Alarm

Input

Action

P-45001D pump vibration common alarm

XA-450400

CPS

P-45001D pump temperature common alarm

XA-450401

CPS

P-45001D pump seal pressure common alarm

XA-450402

CPS

Gearbox high temperature common alarm

XA-450403

CPS

Gearbox vibration alarm

XA-450404

CPS

P-45001D lube oil common alarm

XA-450405

CPS

Gas producer temperature common alarm

XA-450406

CPS

Fire & Gas common alarm

XA-450407

CPS

Gas producer vibration common alarm

XA-450408

CPS

Gas turbine other common alarm

XA-450409

CPS

Power turbine temperature common alarm

XA-450410

CPS

Power turbine vibration common alarm

XA-450411

CPS

Gas turbine start-up common alarm

XA-450412

CPS

Gas turbine common alarm

XA-450413

CPS

Alarm Summary (Package)

XA-450418

CPS

Gas turbine fast stop lockout alarm

XA-450414

CPS

Shutdown summary status (Package)

XA-450419

CPS

Gas turbine fast stop non lockout alarm

XA-450415

CPS

Gas turbine cool down lockout alarm

XA-450416

CPS

Gas turbine cool down non-lockout alarm

XA-450417

CPS

P-45001D Suction low pressure alarm

PI-450441

CPS

P-45001D Suction high pressure alarm


P-45001D Discharge low pressure alarm
P-45001D Discharge high pressure alarm
Water Injection Rate Low

PI-450441
PI-450443
PI-450443
FIC-450445

CPS
CPS
CPS
CPS

NOTE: XA-450400 to XA-450412 are customized alarm groups. Predefined


alarms in the LER are displayed in the CCR.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 121 of 158

Figure 22

Figure 23

Lube Oil System Common Alarm Graphic

Gearbox Temperature & Vibration Common Alarm Graphic

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 122 of 158

Figure 24

Pump Temperature, Pressure & Vibration Common Alarm Graphic

Figure 25

Gas Turbine Common Alarm Graphic

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 123 of 158

Figure 26 Power Turbine Vibration & Temperature and


Gas Turbine Start-up Common Alarm Graphic

Figure 27

Gas Producer Vibration & Temperature and


Fire & Gas Common Alarm Graphic

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 124 of 158

DISCHARGE

SUCTION

Figure 28

Water Injection Pumps P-45001C&D Graphic

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 125 of 158

6.4

Pump P-45001D Alarms, Actions, Shutdowns & Resets


The LER gathers information on pump and turbine controls and shutdowns, and
fire & gas systems. There is also a connection to the ESD system in the LER via
hardwires from the CCR. The fuel gas system ESD isolation is connected directly
to the existing ESD system.
Ref. Cause and Effect: L 8000-JC-0002.24, L-8000-JC-0002.38
Input Cause
Injection pump P45001D
suction pressure PAHH450442

Input
PT-450442

Injection pump P45001D


suction pressure PALL450442

PT-450442

Injection pump P45001D


Discharge pressure PAHH450444

PT-450444

Injection pump P45001D


discharge pressure PALL450444

PT-450444

Injection pump P45001D low


low flow FALL-450446

FT-450446

Injection pump P45001D Fuel


gas system temperature
TAHH-850005

TT-850005

Injection pump P45001D Fuel


gas system temperature
TALL-850005

TT-850005

Injection pump P45001D fuel


gas system temperature
TALL-850006

TT-850006

Injection pump P45001D fuel


gas system pressure PAHH850005

PT-850005

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Action
Intertrip to water injection system,
close discharge XV-450446,
equalisation XV-450501, fuel gas XV850005, trip fuel gas heater ETP85002 and fast stop gas turbine.
Intertrip to water injection system,
close discharge XV-450446,
equalisation XV-450501, fuel gas XV850005, trip fuel gas heater ETP85002 and fast stop gas turbine
Intertrip to water injection system,
close discharge XV-450446,
equalisation XV-450501, fuel gas XV850005, open overboard dump valve
XV-450445, trip fuel gas heater ETP85002 and fast stop gas turbine
Intertrip to water injection system,
close discharge XV-450446,
equalisation XV-450501, fuel gas XV850005, trip fuel gas heater ETP85002 and fast stop gas turbine.
Intertrip to water injection system,
close discharge XV-450446,
equalisation XV-450501, fuel gas XV850005, trip fuel gas heater ETP85002 and fast stop gas turbine.
Intertrip to water injection system,
close discharge XV-450446,
equalisation XV-450501, fuel gas XV850005, trip fuel gas heater ETP85002 and fast stop gas turbine.
1 out of 2 voting (TT-850005 and TT850006).
Intertrip to water injection
system, close dischargeXV-450446,
equalisation XV-450501, fuel gas XV850005, trip fuel gas heater ETP85002 and fast stop gas turbine.
1 out of 2 voting (TT-850005 and TT850006).
Intertrip to water injection
system, close discharge XV-450446,
equalisation XV-450501, fuel gas XV850005, trip fuel gas heater ETP85002 and fast stop gas turbine.
Intertrip to water injection system,
close discharge XV-450446,
equalisation XV-450501, fuel gas XV850005, trip fuel gas heater ETP85002 and fast stop gas turbine.

Page 126 of 158

Input Cause
Injection pump P45001D fuel
gas system pressure PALL850005

Input
PT-850005

Gas turbine trip to full stop,


by fast or emergency stop.

Solar
CUST553

Intertrip from existing fuel


gas system.

Intertrip

Intertrip from water injection


system

Intertip

Action
Intertrip to water injection system
close discharge XV-450446,
equalisation XV-450501, fuel gas
XV-850005, trip fuel gas heater ETP85002 and fast stop gas turbine.
Intertrip to water injection system
close discharge XV-450446,
equalisation XV-450501, fuel gas
XV-850005 and trip fuel gas heater
ETP-85002.
Intertrip to water injection system
close discharge XV-450446,
equalisation XV-450501, fuel gas
XV-850005, trip fuel gas heater ETP85002 and fast stop gas turbine.
Close discharge XV-450446,
equalisation XV-450501, fuel gas
XV-850005, trip fuel gas heater ETP85002 and fast stop gas turbine.

Figure 29 Trips and Interlocks Graphic

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 127 of 158

Figure 30 Water Injection System Interlocks Graphic (1)

Figure 31 Water Injection System Interlocks Graphic (2)

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 128 of 158

6.5

Pumps P-45001A/B/C Shutdowns


Refer to Cause and Effect L 8000-JC-0002.24
Input Cause
Injection pump P-45001A suction
pressure PAHH-450142
Injection pump P-45001A suction
pressure PALL-450142
Injection pump P-45001A balance
line TAHH-450109
Injection pump P-45001A
discharge pressure PAHH-450144
Injection pump P-45001A
discharge pressure PALL-450144
Injection pump P-45001A low-low
flow FALL-450146
Injection pump P-45001B
suction pressure PAHH-450242
Injection pump P-45001B
suction pressure PALL-450242
Injection pump P-45001B
balance line TAHH-450209
Injection pump P-45001B
discharge pressure PAHH-450244
Injection pump P-45001B
discharge pressure PALL-450244
Injection pump P-45001B low-low
flow FALL-450246
Injection pump P-45001C
suction pressure PAHH-450342
Injection pump P-45001C
suction pressure PALL-450342
Injection pump P-45001C balance
line TAHH-450309
Injection pump P-45001C
discharge pressure PAHH-450344
Injection pump P-45001C
discharge pressure PALL-450344
Injection pump P-45001C low-low
flow FALL-450346
Yellow Shutdown

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Input
PT-450142
PT-450142
TT-450109
PT-450144
PT-450144
FIT-450146
PT-450242
PT-450242
TT-450209
PT-450244
PT-450244
FIT-450246
PT-450342
PT-450342
TT-450309
PT-450344
PT-450344
FIT-450346

Action
Trip pump A via HV switchboard
and close discharge XV-450146
Trip pump A via HV switchboard
and close discharge XV-450146
Trip pump A via HV switchboard
and close discharge XV-450146
Trip pump A via HV switchboard
and close discharge XV-450146
Trip pump A via HV switchboard
and close discharge XV-450146
Trip pump A via HV switchboard
and close discharge XV-450146
Trip pump B via HV switchboard
and close discharge XV-450246
Trip pump B via HV switchboard
and close discharge XV-450246
Trip pump B via HV switchboard
and close discharge XV-450246
Trip pump B via HV switchboard
and close discharge XV-450246
Trip pump B via HV switchboard
and close discharge XV-450246
Trip pump B via HV switchboard
and close discharge XV-450246
Trip pump C via HV switchboard
and close discharge XV-450346
Trip pump C via HV switchboard
and close discharge XV-450146
Trip pump C via HV switchboard
and close discharge XV-450346
Trip pump C via HV switchboard
and close discharge XV-450346
Trip pump C via HV switchboard
and close discharge XV-450346
Trip pump C via HV switchboard
and close discharge XV-450346
Trips water
injection pumps
P-45001A/B/C/D and closes
discharge valves

Page 129 of 158

6.6

ESD Actions & Valve Closure Sequences


Valve
Water injection
wing valve
water injection
master valve
water injection
annulus valve
cross-over valve
SCSSV

Table 14

Master Xtree
1

Slave Xtree
2

7
9

8
10

Tree valve Closure Sequences

These sequences are typical for tree shutdown and follow directly from 1 to 10:
The master xtree shutdown would be in the sequence of 1,3,5,7,9 and the
slave xtree in the sequence of 2,4,6,8,10.
The IWV sequence of valve closure would always be 1 followed by 2.
The UMIV valve closure could be 3 followed by 4 or 4 followed by 3.
The AMV valve closure: 5 and then 6 or 6 and then 5, etc.
The same typical and alternative shutdown sequences apply to all of the
following tables. Table 15 shows the shutdown sequences for West and Loyal
injection centres, which have two slave xtrees to a master xtree.
Valve

Master Xtree

Second Slave

First Slave
Xtree
2

Water injection
wing valve
water injection
master valve
water injection
annulus valve
cross-over valve
SCSSV

10
13

11
14

12
15

Table 15 Sequence of Master and Slave Xtree Shutdown


on Red ESD for West and Loyal Water Injection Drill Centres

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 130 of 158

6.6.1

Yellow ESD shutdown


The causes for a Yellow ESD shutdown for the water injection system are
variable. On a Yellow ESD, the following order of valve shutdown would occur.
Sequence of
Valve closure
1

Time Delay
after valve
closed (s)
30

15

15

90

Valve

Tag Number

Water injection wing


valve
water injection master
valve
water injection annulus
valve
cross-over valve

IWVsss934n
UIMVsss933n
AMVsss935n
XOVTsss937n

Table 16 Sequence of Valve Shutdown on Yellow ESD


On a Yellow ESD, the sequences of master and slave xtree closure are shown in
Tables 17 & 18 below:
Valve
Water injection
wing valve
water injection
master valve
water injection
annulus valve
cross-over valve

Master Xtree
1

Slave Xtree
2

Table 17
Sequence of Master and Slave Xtree Shutdown
on Yellow ESD for Central and North Water Injection Drill Centres
Valve

Master Xtree

Second Slave

First Slave
Xtree
2

Water injection
wing valve
water injection
master valve
water injection
annulus valve
cross-over valve
SCSSV

10
13

11
14

12
15

Table 18
Sequence of Master and Slave Xtree Shutdown
on Yellow ESD for West and Loyal Water Injection Drill Centres
6.6.2

Water Injection Pump Trip PSD


On a water injection pump trip PSD only the IWV on the xtree will shut. The
sequence of master and slave xtree will be as before, namely the master xtree
closing first followed by the slave xtree(s).

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 131 of 158

6.7

DESIGN PARAMETERS
The design flowrates for existing drill centres and water injection wells are:
Design Flowrate (mbpd)
maximum well flowrate
design drill centre flowrate
allowable drill centre flowrate

Schiehallion
Central
50
140
154

Schiehallion
West
50
100
96

Schiehallion
North
50
100
149

Loyal
30
30
87.5

Table 19 Design Water Injection Flowrates


Pressure Parameters
Location

Design Pressure (barg)

MAOP*
Transient Surge Pressure
(barg)
(barg)
FPSO riser base
323
315.7
347.3
Schiehallion Central
323
312
343.3
West
323
314
345.4
North
323
316
347.8
Loyal
323
322
354.9
* This is equivalent to the maximum allowable operating pressure @ LAT of 276 barg.

Table 20 Pressure at the Water Injection Manifold


Temperature Parameters
Temperature: - Minimum
- Maximum
- Normal Discharge

28 degC
60 degC
63 degC

Shutdown

Normal Shutdown:
Process Shutdown:

Usually involves closing the wing valve


Wing valve closed

Start-up
The normal well start up sequence is:

Open subsurface safety valve (SCSSV)


Open water injection master valve (UMIV)
Monitor pressure indicator on the xtree
Open injection wing valve (IWV) when pressure across valve is equal.

Additional Well Start-up


To start a second or subsequent well, the sequence is:

open subsurface safety valve


open injection master valve
monitor pressure indicator on the xtree
open injection wing valve when pressure across the valve is equal.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 132 of 158

7.

FAULT FINDING

7.1

Water Injection Pumps Malfunctions


PUMP OVERHEATING / SEIZURE
Fault:
Pump operating below minimum flow
Correction:
Review pump-operating parameters with the pump vendor. Dismantle and repair unit
and flow correct procedures during future operation.
HIGH BEARING TEMPERATURE
Fault:
Oil level too low or high
Correction:
Refer to Lubrication for correct level, and adjust as necessary
Fault:
Oil viscosity too high
Correction:
Use oil of recommended grade
Fault:
Excessive pump thrust
Correction:
Replace / overhaul pump cartridge
REDUCED PUMP OUTPUT FLOW
Fault:
Minimum flow line open or partially open.
Correction:
Review minimum flow circuit and make corrections to ensure proper operation.
Fault:
Impeller passages obstructed.
Correction:
Replace / overhaul pump cartridge.
Fault:
Pump internals worn on close running clearance surfaces
Correction:
Replace / overhaul pump cartridge.
VIBRATION AND NOISE
Fault:
Cavitation as air or gas comes out of entrainment at first stage impeller.
Correction:
Check pump design requirements. Make necessary changes or adjustment to system
to create more pressure at pump suction.
LOSS OF DISCHARGE PRESSURE AFTER START UP
Fault:
Air pocket in suction line.
Correction:
Open all vents eliminate air from pumping.
LOSS OF DISCHARGE PRESSURE AFTER START UP
Fault:
Insufficient suction pressure causing product to vaporise in the pump.
Correction:
Check pump design requirements and proceed to make necessary changes or
adjustments to system and create sufficient pressure.
NO DISCHARGE PRESSURE. FAILURE TO DELIVER LIQUID AT START
Fault:
Speed is too low turbine or engine drives.
Correction:
Refer to the driver vendor information and take the recommended action.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 133 of 158

7.2

Gas Turbine Malfunctions


Certain operating conditions constitute abnormal turbine engine operation.
Identification of the following malfunctions will help in determining package
maintenance or repair requirements.
Engine Compressor Surge
If engine compressor surge occurs, do not wait for controls to actuate - PRESS
STOP SWITCH IMMEDIATELY. Transient conditions in fuel or air systems can
cause the engine to surge as described by these sounds and conditions:

Surge in the lower speed range could be indicated by engine failure to


accelerate coupled with increased exhaust temperatures and a sound of
buffeting or fluttering air

Surge in the higher speed range could be indicated by a loud roar and/or
popping noises plus engine failure to accelerate to rated speed.

If surge occurs, shut down the engine immediately to prevent the rapid buildup of
damaging temperatures. After the engine has coasted to a stop, attempt to
restart as usual. If a surge occurs a second time, contact Solar Turbines
Customer Service.
Explosive Atmosphere
Dangerously explosive accumulations of natural gas, fuel fumes, oil tank vent
leakage, or solvent fumes must be avoided at all times. This is achieved by
proper ventilation, elimination of leaks, and by confining the use of solvents to
appropriate maintenance facilities

7.3 Control System Malfunctions


Permissive to start the Turbine is not given
Fault: Permissive not given by Turbine to Start
Correction: Check Status on TCP in LER, clear alarms & reset Control System
Fault: XV-450446 not Closed. XV-450501 not Closed. XV-850002 not Open
Correction: Check that the Status on the valves and Correct the Faults.

7.4

Gas Turbine Acoustic & Filtration Package Malfunctions


Combustion Air Intake System Differential Pressure High
Fault: Inlet blocked
Correction: Clear
Fault: PBR/HVX bags need change out. Check local pressure transmitter
Correction: Change
Fault: Object blocking face of PBR/HVX filter bags
Correction: Clear
Fault: Object blocking the face of the vane separator
Correction: Remove
Fault: Wrong type of filter bags have been fitted
Correction: Change
Fault: Pressure transmitter misreading or connections are damaged
Correction: Replace

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 134 of 158

Combustion Air Intake System Differential Pressure Low or Zero


Fault: Access door to PBR/HVX filter bags is open
Correction: Close
Fault: PBR/HVX filter bags missing or damaged
Correction: Fit or Replace
Fault: Seals on filter bags or access door not in place or damaged
Correction: Replace
Fault: Pressure transmitter not functioning. Instrument pipework damaged
Correction: Replace
Fault: Drain hoses damaged or leaking on vane separator
Correction: Clear / Replace
Fault: Interface flange joints leaking Seal
Correction: Seal
Fault: Ducting or flexible damaged or punctured
Correction: Repair.
Contamination Downstream of Intake Filter Elements
Fault: Access door to PBR/HVX filter bags if open
Correction: Clean/close
Fault: PBR/HVX filter bags missing or damaged
Correction: Replace
Fault: Wrong type of filter bag fitted
Correction: Replace
Fault: Seals on PBR/HVX filter bags or access door are damaged/leaking
Correction: Replace
Fault: Downstream duct flanges are damaged or leaking
Correction: Seal
Fault: Drain hose connections to vane separator are damaged/leaking
Correction: Clear/replace
Fault: Instrument pipe work connections are leaking
Correction: Replace
Intake Filter House Doors not Functioning Properly
Fault: Hinges binding due to improper lubrication and maintenance
Correction: Clean and lubricate
Fault: Door incorrectly adjusted
Correction: Adjust as necessary
Fault: Broken seal
Correction: Replace as necessary
Fault: Dirt around bottom seal
Correction: Clean and adjust as necessary
Gas Turbine Enclosure Doors not Functioning Properly
Fault: Hinges binding due to improper lubrication and maintenance
Correction: Clean and lubricate
Fault: Door incorrectly adjusted
Correction: Adjust as necessary
Fault: Broken seal
Correction: Replace as necessary
Fault: Dirt around bottom seal
Correction: Clean and adjust as necessary

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 135 of 158

Gas Turbine Enclosure Ventilation System Differential Pressure High


Fault: Inlet blocked
Correction: Clear
Fault: GT2 filter panel dirty
Correction: Replace
Fault: Wrong type of filters fitted
Correction: Replace
Differential Pressure Low or Zero
Fault: Fitted access cover loose
Correction: Replace
Fault: Door GT2 filter missing
Correction: Replace
Fault: Wrong type of filters fitted
Correction: Replace
Fault: Seals on filters or cover missing or damaged
Correction: Replace
Fault: Interface flanges leaking
Correction: Seal
Loss of Fan Performance
Fault: Fan stopped
Correction: Check electrical supply and connections
Fault: Filters blocked
Correction: Replace filter
Fault: Motor operating in reverse
Correction: Rewire phases of fan
Fault: Vent dampers not fully open
Correction: Reset dampers
Fault: Flexible bellows failed
Correction: Check all bellows
Fault: Enclosure doors open
Correction: Shut doors
Fan Unit Vibrating
Fault: Bearing requires lubrication
Correction: Lubricate
Fault: Loose motor fixings
Correction: Tighten or replace
Fault: Damaged fan blade
Correction: Replace fan blade
Fault: Foreign material in fan unit
Correction: Clear debris
Fault: No power to damper/ vent dampers closed
Correction: Check circuit/ open dampers
Combustion Exhaust Gases leaking from Assembly Joints
Fault: Fixing hardware loose or missing
Correction: Tighten or replace hardware as necessary
Fault: Gaskets between joints deteriorated or not working properly
Correction: Replace gaskets or if not working properly tighten
Fault: Compensator worn or deteriorated
Correction: Replace parts
Sudden Vibration or Noise
Fault: Thermal growth restricted
Correction: Check mounts and bearings for ease of movements

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 136 of 158

APPENDIX A - VALVE POSITION TABLES


CSO
D/S
LC
LO
U/S

Car Seal Open


Downstream
Locked Closed
Locked Open
Upstream
Valve Position Table No.1

Refer to P&ID L-1000-GP-0043.00


Valve Tag
Number
HV-441001

XXV-441040 D/S drain valve

HV-441004

FCV-441001 U/S drain valve

HV-441005

FCV-441001 D/S drain valve

HV-441121
HV-878031

V-44101 inlet calcium nitrate injection block valve


V-44101 inlet biocide injection block valve

HV-878032
HV-878033

V-44101 outlet biocide injection block valve


V-44101 outlet biocide injection bleed valve

HV-441112
HV-441003
HV-441080
HV-441020
HV-441021
HV-441023
HV-441022
HV-441024
HV-441025
HV-441017
HV-441019
HV-441026
HV-441100
HV-441012

V-44101 outlet biocide injection block valve


V-44101 inlet anti-foam injection
Z-44101 instrument air supply
PSV-441005 U/S block valve
PSV-441005 D/S block valve
PSV-441006 U/S block valve
PSV-441006 D/S block valve
PSV-441005/6 bypass (globe valve)
PSV-441005/6 bypass
Booster pumps P-43001A/B/C to V-44101
O2 scavenger injection point
V-44101 drain to overboard
V-44101 outlet scale inhibitor injection
FCV-441019 U/S drain valve

HV-441013

FCV-441019 D/S drain valve

HV-441014
HV-441016

FCV-441019 D/S block valve


V-44101 outlet

Description

Start-up
Position
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Closed
Open
LO*
LO*
LC*
LC*
Closed
Closed
Open
Closed
Closed
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed

Normal
Operation
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Closed
Open
LO*
LO*
LC*
LC*
Closed
Closed
Open
Closed
Closed
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Open
LO

Valves mechanically interlocked to ensure that either PSV-441005 or PSV-441006 is on line

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 137 of 158

Valve Position Table No.2


Refer to P&ID L-1000-GP-0044.00
Valve Tag
Number
HV-441066
HV-441065
HV-441063
HV-441061
HV-441062
HV-441070
HV-441068
HV-442001
HV-442006
HV-442007
HV-442012
HV-442024

Description
PCV-441023 U/S block valve
PCV-441023 D/S block valve
PCV-441023 D/S block valve
PCV-441021 U/S block valve
PCV-441021 D/S block valve
FCV-441027 U/S block valve
FCV-441027 D/S block valve
P-44201A inlet
P-44201A outlet
P-44201B inlet
P-44201B outlet
FI-442025 U/S drain valve

HV-442021
HV-442026

FI-442025 D/S block valve


X-44201 tube side vent

HV-442027

X-44201 tube side drain

HV-442031

V-44201 vent valve

HV-442029
HV-442030
HV-442035
HV-442039
HV-442041
HV-442040

V-44201 manual vent (globe valve)


V-44201 manual blowdown (ball valve)
V-44201 outlet
X-44201 outlet
TCV-442014 block valve
TCV-442014 block valve

Start-up
Position
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
CSO
CSO
CSO
CSO
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Closed
Open
Open
Open
Open

Normal
Operation
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
CSO
CSO
CSO
CSO
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Closed
Open
Open
Open
Open

Valve Position Table No.3


Refer to P&ID L-1000-GP-0046.01
The following valve position table covers the line-up of water injection pump P-45001A:
Valve Tag
Number
HV-450100
HV-450101
HV-450135
HV-450136
HV-450137
HV-450138
HV-450121

Description
Instrument air supply block valve
Air supply to 4-way block valve
Air supply to discharge valve
Air supply to minimum flow valve
Spare air supply valve
Spare air supply valve
Lube oil tank T-45001A drain

HV-450104
HV-450106

Oil cooler X-45001A cooling medium supply


X-45001A cooling medium supply drain valve

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Start-up
Position
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked

Normal
Operation
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked

Page 138 of 158

Valve Tag
Number
HV-450105
HV-450109

Description
X-45001A cooling medium return
X-45001A cooling medium return line drain

HV-450139

X-45001A D/S lube oil drain valve

HV-450110
HV-450111
HV-450113

PDIT-450136 block valve


PDIT-450136 block valve
F-45001A vent valve

HV-450114

F-45001A drain valve

HV-450115

F-45002A vent valve

HV-450116

F-45002A drain valve

HV-450117
HV-450140
HV-450118
HV-450119
HV-450103
HV-450102
HV-450143
HV-450122
HV-450130

F-45001A/2A equalising valve


Lube oil line to PCV-450137
RO-450160 U/S block valve
PIT-450134 (lube oil supply) block valve
PT-450135 (lube oil supply) block valve
PIT-450117 (NDE seal pressure) block valve
PIT-450116 (DE seal pressure) block valve
Balance return line drain
Water inlet block valve
Water inlet drain valve

HV-450123
HV-450124
HV-450131

PIT-450141 (water inlet) block valve


PT-450142 (water inlet high/low trip) block valve
Water inlet vent valve

HV-450132
HV-450144

Discharge line vent


Discharge line vent

HV-450141
HV-450142

Discharge line drain


Discharge line drain

HV-450125
HV-450126
HV-450127
HV-450128
HV-450134
HV-450133

PIT-450143 (discharge line) block valve


PT-450144 (discharge high/low trip) block valve
FIT-450145 block valve
FIT-450145 block valve
Discharge line drain valve
Discharge line drain valve

HV-450129

FCV-450145 D/S block valve (overboard dump


line)

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Start-up
Position
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Open
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Open
Closed
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
LO
Closed and
blanked
Open
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
Closed and
blanked
LO

Normal
Operation
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Open
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Open
Closed
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
LO
Closed and
blanked
Open
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
Closed and
blanked
LO

Page 139 of 158

Valve Position Table No.4


Refer to P&ID L-1000-GP-0046.01
The following valve position table covers the line-up of water injection pump P-45001B.
Valve Tag
Number
HV-450200
HV-450201
HV-450235
HV-450236
HV-450237
HV-450238
HV-450221

Description
Instrument air supply block valve
Air supply to 4-way block valve
Air supply to discharge valve
Air supply to minimum flow valve
Spare air supply valve
Spare air supply valve
Lube oil tank T-45001B drain

HV-450204
HV-450206

Oil cooler X-45001B cooling medium supply


X-45001B cooling medium supply drain valve

HV-450205
HV-450209

X-45001B cooling medium return


X-45001B cooling medium return line drain

HV-450239

X-45001B D/S lube oil drain valve

HV-450210
HV-450211
HV-450213

PDIT-450236 block valve


PDIT-450236 block valve
F-45001B vent valve

HV-450214

F-45001B drain valve

HV-450215

F-45002B vent valve

HV-450216

F-45002B drain valve

HV-450217
HV-450240
HV-450218
HV-450219
HV-450203
HV-450202
HV-450243
HV-450222
HV-450230

F-45001B/2B equalising valve


Lube oil line to PCV-450237
RO-450260 U/S block valve
PIT-450234 (lube oil supply) block valve
PT-450235 (lube oil supply) block valve
PIT-450217 (NDE seal pressure) block valve
PIT-450216 (DE seal pressure) block valve
Balance return line drain
Water inlet block valve
Water inlet drain valve

HV-450223
HV-450224
HV-450231

PIT-450241 (water inlet) block valve


PT-450242 (water inlet high/low trip) block valve
Water inlet vent valve

HV-450232

Discharge line vent

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Start-up
Position
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Open
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Open
Closed
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
LO
Closed and
blanked
Open
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed

Normal
Operation
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Open
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Open
Closed
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
LO
Closed and
blanked
Open
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed

Page 140 of 158

Valve Tag
Number
HV-450244

Description
Discharge line vent

HV-450241
HV-450242

Discharge line drain


Discharge line drain

HV-450225
HV-450226
HV-450227
HV-450228
HV-450234
HV-450233

PIT-450243 (discharge line) block valve


PT-450244 (discharge high/low trip) block valve
FIT-450245 block valve
FIT-450245 block valve
Discharge line drain valve
Discharge line drain valve

HV-450229

FCV-450245 D/S block valve (overboard dump


line)

Start-up
Position
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
Closed and
blanked
LO

Normal
Operation
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
Closed and
blanked
LO

Valve Position Table No.5


Refer to P&ID L-1000-GP-0046.01
The following valve position table covers the line-up of water injection pump P-45001C.
Valve Tag
Number
HV-450300
HV-450301
HV-450335
HV-450336
HV-450337
HV-450338
HV-450321

Description
Instrument air supply block valve
Air supply to 4-way block valve
Air supply to discharge valve
Air supply to minimum flow valve
Spare air supply valve
Spare air supply valve
Lube oil tank T-45001C drain

HV-450304
HV-450306

Oil cooler X-45001C cooling medium supply


X-45001C cooling medium supply drain valve

HV-450305
HV-450309

X-45001C cooling medium return


X-45001C cooling medium return line drain

HV-450339

X-45001C D/S lube oil drain valve

HV-450310
HV-450311
HV-450313

PDIT-450336 block valve


PDIT-450336 block valve
F-45001C vent valve

HV-450314

F-45001C drain valve

HV-450315

F-45002C vent valve

HV-450316

F-45002C drain valve

HV-450317
HV-450340

F-45001C/2C equalising valve


Lube oil line to PCV-450337
RO-450360 U/S block valve

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Start-up
Position
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Open
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Open
Closed

Normal
Operation
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Open
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Open
Closed

Page 141 of 158

Valve Tag
Number
HV-450318
HV-450319
HV-450303
HV-450302
HV-450343
HV-450322
HV-450330

Description
PIT-450334 (lube oil supply) block valve
PT-450335 (lube oil supply) block valve
PIT-450317 (NDE seal pressure) block valve
PIT-450316 (DE seal pressure) block valve
Balance return line drain
Water inlet block valve
Water inlet drain valve

HV-450323
HV-450324
HV-450331

PIT-450341 (water inlet) block valve


PT-450342 (water inlet high/low trip) block valve
Water inlet vent valve

HV-450332
HV-450344

Discharge line vent


Discharge line vent

HV-450341
HV-450342

Discharge line drain


Discharge line drain

HV-450325
HV-450326
HV-450327
HV-450328
HV-450334
HV-450333

PIT-450343 (discharge line) block valve


PT-450344 (discharge high/low trip) block valve
FIT-450345 block valve
FIT-450345 block valve
Discharge line drain valve
Discharge line drain valve

HV-450329

FCV-450345 D/S block valve (oboard dump line)

Start-up
Position
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
LO
Closed and
blanked
Open
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
Closed and
blanked
LO

Normal
Operation
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
LO
Closed and
blanked
Open
Open
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Closed and
blanked
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
Closed and
blanked
LO

Valve Position Table No.6


Refer to P&ID L-1000-GP-0046.02
Valve Tag
Number
HV-450001

Description
Injection water to V-43001 drain valve

HV-450002
HV-450003
HV-450005
HV-450012
HV-450007

Injection water to V-43001


F-43001A/B to P-45001A/B/C
Water make-up to 2nd stage separator V-21201
P-45001A discharge to AT-450020
P-45001A discharge to AT-450020 low point drain

HV-450006
HV-450013

P-45001B discharge to AT-450020


P-45001B discharge to AT-450020 low point drain

HV-450014
HV-450008

P-45001C discharge to AT-450020


P-45001C discharge to AT-450020 low point drain

HV-450009
HV-450010

P-45001A/B/C discharge AT-450020


P-45001A/B/C discharge AT-450020 low point
drain

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Start-up
Position
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Open
Closed
Open
Closed &
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked

Normal
Shutdown
Closed and
blanked
Closed
Open
Closed
Open
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked
Open
Closed and
blanked

Page 142 of 158

Valve Position Table No.7


SUBSEA VALVE LINE-UP (sample summary not complete)
Tag No.
Position
Signature/Date
CW11/N
SCSSV-105931N
LIMV-105921N
UIMV-105933N
AMV-105935N
IWV-105934N
XOVT-105937N
CHI-105926N
CW12/P
SCSSV-105931P
LIMV-105921P
UIMV-105933P
AMV-105935P
IWV-105934P
XOVT-105937P
CHI-105926P
Central WI Manifold
ROVV-180921
ROVV-180922
ROVV-180923
ROVV-180924

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Closed
Open
Closed
Closed
Closed
Closed
Set at a value of 2.3
(i.e. 23% or 1.7 turns)
Closed
Open
Closed
Closed
Closed
Closed
Set at a value of 2.3
(i.e. 23% or 1.7 turns)
Open
Open
Closed
Closed

Page 143 of 158

Schiehallion FPSO 4th Water Injection Pump


Gas Turbine Exhaust Dispersion Study
Copy of Report No: S/UTG/ /02
(refer to parent document for up-to-date information)

REPORT NO:

S/UTG/ /02

SECURITY CLASSIFICATION: UNCLASSIFIED


ISSUE DATE:
08/02/14
MAIN TITLE: Schiehallion FPSO
SUB TITLE: 4th Gas Turbine Exhaust Dispersion Study
CLIENT:

BP Exploration - Schiehallion

PRINCIPAL RECIPIENT:
COMMISSIONED BY:
ISSUING DEPARTMENT/DIVISIONS: UTG
PREPARED BY:

AUTHORISED FOR ISSUE BY:

______________
Chris Savvides

________________
Vincent Tam

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT RECORD PAGE: Yes


ABSTRACT:
This report describes the results of the study for the dispersion of hot exhaust gas from the proposed
Water Injection 4th Gas Turbine, on the Schiehallion FPSO. The study consisted of the following:
Assessment of the turbine exhaust temperature distribution on helicopter and crane operations for two
turbine locations and various exhaust orientations
Quantify the temperature and air quality (NO 2, and CO concentrations) for the chosen location and
configuration and assess impact on Helideck, crane and personnel at different locations on the
FPSO where they could be normally present.
The results showed that with the current Gas Turbine location, forward of the Crane pedestal at frame
40, with the exhaust discharging at an elevation of 55m and pointing forward, there should be minimal
impact on the Helideck, Crane operations, or to air quality.

KEYWORDS: Turbine Exhaust, Dispersion


DISTRIBUTION:
End of the Report
FOR EXTERNAL CLIENT LISTING: No
UTG JOB NO: UTG:
Original report held at Britannia Data Management (BDM), 628 Western Avenue, Park Royal, London, W3

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 144 of 158

SUMMARY
This report describes the results of the study for the dispersion of hot exhaust gas from the
proposed Water Injection 4th Gas Turbine, on the Schiehallion FPSO. The study consisted of the
following:
Assessment of the turbine exhaust temperature distribution on helicopter and crane operations for
two turbine locations and various exhaust orientations
Quantify the temperature and air quality (Nitrogen dioxide - NO 2 and Carbon Monoxide CO, see
Footnotes

) concentrations for the chosen exhaust location and configuration and assess

1 & 2

impact on Helideck, crane and personnel at different locations on the FPSO where they could be
normally present.
The results showed that with the current Gas Turbine location, forward of the Crane pedestal at
frame 40, with the exhaust discharging at an elevation of 55m and pointing forward, there should
be minimal impact on the Helideck, Crane operations or to air quality.

INTRODUCTION
The Schiehallion FPSO has been operating off the west of Shetland since 1998. Due to the
requirement of water injection, a 4th Gas Turbine will need to be installed to provide the extra
power.
As part of safety requirements, the hot plume characteristics from a gas turbine need to be
assessed and quantify so as not impair Helideck, crane or other operations. There is also a
requirement to demonstrate that the air quality meets UK regulations. This report summarises
the findings of the computational study to find the best location and orientation of the 4 th Turbine
Exhaust so that the effects of the hot exhaust plume would have a MINIMUM impact on the
Helideck, crane operations and at other manned areas.
The fluid flow software FLACS has been used for the plume dispersion calculations. BP has
extensively used FLACS for a lot of projects involving dispersion and gas accumulation
calculations. It has been validated for a number of large-scale experimental data.

Sulphur Dioxide is not considered because Sulphur is not present in the Schiehallion fuel gas
supply.
1

Particulate matter is not considered, as the level present in the Taurus 70 exhaust gas is very
low (to be quantified by Solar).
2

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 145 of 158

Objectives
The main objectives of this analysis were to:
Assess the impact of the exhaust plume of the proposed 4th Gas Turbine on Helideck and
Crane operations. Identify the location and orientation of the turbine exhaust that would
have minimum impact on Schiehallion operations
Quantify the availability of the Helideck and Crane based on the wind conditions and
temperatures distribution and also assesses the effect of the exhaust gases on the
manned areas for the different locations and exhaust orientations. For Helideck
operations, it is a requirement that the isothermal line at 20m directly above the Helideck
is less than +2 degrees above the ambient temperature (Footnote 3)
Quantify the air quality (NO 2 and CO) levels in manned areas for the final Gas Turbine
location.

DESCRIPTION TURBINE EXHAUST DISPERSION MODEL


The study of the exhaust dispersion using Computational Fluid Dynamics requires an accurate
representation of all the major structure and equipment, the wind and exhaust parameters. An
accurate computer model of the Schiehallion FPSO Installation was already available (used
previously for explosion hazards). This was constructed based on the as build PDMS CAD model
[1, 2]. Details of the Gas Turbine and exhaust were incorporated into the model.

Gas Turbine Exhaust Conditions


The new water injection Gas Turbine is a Taurus 70 from Solar Turbines Incorporated. Exhaust
flow rates, temperatures and gas analysis are for full load output of 6700 -7800 kW, depending
on ambient temperature.

The Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) paper 99004 Section 4.1.4 includes a sentence stating CAP
437 requires that notification to operators be given if temperatures in excess of 2 C above
ambient are liable to exist above the Helideck. Section 4.2.3 also states Minimisation of the
impact of hot exhausts (see Section 4.1.4) has generally been regarded as keeping the Helideck
free of excess temperature, at least to a reasonable height (say greater than 20m above deck
level). Ideally, in conjunction with flight operations planning, approach and take-off flight paths
should also be considered.
3

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 146 of 158

The following Turbine Data [3] has been used in the simulations:

Load Case

Turbine Load

1
2

Exhaust Flow
Rate kg/s

100% at 5 C
100% at 23o C
o

27.7
24.9

Exhaust Gas
Temperature,

NO2
o

C
488
506

CO

Concentration

Concentration

mg/m
74.03
72.78

mg/m 3
53.65
52.69

Table 1: Turbine Exhaust Conditions (see Footnote 4)


During the course of this study 3 different exhaust diameters were used (1000, 900 and 800mm).
For the final results the exhaust diameter used is 900 mm
The exhaust gas is specified as a non-reacting mixture of gas and air with a molecular weight of
28.
The CFD analyses performed are 3-dimensional, steady state, turbulent simulations of the flow of
a non-reacting mixture of ambient air and hot gases. Buoyancy forces due to the gas/air mixture
density and temperature variations are incorporated directly.

Gas Turbine Location and Exhaust Orientation


Two locations on the FPSO were considered for the Gas Turbine. Both locations were on the
Starboard side
The lay-down area on Pallet 8 (Frame 35) just forward of the Blast Wall separating
the Living Quarters from the Process areas.
The lay-down area on Pallet 7 (Frame 40) forward of the aft Crane Pedestal
Several different orientations of the turbine exhaust have been tried for each of the two locations
namely:
Discharging vertically up
Discharging to starboard
Discharging 45 degrees forward-starboard
Discharging forward, at 0, 10, 20 and 45 degrees to the horizontal

The NO2 exhaust analysis figures relate to Solonox Combustion. For this analysis it is assumed
that all oxides of nitrogen are considered to be nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). This is a worst case
assumption, which in practice means that calculated NO 2 levels would be slightly higher than
actual levels. This will (together with other factors discussed later in this document) provide
assurance that air quality will meet regulatory requirements.
4

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 147 of 158

Wind Conditions
For the preliminary investigations to evaluate the location and orientation of the turbine exhaust,
only winds at 6 m/s from Forward and Starboard (0-45 degrees) were considered as these would
have a direct impact on the Helideck operability, which was the primary reason for this
evaluation. For the final assessment, results were obtained for all wind directions at 6 and 12 m/s
so that the impact of the exhaust temperatures and NO 2 levels on the Crane boom, Crane cabin
and other manned areas is assessed. Table 2 lists all the weather conditions and the probability
of occurrence for the Schiehallion FPSO [4].

Wind Direction relative


to vessel
Angle from Forward

Wind Speed, m/s


0 - 2.5

2.5 - 7.5

7.5 - 12.5

12.5 - 17.5

>17.5

% Probability

10-30

1.18%

8.26%

10.27%

7.56%

1.30%

28.6%

40-60

0.83%

5.90%

5.67%

1.18%

0.35%

13.9%

70-90

1.18%

2.13%

1.42%

0.24%

0.00%

5.0%

100-120

0.59%

2.24%

0.47%

0.12%

0.00%

3.4%

130-150

0.35%

0.83%

0.12%

0.00%

0.00%

1.3%

160-180

0.24%

0.83%

0.35%

0.00%

0.00%

1.4%

190-210

0.00%

1.65%

0.12%

0.00%

0.00%

1.8%

220-240

0.00%

0.35%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.4%

250-270

0.71%

1.89%

0.71%

0.00%

0.00%

3.3%

280-300

0.71%

2.60%

1.42%

0.24%

0.00%

5.0%

310-330

0.83%

3.90%

4.13%

1.42%

0.12%

10.4%

340-360

1.18%

8.97%

9.45%

5.55%

0.47%

25.6%

% Probability

7.8%

39.6%

34.1%

16.3%

2.2%

100.0%

Table 2: Wind Frequency (Port 0-180, Starboard 180-360)

Assessment Standards
For Helideck operations, it is a requirement that the isothermal line at 18m directly above the
Helideck is less than +2 degrees above the ambient temperature
The temperature of the Crane boom (wire rope & lubricant, warning lights, load sensors)
should not exceed 85o C [5]
The UK air quality regulations objectives (NO 2 and CO only) are defined in the Environment
Agency (EA) Guidance Notes [6] and are shown in Table 3 below:

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 148 of 158

Pollutant

Reference period

Limit Value

NO2
NO2
CO

Hourly mean
Annual mean
8 hour mean

200 g/m 3
40 g/m 3
11.6 mg/m 3

Limit Value to be met


by
31 Dec 2005
31 Dec 2003

Table 3: Environmental Quality Standards Protection of Human health [table 1 Ref 6]

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS
Initially the 4th Gas Turbine was to be located on the lay-down area, Pallet 8 (Frame 35), just
forward of the Blast Wall. The distance of the discharging exhaust to the centre of the Helideck
would have been approximately 40 metres. The elevation of the exhaust was restricted to 47m,
as a higher exhaust would have interfered with Crane operations.
Preliminary investigations, examining different orientations of the exhaust, have shown that due
to its proximity to the Helideck and also the restriction on the elevation of the discharge, the
temperatures above the Helideck (hovering height) would be greater than +2 degrees C, which
would restrict safe helicopter operations for winds from the Forward to 20 degrees Starboard.
From the wind frequency table 2, this would have made the Helideck unavailable for almost 30%
of the time.
This factor was one of a number of reasons why the Pallet 8 location was changed to the Pallet 7
location.

FINAL TURBINE LOCATION - RESULTS


The second location for the Gas Turbine, the lay-down area on Pallet 7 (Frame 40) forward of the
aft Crane Pedestal was then examined. This location is some 60 metres from the Helideck.
From the results of the preliminary investigations for the first location, it was decided that the
exhaust discharge should be forward and at an elevation at least above the Crane boom. The
forward discharge allows the exhaust gases extra distance away from the Helideck, while the
extra elevation, firstly eliminates any problems with hot gases on the Crane boom and cabin and
secondly the exhaust is not in the lee of recirculation areas.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 149 of 158

The final location and orientation of the turbine exhaust is:


Location

E=115m

N=375m

Elevation=55m

Orientation

Discharging Forward at 10 degrees up from the horizontal

Diameter

900mm

For this location and orientation a full set of results is presented for the 2 cases listed in Table 1.
All wind directions and wind speeds of 0, 6 and 12 are presented. These represent about 85% of
all weather conditions. The other 15% are for higher wind speeds. One result for a 20 m/s wind
from the Forward direction gave similar results to the 12 m/s case.

Load Case 1 Results


For this load case, the gas Turbine is operating at 100%, with an exhaust flow rate of 27.7 kg/s
and a temperature of 488o C. The results are presented in Table 4. The temperatures are given
in degrees Celsius above the ambient temperature. The NO 2 concentrations are given in g/m 3.
Living Quarters refers to the area behind the Blast Wall and Process deck, areas forward of the
Blast Wall at elevations between 32 and 50m
The results show the following:

Helideck operations might be affected by winds from 10 degrees from


Starboard at 12 m/s or higher (8-10% of the time). The temperature is
only 3 degrees above ambient just slightly above the requirements.

The maximum temperature at the crane boom would be less than 20


degrees for all weather conditions. This is well within the requirements
There will be concentrations higher than 40 g/m 3 for the forward, and up to 10 degrees from
Starboard. The concentration increases almost linearly for higher wind speed. Wind directly
from the aft of the FPSO will produce high levels of NO 2 concentration at the Turret area and the
forward Crane cabin (300 and 240 g/m 3 respectively). The frequency of the wind from the aft is
very low, of the order of 1%.

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 150 of 158

Simulation
Number

Wind
Direction
Wind
relative to
Speed m/s
FPSO heading

060000

HELIDECK
NO2

Temp
Deg C

CRANE
BOOM

Crane
Cabin

Temp
Deg C

Living
Quarters

Process
Deck

NO2 Concentration

No Wind

060600

FWD

40

061200
062000

FWD
FWD

12
20

100
120

360600

BWD

260605
261205
260610
261210
260622
261222
260645
261245
260667
261267
260690
261290
260613
160622
161222
160645
161245
160667
161267
160680
161280
160690
161290
160600
161200
161213

STB 5
STB 5
STB 10
STB 10
STB 22.5
STB 22.5
STB 45
STB 45
STB 67.5
STB 67.5
STB 90
STB 90
STB 135
PORT 22.5
PORT 22.5
PORT 45
PORT 45
PORT 67.5
PORT 67.5
PORT 80
PORT 80
PORT 90
PORT 90
PORT 100
PORT 100
PORT 135

6
12
6
12
6
12
6
12
6
12
6
12
6
6
12
6
12
6
12
6
12
6
12
6
12
6

+5
+5
+3
Fwd crane

40
80

40

60

120
160
240
Fwd crane

80
120

60
120
300
Turret

80

+3

+15
+15

+5
+5
+8
+10
+17

40

Table 4: Load Case 1 - Temperature and NO 2 Concentrations on the Helideck, Crane and
other areas

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 151 of 158

Load Case 2 Result


For this load case, the gas Turbine is operating at 100%, with an exhaust flow rate of 24.9 kg/s
and a temperature of 506o C. The results are presented in Table 5.
Simulation
Number

Wind
Direction
Wind
relative to
Speed m/s
FPSO heading

070000

HELIDECK
NO2

Temp
Deg C

CRANE
BOOM

Crane Cabin

Temp
Deg C

Living
Quarters

Process
Deck

NO2 Concentration

No Wind

070600

FWD

40

071200
270605
271205
270610
271210
270622
271222
270645
271245
270667
271267
270690
271290
170622
171222
170645
171245
170667
171267
170690
171290

FWD
STB 5
STB 5
STB 10
STB 10
STB 22.5
STB 22.5
STB 45
STB 45
STB 67.5
STB 67.5
STB 90
STB 90
PORT 22.5
PORT 22.5
PORT 45
PORT 45
PORT 67.5
PORT 67.5
PORT 90
PORT 90

12
6
12
6
12
6
12
6
12
6
12
6
12
6
12
6
12
6
12
6
12

100
40
80

+5

40

60

120

80
80

+4

+15
+15

+5

Table 5: Load Case 2 - Temperature and NO 2 Concentrations on the Helideck, Crane and
other areas

Z-8000-BB-4076 Rev Z1 20 January 2005

Page 152 of 158

60

As can be seen from the table, all the results are nearly identical to the previous load case.
Conclusions are similar to the load case 1.

AIR QUALITY DISCUSSION


In addition to the UK air quality regulations objectives, EA Guidance Note H1 [6] also tabulates
long term and short term Environmental Assessment Levels (EALs) for a wide range of
substances. The short term and long term EALs for NO 2 and CO are compared with typical
exhaust gas quantities in Table 6 below. An indication of the required dilution factors for the
exhaust gases (mixing with fresh air) for each contaminant is noted where contamination levels
reach an acceptable level.
Substance

NO2

Contaminant

Acceptable level of Contaminant

Dilution Factor Required to

level at exhaust

(Short-term and Long-term EALs)

reach acceptable air quality

gas outlet
74,031g/m 3
74,031g/m 3

CO

53,650 g/m 3
53,650 g/m 3

40 g/m 3
Long-term EAL (Annual mean)
200 g/m 3
Short-term EAL (Hourly mean)
350 g/m 3
Long-term EAL (Annual mean)
10,000 g/m 3
Short-term EAL (Hourly mean)

1851
370
5.365
153.3

Table 6: Dilution Factors required to reduce exhaust gas contamination to an acceptable


level.
Observation of the results shown in Table 6 above shows that a greater dilution of exhaust gases
(with fresh air) is required to achieve acceptable NO 2 levels than for CO. Thus, it is valid to
model the NO2 levels only and infer that acceptable levels of CO will be achieved if acceptable
levels of NO2 are reached. The Environmental Assessment Levels (EALs) for NO 2 and CO
shown in Table 6 above are lower than the Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs) for NO 2 and CO
set by the Health & Safety Executive HSE in their document EH40/2002 [7]. A comparison of the
two limits is shown in Table 7 below.
Row
1

HSE Defined OEL

Limit Description

NO2
5,700 g/m 3

CO
35,000 g/m 3

Long-term exposure limit (8-hour TWA ref period


Environment Agency Defined EAL

40 g/m 3

350 g/m 3

Long Term
3
4

Limit in Row 1 above divided by Limit in row 2 above


HSE Defined OEL

Annual Mean
142.5
9,600 g/m 3

Annual Mean
100.0
232,000 g/m 3

Short-term exposure limit (15-minute ref period)


Short Term

200 g/m 3

10,000 g/m 3

Limit in Row 4 above divided by Limit in row 5 above

Hourly Mean
48.0

Annual Mean
23.2

Table 7: Comparison of EAL and OEL figures for NO 2 and CO.

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The reasons for the differences between EALs and the OELs limits is explained in a section titled
Derivation of Environmental Assessment levels for Air in Appendix D of the Environment
Agency Guidance Note H1 [6]. A copy of this section is included in Appendix 1 of this document.
This shows how a factor of safety is applied between the HSE defined OEL or maximum
exposure limit (MEL) if there is a specific concern about the pollutant (e.g. a carcinogen) and the
environmental assessment level (EAL). The long and short term EALs for NO 2 were based upon
the Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards (EPAQS) guideline values. Also, the short term EAL
for CO was based upon the EC Daughter Directive 99/30/EC. However, for these exceptions the
philosophy of a large safety factor between OELs or MELs and EALs still applies.
An exhaust emissions study has already been carried out on the Schiehallion FPSO in May 2000
by Lindsay Ross (BP Occupational Health). This compared site readings with HSE OELs, rather
than Environment Agency EALs objectives. The measurement instrument used by Lindsay to
measure NO2 levels during this survey was not capable of reading NO 2 levels less than 0.5 ppm
(1900 g/m 3). It is not possible, therefore, to determine a precise impact of the exhaust from the
two LM6000 gas turbines at different locations on the FPSO. Only one reading taken by Lindsay
exceeded the 0.5 ppm measurement threshold value during his survey, but that reading was
taken directly at the point of emission from a fire pump diesel engine. The main conclusion of
the survey was that all emission measurements were very low and well within the respective
OELs with the majority being below the limit of detection of the equipment used.
Use of the EA EAL values rather than HSE OELs does provide a level of assurance that air
quality on the Schiehallion FPSO will be much better than required to meet occupational health
requirements. The EA Guidance Note H1 [6] describes how operators can show that their
proposals represent the Best Available Techniques (BAT) to prevent and minimise pollution from
an installation. Use of the modelling approach for the 4 th WI pumps GT exhaust can be
demonstrated to meet this requirement. There are arguments for and against use of safety
factors implicit in the use of EALs, as follows:

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FOR USE OF SAFETY FACTORS:


Safety factor will cover impact of any errors caused by use of CFD model, e.g. the model
does not take into account the impact of the FPSO motion and the tendency for
locations on the vessel to move into areas of higher NO 2 levels than modelled.
CFD modelling does not take into account the emissions generated by exhaust from the
existing two LM6000 gas turbines on Schiehallion. Use of EALs with target emission
levels an order of magnitude below OELs provides assurance that there will be little,
if any impact on occupational health issues for personnel on the FPSO.
A review of the NO2 contour plots does show that for some combinations of wind speed
and direction (20 metres per second with forward wind - 0 degrees), that NO 2 levels
near the accommodation air inlets may reach a level of 60 g/m 3, which is above the
Long Term EAL for NO2. This level is considered acceptable, because the frequency
of its occurrence is low (< 1% wind speed exceeding 17.5 m/s from wind directions
350, 0 and 10 was observed in 9 months data collected between 1 st February 2000
and 17th October 2000. Similarly, for an aft wind, NO 2 levels of up to 300 g/m 3 were
observed. Again the frequency of this wind direction is very low (< 0.5% occurrence
during the period 1st February 2000 and 17th October 2000). Any relaxation of the
approach used could result in unacceptable NO 2 levels in the accommodation and/or
at the turret.
AGAINST USE OF SAFETY FACTORS:
Use of a large safety factor increases the complexity and cost of the exhaust
arrangement. It might be possible to reduce the safety factor because there is: 1) no
local population living close to the installation, other than off duty hours in the
accommodation; 2) there will be recovery periods between exposures; and 3)
personnel on the FPSO will not include sensitive individuals, e.g. children, the elderly
or those with diseases such as asthma.
On balance, the arguments are in favour of retaining the use of the large safety factors.

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7. GAS EXPLOSION HAZARDS


This area is currently free of pressurized hydrocarbon gases. The introduction of the Gas Turbine
GT would change that. As there is only one pipe for the gas into the Turbine, it is possible to
control the consequence of a potential gas explosion to an acceptable level by controlling the
connection locations and the pipe routing.
The dimensioning explosion based pallet filled condition gave an overpressure of over 4 bar if the
process deck is grated (i.e. when gas is allowed to accumulate above between the tank top and
process deck). If this can be avoided then maximum overpressure would be reduced to about 1
bar. Further, if the volume of flammable gas can be reduced, maximum explosion overpressure
would be further lowered. Our view is that if the recommendations below are implemented, then
the maximum overpressure at the blast wall would be l below the blast wall capacity of 0.5 bar,
and no further explosion analysis is required.
We reviewed the layout of the fuel gas line. The good points of the layout are: The fuel gas line
is routed high, and high integrity joints are used to connect pipe sections which appears to have
been kept to a minimum.
It is recommended to route the fuel gas line input into the skid on the outboard side (rather than
the inboard side). This will allow any potential leaks to be dispersed away from the vessel. Our
understanding from our discussion with the Schiehallion project is that in the unlikely event of the
connection failing, then the release direction would be along the length of the pipe, i.e. the
released gas from the fuel gas line would impact on the plating on the side of the Turbine skid
and disperse mainly outboard, and the fuel gas from the skid would be directed outboard and
again disperse outside the vessel.
It is also recommended that:
Plating the Gas Turbine skid around the fuel gas entry into the skid or ensure that a gas leak
within the Gas Turbine skid cannot be dispersed below the process deck (if the process
deck cannot be plated). This can be done using a flange guard
Ensure there is adequate explosion venting in the Gas Turbine module enclosure. We
recommend that one of the panels of the Turbine should fail quickly under explosion
load; the starboard panel (facing outboard) should fail, while the top panel should remain.
This panel should be restrained (say by a chain) to avoid missile hazards. The design
should ensure the integrity of the fuel gas line is not affected.

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CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The proposed location of the 4th Gas Turbine, forward of the Crane
pedestal at frame 40, with the exhaust discharging at an elevation of 55m and
pointing forward at an angle of 10 degrees above horizontal, should have
minimal impact on either the Helideck or Crane operations

There should be no additional explosion hazard, provided the gas from the
fuel line is dispersed above the process deck

The air quality will remain within acceptable health guidelines (see
following discussion).

REFERENCES

Schiehallion FPSO Final Design, Gas Accumulation and Explosion


Studies, UTG Sunbury Report SPR/OIT/012/97, December 1997

Schiehallion FPSO Updated Explosion Analysis Study, UTG Sunbury


Report S/UTG/155/00, December 2000

Weather Data, supplied by Schiehallion Project

Gas Turbine Data, supplied by Solar Turbines Inc

Crane boom limitations, supplied by Sparrows.

Environment Agency Guidance Note H1. Integrated Pollution


Prevention and Control (IPPC) Environmental Assessment and Appraisal
of BAT.

EH40/2002. Occupational Exposure Limits 2002.

AIR QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL BENCHMARKS


IPPC Version 3.1, July 2002 89
Derivation of Environmental Assessment levels for Air
For many substances which are released to air EQSs have not been defined. Where
the necessary criteria are absent then the Regulators have adopted interim values
known as Environmental Assessment Levels (EALs). The EAL is the concentration of a
substance which in a particular environmental medium the Regulators regard as a
comparator value to enable a comparison to be made between the environmental
effects of different substances in that medium and between environmental effects in
different media and to enable the summation of those effects. Ideally EALs to fulfil this
objective would be defined for each pollutant:
based on the sensitivity of particular habitats or receptors (in particular
three main types of receptor should be considered, protection of human
health, protection of natural ecosystems and protection of specific
sensitive receptors, e.g. materials, commercial activities requiring a
particular environmental quality;

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be produced according to a standardised protocol to ensure that they are


consistent, reproducible and readily understood;
provide similar measure of protection for different receptors both within
and between media;
take account of habitat specific environmental factors such as pH,
nutrient status, bioaccumulation, transfer and transformation processes
where necessary.

A suite of EALs derived in this consistent manner is not currently available, therefore,
interim values based on published information have been adopted. The list below
shows the sources from which information has been obtained. For consistency, risk
based values proposed by the World Health Organisation or given in the IRIS database
have been excluded.
Currently some 460 substances or groups of substances are authorised by the
Regulators for release to the environment and many of these may be released to air.
However, established environmental criteria (other than a limited number of EQSs) are
available for only a small fraction of this number. For example, in the case of releases
to air, EPAQS have produced guideline values for only six substances (Ozone,
Benzene, Carbon Monoxide, Sulphur Dioxide, Particles and 1,3 Butadiene, nitrogen
dioxide, PAHs and lead) and the WHO Air Quality Guidelines contain values for 27
substances.
Information sources :

Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards (EPAQS)


EC Air Quality Directives - limit values and guidelines
World Health Organisation Air Quality Guidelines for Europe
(1987, 1995)
Other International Organisations (e.g. United Nations Economic
Commission for Europe)
Other National Organisations (e.g. US IRIS data base)
Health and Safety occupational exposure limits.
Expert judgement

Ideally, EALs for those substances where there are no existing criteria would be derived
direct from toxicological data on the effects of the pollutant on a particular receptor.
However, an assessment of this type would be a very substantial undertaking which
could only be considered over an extended timescale. One approach to overcoming
this problem is to make use of occupational exposure limits which provide an
assessment for a specific receptor (i.e. adult human workforce) of the toxicological
effects of a pollutant. These values might then be progressively revised as further
information and resources allow. Indeed a similar approach to this was followed by the
then Factory Inspectorate in 1968 when a large number of occupational standards were
adopted from the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (HMSO
1968) which has since been progressively revised by the Health and Safety Executive
on the basis of new information and UK experience.

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