CROWN
HUMES
DESIGN AIDS
PRECAST CONCRETE
UNICULVERT
HUMES
BOX CULVERTS
Humes Box Culverts are now readily avail
able throughout Australia, and this brochure
includes information for both designer and
user. Hydraulic characteristics are set out,
and a typical method for determination of
size is given.
BASE
Crown and Base Invert and Lid
Contents A. General
1. Use of Box Culverts
2. Structural Design of Box Culverts
3. Typical Laying and Jointing Procedures
4. Uniculverts
5. Slab Linked Box Culverts
6. Typical Culvert Inlet/Outlet Arrangement
B. Dimensions
C. Culvert Capacity Chart  Box Culverts and Pipes
D. Sizing of Box Culvert
E. Worked Example
F. Types of Flow in Box Culverts
running full at Entry
G. Box Culvert Sizes and Letter Coding
H. Friction Loss Nomographs
1. Nomograph for Flow in Culverts running
full at Entry
2. Calculation of 'Flow Capacity in Culverts
not running full at Entry
3. Nomograph for Solution of Manning
Equation for Open Channel Flow
J. Relative Hydraulic Capacities of Concrete
Box Culverts, Concrete Pipe and Corrugated Pipe
1
HUMES
Uniculvert
Page
2 to 5
2
3
3 and 4
4
5
5
6
7
8
9
10 and 11
12
13 to 15
13
14
15
16
HUMES
A. General
Hydraulic
Characteristics
of Box Culverts
and R.C. Pipes
allow Reduced
Waterway area
1. Use of Box Culverts
The basic box culvert is available either as an inverted U
founded on a concrete base (crown type) or as a
U shaped trough with a lid (invert type). The range of box
culverts has been significantly increased during recent
years; they are now readily available from 300 mm to
3600 mm span and larger. Enquiries should be directed
to the Humes Office in your State, where our staff will be
pleased to answer any questions regarding design,
availability, cost and dimensions.lncertain circumstances
box culverts have distinct advantages compared with
other types of culvert structures. They are particularly
suitable for:
Heavy Loads
' ' ' ' '
Large Flows with Low Headroom
They can cope with large flows where head room is
limited. For an equivalent waterway area, box
culverts can accommodate significantly larger flows
than corrugated alternatives. A comparison of flow
through box culverts, concrete pipe and corrugated
pipe is shown on Page 16.
Instant Bridging
A Humes box culvert is designed to withstand heavy
wheel loads even when there is no fill in place. This
provides instant bridging with minimum traffic
disruption. It will be appreciated that if fill is placed
2
over the culvert, the effect of superimposed load
becomes less because the fill will distribute the load
over a larger area.
The fact that traffic may use this installation
immediately after placing is particularly noteworthy
when compared with any in situ construction and
most alternative materials which require compacted
fill in place before loading is applied.
Pedestrian and Stock Crossing,
Conveyor Tunnels
Apart from hydraulic applications and special site
requirements, there are many other uses for box
culverts, such as pedestrian subways, stock cros
sings and conveyor tunnels under stockpiles.
Ducts
Ducting
The use of box culverts for ducting is particularly
attractive because of the high cost of other materials.
They have been used extensively for electrical cable,
steam, air, hot water and oil pipe ducting to name
a few.
Special Applications
Box culverts may be used as temporary pedestrian
protection tunnels on building sites, player protection
races at sports grounds, kilns for curing timber and,
when lined with Humes Plastiline, as storage tanks for
special liquids e.g. acids.
Difficult Site Conditions
When site conditions are difficult, particularly where
excavation is in rock, installation of a box culvert
requires minimal excavation and backfill.
A. General cont'd
2. Structural Design of Box Culverts
While many Authorities have their own specific structural
requirements and often their own designs, the minimum
standards to which all box culverts are designed are
contained in Austral ian Standard 1597 Part 1 197 4 for
culverts up to and including 1200 mm span and AS 1597
Part 2 1980 for culverts from 1500 mm to 3600 mm span .
Box culverts required for special purposes or specific
loadings not covered by Australian Standards, will be
designed by Humes Engineers to provide the most
economical design compatible with the funct ion of the box
culvert.
Important: Construction considerations on site
may require that heavy equipment must travel
over box culverts before soil cover is placed. This
can result in loading conditions much more
severe than those expected in service. Either the
design must satisfy construction conditions, or
provision must be made to support the units
during construction.
3. Typical Laying and Jointing
Procedures
Jointing
Joints between box culverts used in stormwater drainage
conditions do not normally require sealing. Box culverts
are usually made with plain ends giving a butt joint and the
joint gap is so small that grouting is unnecessary.
For special applications, units may be made with a variety
of joints, ranging from simple interlocking flush
joints, subsequentl y mortared, to more sophisticated joints
for pedestrian underpasses, ducting systems, sewer
linings, etc.
Note: Where box cul verts are laid on a steep grade,
suitable jointing is essential to ensure even distribution
of load from one culvert to the next. Thi s prevents
spalling at the ends due to minor misalignments.
Base Rebates
Box culvert bases, precast or in situ, must have rebates
to prevent the legs being forced inwards by consolida
tion of the fill material beside the culvert . The recom
mended rebate depth for spans over 1200 mm is 20 mm.
Smaller sizes may be down to 6 or 7 mm.
3
HUMES
Humes large size Box Culverts
Humes instant Pedestrian Tunnel
Humes instant Bri dging
Multiple installation for dueling (see page 4)
HUMES
A. General cont'd
3. Typical Laying and Jointing Procedures cont'd
Multiple Installation
Where box culverts are laid side by side in multiple
installations, they may be placed either touching or
wit h a gap varying from 25 mm to a width approximately
equal to the box culvert leg thickness.
Actual requirements vary and are generally governed
by the size of the culvert, site conditions and the
standard adopted by the particular Authority. The gaps
should be filled with compacted packing sand, cement
mortar or grout. Care must be taken with long leg
culverts not to use excessive compaction, as forces
induced may be far in excess of normal design
loading.
It is strongly recommended that a fairing or stream
lined nosing be built on the upstream and downstream
faces of the culvert legs. This requirement is especially
necessary when a gap is left between adjacent legs,
usually resulting in a significant total wall thickness.
Reference should also be made to Item 5 " Siab
Linked Box Culverts".
Handling of Culverts
Especially with box culverts over 1200 mm span, slings
must not be placed around the toes such that large
bending moments may be induced in the legs. Slings
should not be used under the centre of the top slab of
the crowns. Lateral slinging of the box culverts should
always be avoided.
4. Uniculverts
Uniculverts consist of a complete box culvert cell
with an integral base plate. This type of unit provides
additional on site construction savings by reducing
J _,,
I ,.,
4
Laying of Culverts
Before placing a base slab or invert a check should
be made that the bedding has no high points. Then
before placing crown on base slab, or lid on invert,
apply a pad of grout so that the mating surfaces are
fully and evenly supported. In culverts over 1200 mm
span, any gap between the inside of the leg and the
recess should be grouted. This will prevent the legs
moving inwards due to horizontal forces.
It is accepted practice to align the ends of crowns
and bases or inverts and lids. That is, the joints are
not staggered. This ensures that in cases of overloading,
or differential settlement, the slabs and U sections
act as units. Loads are thus not transferred partly or
imperfectly to the adjacent units.
Backfilling around units should be done in even layers
on both sides simultaneously. Care must be taken to
prevent wedge action against surfaces during back
filling. This is especially important for large box culverts,
long leg lengths, and for slab linked type to ensure
the units are not displaced during backfilling.
Heavy earthmoving equipment should not run close to
or over the culverts without first checking that the units
can take the resultant loading.
craneage hire and eliminating site assembly.
Depending on mould availability, these units may
be supplied as crown units with base plates factory
assembled, or as integrally cast one piece units.
 \. I
  \
A. General cont'd
5. Slab Linked Box Culverts
Where it is required to install a multiple run of large box
culverts, i.e. over 1200 mm span, consisting of 3 cells
or more, the slablinked system may be used. Such
installations will generally be more economical than
multiple runs of full box culvert crown sections. This is
partly due to the fact that a significant reduction may be
made in overall width of both trench excavation and
base slab, and partly because the spanning slabs are
more economical than a crown unit.
To ensure proper transfer of horizontal loads across the
structure, special designs are required for the spannir)g
slabs, the box culvert crown sections, and the joints
between slabs and crowns.
Use of spanning slabs provides less restrict ion to the entry
of water to the culvert than is the case with multiple crown
secti ons.
6. Typical Culvert Inlet/Outlet Arrangement
_____ _______,__
HUMES
1 , p1, 1, r n rr ' Pi1'1 r r r r t rr rr fl rr r
SECT A A
Culverts 600 mm and greater in span
5
I
I
I
L ___ ________ _j
~
b . ~ . J: ..... . . ._t. . ~
Culverts less than 600 mm in span
HUMES
B. Dimensions
(i) Preferred standard sizes are shown thus: II
(ii) Box culverts are generally available in standard
lengths of 1,22 m and 2,46 m.
(iii) The size range of Humes standard box culverts up
to 1200 mm span are those included in the Australian
Standard 1597. The Humes large box culvert size
range includes those sizes greater than 1200 mm
span and up to 3600 mm span covered by Australian
Standard 1597 Part 2.
a. Small Box Culverts  Size Range
300 375 450
m
m
150
II
II
225
II II II
300
II
375
450
600
750
900
1200
b. Large Box Culverts  Size Range
1500 1800 2100
300
600
900

1200
II
1500
II
1800
II
2100
2400
2700
3000
3600
.____
')
l
(iv) In many cases Humes have the facility to manu
facture spans and leg heights greater than 3600 mm.
Contact your nearest Humes Office regarding the
availability of these larger sizes in your area.
600 750 900 1200
II
II II II
II
II II II II
II II II
II
II
I
2400 2700 3000 3300 3600
II
I
II
[ill
II
II
II
II
II
II
6
z
0
t
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rc
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: :::J::J" 0
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cu=:o
 ':< CXl 275
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cn o o 325
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 ' .S
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:+ :::J 0
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..... :::J
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3050
Q
55
85
11 5
145
170
195
225
255
285
565
850
t 130
1415
1700
1980  
2265
2545
2825

 5650
'
" ',
8475
11.5
14.5
t 7
20
22.5
25.5
28.5
56.5
84.5
113 45 60
Formulae (Flow of Water thru Culverts  Bulletin 1, Univ. of Iowa) :
Corrugated pipe
AV2QL
v 1 + 1.38d06+
R.C. pipe, bevel led lip
A\f29h
V .Q2L_
1
1
+ 82, 15d"
For free outlet, use H' for H; H' may
be approxmated asH" less an assumed
vertical diameter.
(Adapted to spun pipe
by using 0,021 L ins lead
of 0,026L)
Concrete monolith,
rounded lip,
45 60
Length of Culvert in metres L
Joint Departmental Report
on
performance of Culverts and Culvert Practice
Cal ifornia Division of Highways
Chart B
for design of Culverts running full under head
Exampl e
To compile alternative secti ons to carry 5650 Li see for 55 m,
assuming outlet submerged to a stage 0,5 m below allowable
headwater.
For a single conduit, the lowest isopleth is drawn from H 500
through Q 5650 Li see (5,65 m
3
1s) to the fold line. From this
intersect ion. a hori zontal intersects L 55 m in each of the six
fields, giving alternatives:
A. 2100 C.M.P. C. 1725 Spun R.C.P. E. 26 sq. mArch.
B. 1800 Cast R.C.P. D. 2100 x 1200 R.C. Box F. 1800 Arch.
For multiple conduit s. take Q as the share of each barrel, giving
wide variety, such as :
G. Dbl. 1 500 x 900 Box; H. Trpl.
1350C.MP.
The head of entrance (H) must
exceed velocity head plus
entrance loss
Q
2400
2700
3000
3300
3600
3900
4200
4500
4800
0
0
c

<
CD
....
I+
0
Q)
c
Q)
n
 I+
'<
0
':J
Q)
....
I+
I
c
m
Ul
HUMES
D. Sizing of Box Culvert
When designing cul verts, two disti nct ly different condit ions must be considered. These are:
Type A
Cul verts not f lowing full. These are virtuall y an open
channel with a lid and as such, are designed from open
channel formulaesee nomograph, p.15.
~ p e ~
Cul verts full at entry proceed as follows: ~
(i) Assess the inlet and outlet conditions.
(ii) From this assessment, estimate the head available.
(iii) Using this head, and knowing the capacity required
from the runoff estimate, select a suitable cross
sectional area either by calculation or nomograph.
These steps (i)(iii) are set out in detail hereunder in Methods I and IT.
Methods I and II are fundamentally the same except thatTI considers the inlet and outlet conditions in more
detail than I and therefore gives a more accurate assessment of head available, i.e. I is more conservative
than II.
Method I
By direct reference to California Division of Highways
chart
The chart on Page 7 from the California Di vision of
Highways is self explanatory and sizes of cul verts
not shown may be interpolated using the cross
sectional area as a basis.
This first method is quick and easily used, but it must
be borne in mind that under many conditions it is only
approximate, because it has assumed that the culvert
will be full at all times. For a simplified approach the
authors have seen fit to assume that the head available
for a free outlet , will be nearly the same as the differ
ence in level between the headwater and the underside
of the culvert lid at the outlet. This gives a slightly
conservative head, for the actual head may be a little
more, due to the water level at the outlet being slightly
below the culvert lid, i.e. as previously stated the cul
vert will probably not be quite full at the outlet. In this
context, it is worthwhile quoting from ' HYDRAULICS
OF CULVERTS' by the American Concrete Pipe
Association which states as follows:
"Many existing short culverts and culverts on steep
slopes do not flow full with their inlets submerged.
This is generally due to relatively poor inlets which
cause convergence of the flow in the culvert ent rance.
This convergence may be such that only about 70%
of the area of the culvert is utilized at the entrance.
As long as such a culvert is on a slope steep enough
to carry away the water that is admitted, the culvert
will never flow full."
It should be noted that the entry type shown is rounded.
For a sharp edged inlet, the discharge will be approxi
mately 12% less than that read off the chart. Also,
the chart applies for lengths up to 60 metres only.
8
Method II
This method is summarised by the seven steps below.
1. Choose from diagrams I to Nan appropriate Flow
Type diagram showing the anticipated inlet/outlet
arrangement.
2. Estimate the head water depth 'H'.
3. Choose a suitable culvert depth 'D' .
4. Divide H by D and for this H/ D quantity, find the
matching T/D value from the appropriate Flow Type
graphs on pages 10 and 11 .
5. Multiply T/ D by D and thus obtain tail water depth 'T'.
6. Calculate HT, this gives the effective head.
7. Use this effective head, the culvert depth D and
capacity required to choose a suitable size from the
friction loss nomograph  page 13.
Now see worked example on page 9.
E. Worked Example
Example Data:
Discharge of 2500 litres per second required through culvert 30 metres long.
Headwater cannot be allowed to rise more than 2 metres above proposed invert level.
~ Inlet has square corner opening.
Culvert is on slight grade and tailwater falls away into a gully.
On Page 11 we see that a Flow Type ill should apply.
HUMES
From the chart for trial culvert size selection below, we see that for Flow Type m, the nearest approximate
condition is 2600 litres per second from a 12 metre culvert of 1200 mm span and 600 mm depth
Assume 1200 mm x 600 mm culvert.
As we are not told the grade, we can use the grade as showr on the chart for Flow Type ill, i.e. hi D is 0,3
maximum.
H = 2 metres, D = 0,6 metres (dep h of leg), HID = 3,3
From Fig. 3 on page 11, which is the curve corresponding to l o ~ Type ill for HID and TID, we see that for HID
of 3,3 we obtain the maximum TI D of 1.
We multiply TID by D to obtain T = 0,6 (i.e. same as D) .
The maximum slope consistent with Flow Type III of the culvert i given by the hiD reading, which in this case is
approximately 0,3 x D = 0, 18.
Head loss now equals H + h  T = 2 + 0,18  0,6 = 1,58.
From the chart of Box Culverts Sizes on page 12 a 1200 mm x ~ O O mm culvert is coded as 06.
On the friction loss nomograph on page 13, connect 06 on he culvert size hydraulic radius line, to 30 metres
on the length scale for square edged entries and mark the poill t where the line crosses the pivot line.
Now construct a line passing through the pivot point and the ead loss of 1,58 metres. When produced to the
discharge line it cuts at approximately 3000 litres per second
h is 0, 18, therefore satisfactory.
(Note that if the location had demanded a steeper slope than 0,1 per 30 metres, then Flow Type Nwould have
applied.)
Chart for trial culvert size selection
Typical discharge values for given flow conditions to
assist in the initial choice of culvert size
Note:
i. All culvert discharges are calculated for headwater to
be 1 metre above top of culvert, and the open
channel is based on channel running full.
Flow Type I II
Length of Culvert
metres 12 120 12 120
ii . he open channel assumes a culvert nominally full
)Ut lid not wet, and hydraulic radius is calculated on
pen channel , while crosssectional area is that of
ull channel.
ill ISl Open Channel
Grade Grade
1 D
120 12 120 1 in 50 1 in 500
Span x Depth in mm, Flow in litr s per second x 1 o
3
300 X 150 Le s than 0,5
600 X 300 0,2 0,1 0,6 0,3 07 0,3 0,8 0,4 0,7 0,2
900 X 600 0,9 0,6 1,4 1 2 1,2 2,1 1,4 3,1 0,9
1200 X 600 1,2 0,9 1,8 1,3 Q,6 1,7 2,7 1,8 4,8 1,4
1500 X 900 2,8 2,2 5,1 4 5,4 4,2 6,2 5,1 10,6 3,1
1800 X 900 3,1 2,2 5,4 4,2 5,7 4,5 7,4 5,4 14 4,1
2100 X 900 3,7 2,4 5,7 4,5 6,5 4,8 7,6 5,7 17,2 4,9
2400 X 1200 6,8 5,4 10,8 8,5 10,8 8,5 12,7 10,2 30,8 8,7
2700 X 1500 11 ,9 10,2 25,5 21,2 22,7 19,8 22,7 20 47,3 12,7
3000 X 1500 12,2 10,5 25,7 21,5 23,2 20,2 23,2 20 55,2 15,6
9
HUMES
F. Types of Flow in Box Culverts running full at entry
Fig. 1 Flow Type I Outlet Submerged
6
/
//
5
/
//
/
//
/
//
~
//
4
/
o ; ~
/
//
/
/'
~ .....
/v
2
//
l/
I //
A'
v 1 2
3 1:
4 5 6
h
curve for
FLOW TYPE I
Fig. 2 Flow TypeR Outlet Partly Submerged
6
5
lc
3
v
v
v L/
1
2
v
1
/
[/
ov
1 2
l/
v
l/
~ ~
1/
I
T ~ ~ 3
4
D
l/
/
l/
5
/v
6
curve for
FLOW TYPE IT
10
NOTE:
i. Outlet is fully submerged. This means that
although the culvert may be full, there is a
definite obstruction at the outlet (i .e. the
tailwater pond) and the velocity of the flow
will be less than maximum, hence the
culvert will discharge a reduced quantity of
water. This is referred to as TYPE I Flow
condition.
ii. TYPE I occurs where tailwater flows into a
pond or onto a flood plain on outlet side.
iii. 02 represents the flow from a culvert and D
is its depth.
Knowing H, and the type of flow anticipated,
we can calculate Hi D and read its
corresponding TiD for this type of flow.
iv. Use solid section of curve only.
NOTE:
i. The outlet is partially submerged. This is a
similarbut not so severe condition as the
preceding one. This is referred to as TYPE II
Flow condition.
ii. TYPE II occurs where discharge is into a
table drain or creek, flowing past at relatively
constant level regardless of culvert flow.
iii. 02 represents the flow from a culvert and D
is its depth.
Knowing H, and the type of flow anticipated,
we can calculate Hi D and read its
corresponding TiD for thi s type of flow.
\
HUMES
F. Types of Flow in Box Culverts running full at entry

h
Fig. 3 Flow Type ill  Outlet Free
6
5
4
N
0
r
/'
1/
/
2
1
/
/
/v
0/ 1 2
NOTE: Tis never less than 0,60.
for this flow type
//
//
/ '
curve for
/
FLOW TYPE lli
//
// o"'
,/
/
3 4 5 6
 
Fig. 4 Flow Type N  Outlet Free
(type m with grade increased)
6
5
N
0
I
I
2 f f
1./
I
0
2
I
!
NOTE: Tis never greater than 0,60
 for this flow type
1
I
curve for
FLOW TYPE N
I
r
1
tH=
1
1
1
I
' 1
I
I I
I
i
6
11
NOTE:
i. The outlet falls away below the culvert
invert and is therefore called a free outlet.
This materially assists the flow by not
backing up and obstructing the outlet and
sometimes by a sl ight venturi effect, so that
we obtain the best outlet condit ion for
maximum flow. This is referred to as Flow
Type ill.
Type ill occurs where tailwater falls into a
creek, gully or down an embankment .
iii . Where the invert becomes steeper the type
of f low changes to that shown in Type N
Type ill f low occurs when h < 0,3D
Type.ISlf low occurs when h > 0,3D
iv. 02 represents the f low from a culvert and D
is its depth.
Knowing H, and the type of flow anticipated,
we can calculate Hi D and read its
correspondi ng Ti D for this type of f low.
v. Use solid section of curve only.
NOTE:
i. Flow TypelSloccurs where the out let falls
away below the cu lvert invert and the
culvert is on a steep slope. To determine
whether the culvert is on a "steep slope",
refer to t he calculation on Page 9.
ii. This is actually TypeTIIwith grade increased
so that h > 0,3D.
iii. 02 represents the flow from a culvert and D
is its
Knowing H, and the type of flow anticipated,
we can calculate HID and read its
corresponding TiD for this type of flow.
HUMES
G. Box Culvert Sizes
Box Culvert sizes corresponding to letter coding on Nomograph.
S P A N S
LEG
DEPTH 300 375 450 600 750 900 1200
100 A A
150 B c D D
230 E E F G
300 G H I J K
375 L
450 I M N 0
p
600
p
0 0 6
750 R R
900 T
1200 U1
1500
1800
2100
2300
2400
NOTE:
i. In cases where two or more sizes have the same letter
(e.g. 'W' represents 2700 mm X 900 mm and
3000 mm X 900 mm) the smaller of the two sizes
should be used if the nomograph line falls slightly
below the letter.
ii. In the adjacent sketch, the full line passes slightly
below W. A 2700 mm X 900 mm culvert could be
used in this instance rather than a 3000 mm X
900 mm . Should the line pass through, or slightly
above the letter, then the larger size should be
adopted. In the instance of the broken line, use a
3000 mm X 900 mm culvert .
12
1500
P1
R
S2
U2
V1
z
Z2
Z3
A3
A3
1800
0
R1
u
U3
X
Z2
Z3
A5
B1
B3
etc.
1500
2100 2400 2700 3000 3300 3600
01 02 03 04 05 06
s S1 S1 S2 S2 u
U1 U2 U3 v v V1
V1 V1 w w X X
z Z1 Z2 Z3 Z3 A1
Z3 A3 A5 A5 B1 B3
A5 B 1 B4 B5 B6 B7
B2 B5 B6 B7 C2 C2
B5 B7 C1 C3 C3 C4
B6 B7 C2 C3 C4 C4
HUMES
H. Friction Loss Nomographs
for 2 most common Applications
T
[ 1. Nomograph for Flow in Culverts running full at entry
i.e. wetted perimeter = actual perimeter
Formula:
28,5
L V
2
HEAD LOSS = (I + Ce + Cf)metres
25,5
A 2g
22,5 Ce  Entrance loss coefficient
20 Cf Friction factor 19,6 n
2
+ RV
3
17
L  Length of culvert in metres
R  Hydraulic radius in metres
14
vz
2g
 Velocity head in metres 60
11,5
8,5
Rounded Entry
0,74
90
:0
c
0,6
Square Edged 0
0
5, 7
Entry Q)
120
(f)
0,55
(i;
o_
~ 150
(f)
A4 0,48
":l\)
. ~
A3
" A1 '\\)
180
.2
Z3
"
0,42
Length in metres
~ 0
'1. ~ 0 2,8
1 ',:?
2,6
'1.<0
210
>
2,3
roughness coefficient
.D
of0,011
> 240
0. 2
~
::::l
1,7
.s
D
1 .4
c
0
0
Q)
1, 1 E
(f)
(i;
0
E
>
"'
o_
0::
"'
(f)
0,85
2
480 .3
~
.,
"'
Qj Q)
E
I
0
:0
0,6 ::::l
720
0
0 1
0,18 Q)
CJ) 960
OJ
p
.r:
0
0,15
(f)
0
1200
i:S N
0,3
M
0,25
1440
0,22
K
0,2
0,12
1680
0,17
1920
H 2160
0,14
2400
1
0,11 0,09
w 2880
G
(!)
0,08
a:
3360 <(
I
0,08
I
0
0,08
(f)
F 15
~ ~
0,06
~ 0 E
'
0,06
0
' <(
D
1 ./ !!!
,/
~
c 0,06
  ~  ~  
....__
B 0,05
O,Q3
A
key
13
HUMES
H. Friction Loss Nomographs cont 'd
2. Calculation of Flow Capacity in Box Culverts not
running full at entry
Assuming the dimensions of a culvert and its grade, the
flow capacity may be checked by the Manning's Formula.
A Area of flow in culvert in square metres
S Slope in metres per metre (m/ m)
R Hydraulic radius in metres
n = Roughness coefficient
(0,0 11 for concrete off a steel mould)
a Width of channel metres
b Depth of channel metres
0 Flow in channel in cubic metres per second
Calculate the Hydraulic Radius R. This is the area of the
flow cross section divided by the wetted perimeter. For a
partly wetted channel the depth of flow is b, and the
culvert wi dth is a.
axb
R = 
2b +a
Thus the velocity can be calculated according to
Manning:
R'IJ X S';,
v = 
n
and 0 = Av
14
This calculation can be abbreviated by use of the
Nomograph on Page 15, and the following example
illustrates the use of the nomograph.
For culvert size
1200 mm X 600 mm
and slope
The relevant factors are: n
/\
R
1,22 X 0,61
1 50
0,011
0,75 m
2
0,61 0 X 1 ,220
(2 X 0,61 0) +
1,220
0,3 m
1
S =
50
= 0,02 m/m
Step 1 Connect Slope (0,02) on the S scale to
roughness coefficient (0 ,011) on the n scale. Fi x
intersection on pivot line accurately.
Step 2 Connect the pivot line intersection with the
assumed value on the R line 300 millimetres, and by
production of this line, we read that it intersects the
velocity line (v) at 6,5 m/ sec.
Step 3 To calculate the discharge quantity,
A 0,75 m
2
v 6,5 m/ sec
0 Av
4,875 m
3
/ sec
I
J
...
I
T
H. Friction Loss Nomographs cont'd
3. Nomograph for Solution of Manning Equation for
Open Channel Flow i.e. Box Culvert Partly Full
R
1 in 10
millimetres
Ill
c:
0,6
:::;
0
>
0::
0,9
1,2
metres
1,5
1,8
2,1
2,4
2,7
3
L
s
R
n
Key
15
HUMES
v
15
9
n
,01
6
,02
3
2,7
2,4 ,03
2,1
1,8
,04
1,5
,OS
1,2
,06
,07
0,9
,08
,09
0,6
,10
0,3 ,2
0,27
0,24
0,2 1
0, 18
,3
0,15
l ,4
HUMES
J Relative hydraulic capacities and installed cost considerations
of Concrete Box Culverts, Concrete Pipe and Corrugated Pipe
Conditions
The waterway areas will be the same at 1,468 square
metres. These are:
a. 1200 mm x 1200 mm box culvert not quite full;
b. 1350 mm concrete pipe culvert almost full;
c. 1350 mm corrugated culvert almost full.
In many circumstances concrete box culverts can have
significantly better waterway characteristics than the
traditional alternatives, and the designer has to consider
many factors to finally determine the most economical
installation.
These factors include:
Initial cost,
Freight and installation cost.
Durability,
For the concrete box culvert ard concrete pipe culvert, a
roughness coefficient of O,Q11 is used whil e for
corrugated material 0,024 is used. Each installation is set
at the identical grade of 0,003 m/m.
As previously stated, it is assumed that there is a slight
gap between the top inner surface of the culverts and the
water surface so that we may analyse all three cases by
open channel formula, thus we use a headwater depth just
slightly less than the culvert's vertical inside dimension.
and therefore selection of the correct size of culvert is of
prime importance. A typical culvert installation 60
metres long is examined, using in turn each one of the
three types of unit.
I
I
I
To avoid inconsistencies which may arise because of the
different methods at present used in design of culverts
running full, the conditions have been selected as follows.
1 350 diameter corrugated culvert
Hydraulic Radius R is the Area of Flow ; Wetter Perimeter
From Manning's Formula
nr
2
r
= ==03375
2Jtr 2 '
and 0 = Av
thus
0
= 1,468 x (0,3375)% x (0,003)
1
/
2
0,024
= 1,62 cubic metres per second
1 350 diameter concrete pipe culvert
Hydraulic Radius R is the Area of Flow ; Wetter Perimeter
From Manning's Formula
Jt r
2
r
= = = 03375
2Jt r 2 '
v
and 0 = Av
thus
0
= 1,468 x (0,3375)% x (0,003)
1
/
2
0,011
= 3,54 cubic metres per second
1 200 x 1 200 concrete box culvert
Hydraulic radius
From Manning's Formula,
ab
=
2b+a
1,44
= =0,4
(2 X 1 ,2) + 1 ,2
R% x s'
12
V = _ __;_:____:.:n '=
and Q = Av
1,468 X (0,4)% X (0,003)'/2
Q =
0,011
3,97 cubic metres per second
16
The Manning Formula
Note
Manning's formula is used in this
brochure because it is sufficiently
accurate for short culverts, bearing in
mind the approximate nature of the
information on which culvert designs
are frequently based.
For accuracy, when friction loss due
to flow in the culvert is a significant
factor, the design should be based on
a formula such as the Hazen
Williams.
Comparison in percentages
Box Culvert 100%
Concrete Pipe  90%
Corrugated Pipe  40%
It will be appreciated that. had the box
culvert flow been calculated on the
basis of running full, the concrete pipe
would provide the best hydraulic
capacity, as follows:
Concrete Pipe 100%
Box Culvert  85%
Corrugated Pipe  45%
While these results will vary for each set
of circumstances, it is obvious that all
, factors should be carefully assessed
before a decision is made on the type of
construction.
I