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FACILITY LAYOUT AND WORKPLACE DESIGN

FACILITY LAYOUT

Facility Layout refers to the specific arrangement of physical facilities.

Purpose Of Facility Layout Studies

  • 1. Minimize delays in materials handling

  • 2. Maintain flexibility

  • 3. Use labor and space effectively

  • 4. Promote high employee morale

  • 5. Provide for good housekeeping and maintenance

Need For Facility Layout Studies

  • 1. A new facility is constructed

  • 2. There is a significant change in production or throughput volume

  • 3. A new product is introduced

  • 4. Different processes and equipment are installed

LAYOUT PATTERNS

Four major layout patterns are commonly used in designing production processes: product layout, process layout, group layout, and fixed position layout.

Product Layout Equipment arrangement is based on the sequence of operations performed in production, and products move in continuous path from one department to the next.

FACILITY LAYOUT AND WORKPLACE DESIGN FACILITY LAYOUT Facility Layout – refers to the specific arrangement of
 

ADVANTAGES

 

DISADVANTAGES

Low material handling cost per

Machine stoppage stops the line

unit

Product design change or process

Less work in process

change causes the layout to

Total production time per unit is

become obsolete

short

Slowest station paces the line

Low unit cost due to high volume

Higher equipment investment

Less skill is required for

usually results

personnel

Less machine utilization

Smooth, simple, logical, and

Less flexible

direct flow Inspection can be reduced

 

Delays are reduced

Effective supervision and control

Process Layout consists of a functional grouping of machines or activities that do similar work.

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES  Low material handling cost per  Machine stoppage stops the line unit 
 

ADVANTAGES

 

DISADVANTAGES

Better machine utilization

Increased material handling

Highly flexible in allocating

Increased work in process

personnel and equipment because

Longer production lines

general purpose machines are

Critical delays can occur if the

used. Diversity of tasks for personnel

part obtained from previous operation is faulty

Greater incentives to individual

Routing and scheduling pose

worker Change in Product design and

continual challenges

process design can be incorporated easily More continuity of production in

 

unforeseen conditions like breakdown, shortages, absenteeism

 

Group/Cellular Layout the design is not according to the functional characteristics of machines, but rather by groups of different machines (called cells) needed for producing families of parts.

Group Technology / Cellular Manufacturing classify parts into families so that efficient mass-production type layouts can be designed for the families of parts.

unforeseen conditions like breakdown, shortages, absenteeism Group/Cellular Layout – the design is not according to the
 

Advantages

 

Disadvantages

Higher machine utilization

Greater labor skills required

Smoother flow lines and shorter

Flow balance required in each

travel distances are expected than for process layout

cell Has some of the disadvantages of

Offers some benefits of both

product and process type of

product and process type of layout because it is a compromise between the two Encourages consideration of general purpose equipment

layout; it is a compromise between the two

Fixed-Position Layout tools and components are brought to one place for assembly.

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES  Material movement is reduced  May result in increase space and  Promotes
 

ADVANTAGES

 

DISADVANTAGES

Material movement is reduced

May result in increase space and

Promotes pride and quality

greater work in process

because an individual can complete the whole job

Requires greater skill for personnel

Highly flexible; can

Personnel and equipment

accommodate changes in product design, product mix, and production volume

movement is increased Requires close control and coordination in production and personnel scheduling

Comparison of Basic Layout Patterns

Factor

Process Layout

Product Layout

Group Layout

Amount of flexibility

High

Low

Moderate

Automation Potential

Low

High

Moderate

Type of equipment

General-purpose

Highly specialized

Some specialization

Production volume

Low

High

Moderate

Equipment utilization

Low

High

Moderate

Setup costs and requirements

Low

High

Moderate

LAYOUT ISSUES IN SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS

In service organizations the basic trade-off between product and process layouts concerns the degree of specialization versus flexibility as well as the productivity that is concern for both manufacturers and service organizations. Services must consider the volume of demand, range of the types of services offered, degree of personalization of the service, skills of employees, and cost.

Those that need the ability to provide a wide variety of services to customers with differing requirements usually use process layout. Service organizations that provide highly standardized services tend to use product layouts. Although group layouts are less common in service organizations than in manufacturing, they are often used in offices of all types.

MATERIALS HANDLING ISSUES

Materials Handling is the movement, storage, management and guard of materials, goods and products during all the stages under manufacturing, distribution, consumption and disposal. Materials- handling costs may range from 20% to 80% of the total production cost of a product.

Types Of Materials Handling Systems

  • 1. Industrial Trucks most commonly used; their primary function is maneuvering or transporting goods.

  • 2. Conveyor Systems more adaptable than industrial trucks to moving a high volume of items.

  • 3. Cranes devices fixed by supporting and guiding rails that are used to move or transfer material between points within an area.

  • 4. Automated Storage And Retrieval Systems highly-technology materials-handling or storage configurations that usually involve computer control, unit loads, and digital computer interface/control.

  • 5. Tractor-trailer systems pull a train of trailers or load-carrying platforms.

  • 6. Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) computer-controlled, driverless vehicles guided by wires embedded in the shop floor.

DESIGN OF PRODUCT LAYOUTS

Production Line defined as a sequence of production stages, each consisting of one or more machines or workstations.

Workstation assigned location where a worker performs his or her job. It could be a machine or workbench for example.

Unpaced Production Lines Work centers are linked by gravity conveyors (which cause parts to simply roll to the end and stop). 2 sources of delay:

Flow-blocking delay occurs when a work center completes a unit but cannot release it because the in-process storage at the next is full.

Lack-of-work delay occurs whenever one stage completes work and no units from previous stage are awaiting processing.

ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING

The objective of assembly-line balancing is to assign tasks to individual workstations along the line to minimize imbalance among workstations while satisfying precedence constraints and achieving the desired output rate. Typically, one either minimizes the number of work centers for a given production rate or maximizes the production rate for a given number of workstations.

Cycle Time the interval between successive parts coming off the assembly line.

DESIGN OF PROCESS LAYOUTS

Load Matrix lists the number of moves from one department to another over some time period, such as one year.

COMPUTERIZED LAYOUT PLANNING

CRAFT (Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities Technique) one of the most widely used facility-layout programs. CRAFT attempts to minimize the total materials handling cost.

Other programs that have been used in facilities layout are ALDEP (Automated Layout- DEsign Program) and CORELAP (COmputerized RElationship LAyout Planning)

DESIGN OF GROUP LAYOUTS

Three Steps Involving The Design Of Group Layouts

  • 1. Selection of Part Families

  • 2. Selection of Machine Grouping

  • 3. Detailed Arrangement Of The Cells

WORKPLACE DESIGN

Principal Questions To Be Answered For Design Of The Workplace

  • 1. Who will use the workplace?

  • 2. How will the work be performed?

  • 3. What must the worker be able to see?

  • 4. What must the worker be able to hear?

  • 5. What must the worker be able to reach?

ERGONOMICS

Ergonomics or Human-factors Engineering is concerned with improving productivity and safety by designing workplaces, tools, instruments, and so on, that take into account the physical capabilities of people.

Objectives of a Human-Factors Program

  • 1. Improve human performance by increasing speed, accuracy, and safety.

  • 2. To reduce energy requirements and fatigue.

  • 3. To reduce the amount and cost of training.

  • 4. To reduce accidents due to human error.

  • 5. To improve user comfort and acceptance.

American with Disabilities Act (ADA) effective in July 1994 for all employers with 15 or more employees. The act prohibits discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities in “job- application procedures, the hiring, advancement, or discharged of employees, employee compensation, job training and other terms, conditions, and other privileges of employment.

Physical Anthropology

Human beings have a wide range of body characteristics, such as height, arm length, and strength. Physical anthropologists provide important input for workplace design by developing statistical profiles on such characteristics.

Work physiology

Work physiology data are usually obtained through experimental observation and measurement. Heart rate and oxygen consumption are monitored and converted into energy used.

ERGONOMICS AND CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS

Cumulative Trauma Disorders such injuries that include lower back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, tennis elbow, and other forms of tendinitis.

Examples of Ergonomic Solutions To Work Related Problems

o

Sure-grip gloves for employees who use hard-to-hold tools

o

Back support cushions on chairs of employees who work with computers

o

Rubber mats on concrete floors where workers stand for hours

o

Adjustable loading platforms at the end of bottle-filling stations so that employees of all heights can move heavy boxes to pallets without bending or stopping

SAFETY AND WORK ENVIRONMENT

Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) was passed in 1970 to provide safe and healthful working conditions and reduce hazards in the work environment.

National Institue of Occupational Safety and Health was formed to enforce standards provided by OSHA.

Three Key Safety Issues

  • 1. Lighting

  • 2. Temperature and Humidity

  • 3. Noise

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