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Contents

Welcome! 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Order of operations Exponents Products Factorising Algebraic fractions Solving of linear equations Linear inequalities Straight lines The theorem of Pythagoras

Welcome!
1. Write down the answer to each question in the square underneath the question: Supplement of 3+42 110 x + 3= 5 x=?

1+

11(-1)

20

(3xy)

2(a b )

3 2 4

6x2y 3x = 3x(1) =?

xy + xy + xy =

Factorise: a=?

55

2y = 8 y=?

Mean of 3 ; 4 ; 10 ; 11 ; 12

Value of b2 4ac if a = b = 3; c = 0

4 cm

3 cm

2. Now use the key given below and write down the correct letter in the third row at no.1.

A 1 O 70

B 14 P 55

C 20 Q
9

D -4 R 8

E x3y3 S 3xy

F 1,3 T 2a12b8

G a2+b2 U 4

H 11 V 0,5

I 2xy W
8

J x X
1

K 16a12b8 Y (a + b)2 Z

N 9

? 50mm

! 1,03

3. Answer to the question? _____________________

Order of operations
The following are the rules for the order of operations: (i) When there are brackets in the mathematics problem, you always have to first simplify that which is placed inside brackets. (ii) Powers have the highest priority. (iii) When the problem only involves division and/or multiplication and there are no brackets, then you have to proceed from left to right. (iv) When you have to do a problem that only involves addition and/or subtraction - with no brackets - you may proceed from left to right. (v) In case of a calculation problem that involves something of everything, and there are no brackets, always first tackle the parts that require powers, division and multiplication. 1. Do the following computations without a calculator. Calculation task Answer In which order did you do your calculations?

18 6 3 = 18 (6 3) =

14 3 + 5 = 14 (3 + 5) =

8+23= (8 + 2) 3 =

25 5 4 = (25 5) 4 =

22 4 2 = (22 4) 2 =

8 + 12 4 = (8 + 12) 4 =

2.

Do the following computations without a calculator. Calculation task Answer In which order did you do your calculations?

18 + 6 9 + 3 = (18 + 6) (9 +3) =

3623= (3 6) (2 3) =

433+4 (4 3) (3 + 4)

3+93+3= (3 + 9) (3 + 3) =

52+32= 5 (2 + 3 2) =

10 8 + 4 2 = (10 8 + 4) 2 = 3

3.

Do the following computations without a calculator. Calculation task Answer In which order did you do your calculations?

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q
6 + 10 5 4 = 11 + 6 3 + 3 = 16 12 2 + 1 = (3 + 5)2 = 32 + 52 = 3 + 52 = 5 2 + 42 = (4)2 (4)2 (4)2 (3)2 4(1)(3) (3)2 4(1)(3)

4.

What is wrong? Calculation task Correct answer What is wrong?

a b c d e f g h i j k l

10 5 2 = 1 8 + 2 3 = 30 30 5 4 = 100 20 6 2 = 7

(2 + 3)2 = 13 (5)2 = 10 62 = 36 (10)2 = 100 (4)2 = 16 4

3
1.

Exponents
Law 1 (i) (ii) 2 2 2 2 = 16 or 24 a3 a2 = a a a a a = a5 We also say a3 a2 = a3 + 2 = a5

Use am an = am+n to determine a302 a245 We can add the exponents if we multiply and the bases are the same. From am an = am+n : (i) (ii) (a3)2 = a3 a3 = a6 or a3 2 (p3)25 = p 3 25 = p75 by using law 1 (am)n = amn

2.

Law 2 (i) (ii) To simplify by cancelling out will take too long and that is why we apply law 2

We can subtract the exponents if we divide and the bases are the same. From : by cancelling Therefore any number (except 0) to power zero is equal to 1 a0 = 1 , a 0 by cancelling Therefore 3. Law 3

or

4.

Simplify: (give answers with positive exponents) (a) 3-2 + 30 + 33 (b) (3x-2)(2x3) (d) (g) (j) (e) (h) (k) 5x0 + (5x)0 x3 x-7 x x2

(c) (f) (i) (l)

x-3

(2x3) (3x-8)(x)(-3x2)

5.

Simplify and rewrite in exponential form. There must be no variable in the denominator. See example.

= = =

(a) (d) (g) (j) (m) (p)

(b)

(c)

(e) (h) (k) (n)

(f) (i) (l) (o)

PRODUCTS
5 A B

1. (a) What is the area of A ? (b) What is the area of B ? (c) What is the area of A+B ? (d) Area of big rectangle = l b Thus the area = 5 (5 + 2) = 5(7) = 35 square units We can also get 35 square units by doing this: 5(5 + 2) = (55) + (52)

a(a + 2) = (a a) + (a 2) = a + 2a

a
2. (a) What is the area of A? (b) What is the area of B? (c) What is the area of C? (d) What is the area of D? (e) What is the area of A+ B + C + D ? (f) Area of big rectangle = l b Thus the area = (5 + 3) (5 + 2) = (8)(7) = 56 square units

2
3 A

B 5

We can also get 56 square units by doing this: (5 + 3)(5 + 2) = (55) + (52) + (3 5) + (3 2)

3. What is the area of the figure with length (a + 3) units and width (a + 2) units? (a + 3)(a + 2) = (a a) + .. + (3 a) + .. = a2 + 2a + 3a + 6 = a + 5a + 6
2

Can you maybe do the following? (x - 3)(x + 2) (x - 5)(x - 4) (x + 3)2 (x + 3)(x2 + 2x - 5) 4.


(a) (c) (e) (g) (i) (k) (m) (o) (q) (s)

Simplify:
3(2m 5) 3(2y2 3y + 5) 2x(3x2 4x + 3) (x 4)(x + 7) (2a + 7)(3a - 5)4 (5a 3)(5a + 3)( 2) (2y 5)(2y + 5) 4(3q 5)(3q + 5) (2x 1)(3x + 2) (2p 3)2 (b) (d) (f) (h) (j) (l) (n) (p) (r) (t) 5(x + 2) -5(x 2) 2a(a b) -3a(a + b) 3a(a2 + 3a 5) (x + 1)(x + 3) (x + 2)(4 x) (2x + 5)(2x 3) (2x + y)(2x y) (x +

1 1 )(x ) 3 3
x+

(u) (w)

2(2m 5)2
2(2x 3) 4(3x + 4)

(v) (x)

(3x 2y)(5x + y) (

1 2

1 1 )( 3 4

x + 3)

(y) (aa) (cc) (ee) (gg)

(p 5)(p + 6) (p + 5)(p + 2) 3(m + 4)(3m 2) + (2m + 3)(2m 1) (2h + 3 )(2h 3) 4(h 5)(h 3) (x 3)(x + 2)(x 1) (2x- 3)(x 2)(x + 1)

(z) (bb) (dd) (ff)

(x + 2)(x2 + 4x + 4) ( x + 2)(x2 2x + 4) (x y)(x2 + xy + y2) (x 3)(x2 + 3x + 9)

(hh) (x +

1 2 ) 3

5.

Determine the area (in terms of x) of the following : (a) Area of rectangle 2x + 3 x-1

(b) Area of square 2x +7

(c) (i)

Area of triangles (ii)

2x + 6

2x +3

2x - 3 2x + 10

(iii)

x+2

3x Frame (x + 10) cm

6. A photo is in a frame with a border of 1 cm. Determine the area of the photo (in terms of x).

(x + 5) cm

7. A garden (rectangular shape) has a lawn, bordered on two sides by flowerbeds. lawn x flowerbeds 6m

x 9m Determine the area of lawn in terms of x. 8. Determine the volume (in terms of x) of the following : Cube Rectangular prism

(x + 3) cm

(x + 2) cm

(x + 2) cm (x + 5) cm

9. Karabo does not have a calculator and has to find the value of the following expression: (a) 20082 + 2009 2007 2006 2010 2016 2000 (Hint: Let 2008 = x) (b) 19998882 - 1999890 1999886 1999891 1999885 + 1999898 1999878 9

Factorising
You can do the converse by starting on the left hand side: then you write the common number with which everything is multiplied in front of the brackets: we say you take out a common factor: 6a 10 = 2(3a 5)

We get the result if 2(3a 5) = 2 3a 2 5 = 6a 10 Here the number in front of the brackets is multiplied with every term inside the brackets.

If : (x 3)(x + 2) =xx+x23x32 = x2 x 6 We want know what did we multiply to get x2 x 6. We multiplied (x 3)(x + 2) to get x2 x 6.

Products (left to right)


(x 3)(x + 2) = x2 x 6

Factorisation (right to left)

Factorisation is therefore the converse operation of finding a product. 1. What factors belong to which expression? Expression 2a 8 a2 + 2a a2 4 a2 + 5a + 4 a2 + 3a + 2 a2 16

Factors a(a + 2) (a + 4)(a + 1) (a + 2)(a + 1) 2(a 4) (a + 4)(a 4) (a + 2) (a 2)

2. What pairs of factors from Table B belong to which expressions in Table A. (If you work correctly, you will use all the factors in Table B.) Expressions x2 x 6 x2 + 9x + 14 2 x +x6 x2 9x + 14 2 x + 5x + 6 x2 + 5x 14 2 x 5x + 6 x2 5x 14 2 x + 3x + 2 x2 + 4 x + 3 2 x 3x + 2 x2 2 x 3 2 x x2 x2 4 x + 3 2 x +x2 x2 + 2 x 3 Table A Factors (x + 1) (x 1) (x + 2) (x 2) (x 2) (x + 3) (x 3) (x 7)

(x + 1) (x 1) (x + 2) (x + 2) (x 2) (x + 3) (x 3) (x + 7)

(x + 1) (x 1) (x + 2) (x + 2) (x 2) (x + 3) (x 3) (x + 7)

(x + 1) (x 1) (x + 2) (x 2) (x 2) (x + 3) (x 3) (x 7)

Table B

10

3.

Factorise completely: 3.1 4x 12 3.4 px py + y x 3.7 2x2 + 8 3.10 3.13 3.16 3.19 3.2 x(p q) + y(p q) 3.5 x2 4 3.8 x2 3x 10 3.11 12x2 + 11x + 2 x2 + 6 x + 9 a4 1 2 m2 + 8 3.14 y2 + 9 3.17 2x2 + 10x + 12 3.20 x3 x2 2x 3.3 x(a b) + y(b a) 3.6 3d2 75 3.9 3.12 x2 8x + 4 3.15 x2 7x + 6 3.18 4x2 + 8x 60

4.

The area of the rectangle in the diagram is (x2 + 3x 18 )cm . x2 + 3x 18 Determine the length and width of the rectangle in terms of x.

5.

The area of the square in the diagram is (x2 + 8x + 16) cm. x2 + 8x + 16

Determine the length of the sides of square in terms of x.

6.

The area of the triangle in the diagram is cm.

Determine the basis and height of the triangle in terms of x.

7.

The volume of the right angle prism in the diagram is (x3 + 5x2 + 4x) m3 Determine the length, width and the height of the prism in terms of x.

8.

Factorise completely:

8.1 9a2 25b2 8.2 9sin2 x 25cos2 x [ Hint : sin2 x = (sin x)2 ] 8.3 cos2 x + 3cos x + 2 9. Simplify: 9.1 9.2

11

5
(a) (c)

Algebraic fractions
1. Below are a few methods that can be used to simplify (b) (d) . Which one is wrong?

2. Learners made errors below. What did they do wrong? Rectify it. (a) (b) = (c) = = =

3. Simplify
(a) (b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

(k)

(l)

(m)

(n)

(o)

(p)

4. Simplify
(a)

(b)

(c)
12

6
1.

Solving of linear equations


Examples: a7=3 Add 7 both sides: [a 7] + 7 = 3 + 7 a 7 + 7 = 3 + 7 a=4

Times each side by 15: [ ] [ ]

30 10y = 12 5m = 48 Divide both sides by 5: [5m] 5 = 48 5 Subtract 30 from each side: [30 10y] 30 = 12 30 10y = 18 Divide both sides by -10: m = 9,6 y = 1,8

2.1

The solutions to the equations are in the answer cloud, but there is one extra answer. Find the extra answer and write an equation to match it.

2 2a + 5 = 17 3b 5 = 10 4c 1 = -13 3 6 -3 -4

5d + 2 = - 18 -6e 3 = - 15 -12f + 4 = -8

2.2

Select any TWO of your above solutions and check if they are correct.

3.

Find the length of each side in the two shapes: 7y 5x 3x 3x 2x 10 cm Perimeter = 62 cm 4y Perimeter = 260 mm 13 2y 6y

4.

Solve for x and discuss the three solutions: A. B. C. 7(x 2) = 4x 14 + 3x 7(x 2) = x 3 7(x 2) = (x + 1)2 + 5x

5. 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.7 5.9

Determine the values of the unknowns in the following equations: 2x = 6 0,5q = 6 m + 7 = 3m 15 7(2x + 1) = 5 4(2x 3) 5(x 2) (8x + 8) = (x - 4)3 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.8 5.10 a=6 5x 15 = 3x 7 x + 5 = 14 2(b 2) (b 1) = 2b 2 (4p 3) (3p 4) = (7p 6) (4p 3)

6.

What is wrong? Why? 3a 5 = 7 3a = 12 a=-4 (x + 1) = 12 3: 2 ( 3x + 3) = 36 5y = 8 y= q1= q 6: 3 q 1 = 4q

7.

Determine the values of the unknowns in the following equations:

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7


8.

2(x + 4)2 = (x + 1)2 + x(x + 1) + (x + 1) (x 3) = 5 = = x

=3 +1=0
The marked sides are equal. The longest side is four times the length of one of the equal sides. The perimeter of the shape is 150 mm. Find the length of the longest side and the area of the shape. a

35 mm

14

7
1.

Linear inequalities
Match the sign(A) to the correct description(B).

A B

= Is greater than

< Is less or equal to

> Is equal to Is less than Is greater than or equal to

2.

Write in maths language:

You are not allowed to drive faster than 80 km per hour!

You must be taller than 1,5m to enter.

For readers younger than 10 years.

Price = R35

3.

Match the description (C) to the correct number line (D):

C D

x=-2

x<-2

x>-2

-2

-2

-2 4.1 Complete the table:

-2

-2

-2

-2

+ 3 on both sides -4 on both sides 5 on both sides -6 on both sides !!! - 1 on both sides !!!

2<5 2+3 ? 5+3 5<8

-2 -2 4 -6

5 54 1

-5

-2

-2

5 -5 -6 30 -2 -6

5 25

-2 5 -10

4.2

What do you notice?

15

5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

Solve the following inequalities: 2x < 8 a 6 2x 4 x > 8 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 m + 4 > 10 3k + 5 7 7m 9 4m + 13 3(2h + 5) 3(3h + 5) > 10 19

6.1 6.2

Represent each solution to Question 5 on a number line if x R. What will change if x N (natural numbers) or x Z (integers)?

7.

Write in maths language:

Free entry for adults over 50 and children under 7. Socks for children from 3 to 5 years old.

Only taxis between 6 en 9 a.m.

Mass is more than 3kg, but not more than 5kg.

8. C D

Match the descriptions (C) to the correct number lines (D): 4<x<7 or : ( 4; 7 ) 4x7 or: [ 4; 7 ] 4 < x 7 or: ( 4; 7 ] 4 x < 7 or: [ 4; 7 )

-4

-4

-4

-4

9. 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6

Solve the following inequalities: 10 < 5a < 25 9 < 3a < 21 14 7a 49 7 2a + 1 < 10 1 < a 3 < 1 4 < 8

10.

Represent each solution to Question 9 on a number line if a

R.

16

8
1.

Straight lines
Fill in the missing coordinates:

2. 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Write in your own words what you notice. Match Column B to column A: Column A Equation of the y-axis Equation of a line parallel to the y-axis Equation of the x-axis Equation of a line parallel to the x-axis

Column B P. x = k (k is a number) Q. y=0 R. y = c (c is a number) S. x=0

4.

Make sketches of the following lines on the same system of axes. (Remember to write down the equation of each line.) x=4 y=-3 x + 1 = 0y 2 = 0 x + 3 = 4 1

5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 5.2 5.3 5.4

Write down the equation of: AB BC DC AD Write down the coordinates of A, B, C and D. Write down the length of each line segment. Calculate the area of the figure.

17

6. A.

EXAMPLES OF STRAIGHT LINES: 2y + 5x + 10 = 0 To find the y-intercept, let x = 0 (Why?!?) 2y + 5(0) + 10 = 0 2y = 10 y = 5 (0; 5)

To find the x-intercept, let y = 0 (Why?!?) 2(0) + 5x + 10 = 0 5x = 10 x = 2 (2; 0)

B.

y 4x = 0 To find the y-intercept, let ______ (0; ___) To find the ________the x-intercept, let y = 0 (___; 0)

What next ???

Select any value for x and calculate the coordinates of a point that is on the line, e.g. if x = 1, then?

7.

Two special lines:

7.1 7.2 7.3 8. 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6

Fill in the missing coordinates. What is the size of the angle that is formed between the positive x-axis and the line? What is the equation of each line? Make sketches of the following straight lines: show all calculations and clearly indicate intercepts with axes. 3y 2x = 12 y=x 3y + 2x = 0 2y 6 = 0 5y + 4x 15 = 0 3x = 9 18 8.7 8.8 2y + 2x = 0 5y + 4x +20 = 0

The theorem of Pythagoras

Warming up 1-2-3! 1. Completing: (5) (5) = (5) (5) = Thus: if x2 = 25 then x = +5 OR x = 5

(7) ( 7 ) = ( ___ ) ( 7) = 49 Thus: if y2 = ____ then y = +7 OR y = ____

(1) (1) = ( 1 ) ( ____ ) = 1 Thus: if a2 = 1 then a = _____ OR a = 1

( )( )= ( )( )=

Thus: if p2 = then p =___ OR p = ___

2. Complete: ( ) ( ) =( 3) ( 3) =9 Thus: ( ) = 17 ; (

= ____ = 81

____

= ____ . ____ = ____ = ____

) = ____ ;

3. The sum of the three interior angles of a triangle is _____ In any triangle the longest side is always opposite the

_______ angle and the ________ side is opposite the smallest angle. In a right angled triangle the biggest angle is equal to _____ . The side opposite this angle is named the __________ and it is always the _______________ side of the triangle.

The theorem of Pythagoras In ABC with = 90 : c2 = a2 + b2


Examples:

Given: a = 24; b = 7 c2 = a2 + b2 (Pyth) = (24)2 + (7)2 = 576 + 49 = 625 c= = 25 (c > 0) (Why is c > 0?)

B c2 a2 A b
2

Given : c = 14; b = 5 c2 = a2 + b2 (Pyth) (14)2 = (a)2 + (5)2 196 = a2 + 25 196 25 = a2 171 = a2 a= = 13,08 (a > 0) (Why is a > 0?)

19

4. Answer the following two questions for each of the triangles: (a) Which side is the hypotenuse? (b) What is the missing length (in cm)?

4.1 A 4 B 3 4.5 A
61

4.2

4.3 15

D 8 F E

4.4 K 2,5 L 0,7 M K 4.8 ABCD is 'n rhombus. DE = 20 EC = 21 D


15

13
Q 4.6 R E

P 6

3 4 R

Q P

4.7 C
40 9

F E

9C D

E B

11 C

60

S R

4.

The antenna is situated next to the Klipheuwelroad between Stellenbosch and Malmesbury. At heights of 11m, 22m, 33m and 44 m there are THREE steel cables attached to the antennae to keep it vertical. (Only TWO sets of cables can be seen on the photo.) Make use of the information in the Side View and calculate: the total length of steel cable necessary to keep the antenna vertical. the total cost if the price of steel cable is R350 per meter.

4.1 4.2

SIDE VIEW
44 m A

33m C
22 m 11 m

55m

D F O
20m

20