You are on page 1of 87

ITA/AITES

ITA/AITES Training Course TUNNEL ENGINEERING


EXECUTION OF IMMERSED TUNNELS AND RELEVANT EXAMPLES
Prepared by J.B.M. Admiraal Istanbul - 2005

7 May 2005

1/87

1
Introduction and Overview

Index

2
Execution of Immersed Tunnels

3
Design Considerations

4
Lessons Learned and Special Cases

Conclusions and References


Execution of Immersed Tunnels and Relevant Examples

2/87

1 2 3 4 5

Introduction and Overview

Execution of Immersed Tunnels and Relevant Examples

3/87

KLAARTJE 45

DUTCH TULIP FIELDS

WINDMILLS KINDERDIJK

DEVELOPMENT

1944: Maastunnel

2003: Calandtunnel

IMMERSED TUNNELS IN EUROPE


29 3 1 2 3 3 5 2

1 1

1 2 3 4 5

Execution of Immersed Tunnels

Basic Principle

Execution of Immersed Tunnels and Relevant Examples

9/87

1 2 3 4 5

Execution of Immersed Tunnels

Production of Tunnel Elements

Execution of Immersed Tunnels and Relevant Examples

10/87

CASTING BASIN BARENDRECHT (NL)

CASTING BASIN BARENDRECHT (NL)

CASTING BASIN BARENDRECHT (NL)

PRODUCTION WITH TEMPORARY STORAGE (G)

PRODUCTION WITH TEMPORARY STORAGE (G)

USE OF DRY DOCK FACILITY (NL)

ELEMENT CASTING

PRODUCTION FACILITY

PRODUCTION FACILITY

1 2 3 4 5

Execution of Immersed Tunnels

Construction Details

Execution of Immersed Tunnels and Relevant Examples

20/87

IMMERSION JOINT

BULKHEAD OUTSIDE VIEW

Air- vent pipe Door Nose Ballast-water pipes Gina

BALLAST TANKS
Bulkhead

Intake ballast water

Ballast tank

ACCESS SHAFT

Door

A view inside the access shaft

Closing the door

SURVEY POLE
Sensor

PROTECTION GINA SEAL

FLOODING OF THE BASIN

1 2 3 4 5

Execution of Immersed Tunnels

Transport

Execution of Immersed Tunnels and Relevant Examples

28/87

TRANSPORT

TRANSPORT

Unit

Tugboat

Crane barge

TRANSPORT

NAVIGATION

Automated system by DGPS

Buoys

Visual navigation using buoys

1 2 3 4 5

Execution of Immersed Tunnels

Immersing

Execution of Immersed Tunnels and Relevant Examples

33/87

IMMERSION PRINCIPLE

IMMERSION - OVERVIEW

Access shaft

Survey pole

Pontoon Head winch Cables

IMMERSION JOINT
Omega-seal Nose Bulkhead Gina-seal

Chin

End frame

HORIZONTAL POSITIONING

Bank winch

Pulley-block

Gemini buoy

Floating winch

Cables 100 tons bollard

VERTICAL POSITIONING

Pontoon

Crane barge and spreader

Suspended cables

Lifting lugs

SURVEY SCREEN

Movement of the unit

IMMERSION PONTOON

PLACING PONTOON ON ELEMENT

IMMERSION USING CRANE BARGE

COMBINING CRANE BARGE & PONTOON

Crane barge

Pontoon

IMMERSION WITH FLOATING DERRICKS

EQUIPMENT

Anchor handling vessel

Winch on pontoon

Winch on bank

Winch pontoon on water

IMMERSION LINE
Nose Survey pole

Chin Ballast-tank

Bottom

NOSE & CHIN DETAIL

Nose

Chin

1 2 3 4 5

Execution of Immersed Tunnels

Foundation

Execution of Immersed Tunnels and Relevant Examples

48/87

TEMPORARY FOUNDATION

TEMPORARY FOUNDATION
A. Jacks B. Concrete slabs

TEMPORARY FOUNDATION

200 tons hydraulic jack

SAND FLOW METHOD


A C D B
a sand pumping device b sand supply barge c pipeline d cast-in sand supply pipe

SANDJETTING METHOD

SAND SUPPLY SUCTION UNIT

GRAVEL BED METHOD

tolerance +/_ 25 mm resund Tunnel 2nd Benelux Tunnel

GRAVEL BED METHOD

Gravel bed lay-out

The principle of scrading

Multi-Purpose Pontoon

PILE FOUNDATION

Transit box Rubber cuff Head plate Revolving pile cover Pile

1 2 3 4 5

Execution of Immersed Tunnels

Secondary End Correction

Execution of Immersed Tunnels and Relevant Examples

58/87

SECONDARY END CORRECTION

Immersion joint

Shim plate Flat jack Iron pipe

1 2 3 4 5

Execution of Immersed Tunnels

Closure-Joint

Execution of Immersed Tunnels and Relevant Examples

60/87

CLOSURE JOINT PRINCIPLE

FLOOR PANEL

SIDE PANELS

Wedges

1 2 3 4 5

Design Considerations

Execution of Immersed Tunnels and Relevant Examples

64/87

PRO & CONS


Shallow position Short rampstructures Perfect fit to traffic enveloppe Cost effective Proven technology Risk control Investment low

DESIGN LIMITATIONS Deepest tunnel up to now: -25 m water depth (to bottom of tunnel) Two tunnels are in design for depth upto -50 m:
Bosphorus Turkey Busan Geoje Link - Korea

LIMITING FACTORS Strength Water tightness Dredging/excavation of trench Immersion process

1 2 3 4 5

Lessons Learned and Special Cases

Execution of Immersed Tunnels and Relevant Examples

68/87

1 2 3 4 5

Lessons Learned and Special Cases

Lessons Learned

Execution of Immersed Tunnels and Relevant Examples

69/87

THING THAT CAN GO WRONG


Water splashing out of the Inspection shaft

THINGS THAT CAN GO WRONG

Nose Jamming Chin

THINGS THAT CAN GO WRONG

GINA OUT OFF CLAMP STRIP

1 2 3 4 5

Lessons Learned and Special Cases

CASE HSL

Execution of Immersed Tunnels and Relevant Examples

73/87

CASE HIGH SPEED LINK High speed rail link between Amsterdam and Paris Two immersed tunnels in alignment Severe tolerances because of high speed requirement

TWO IMMERSED TUNNELS

DESIGN REQUIREMENT
An Allowable Differential Deformation Between the Elements Due To Train Loads of 0.75 mm

TUNNEL OUDE MAAS (JUNE 2003)

TUNNEL DORDTSCHE KIL (JUNE 2003)

TRANSITION CUT & COVER IMMERSED

TUNNEL PROFILE

DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT REDUCTION

DOWELS BETWEEN ELEMENTS

DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT REDUCTION

DOWELS - FEMALE

FINISHED CONCRETE DOWEL

Bearing

Male Side Bearing

Female Side

IMMERSING OUDE MAAS TUNNEL

OTHER ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

Sliding Plate

17700

9980

14000

Soil Shaft Internal 8.3 m

Airshaft Internal 5.3 m

1 2 3 4 5

Conclusions and references


Admiraal, J.B.M. 2003. An Exploration of Contemporary Underground Space Use. Proceeding of the First Indonesian Tunnelling Conference, Jakarta, Indonesia. Gursoy, A. et al. 1997. State-Of-The-Art-Report: ITA WG11 - Immersed and Floating Tunnels. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 12(2). Geel, J.W.A. and Hakkaart, C.J.A.. 2003. Immersed Tunnels in the High Speed Railway Link in the Netherlands. Proceedings ITA WTC 2003 (Re)claiming the Underground Space: 265. Hakkaart, C.J.A. and t Hart, W. 2003. Dutch High Speed Railway Immersed Tunnel Projects. Proceedings ITA WTC 2003 (Re)claiming the Underground Space: 291. Material provided by: Volker Stevin Construction Europe, HSL Bouwcombinatie Drechtse Steden, TEC Tunnel Engineering Consultants, Department of Public Works and Water Management Civil Engineering Division.

Execution of Immersed Tunnels and Relevant Examples

86/87

ITA/AITES

Clause de non-responsabilit pour les rapports des groupes de travail de l'AITES


LAssociation Internationale des Travaux en Souterrain (AITES) publie ce rapport, conformment ses Statuts, pour faciliter les changes dinformations afin : dencourager lutilisation du sous-sol au profit du grand public, de lenvironnement et du dveloppement durable; de promouvoir les progrs dans la planification, le projet, la construction, lentretien, la rhabilitation et la scurit des tunnels et de lespace souterrain en rassemblant et confrontant les informations, ainsi quen tudiant les questions qui sy rapportent. Cependant, lAITES dcline toute responsabilit en ce qui concerne les informations publies dans ce rapport. Ces informations : sont exclusivement de nature gnrale et ne visent pas la situation particulire dune personne physique ou morale; ne sont pas ncessairement compltes, exhaustives, exactes ou jour ; proviennent parfois de sources extrieures sue lesquelles les services de lAITES nont aucun contrle et pour lesquelles lAITES dcline toute responsabilit ; ne constituent pas un avis professionnel or juridique (si vous avez besoin davis spcifiques, consultez toujours un professionnel dment qualifi).

Disclaimer for the reports of ITA working groups


The International Tunnelling Association (ITA) publishes this report to, in accordance with its statutes, facilitate the exchange of information, in order: to encourage planning of the subsurface for the benefit of the public, environment and sustainable development to promote advances in planning, design, construction, maintenance and safety of tunnels and underground space, by bringing together information thereon and by studying questions related thereto. However ITA accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to the material published in this report. This material is: information of a general nature only, which is not intended to address the specific circumstances of any particular individual or entity; not necessarily comprehensive, complete, accurate or up to date; sometimes collected from external sources over which ITA services have no control and for which ITA assumes no responsibility; not professional or legal advice (if you need specific advice, you should always consult a suitably qualified professional).

87/87