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2012 Fabian Kung

April 2012

Genesys 2012 Tutorial - Using Momentum Analysis for Microwave Planar Circuits
Create the following schematics in Figure 1 with Genesyss schematic editor which depicts two sections of a cascaded microstrip line circuit! Add a substrate called this Substrate1 and assign this to the microstrip "#$"% property! %he "ubstrate1 properties are shown in Figure 2 and are based on standard &2mils '1!()mm* thic+ F,- substrate with 1 ounce copper layers on top and bottom sides! "ince the widths of the microstrip trace sections are different we need to set the impedance of Port 1 and Port 2 to reflect the characteristic impedance of the respecti.e microstrip sections! %he impedance can be easily obtained from standard microstrip design e/uations! 0otice we name this schematic as 12icrostrip3Circuit!
0ote the impedance which correspond to the characteristic impedance of the microstrip sections

Port_1 ZO=73

TL1 W=1.4mm L=20mm SUBST='Substrate1

TL2 W=3.0mm L=20mm SUBST='Substrate1

Port_2 ZO=50

!igure 1 4 2icrostrip step discontinuity schematic!

!igure 2 4 "ubstrate1 properties and the 5or+space %ree after creating the schematic! 0ow generate a layout corresponding to the schematic there are a number of ways to do this refer to Genesys tutorial .ideos for instance by right6clic+ on the status bar of the schematic window we can select Add Layout from the conte7t menu! 8ou can also in.o+e the command Connect Selected Parts under the Layout menu to automatically connect the components in the layout window! %he layout window is shown in Figure 9A!

2012 Fabian Kung

April 2012

5e can .isuali:e our model as a 9; system bounded by & faces! $y default Genesys 2omentum treats the side boundaries as unbounded continuation of the layer stac+6up with the top and bottom boundaries as air 'see Figure 9A*! 5e can change the top and bottom boundaries setting in the layer properties but not the sidewalls!

%hese are treated as unbounded by default

!igure "A 4 %he layout generated from the schematic!


%>1

=ort31 "tep discontinuity %>2 =ort32

!igure "# 4 <oomed .iew of the layout!

2012 Fabian Kung

April 2012

Clic+ on the Layout Layout Properties command to in.o+e the $A%&UT Pro'erties window 'see Figure -*

%he .ia in Genesys layout will connect these metal layers! 5e are not using .ia so this is not important!

!igure ( 4 %he >ayout =roperties %ab? General! 0ow we are going to edit the properties of each layer in the model to reflect the layer stac+ing and boundaries as shown in Figure (!
B7tends to infinity Air %A= Conductor "ubstrate1 $ottom Co.er '=BC*
2odel ;omain

#nbounded =lanes

!igure ) 4 %he layer stac+ing from our microstrip circuit! @n $A%&UT Pro'erties window first select the $ayer tab ma+e sure to clic+ the Show All chec+bo7! "et the property as shown in Figure &A! 0ote that we are not using the $A%%A2 layer so its Use property is unchec+ed! "lide to the right to see more properties and again set the layer properties as shown in Figure &$ and Figure &C!

2012 Fabian Kung

April 2012

;efault is strip use 1"lot when a port is a slot line this affects the way line integration is performed to find .oltage from + field!

Chec+ this to show all layer properties

1%op Co.er and 1$ottom Co.er will always be used!

5e will be using 1Air %A= 2B%A> "#$"%,A%B and 1$ottom Co.er only!

!igure *A 4 "etting layer properties part 1!


Ceight is not used if 1%op Co.er is set to 1Apen 1%op Co.er needs to be set to 1Apen to indicate infinite air layer

1$ottom Co.er set to 1>ossless to indicate it is =BC and used as G0; plane!

!igure *# 4 "etting layer properties part 2!

2012 Fabian Kung

April 2012

0ormal? Blectric current flows in D8 direction for thin metal! %his is used with 9; B2 sol.er!

=orts potential reference refers to the nearest metal layer below %A= 2B%A>

!igure *C 4 "etting layer properties part 9! 0ow add a 2omentum analysis! %he settings of the 2omentum analysis are shown in Figure )A and Figure )$! Figure )A shows the General settings! Cere we sweep from 100 2C: to 9000 2C:! "ince B2 analysis re/uires more memory and is computationally more comple7 than circuit analysis the 2omentum analysis engine only analysis 2( fre/uency points between 100 2C: and 9000 2C:! %he fre/uency points are not uniform and are chosen using Adapti.e Fre/uency "weep method! @nterpolation is used to estimate the results if we wish finer fre/uency co.erage! 5e can disable this by unchec+ing the Use EM Simulation Frequencies chec+bo7 as shown in Figure )A as we wish to compare the results point6by6point with circuit analysis! 0ote that in Figure )$ we lea.e the #se $o7 chec+bo7 unchec+ed! @f we set the %op and $ottom Co.ers in the $ayer Pro'erties as =BC or physical conductor we need to chec+ this chec+bo7! %his will simulate the effect of ha.ing a shield on top or bottom of the model!

2012 Fabian Kung

April 2012

Chec+ this if we need to use the sweep results from B2 simulation unchec+ this if we want to ma+e point6to6point comparison with simulated results from circuit simulation 'li+e >inear Analysis* "ettings for B2 simulation sweep points!

!igure ,A 4 "ettings for 2omentum Analysis part 1!

#se $o7? #se the settings for %op and $ottom settings in $ayer Pro'erties as the top and bottom sidewalls! "ince the %op Co.er is set to 1Apen we will lea.e this unchec+ed to pre.ent error during computation!

,F? #sing first order appro7imation for the comple7 e7ponent function in the Greens Function!

#se %> calculation? @nstead of using the impedance <o specific for =ort31 and =ort32 in the schematic the <o is computed based on the transmission line cross sections on the ports! Cere it is not important as we ha.e manually set <o of the ports to correct .alues in the schematic!

Eia model? >umped 4 probably as an inductor! 1; 4 probably use line current! 2; 4 probably assume a few line currents in parallel! 9; 4 current flow allows in 9 a7es!

!igure ,# 4 "ettings for 2omentum Analysis part 2!

&

2012 Fabian Kung

April 2012

!igure - 4 %he wor+space tree after adding a 2omentum Analysis and running it! Figure F shows the mesh appears on the conducting layer after completing the 2omentum Analysis! %he G"21G and G"11G are plotted in Figure 10! 5e also perform a >inear Analysis using the schematic and Figure 11 shows the comparison of the results between B2 'e!g! 2omentum* analysis and circuit theory analysis!

!igure . 4 %he mesh on the microstrip line circuit!

2012 Fabian Kung

April 2012

!igure 10 4 %he mesh 2omentum Analysis results!

!igure 11 4 Comparison between 2omentum and >inear Analysis 'in long dash*!

2012 Fabian Kung

April 2012

A''en/i0 1 2an/ling Stri'$ine Circuits


For strip line circuit we re/uire two conducting planes! %his is illustrated in Figure A1 where we use %A= 2B%A> and $ottom Co.er as the conducting planes! %he stripline is implemented in @00B, 2B%A> layer! Cere we use the layout model without a corresponding schematics since the .ias interconnecting the %A= 2B%A> and $ottom Co.er are essentially a 9; structure with no e/ui.alent schematics! %here are now two substrate layers and the layer stac+ing and properties are shown in Figure A2!

!igure A1 4 %he layout .iew of a simple strip line circuit with two ports!

#se these to introduce new layer and arrange the stac+6up

!igure A2 4 %he layer stac+ing and properties!

2012 Fabian Kung

April 2012

Furthermore since the .ia is suppose to connect the %A= 2B%A> and $ottom Co.er the Default Viahole Layers are set as shown in Figure A9!

!igure A" 4 "etting the connecti.ity of the model .ia! %he Simulation ptions ta! in the 2omentum Analysis Aptions is depicted in Figure A-! %a+e note that we chec+ the "nclude #L Calculation chec+bo7 to compute the characteristic impedance <o of the stripline trace from B2 fields of the trace cross section! %he 2omentum generated results are shown in Figure A(!

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2012 Fabian Kung

April 2012

%a+e noteI

!igure A( 4 "etting the 2omentum Analysis options!

,esonance due to .ias and planes

!igure A) 4 %he meshed layout and the 2omentum produced "6parameters from 16) GC:!

0A%B? @f we did not chec+ the the "nclude #L Calculation chec+bo7 we get the wrong "6parameters and e.en non6physical results i!e! the "6matri7 shows power gain for a passi.e circuit!

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