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Conceptual frame work

Presented by
Prof. Dorothy Deena Theodore Principal Narayana Hrudayalaya College of Nursing Bangalore SYS-1 2/17/2012

Introduction Every systematic problem solving has a plan that is systematically thought out for implementation. So also if a study needs to be good it must have a high degree of conceptual integration. This is a logical structure that makes the study meaningful. They are usually used in quantitative designs but may also be used in Meaning Concept A concept is an image or symbolic representation of an abstract idea. Chinn and Kramer ( !!!" define a concept as a #comple$ mental formulation of e$perience%.

Conceptual framework &t is the researcher's o(n position on the problem and gives direction to the study. &t is a set of assumptions) values) and definitions under (hich a group of people or an individual (orks. A set of coherent ideas put together in a manner that is that can communicate better an abstract idea. *rgani+ed (ay of thinking ho( and (hy a pro,ect takes place and ho( (e understand its activity &t is the basis for thinking about (hat (e do and (hat it means and is influenced by the ideas and research of others &t is an overvie( of thoughts and ideas of ho( a research program plans to proceed. According to -iles and .uberman) ( !!/" A conceptual frame (ork is a (ritten or visual presentation that e$plains either graphically) or in narrative form) the main things to be studied 0 the key factors) concepts or variables and the presumed relationship among them%. The terms conceptual frame (ork) theoretical frame (ork) theories and conceptual models are used interchangeably. 1ut they have subtle differences therefore the table belo( briefly e$plains the differences 2ifference bet(een conceptual frame(ork and theoretical frame (ork) theories and conceptual model Aspects -eaning Conceptual framework the researcher's idea on ho( the Theoretical framework is a theory that serves as a basis Theory A theory consists of an interrelated) Conceptual model Set of highly abstract related

Scope

research problem (ill have to be e$plored embodies the specific direction by (hich the research (ill have to be undertaken. Specific for the study alone

for conducting research provides a general representation of relationships bet(een concepts in a given phenomenon broader scope

coherent set of ideas and models. 3ursing practice 3ursing education 4uide research 3ursing consultation 3ursing administration. 2escribes a broader relationship bet(een concepts.

constructs. that broadly e$plains a phenomena. E$plaining the phenomena of interest broadly

5urpose

7ormulation

describes the relationship bet(een specific variables identified in the study outlines the input) process and output of the (hole investigation cite your conceptual frame(ork or paradigm8 &dentify your variables8 5oint out the dependent and intervening variables8 Sho( the direction of the study.

6ready made map6 for other scientists to guide their o(n research questions.

provide a conceptual perspective regarding interrelated phenomena

specifies the theory used as basis for the study mentions the proponents of the theory cites the main points emphasi+ed in the theory Supports his e$position of the theory by ideas from other e$perts8 illustrates his theoretical frame(ork by means of a diagram8 and)

Conceptual models that are empirically tested and validated

9oosely structured and do not link concepts. :eflects the assumptions and philosophical vie(s of the model designer. 1uilt inductively from observations made from previous research

*utcome

&s a theory in the making. ;et to be tested and confirmed

reiterates his theoretical proposition in the study. 1ased on established theory that has been tested for its fit in the current study.

E$plain 2escribe 5redict 5rescribe

.elp e$press abstract ideas in a more understandable form.

Purposes Aims Uses In quantitative studies -5rovides the structure<content for the (hole study based on literature and personal e$perience in the planning phase of the study. The aim of a conceptual frame (ork is to provide the structure<content for the (hole study based on literature and personal e$perience help the researcher to e$plain (hy (e are doing a pro,ect in a particular (ay &t helps the researcher see clearly the variables of the study8 &t can provide him (ith a general frame(ork for data analysis8 4ives direction to the research methodology sho(ing the direction of the study &t is essential in preparing a research proposal using descriptive and e$perimental methods. sho( the relationships of the different constructs that the researcher (ants to investigate.

In qualitative studies -Conceptual frame(ork develops as participants' vie(s and issues are gathered and analysed in the analysis and interpretation phase of the study. .ere the conceptual frame (ork is emergent and is the the end result of the study. Conceptual frame (ork can also be confirmatory (hen :esearchers generally have some idea of (hat (ill the study may involve a tentative rudimentary conceptual frame(ork is developed. The

study then tests and confirms) builds upon the rudimentary conceptual frame (ork or disapprove it. Components of conceptual frame work The components of any conceptual frame (ork are as follo(s= Concepts :elationship Statement hierarchy

Concepts/Variables - based on the degree of abstractness of a term they may be termed as

construct) concept or variable. A construct is something having a general meaning e$ample 0 cognitive response is the construct for memory. The concept as defined previously is the mental image or a term used (hich is still abstract but of a lesser degree than the construct the concept here is memory. 7rom the concept the more concrete level is a variable. this has a narro( definition and is measurable. &n the e$ample recall is the variable. elationship > is also called a relational statement. This declares that a relationship of some kind e$ists bet(een or among t(o or more concepts. This forms the centre of the conceptual frame (ork. The statement of relationship made in one's study (ill determine the o *b,ectives) question or hypothesis o Study design o Statistical analysis o 7indings *ne statement may have several of the characteristics and is not restricted of the other. &n terms of relationship bet(een ob,ectives) characteristics) elements) assumptions) principles) and constraints According to 1urns and 4rove (?@@!" Characteristics of the relational statement may be as follo(s 2irection 0 these are a course along (hich someone or something moves. The direction of a relationship may be o 5ositive). The positive linear relation implies that one concept chances the other by increasing or decreasing eg As increased no of cigarettes smoked increased chance of lung cancer. + A B o 3egative >means (hen one concept changes the other changes in the opposite direction. Eg as levels of an$iety increase level of rela$ation decreases. A B

o Ankno(n 0if a relation is e$pected but the direction unkno(n then it is mentioned in the follo(ing manner.
?

Shape the shape is based on statistics. -ost of the time it is considered to be linear. .ere as one concept increases the other also increases or decreases in proportion. it can also be curvilinear here the relationship bet(een t(o concepts varies according to the relative values of the concepts. E$ample as the levels of intellegence varies adaptation also varies. 5oor intelligence and genius have problems (ith adaptation (hile moderate and normal intelligence adapt (ell

9inear shape

Curvilinear shape

Symmetry 0 relation may be symmetrical or asymmetrical o in symmetrical there are ? statements that is= if A occurs 1 (ill occur. &f 1 occurs A (ill occur. This is sho(n as follo(s8 A 1 o &f it is asymmetrical it is only one statement this if A occurs 1 (ill occur. 1ut it cannot be t(o (ays then it is presented as follo(s A 1

Sequencing 0 here time is taken into consideration. .ere t(o concepts can occur in t(o (ays o .appen simultaneously or concurrently o *ne after another or sequentially Concurrent relationship is sho(n one belo( the other as

A 1 Sequential relationship is presented as follo(s A 1

5robability of occurrence> a relationship can be deterministic or probabilistic. This is dependent on the degree of certainty that it (ill occur. These statements are tested statistically to determine the probability. The symbol used is p is used along (ith the symbols greater than B or less than C eg pB@.@D o 2eterministic are of ? types they are= a causal relationship 0 that (ill al(ays happen eg. if A then always ! a tendency statement 0 describes (hat happen if no conditions interfere. This presented as if A the al(ays 1 if no conditions interfere o 5robability statement > e$presses the probability that something (ill happen. The relation is mentioned as follo(s If A" then pro#a#ly ! 3ecessity > in a necessity relationship can be of ? types. They are= o 3ecessary relationship > here one concept must occur in order for the other concept to occur. The relationship is presented in the frame(ork as follo(s= If A and only A" then ! o Substitutable relationship 0 her a similar concept can be substituted for the first concept and the second concept (ill still occur. This is e$pressed as= If A$ or if A%" then ! Sufficiency 0 this again is of ? types they are o Sufficient relationship 0 states that (hen one concept occurs) the second concept (ill occur regardless of the presence or absence of other factors. This is e$pressed as= if A) then 1) regardless of anything else. o Contingent relationship 0 this occurs only if a third concept (intervening variable<concept"is present. Therefore the relationship is stated as follo(s A C 1

&tatement hierarchy Statements about the same t(o conceptual ideas may be made at various levels of abstractness. They are as follo(s= o 4eneral proposition 0 found in conceptual model. o Specific proposition 0 used in theories o .ypothesis Inputs needed for developing a conceptual frame work The e$periential kno(ledge of student and supervisor=

Technical kno(ledge. :esearch background. 5ersonal e$perience. 2ata (particularly for qualitative". 4ood 9iterature revie( focusing on the follo(ing topics= 5rior Erelated' theory 0 concepts and relationships that are used to represent the (orld) (hat is happening and (hy. 5rior Erelated' research 0 ho( people have tackled Esimilar' problems and (hat they have learned. *ther theory and research > approaches) lines of investigation and theory that are not obviously relevant<previously used. 'ormulating a conceptual frame work The pieces of the conceptual frame(ork are borro(ed but the researcher provides the structure. To develop the structure the researcher should &dentify the variables involved in the study and defining it > these are the key elements of the study. This may be done by asking the follo(ing questions E(ho') E(hat') E(here') E(hen') Eho(' and E(hy'. 1rain storming may also be used as a method of identifying the key concepts and the solutions by generating ideas. These terms may have come up quite often during the literature revie(. They include the independent) dependent and sometimes the e$traneous and intervening variables. Take one variable at a time and study it in detail. 7ocus on the content and the interrelationships. These concepts are selected on the basis of their relevance to the phenomena being studied. Therefore it is taken from the problem statement (hich describes the phenomena. Every ma,or variable included in the study should reflect a concept included in the frame(ork. Fhile incorporating the elements <concepts<variables consider their implication for the study design. Each concept included should be defined conceptually use appropriate conceptual definition and then associate if (ith the operational definition (ho( it is to be measured. 5oint out the dependent and intervening variables and developing relational statement8 > these dependent independent and intervening variables should be clearly stated in the form of both conceptual and operational definition) and identified as the type of variable. 2eveloping the relational statement includes linking the concepts. This may be obtained from theoretical (orks. &f such statement are not available propose the relationship based on the evidence of the literature revie(ed. The steps involved in proposing or e$tracting relational statement are

o Selection of a part of the theory that proposes the relationship) bet(een the concepts studied. o Friting this do(n in one sentence o E$pressing it by means of statement diagrams o -ove to the ne$t statement and e$press it (ith diagrams o 2o the same till all statement s are included. 2eveloping hierarchical statement sets 0 this includes specific propositions and a hypothesis. &f the study includes a conceptual model it (ill also have general propositions. The steps involved here are o 5ropositions are listed first) o follo(ed by the hypothesis or research question immediately. These statements indicate the link bet(een the frame(ork and the methodology.

Sho( the direction of the study by constructing a conceptual map 0 the direction of the study may be presented in the form of flo( charts) tree diagrams) and mind maps (sho(n in the diagram". This can be done only (hen the follo(ing are available= o 5roblem and purpose statement o Concept of interest (ith definition o :esults of revie( of literature o :elational statements linking the concepts o Analysis of e$isting theories o 9inking proposed relationship (ith hypotheses) questions and ob,ectives The conceptual map may consist of only those elements studied or all concepts necessary to study the phenomena. The steps involved here are o Arranging the concepts in sequence of its occurrence or causal relationship from left to right. o *utcomes are placed on the e$treme right. o Sets of closely interrelated can be linked (ith arro(s in a manner that correlates (ith the statement diagram o Every concept should be linked to another

'low Chart - Conceptual 'rame (ork of )ursing Process in Psychiatric )ursing

Nursing history Physical assessment ental status Neurological B

Nursing diagnosis !b"ecti#es $nter#entions

Physical Psychological %ocial %piritual &amily

Tree *iagram - +,plaining the )ursing Process in Psychiatric )ursing

Mind Maps - )ursing Process in Psychiatric )ursing


Nursing process

H)o o H)H Physical )o % ( Neuro phy Psych o. %ocio .

'sses ss Plan

Nsg diag. !b". Nsg. inter#ention

$mplemen t (#aluat e

+valuation of conceptual frame works

Fhen a conceptual frame (ork is able provide the follo(ing the frame (ork is considered good8 The frame move beyond descriptions of E(hat needs to be studied' to e$planations of E(hy and ho( to study it. The frame becomes a means of e$planation used to define and make sense of the data that flo( from the research question. A means of setting out an e$planation set that might be used to define and make sense of the data that flo( from the research question. All the concepts are included and defined The frame(ork clearly portrays the phenomena The sequence is accurate The frame acts as a reference point<structure for the discussion of the literature) methodology and results

.imitations /disadvantages Conceptual frame (ork also has some limitations (hich are as follo(s= &s influenced by the e$perience and kno(ledge of the individual 0 initial bias. *nce developed (ill influence the researcher's thinking and may result in some things being given prominence and others being ignored 0 ongoing bias.

Bibliography

1. Chinn PL, Kramer MK . (1999). Theory and nursing: a systematic approach, ed 5, St Louis, , Mosby. *. iles+ . B.+ , Huberman+ . '. -.//01. Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook -*nd edition1. Be#erley Hills+ %age.

2. Burns N and 3ro#e %.4. -*55/1.The practice of nursing research appraisal, synthesis and generation of evidence issouri6 %aunders (lse#ier. 4.