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Industrial Control

Behzad Samadi
Department of Electrical Engineering Amirkabir University of Technology

Winter 2009 Tehran, Iran

Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University)

Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Outline: Set-point Weighting

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Outline: Set-point Weighting Feedforward Action

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Outline: Set-point Weighting Feedforward Action Ratio Control

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Outline: Set-point Weighting Feedforward Action Ratio Control Cascade Control

[Visioli, 2006]

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Outline: Set-point Weighting Feedforward Action Ratio Control Cascade Control Override Control

[Visioli, 2006]

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Outline: Set-point Weighting Feedforward Action Ratio Control Cascade Control Override Control Selective Control
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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Outline: Set-point Weighting Feedforward Action Ratio Control Cascade Control Override Control Selective Control Split Range Control
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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Set-point Weighting : High load disturbance rejection too oscillatory set-point step response.

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Set-point Weighting : High load disturbance rejection too oscillatory set-point step response. This is actually true especially when the apparent dead time of the process is small (with respect to the dominant time constant).

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Set-point Weighting : High load disturbance rejection too oscillatory set-point step response. This is actually true especially when the apparent dead time of the process is small (with respect to the dominant time constant). Set-point weighting for PID controllers: u (t ) = K p ( r (t ) y (t ) + 1 Ti
t

e ( )d Td
0

dy (t ) ) dt

u (t ): control signal, r (t ): reference input, y (t ): process output, e (t ): tracking error


[Visioli, 2006]

Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University)

Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Set-point Weighting: u (t ) = Kp ( r (t ) y (t ) + 1 Ti
t

e ( )d Td
0

dy (t ) ) dt

Intuitively, given a set of parameters Kp , Ti and Td , the adoption of a set-point weight < 1 allows the reduction of the overshoot in the set-point response, since the eect of the proportional action is reduced.

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Set-point Weighting: u (t ) = Kp ( r (t ) y (t ) + 1 Ti
t

e ( )d Td
0

dy (t ) ) dt

Intuitively, given a set of parameters Kp , Ti and Td , the adoption of a set-point weight < 1 allows the reduction of the overshoot in the set-point response, since the eect of the proportional action is reduced. Note that this is achieved without aecting the load disturbance rejection performance.
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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Set-point Weighting: U = Kp ( R Y + 1 E Td sY ) Ti s

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Set-point Weighting: U = Kp ( R Y + 1 E Td sY ) Ti s

U = Kp ( +

1 1 )R Kp (1 + + Td s )Y Ti s Ti s

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Set-point Weighting: U = Kp ( R Y + 1 E Td sY ) Ti s

U = Kp ( + U = Kp (1 +

1 1 )R Kp (1 + + Td s )Y Ti s Ti s

1 s + 1 1 + Td s ) R Kp (1 + + Td s )Y Ti s 1 + Ti s + Ti Td s 2 Ti s

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Set-point Weighting: U = Kp ( R Y + 1 E Td sY ) Ti s

U = Kp ( + U = Kp (1 +

1 1 )R Kp (1 + + Td s )Y Ti s Ti s

1 s + 1 1 + Td s ) R Kp (1 + + Td s )Y Ti s 1 + Ti s + Ti Td s 2 Ti s U = Kp (1 + F = 1 + Td s )(FR Y ) Ti s

s + 1 1 + Ti s + Ti Td s 2

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Set-point Weighting: u (t ) = Kp ( r (t ) y (t ) + 1 Ti
t

e ( )d Td
0

dy (t ) ) dt

C (s ) = Kp (1 + F (s ) =
[Visioli, 2006]

1 + Td s ) Ti s

1 + Ti s 1 + Ti s + Ti Td s 2

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Set-point Weighting: F (s ) = 1 + Ti s 1 + Ti s + Ti Td s 2

From another point of view, the overshoot is reduced by smoothing the set-point signal by means of the lter F .

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Set-point Weighting: F (s ) = 1 + Ti s 1 + Ti s + Ti Td s 2

From another point of view, the overshoot is reduced by smoothing the set-point signal by means of the lter F . Example: 1 e 4s 10s + 1 Ziegler-Nichols: Kp = 3, Ti = 8 and Td = 2 P (s ) =
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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Set-point Weighting:

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Feedforward Action: Set-point tracking:

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Feedforward Action: Set-point tracking:

M (s ) represents the desired performance.


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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Feedforward Action: Set-point tracking:

M (s ) represents the desired performance. (s ) G (s ) = M (s ) where tildeP (s ) is the minimum phase part of P (s ). P
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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Feedforward Action: Set-point tracking:

Y (s ) (MC + G )P = R (s ) 1 + PC (s ) = P (s ) and C (s ) = 0 then Therefore if P

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Feedforward Action: Set-point tracking:

Y (s ) (MC + G )P = R (s ) 1 + PC (s ) = P (s ) and C (s ) = 0 then Therefore if P

Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University)

Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Feedforward Action: Set-point tracking:

Y (s ) (MC + G )P = R (s ) 1 + PC (s ) = P (s ) and C (s ) = 0 then Therefore if P Y (s ) = G (s )P (s ) = M (s ) R (s )


[Visioli, 2006] Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University) Industrial Control 10 / 59

Special Control Structures


Feedforward Action: Set-point tracking:

Example: P (s ) = 1 e 5s 10s + 1 1 M (s ) = e 5s 2s + 1 10s + 1 G (s ) = 2s + 1


Industrial Control 11 / 59

[Visioli, 2006] Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University)

Special Control Structures


Feedforward Action: Disturbance rejection:

Y = PCE (s ) + (H PG )D (s )
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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Feedforward Action (disturbance rejection): H PG = 0 G =
H P

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Feedforward Action (disturbance rejection): H PG = 0 G = Example: K e Ls Ts + 1 KH H (s ) = e LH s TH s + 1 P (s ) =
H P

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Feedforward Action (disturbance rejection): H PG = 0 G = Example: K e Ls Ts + 1 KH H (s ) = e LH s TH s + 1 P (s ) = If LH = L: G (s ) = H KH Ts + 1 = P K TH s + 1
H P

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Feedforward Action (disturbance rejection): Example: K e Ls Ts + 1 KH e LH s H (s ) = TH s + 1 P (s ) = If LH = L: G (s ) =


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KH (T LH + L)s + 1 H P K TH s + 1

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Feedforward Action (disturbance rejection): Example: P (s ) = K (T1 s + 1)(T2 s + 1) KH TH s + 1

H (s ) =

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Feedforward Action (disturbance rejection): Example: P (s ) = K (T1 s + 1)(T2 s + 1) KH TH s + 1

H (s ) =

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Feedforward Action (disturbance rejection): Example: P (s ) = K (T1 s + 1)(T2 s + 1) KH TH s + 1

H (s ) = G (s ) =

H KH (T1 + T2 )s + 1 P K TH s + 1

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Heat Exchanger Process:

heatexdemo - Mathworks.com

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Heat Exchanger Process:

t 1 = 21.8 (for 28.3% of the nal value)

heatexdemo - Mathworks.com Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University) Industrial Control 17 / 59

Special Control Structures


Heat Exchanger Process:

t 1 = 21.8 (for 28.3% of the nal value) t 2 = 36.0 (for 63.2% of the nal value)

heatexdemo - Mathworks.com Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University) Industrial Control 17 / 59

Special Control Structures


Heat Exchanger Process:

t 1 = 21.8 (for 28.3% of the nal value) t 2 = 36.0 (for 63.2% of the nal value) =3 2 (t 2 t 1)
heatexdemo - Mathworks.com Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University) Industrial Control 17 / 59

Special Control Structures


Heat Exchanger Process:

t 1 = 21.8 (for 28.3% of the nal value) t 2 = 36.0 (for 63.2% of the nal value) =3 2 (t 2 t 1) = t2
heatexdemo - Mathworks.com Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University) Industrial Control 17 / 59

Special Control Structures


Heat Exchanger Process:

Gp (s ) =
heatexdemo - Mathworks.com Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University)

1 e 14.7s 23.3s + 1
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Industrial Control

Special Control Structures

Heat Exchanger Process:

Gd (s ) =
heatexdemo - Mathworks.com

1 e 35s 25s + 1

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Heat Exchanger Process:

PI controller setting using ITAE Kc = 0.859( )0.997 , Ti = ( )0.680


heatexdemo - Mathworks.com

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Heat Exchanger Process:

Kc = 1.23 (blue) and Kc = 0.9 (red) Ti = 24.56


heatexdemo - Mathworks.com Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University) Industrial Control 21 / 59

Special Control Structures


Heat Exchanger Process:

F (s ) =
heatexdemo - Mathworks.com

Gd 21.3s + 1 20.3s = e Gp 25s + 1

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Heat Exchanger Process:

heatexdemo - Mathworks.com

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Heat Exchanger Process:

heatexdemo - Mathworks.com

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Ratio Control: Keep a constant ratio between two (or more) process variables, irrespective of possible set-point changes and load disturbances.

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Special Control Structures


Ratio Control: Keep a constant ratio between two (or more) process variables, irrespective of possible set-point changes and load disturbances. Chemical dosing, water treatment, chlorination, mixing vessels and waste incinerators

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Special Control Structures


Ratio Control: Keep a constant ratio between two (or more) process variables, irrespective of possible set-point changes and load disturbances. Chemical dosing, water treatment, chlorination, mixing vessels and waste incinerators Air-to-fuel ratio for combustion systems

[Chau, 2002]
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Special Control Structures


Ratio Control: Series metered control:

The output y2 is necessarily delayed with respect to y1 , due to the closed-loop dynamics of the second loop.
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Special Control Structures


Ratio Control: Parallel metered control:

A disturbance acting on the rst process can cause a large error in the ratio value.
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Special Control Structures


Ratio Control: Cross limited control scheme:

The two loops are interlocked by using a low and a high selectors that force the fuel to follow the air ow when the set-point increases and that force the air to follow the fuel when the set-point decreases.
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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Ratio Control: Blend Station:

r2 (t ) = a( r1 (t ) + (1 )y1 (t )) Its use is suggested when no disturbances are likely to occur in the processes and when the two processes exhibit a dierent dynamics.
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Special Control Structures

Ratio Control: Modied Blend Station: P1 ( s ) = K1 K2 e L1 s , P2 (s ) = e L2 s T1 s + 1 T2 s + 1

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Ratio Control: Modied Blend Station: P1 ( s ) = K1 K2 e L1 s , P2 (s ) = e L2 s T1 s + 1 T2 s + 1 1 Ti 1 1 Ti 2


t

u1 (t ) = Kp1 r1 (t ) y1 (t ) + u2 (t ) = Kp2 r2 (t ) y2 (t ) +
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(r1 ( ) y1 ( ))d
0 t

(r2 ( ) y2 ( ))d
0

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Ratio Control: Modied Blend Station: 0 + Kp (er (t ) + if L1 > L2 and t < t0 + L1 L2 otherwise

1 Ti

t 0 er ( )d )

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Ratio Control: Modied Blend Station: 0 + Kp (er (t ) + if L1 > L2 and t < t0 + L1 L2 otherwise

1 Ti

t 0 er ( )d )

er (t ) = ay1 (t ) y2 (t )

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Ratio Control: Modied Blend Station: 0 + Kp (er (t ) + if L1 > L2 and t < t0 + L1 L2 otherwise

1 Ti

t 0 er ( )d )

er (t ) = ay1 (t ) y2 (t )

Kp 1 0.9T1 K1 L1
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Ti 1 3L1

1 0

Kp 2 0.9T2 K2 L2

Ti 2 3L2

2 0

Ti 2 Ti 1

Kp L 2 T1 0.5 T 2 L1

Tp
T1 L1

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Ratio Control: Adaptive Blend Station (Hagglund, 2001): d S = (ay1 y2 ) dt Ta

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Ratio Control: Adaptive Blend Station (Hagglund, 2001): d S = (ay1 y2 ) dt Ta Ta = 10 max{T1 , T2 }

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Ratio Control: Adaptive Blend Station (Hagglund, 2001): d S = (ay1 y2 ) dt Ta Ta = 10 max{T1 , T2 } If r1 > max{y1 , y2 /a} + eps then S = 1 Else if r1 < min{y1 , y2 /a} eps then S = 1 Else S = 0
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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Cascade Control:

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Cascade Control:

[Chau, 2002]

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Cascade Control:

Primary (master) loop: outer loop

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Cascade Control:

Primary (master) loop: outer loop Secondary (slave) loop: inner loop

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Cascade Control:

Primary (master) loop: outer loop Secondary (slave) loop: inner loop P1 : slow dynamics

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Cascade Control:

Primary (master) loop: outer loop Secondary (slave) loop: inner loop P1 : slow dynamics P2 : fast dynamics

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Cascade Control:

Primary (master) loop: outer loop Secondary (slave) loop: inner loop P1 : slow dynamics P2 : fast dynamics The approach can be generalized to more than two loops.
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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Cascade Control: It appears that the improvement in the cascade control performance is more signicant when disturbances act in the inner loop and when the secondary sensor is placed in order to separate as far as possible the fast dynamics of the process from the slow dynamics (Krishnaswami et al., 1990).

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Cascade Control: It appears that the improvement in the cascade control performance is more signicant when disturbances act in the inner loop and when the secondary sensor is placed in order to separate as far as possible the fast dynamics of the process from the slow dynamics (Krishnaswami et al., 1990). Additional advantage: The nonlinearities of the process in the inner loop are handled by that loop and therefore they are removed from the more important outer loop.

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Cascade Control: It appears that the improvement in the cascade control performance is more signicant when disturbances act in the inner loop and when the secondary sensor is placed in order to separate as far as possible the fast dynamics of the process from the slow dynamics (Krishnaswami et al., 1990). Additional advantage: The nonlinearities of the process in the inner loop are handled by that loop and therefore they are removed from the more important outer loop. When the secondary process exhibits a signicant dead time or there is an unstable (positive) zero, the use of cascade control is not useful in general.
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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Cascade Control: Design procedure: First: Design the controller for the secondary loop
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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Cascade Control: Design procedure: First: Design the controller for the secondary loop Second: Design the controller for the primary loop
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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Cascade Control: Example:

Gp =
[Chau, 2002]

0.8 0.5 0.75 , Gv = , GL = 2s + 1 s +1 s +1

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Cascade Control: Example: Let us consider a proportional controller Gc 2 (s ) = Kc 2 and make the time constant of the secondary loop equal to 0.1 second.

[Chau, 2002] Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University) Industrial Control 38 / 59

Special Control Structures


Cascade Control: Example: Let us consider a proportional controller Gc 2 (s ) = Kc 2 and make the time constant of the secondary loop equal to 0.1 second. 1 + 0.5Kc 2 = 10 Kc 2 = 18

[Chau, 2002] Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University) Industrial Control 38 / 59

Special Control Structures


Cascade Control: Example: Let us consider a proportional controller Gc 2 (s ) = Kc 2 and make the time constant of the secondary loop equal to 0.1 second. 1 + 0.5Kc 2 = 10 Kc 2 = 18 9 Gv = s +10

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Special Control Structures


Cascade Control: Example: Let us consider a proportional controller Gc 2 (s ) = Kc 2 and make the time constant of the secondary loop equal to 0.1 second. 1 + 0.5Kc 2 = 10 Kc 2 = 18 9 Gv = s +10 Gv Gp =
0.8 0.9 0.1s +1 2s +1

[Chau, 2002] Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University) Industrial Control 38 / 59

Special Control Structures


Cascade Control: Example: Let us consider a proportional controller Gc 2 (s ) = Kc 2 and make the time constant of the secondary loop equal to 0.1 second. 1 + 0.5Kc 2 = 10 Kc 2 = 18 9 Gv = s +10 Gv Gp = Gv Gp
0.8 0.9 0.1s +1 2s +1 0.72 0.05s 2.05s +1 e

[Chau, 2002] Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University) Industrial Control 38 / 59

Special Control Structures


Cascade Control: Example: Let us consider a proportional controller Gc 2 (s ) = Kc 2 and make the time constant of the secondary loop equal to 0.1 second. 1 + 0.5Kc 2 = 10 Kc 2 = 18 9 Gv = s +10 Gv Gp = Gv Gp SIMC tuning rule: Kc =
0.8 0.9 0.1s +1 2s +1 0.72 0.05s 2.05s +1 e

1 2.05 1 1 = = 18.98 k c + 0.72 0.15 i = min{1 , 4(c + )} = min{2.05, 4(0.15)} = 0.6

[Chau, 2002] Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University) Industrial Control 38 / 59

Special Control Structures


Cascade Control: Simultaneous tuning of the controllers:

Assume: P2 (s ) = P2m (s )P2a (s ) P2a (s ) is the all-pass portion of the transfer function containing all the nonminimum phase dynamics (P2a (0) = 1)
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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Cascade Control: Simultaneous tuning of the controllers: Desired inner loop transfer function: r y (s ) = T 2 2 P2a (s ) (2 s + 1)n2

2 and n2 are design parameters. C2 (s ) =


1 P2 m (s ) (2 s + 1)n2 P2a (s )

To approximate the controller with a PID controller: 1 1 (0)s + k (0) C2 (s ) = k (s ) k (0) + k s s 2


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Special Control Structures


Cascade Control: Simultaneous tuning of the controllers: Assume: P2a (s ) = P12m (s )P12a (s ) P21 (s ) = P1 (s ) (2 s + 1)n2 P12a (s ) is the nonminimum phase part in all-pass form. Desired outer loop transfer function r y (s ) = T 1 1 P12a (s ) (1 s + 1)n1

Primary controller transfer function C1 (s ) =


[Visioli, 2006] Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University) Industrial Control 41 / 59

1 n2 P12 m (s )(2 s + 1) P2a (s )((1 s + 1)n1 P12a (s ))

Special Control Structures

Cascade Control: Example: P1 (s ) = P2 (s ) = K1 e L1 s T1 s + 1 K2 e L2 s T2 s + 1

L2 s r y (s ) = e T 2 2 2 s + 1 (L1 +L2 )s r y (s ) = e T 1 1 1 s + 1
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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Cascade Control: Example:
L2 2 2(2 +L2 )

K2 (2 + L2 ) L2 2 Ti 2 = T2 + 2(2 + L2 ) 2 L2 L2 3 Td 2 = L2 6(2 + L2 ) 2 T2 + 2(2 +L2 )


[Visioli, 2006]

Kp2 =

T2 +

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Cascade Control: Example: T1 + 2 +
(L1 +L2 )2 2(1 +L1 +L2 )

Kp 1 =

K1 (1 + L1 + L2 ) (L1 + L2 )2 Ti 1 = T1 + 2 + 2(2 + L1 + L2 ) 2 T1 T1 +
(L1 +L2 )3 6(1 +L1 +L2 ) (L1 +L2 )2 2 + 2( 1 +L1 +L2 )

Td 1 =

(L1 + L2 )2 2(1 + L1 + L2 )

The suggestion is to set: 2 = 0.5L2 1 = 0.5(L1 + L2 )


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Special Control Structures

Override Control: There are two modes of operation Normal operation: One process variable is the controlling variable. Abnormal operation: Some other process variable becomes the controlling variable to prevent it from exceeding a process or equipment limit. The limiting controller is said to override the normal process controller.
http://pse.che.ntu.edu.tw/chencl/Process_Control

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Override Control:

[Smith, 2002]

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Override Control:

The set point to LC50 is somewhat above h2, as shown in the gure.

[Smith, 2002] Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University) Industrial Control 47 / 59

Special Control Structures


Override Control:

The set point to LC50 is somewhat above h2, as shown in the gure. The FC50 is a reverse-acting controller, while the LC50 is a direct-acting controller.

[Smith, 2002] Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University) Industrial Control 47 / 59

Special Control Structures


Override Control:

The set point to LC50 is somewhat above h2, as shown in the gure. The FC50 is a reverse-acting controller, while the LC50 is a direct-acting controller. The low selector (LS50) selects the lower signal to manipulate the pump speed.
[Smith, 2002] Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University) Industrial Control 47 / 59

Special Control Structures

Override Control: Reset Feedback (RFB) or external reset feedback: This capability allows the controller not selected to override the controller selected at the very moment it is necessary. When FC50 is being selected, its integration is working, but not that of LC50 (its integration is being forced equal to the output of LS50). When LC50 is being selected, its integration is working but not that of FC50 (its integration is being forced equal to the output of LS50).
[Smith, 2002]

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Selective Control:

The high selector in this scheme selects the transmitter with the highest output, and in so doing the controlled variable is always the highest, or closest to the highest, temperature.
[Smith, 2002]

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Split range: A very common control scheme is split range control in which the output of a controller is split to two or more control valves. For example: Controller output 0% Valve A is fully open and Valve B fully closed. Controller output 25% Valve A is 75% open and Valve B 25% open. Controller output 50% Both valves are 50% open. Controller output 75% Valve A is 25% open and Valve B 75% open. Controller output 100% Valve A is fully closed and Valve B fully open.
www.contek-systems.co.uk

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Split range: X: Steam Valve, air-to-open Y: Cooling Water Valve, air-to-close TC47: Temperature Controller TY47: I/P converter

[Love, 2007] Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University) Industrial Control 51 / 59

Special Control Structures


Split range: ZC47A,B: Valve positioners TV47A,B: Valves

[Love, 2007] Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University) Industrial Control 52 / 59

Special Control Structures

Split range: Dierent arrangements are possible. For example, the split can be congured as follows: Controller output 0% Both valves are closed. Controller output 25% Valve A is 50% open and Valve B still closed. Controller output 50% Valve A is fully open and Valve B closed. Controller output 75% Valve A is fully open and Valve B 50% open. Controller output 100% Both valves are fully open.
www.contek-systems.co.uk

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Split range: Example:

www.contek-systems.co.uk

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Split range: Example:

www.contek-systems.co.uk

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Split range: In this application, the are valve will need to open quickly in response to high pressures, but the compressor suction valve will need to move much more slowly to prevent instability in the compressors. The main problem with split range control is that the controller only has one set of tuning parameters.

www.contek-systems.co.uk

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Split range: In this application, the are valve will need to open quickly in response to high pressures, but the compressor suction valve will need to move much more slowly to prevent instability in the compressors. The main problem with split range control is that the controller only has one set of tuning parameters. The solution is to replace the split range controller with two independent controllers, both reading the same pressure transmitter, but one controlling the are valve and the other the suction valve.
www.contek-systems.co.uk

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Two controller implementation:

www.contek-systems.co.uk

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Marriage analogy: Split - range control is like a good marriage. One partner may be doing 90of the work, but both partners are occasionally going to share the work.

[Lieberman, 2008]

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Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Marriage analogy: Split - range control is like a good marriage. One partner may be doing 90of the work, but both partners are occasionally going to share the work. Override control is like a bad marriage. One partner plays a potentially dominating role, even though the other partner is doing all the work.

[Lieberman, 2008]

Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University)

Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures

Marriage analogy: Split - range control is like a good marriage. One partner may be doing 90of the work, but both partners are occasionally going to share the work. Override control is like a bad marriage. One partner plays a potentially dominating role, even though the other partner is doing all the work. Cascade control is more like my marriage. I do the best I can, but my wife Liz constantly and lovingly recalibrates my eorts. She dampens down the extremes in my behavior so as to promote a stable relationship and home life.
[Lieberman, 2008]

Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University)

Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Smith predictor: To handle systems with a large dead time

Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University)

Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Smith predictor: To handle systems with a large dead time

Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University)

Industrial Control

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Special Control Structures


Smith predictor: To handle systems with a large dead time

[Chau, 2002]

Behzad Samadi (Amirkabir University)

Industrial Control

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Chau, P. C. (2002). Process Control: A First Course with MATLAB (Cambridge Series in Chemical Engineering). Cambridge University Press, 1 edition. Lieberman, N. (2008). Troubleshooting Process Plant Control. Wiley. Love, J. (2007). Process Automation Handbook: A Guide to Theory and Practice. Springer, 1 edition. Smith, C. A. (2002). Automated Continuous Process Control. Wiley-Interscience, 1 edition. Visioli, A. (2006). Practical PID Control (Advances in Industrial Control). Springer, 1 edition.
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