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Theories of Congruent Communication (Haim Ginott) Congruent Communication

Congruent communication is: Open Harmonious with students feelings about themselves and their situations Without sarcasm Congruent communication sends sane messages about the situation, not the personality or character of the student.
Teachers Role

Use positive, effective communication.

Provide a classroom environment that


encourages good behavior. Model behaviors that invite cooperation and positive behavior. Avoid autocratic behaviors. Seek alternatives to punishment. Remain sensitive to the needs of students.

Promote self-discipline for both teachers and students. Believe that the essence of discipline is finding effective alternatives to discipline (Ginott, 1972a , p. 147). Accept and acknowledge students without labeling, arguing, disputing, or belittling the individual. Avoid evaluative praise and use appreciative praise . Avoid sending you messages and use I messages. Demonstrate their best behaviors. Invite rather than demand student cooperation.

Promote cooperation with students and harmony


in the classroom.

Evaluative praise (destructive) Example: Samal, you did a good job with the reading test. I like having you in my class. Appreciative praise (productive) Example: Samal, I can tell you really tried on the reading test.

Theories of Instructional Management (Jacob Kounin) Kounins Key Concept o Teacher Behaviour o Movement Management o Group Focus
Avoiding Overdwelling

Dangle Starting an activity and then leaving it and beginning another activity. Later, resuming the original activity. Truncation The same as a dangle, except not resuming the initiated, then dropped, activity.

Journal writing Free choice reading from the classroom book collection school library Doing homework Prepared mini-lessons that take 10 minutes or less Teacher reads aloud a poem short story Listening to an audio book
Slowdown

Overdwelling dwelling on corrective behavior longer than needed or on a lesson longer than required. Fragmentation breaking an activity or behavior into subparts although the activity could be performed easily as a single unit or an uninterrupted sequence.

Establish clear procedures. Develop lessons on appropriate level. Focus on the entire class. Do not dwell too long on one or two students. Pace instruction to maintain student interest. Provide curricular content and instructional methods that interest and challenge learners. Demonstrate appropriate instructional behaviors: withitness group alerting Avoid dangles, fragmentation, and satiation.

Theories of Democratic Teaching (Rudolf Dreikurs)


Key Concepts of Dreikurss Theory Mistaken goals Attention-getting Power-seeking Revenge Helplessness (feelings of inadequacy) (Dreikurs, 1968; 1971) Democratic (not permissive or autocratic) teaching Encouragement rather than praise Logical consequences Logical Consequences

Behavior A student writes on a school desk. A student destroys anothers property. A student refuses to complete assignme nts during class.

Classroom rules Implement logical consequences rather than punishments. Use punishment only when all logical consequences have been exhausted (Dreikurs and Grey, 1968).

Logical Consequence The student must clean the desk. The student (not the parent) must pay for the property. The student does the work during recess or before/after school.

Identifying logical Consequences

What consequences might be logical for these behaviors? A student intentionally throws his books to the floor in a fit of anger. A student calls another student a racial slur. A student refuses to complete an assignment.

Praise: Youre a fine student! You finished your math in record time. Encouragement: I can tell youve been practicing your math drills and I hope you will continue. Praise: Youre a whiz with that computer program. Encouragement: I can tell you enjoy the challenges of learning to use a new computer

Theories of Assertive Tactics (Lee Canter and Marlene Canter)


Key Concepts of Assertive Discipline Rewards and punishments are effective. Both teachers and students have rights. Teachers create an optimal learning environment. Teachers apply rules and enforce consequences consistently without bias or discrimination. Teachers use a discipline hierarchy with the consequences appropriate for the grade level. Teachers are assertive, not nonassertive or hostile.

Response Styles

Different types of rewards

Basic rights for students

Basic rights for Teachers

Nonassertive - Ive asked you repeatedly to stop talking, and you continue to do it. Please stop. Assertive - Justin, that is your warning for leaning back in the chair. Put the chair down now or you will face a loss of classroom privileges. Hostile - Put that comic book away or youll wish you had!

Social reinforcers Words Smiles Gestures Graphic reinforcers Star Sticker Checkmark Activity reinforcers Free time Special game Tangible reinforcers Treat Pencils and other supplies Certificates

Students have the right to: Have an optimal learning environment Have teachers who help them reduce inappropriate behavior Have teachers who provide appropriate support for appropriate behavior Have teachers who do not violate the students best interests Choose how to behave with the advance knowledge of the consequences that will consistently follow

Teachers have the right to: Maintain an optimal learning environment Expect appropriate behavior Expect help from administrators and parents Ensure students rights and responsibilities are met by a discipline plan that: Clearly states expectations Consistently applies the consequences Does not violate the best interests of the students

Building the Foundation (Skinner, Glasser and Gordon)


Building the Foundation

Supporting Self-Control

Five Basic Psychological Needs Glasser

Teachers can improve student behavior by: Using student ideas in instruction Using more discussions and dialogue Praising students when appropriate Tailoring instruction to individual students Placing emphasis on productivity and creativity Using cooperatively

Use signals: Catching the eye of the student

Need for survival Need to belong Need for power Need for freedom Need for fun

Frowning or smiling
Shaking the head Stand near a student and use proximity. Use humor, not sarcasm. Show interest in student work. Ignore minor misbehaviors. Understand reasons for misbehaviors.