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# 13/05/2013

electromagnetic

## How to Generating electricity?

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## Moving a coil past a magnetic field produces current in the coil

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electromagnetic

electromagnetic

Discovered electromagnetic induction (1831), which led to generation of electricity Made numerous discoveries in physics and chemistry Declined offer of knighthood

## The laws of electricity and magnetism

Law of electricity electric charges produce electric fields Law of magnetism Permanent magnets produce magnetic
fields Currents in wires produce magnetic fields

## a changing magnetic field can produced a current (induced currents)

Electromagnetic Induction
This phenomenom, that a changing magnetic field can induce current in a nearby conductor is called electromagnetic induction
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13/05/2013

electromagnetic

electromagnetic

Motion is needed
N
bar magnet

ON OFF

magnet)

S

## past magnetic field) (move faster)

When a magnet is moved into coil B, a current briefly appears Current is only present when the magnet is moving

Area of loop (use larger loops) Number of loops (use more loops)

appears

## Thats why we say: A changing magnetic field induces a current

in the wire
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Abraham Hutabarat

electromagnetic

What is Flux?
loop

## What does amount of flux depend on?

Flux depends on:
Strength of field Amount of surface area Angle between field and surface plane (normal line)

electromagnetic

## As seen when looking toward North pole

Flux is the amount of field passing through surface of loop More lines passing through surface means greater the flux at the surface
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FLUX

MORE FLUX
Because field is stronger
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LESS FLUX
Because angle is not zero degrees

13/05/2013

electromagnetic

electromagnetic

Magnetic Brakes!
Where is the magnet.............?

## Nikola Tesla (1856 1943)

Born in Croatia, moved to America at age 28 Developed first practical method of generating and transmitting electricity (AC) Also invented high-frequency energy transfer (radio), AC motors, remote controlled robots

AC electricity
AC is like a battery where the terminals exchange sign periodically! The polarity of the line voltage changes 60 times per second (60 hertz)
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Abraham Hutabarat

electromagnetic

electromagnetic

DC VS AC
AC is actually easier to generate and more efficient Late 1800s: War of the Currents Edison (DC) vs. Tesla (AC)

## Why is AC better than DC?

DC power is provided at one voltage only; AC power can be stepped up or down to provide any voltage required (TRANSFORMERS!) DC is very expensive to transmit over large distances compared to AC, so many plants are required DC power plants must be close to users. AC plants can be far outside cities By 1895, DC was out and AC was in (Teslas technology had prevailed) AC electricity can deliver huge amounts of energy per second (= power) at very low current; DC cannot

Edison had made the first commercial power plant for producing DC in New York in 1892, but Teslas technology proved to be better (at Worlds Fair 1893)
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Abraham Hutabarat

13/05/2013

## Inducing a current (Faradays 2nd method)

A

electromagnetic

electromagnetic

Transformers
Iron core

No motion is needed!!
switch

iron core

Primary coil B
Magnetic field lines

Secondary coil

A current briefly appears in coil B whenever switch is closed or opened Coil A is closed a magnetic field appears around it coil Bs flux increases voltage is induced in coil B Coil A is opened its magnetic field disappears coil Bs flux decreases voltage is induced in coil B
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Transformers are devices used to increase or decrease voltage Composed of two separate coils of wire, each wrapped around an iron core The coils have different number of turns
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electromagnetic

electromagnetic

Tranformers use AC
Current in primary time Magnetic field around primary time

Power Transmission
Step-up to 138,000 V

## Step-down to 4,000 V 12,000 V induces voltage at Secondary coil

Step-down to 120 V

Abraham Hutabarat

Abraham Hutabarat

13/05/2013

electromagnetic

Thankyou

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