}
+
(
(
}
x
h
w w h h
dx x
h
dy u dx dx dy u H H H H
solving for the displaced mass flow:
(
(
}
=
h
w w h h
dy u
dx
d
0
v v H H H
Thus, the boundary layer displaces the flow outward  we reduce the description of this effect to
a scalar:
Equate the "blockage" in the two situations above:
h
dy u
h
dy u
1
0 @
H H
v
w
h
x
y
v
h
dx
h h
u H
u
u H
1
@
u
2
if
u
is independent of y, one can find:
[


.

'
[


.

'
0
1
0
1
1
dy
u
u
h
dy
u
u
H
H
H
H
@
The continuity equation becomes, with constant H ,
u
w h
dx
d
v v
1
@
For a simple, flat plate flow,
@
@
1
= 0.32 for a laminar boundary layer and
@
@
1
= 0.12 for a
turbulent boundary layer.
Integral Momentum Balance:
Applying the same idea to the momentum equation:
ROC (xmomentum)=
x
F
h P P dx dy u dx dx u dy u
dx x x h
x
h
w w h h h
dx x
h
+ =
'
}
+
}
0
0
2
0
2
0 v v J J H H H H
where
dx
du
u
dx
dp
H
We can use the conservation of mass expression to eliminate v
h
Again, we try to reduce the description of this effect to a scalar. We ask, what is the effect of the
boundary layer on the momentum problem?
0
J
h
h h h
u H v
x+dx x
w
J
h
dy u
0
2
H
p p
h
dy u
0
2
H
h
J
3
A decrease in the convected momentum.
dy
u
u
u
u
\

[ =
1
0
2
H
H
@
for a simple, flat plate flow:
@
@
2
= 0.12 for a laminar boundary layer flow and
@
@
2
= 0.10 for a turbulent boundary layer.
Writing the momentum equation in terms of the displacement and momentum thicknesses gives:
dx
d
dx
du
u
H
dx
d
u
H
H
@
@
H
H
H
J 1 1
2
v
v
2
2 0 0
2
0
Doing so, requires introducing the shape factor
2
1
@
@
H
. Let's look at the momentum equation
term by term:
Left Hand Side  the terms that lead to increases in the momentum deficit:
Term #1 Increase in momentum deficit due to shear.
Term #2 Increase in momentum deficit due to the injection of mass with velocity v
0
normal
to the wall but with zero streamwise momentum.
Right Hand Side  terms that indicate where that momentum deficit increase is seen. Note
that the streamwise momentum deficit is proportional to
H @
2
2
u
, so a rise of momentum
deficit could be seen in three variable changes:
Term #3 Increase in the momentum thickness,
2
@
, due to the increase in momentum deficit.
Term #4 Increase in freestream velocity.
Term #5 Increase in freestream density.
A solution (continuity and momentum) will give us
1
@
and
2
@
, two scalar pieces of information
about the velocity profile shape. Of course, had we solved the full partial differential
equation, we would have the entire velocity profile shape, but we would have worked harder
to solve this set rather than the effort needed to get the integral solution.
The shape factor is used to characterize the state of the boundary layer, From data, we know
that:
H=2.6 for an undisturbed, constantpressure flat wall laminar boundary layer and
H=1.3 for a mature, constantpressure, flatwall turbulent boundary layer.
u u u
H
x
2
@
2
u H
x
4
For transition and for the maturing of the turbulent boundary layer:
Figure 1. Left: Variation of shape factor with x as the boundary layer passes from laminar to
turbulent flow (ref: NASA CR 187150, Kim & Simon). Right: Variation of H as the
turbulent boundary layer matures (ref: Cebeci & Bradshaw).
Note:
@
@
2
2
Re
u
, the momentum thickness Reynolds number.
By the way, some (a growing number  particularly the European) references use @
or @
in
place of @
1
and G in place of @
2
.
Integral Thermal + Kinetic Energy Balance:
Applying the same ROC statement to accounting of energy gives:
ROC (Thermal + Kinetic Energy) =
) volume ( q
Here, we can use the stagnation enthalpy:
2
2
u
h h
s
.
The plane at h is sufficiently far from the wall that thermal, momentum (stresses) and mass
diffusion there are zero and the velocity is uniform with y. Since the datum is arbitrary for
enthalpy, one can choose
0
, ,
h s s
h h
. Then:
[
+ ' ' ' + + =
h
w w w
j
j w s j w diff
w
s
h dy q h m q dy uh
dx
d
0
, , , ,
0
v H H
We now introduce the enthalpy thickness,
2
,
, by asking what single character can capture what
the hot (or cold) surface is doing to the flow.
Turbulent
Laminar
1.3
x
H
2.6
1.46
1.33
1.26 1.22
H
,
,
,
,
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
2
Re
@
5
Actual Modeled
The Enthalpy Thickness,
2
,
, is found by equating the actual and the modeled situations.
,
0
2
0 ,
dy uh dy h u
s w s
H H
or
dy
h h
h h
u
u
s w s
s s
1
1
'
}
\

[ = A
, ,
,
0
2
H
H
Writing in terms of the integral thicknesses, the integral energy equation becomes, in the absence
of the q
term:
(
(
+ + A +
A
=
dx
h h d
h h dx
d
dx
du
u dx
d
h h u
q
s w s
s w s s w s
w
, ,
, ,
2
2
, ,
1 1 1 H
H H
= 0.
No mass diffusion,
j w diff
m
, ,
= 0 for all j.
Uniform wall temperature,
dx
dh
w s,
= 0.
The integral equations reduce to the simple expressions:
Momentum Equation:
2
2
2
f
w
C
u
dx
d
H
J @
and the Energy Equation:
St
h h u
q
dx
d
s w s
w
,
, ,
2
H
y
y
s
uh H
x
w s
h u
,
H
x
2
,
6
A very crude example of how the integral energy equation may be used follows:
Suppose we wish to compute the local h value at a position, x, on an isothermal flat plate over
which there is a lowspeed air (constant properties) flow. If we assume a temperature and a
velocity profile, we can compute h.
Assume:
@
y
T
w
T
T T
1
and
@
y
u
u
.
Then:
dy
y y
dy
T T
T T
u
u
w
}
'

= }
'

= A
0 0
2
1
@ @
Substituting:
@
N
y
1 and
@
N
dy
d gives
6
3 2
1
0
1
3 2 0
1
2
@
N N
@ N N N @ =
= } = A d
.
From the energy integral equation:
=
@ @
6
. Integrating from x = 0 where
@
= 0:
x
u
= @ 6
2
2
or x
u
=
@
12
. Now substitute into the Stanton number expression:
x
u
u
St
=
@
=
12
x u
x
Re ; Pr
2
1
2
1
Re Pr 3 . 0
12
1
x
x u
St
=
.
This solution is no better than the assumed profiles and we would suppose that linear profiles in u
and T represent rather poor choices. Nevertheless, we compute:
2
1
2
1
Re Pr 3 . 0
x
St
where a more accurate method gives:
2
1
3
2
Re Pr 332 . 0
x
St
This more accurate method is the self similarity method which led to the
exact solution.
7
Evaluating h at x = 40 cm with
u
= 10 m/sec and air at 300K and 100,000 N/m
2
pressure.
,
2
1
2
1
,
Re Pr 3 . 0
p x p
c u c u St h H H
3
16 . 1
1000 300 314 . 8
96 . 28
2
000 , 100
m
kg
Nm
kJ
K kJ
molK k
mol k
kg
m
N
T R
M p
H
;
kgK
kJ
p
c 005 . 1
,
;
711 . 0 Pr
;
968 , 253
10 75 . 15
sec
sec
10 40 . 0
Re
2 6
m x
m m
x
Then:
kgK
kJ m
m
kg
h
005 . 1
sec
10 16 . 1
968 , 253 711 . 0 3 . 0
3
2
1
2
1
= 8
K m
W
2
The h.t.c. computed with the more accurate expression (
2
1
3
2
Re Pr 332 . 0
x
St )
is: h= 9.6
W
m
2
K
.