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DATACOM INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY

FIRST SEMESTER FIRST TRANSITION

COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL IN COMMUNICATION ARTS

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Syllabus Introduction: English 101: Communication Arts Communication comes from the Latin word communicare which means to share. It is the act of verbally or non-verbally conveying information, data, feelings, ideas or message from one person to another and vice-versa through the use of a medium. This subject focuses on strengthening the communication skills of students using English language. Communication Arts a prerequisite for English 2: Business Correspondence, and it has three (3) units of credits. Teaching Methodology In order to instill learning to the students in the easiest possible way within the shortest possible period of time, the instructors decided to combine the following methods of teaching: Five (5) to ten (10) minutes of recap of the previous lesson to ensure lost of learning due to short term retention. Forty minutes of discussion. Five (5) to ten (10) minutes of review of the current lesson ensure that learning took place. Quizzes, recitations, and other self check activities are created to rate the instructor and students performance.
Note: The methodologies do necessary mean that it will be used simultaneously.

Grading System To measure the students learning progress, the grading systems belo w are followed: Grade Rating Remarks 99-100 1.00 Passed 96-98 1.25 Passed 93-95 1.50 Passed 90-92 1.75 Passed 87-89 2.00 Passed 84-86 2.25 Passed 81-83 2.50 Passed 78-80 2.75 Passed 75-77 3.00 Passed 74 and below 5.00 Failed

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Course Outline: I Prelim A. INFORMATION SHEET 1: Communication A.1 what is Communication? A.2 Two Kinds of Communication A.3 Why is Communication Important A.4 Elements of Communication A.4.1 Sender A.4.2 Receiver A.4.3 Message A.4.4 Channel A.4.5 Feedback A.5 Communication Process A.6 Barriers of Communication A.6.1 Noise A.6.2 Distortion A.6.3 Perceptual Differences A.6.4 Language Differences A.6.5 Nonverbal Communication A.6.6 Lack of Communication Skill A.6.7 Information Overload A.7 Workplace Communication A.7.1 Basic Forms of Workplace Communication A.7.2 10 Workplace Communication Tips B. INFORMATION SHEET 2: Language B.1 what is Language? B.2 Features of Human Language B.2.1 Written Language B.2.2 Spoken Language B.3 Functions of Language B.3.1 Informative B.3.2 Expressive B.3.3 Directive B.3.4 Practical B.3.5 Performative B.3.6 Logical B.3.7 Ceremonial

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C. INFORMATION SHEET 3: Communication Aids C.1 Dictionary C.5.1 Uses of Dictionary C.5.1.1 Definition C.5.1.2 Spelling C.5.1.3 Syllabication C.5.1.4 Grammatical Function C.5.1.5 Pronunciation C.5.1.6 Etymology C.5.1.7 Antonyms C.5.1.8 Synonyms C.5.1.9 Prefix C.5.1.10 Suffix Midterm A. INFORMATION SHEET 4: PARTS OF SPEECH (NOUN) A.1 Noun A.2 Characteristics of a Noun A.3 Kinds of Nouns A.3.1 Common Noun A.3.2 Proper Noun A.3.3 Concrete Noun A.3.4 Abstract Noun A.3.5 Collective Noun A.3.6 Count Noun A.3.7 Mass Noun A.3.8 Compound Noun B. INFORMATION SHEET 5: PARTS OF SPEECH (PRONOUN) B.1 Pronoun B.2 Antecedent B.3 Types of Pronoun B.3.1 Personal pronoun B.3.2 Interrogative pronoun B.3.3 Demonstrative pronoun B.3.4 Indefinite pronoun B.3.5 Relative pronoun C. INFORMATION SHEET 6: PARTS OF SPEECH (VERB) C.1 Verbs C.2 Types of Verbs C.2.1 Action Verbs C.2.2 Linking Verbs C.3 BASIC TENSES OF VERB C.3.1 Present Tense
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C.3.2 Past Tense C.3.3 Future Tense C.4 Simple tenses C.4.1 Simple Present C.4.2 Simple past C.4.3 Simple future C.5 Perfect Tense C.5.1 Present Perfect C.5.2 Past Perfect C.5.3 Future Perfect C.6 Progressive Tense C.6.1 Present Progressive tense C.6.2 Past Progressive tense C.6.3 Future Progressive tense D. INFORMATION SHEET 7: PARTS OF SPEECH (ADJECTIVE) D.1 Adjective D.2 Kinds of Adjective D.2.1 Descriptive Adjective D.2.2 Limiting Adjective D.3 Degrees of Comparison of Adjective D.3.1 Positive Degree D.3.2 Comparative Degree D.3.3 Superlative Degree E. INFORMATION SHEET 8: PARTS OF SPEECH (ADVERB) E.1 Adverbs E.2 KINDS OF ADVERB E.2.1 Adverb of manner E.2.2 Adverb of place E.2.3 Adverb of time E.2.4 Adverb of frequency E.2.5 Adverb of degree F. INFORMATION SHEET 9: PARTS OF SPEECH (PREPOSITION) F.1 Preposition F.2 Prepositional Phrase F.2.1 Types of Prepositional Phrase F.2.1.1 Adjective Phrase F.2.1.2 Adverbial Phrase G. INFORMATION SHEET 10: CONJUNCTION AND INTERJECTION G.1 Conjunctions G.1.1 KINDS OF CONJUNTIONS G.1.1.1 Coordinating conjunctions G.1.1..2 Correlating conjunctions G.1.1..3 Subordinating conjunctions
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G.2 Interjection H. INFORMATION SHEET 11: SENTENCE H.1 Sentence H.1.1 Kinds of Sentences According to Use or Purpose H.1.1.1 Declarative H.1.1.2 Interrogative H.1.1.3 Imperative H.1.1.4 Exclamatory H.1.2 Kinds of Sentences According to Form or Structure H.1.2.1 Simple Sentence H.1.2.2 Compound Sentence H.1.2.3 Complex Sentence H.1.2.4 Compound-Complex Sentence Finals A. INFORMATION SHEET 12: SENTENCE PATTERNS A.1 Ten Sentence Patterns B. INFORMATION SHEET 13: SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT B.1 Subject-Verb Agreement

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INFORMATION SHEET 1: Communication What is Communication? Communication is the act of verbally or non-verbally conveying information, data, feelings, ideas or message from one person to another and vice-versa through the use of a medium. Two Kinds of Communication 1. Verbal- which uses spoken words. It requires listening and speaking skills. 2. Nonverbal-which uses signs such as written words, gestures, body language, and other symbols. Why is communication important? Imagine life without communication Youll have no means of letting someone you like or love know how you feel. You wont be able to call your relatives abroad. There would be no gossiping between neighbors. There would be no homework and quizzes because there would be no school. You will have no way of asking for an allowance. There will be no computer therefore you wont be able to update your profile in facebook, friendster, twitter, myspace, or any online community and game in existence. Nobody will know if Miami won against Dallas in 2011 NBA Finals. That ladies and gentlemen is just a fragment of a life without communication. Elements of Communication 1. Sender- the source or origin of the message, the speaker, issuer, or writer who intend to express or send out a message. 2. Receiver- the recipient of the message. The person whom the message was sent to. 3. Message- The information, idea, feeling or data which the sender wanted to convey to the receiver. It is the subject matter of the communication process. 4. Channel- the medium used to convey the message. Any means of transferring a message. 5. Feedback- the reply or reaction of the receiver to the message. The act of using the elements of communication is called communication process.
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Communication process comes in various forms. It can be a simple chit-chat with a friend through the use of voice and mutually-understood language. Even reading this learning material is a form of communication wherein the authors send a message to the readers.

The diagram below shows the communication process:

MESSAGE

SENDER

RECEIVER

FEEDBACK

**NOTE: THE ARROWS REPRESENT THE CHANNEL USED TO PASS THE MESSAGE AND FEEDBACK

Lets take the situation below as another example: Auelle sends an SMS to his friend Faith: Hi there Faith! Would you like to watch Dashboard Confessionals concert with me this Saturday? Faith receives Auelles message and replied: Auelle, my beloved friend, I will be greatly delighted to accompany you on that concert, thank you for inviting me On that example, we can get all the elements of communication: a.)Auelle is the sender b)Faith is the receiver c.)The message is Hi there Faith! Would you like to watch Dashboard Confessionals concert with me this Saturday? d.)The feedback is Auelle, my beloved friend, I will be greatly delighted to accompany you on that concert, thank you for inviting me e.)The channel or medium is mobile phone with Short Messaging System function (SMS) or text messaging.

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Read and explain the phrases below: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ad majorem Dei gloriam Non sum qualis eram Non omnia possumus omnes Pax vobiscum Vincit omnia veritas

I cant understand these phrases, how can I explain it? If this or something closer is your reaction to the given phrases then youll definitely agree that, in order for communication to take place, the message must be understood by the receiver. The communication process can be considered successful if, and only if the receiver was able to interpret the message as intended by the sender. There are factors that hinder a communication process these factors are called communication barriers.

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Communication Barriers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Noise Distortion Perceptual differences Language differences Nonverbal communication Lack of communication skill Information overload

Noise any loud, discordant, or undesirable sound or sounds. -it is communication barrier because it blocks or makes it hard for the receiver to understand the senders message. Picture yourself talking to your friend near a huge speaker at Slipknots concert, or a party. You and your friend will be forced to speak at the top of your lungs in order to understand each other. Another example on how noise encumbers communication is having a mobile phone conversation on a jeepney during rush hour. Youll have to compete with everything the busy traffic offers from horns to a trivial snoring of a fellow passenger to communicate. Distortion- this communication barrier refers to the loss of meaning, or physical damage to the message. The sender or receiver can encounter distortion in ways like crumpled letter, choppy output of a mobile phone, or poor reception of a television. Perceptual differences-this barrier refers to the encumbering of communication due to misinterpretation of the message. It can also occur due to refusal to acknowledge the message by one or both parties. A ten year old boys point of view is extremely different to a twenty-eight year old man. An anger-driven conversation can also lead to perceptual differences. Language differences-this barrier refers to the failure to communicate due to incompatible languages used by both parties. It would be extremely difficult (if not impossible) for two persons to understand each other without sharing a common language. Imagine yourself as one of the characters in the biblical story Tower of Babel, or watching an anime without subtitle, or talking to a foreigner or somebody who speaks using dialect unknown to you.
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Nonverbal Communication-this kind of communication turns into a barrier sometimes because of the difficulty to convey the intended message without using spoken words. A simple sign could have variety of meaning, understanding nonverbal cues depend to the interpretation of the receiver. Take the peace sign as an example; it could be perceived as a sign of peace or surrender. It could also be the equivalent amount of the number two. Lack of Communication Skill-this barrier refers to a persons limited ability to convey or understand a message. Read the poem below A Shadows Ode
By Mend Each Clue

I believe that magic do exist For you turned me to a man from a beast You took my heart like a thief in the night Making me vulnerable as a novice against the abysmal knight But how can I evict this unfathomable love I am feeling? I am nothing but a floor while you are a decorated ceiling You might think of it as sweet or as todays generation call it; cheesy. You may also consider it corny. Now imagine giving it to your crush who unfortunately happened to be a person who cant read. Would you be able to get a feedback? That is an example of how lack of communication skill becomes a barrier.

Information Overload-this barrier refers to the multitude of messages that were sent simultaneously or within a short transition. Youll have difficulty on giving a feedback if you are taking two phone calls at the same time, or taking a dictation from a person who speaks very fast.

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Workplace Communication

Workplace communication is the process of exchanging information, both verbal and non-verbal, within an organization. An organization may consist of employees from different parts of the society. In order to unite the activities of all employees, communication is crucial. Communicating necessary information to the entire workforce becomes necessary. Effective workplace communication ensures that all the organizational objectives are achieved. Basic Forms of Workplace Communication 1. Oral Communication 2. Written Communication 3. Formal Communication 4. Informal Communication 5. Verbal Communication 6. Non Verbal Communication Oral Communication Oral communication is what you do when you speak, or when you convey messages through speech. For this type of communication to succeed, you must learn to listen. Listening is a skill most of us lack, and that is why there is sometimes a lot of misunderstanding in our workplace. Example of Oral Communication Personal conversation, presentations, speaking in meetings and communication over the telephone Written Communication Written communication is what you do when you write to someone else, or when you convey messages through writing. Examples: Sending notes, writing letters, issuing memoranda (memos), transmitting faxes and e-mails

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Formal Communication Formal communication is what you do when you convey message through the hierarchy within your organization, or when you communicate to people outside your organization. The most common form of formal organization is downward communication, which happens when a superior officer send out messages to his subordinates or to the rank and file. Examples: Memos, reports, meetings, written proposals Informal Communication Informal communication is the opposite of formal communication. It occurs when messages are conveyed outside the organizations chain of command. Examples: Office gossip, personal e-mail to co-workers, white papers or anonymous letters to express grievances Although discouraged by organizations, informal communication serves the purpose of creating a bong among workers. It also provides alternative information which is readily not available through formal channels.

Verbal Communication Although mistaken with oral communication, verbal communication encompasses all kinds of messages, written or spoken, using words.

Examples: Sending text messages, making telephone calls, video conference, making speeches Non Verbal Communication Non verbal communication is wordless communication, or messages conveyed through ones gestures, action or behaviors. According to Alberts, Jess K.( communications professor in the Hugh Downs School of Human Communication) , non verbal communication can be broken down into five (5) categories:

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1. Body Signals or non verbal signals by the body, also known as kinesics. Examples: Hand shakes, crossing your legs, slumping in your seat posture, crossing or uncrossing your legs 2. Objects Signal or nonverbal messages sent by physical objects, also known as artifacts. Examples: Ones wardrobe, framed pictures on your tables, plaques and awards on the wall of your office 3. Space Signals or nonverbal messages sent by action and use of personal space, also known as proxemics. Examples: Physical territory like arrangement of desks at your workplace, the distance or closeness you stand from someone else when you communicate 4. Time Signals or nonverbal messages sent by time actions, also known as chronemics. Examples: Speed of your speech and movement, your punctuality, willingness to wait. 5. Touch Signals or nonverbal messages sent by touch, also known as haptics. Examples: Patting a co-working, hugging, pecking the cheek

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10 Workplace Communication Tips "Effective communication in the workplace is a valuable asset of any organization because it allows the smooth flow of ideas, sentiments, and information." Effective communication in the workplace is a valuable asset of any organization because it allows the smooth flow of ideas, sentiments, and information. It likewise prevents little squabbles from turning into full-blown conflicts that may result in . Simply put, you cant be a good boss if you do not know how to get through to your team by communicating in the workplace. Weve compiled the top seven keys to a successful communication in the workplace, as agreed by management and human resources experts: 1. Communication begins before the actual conversation. Studies show that 40% of whats communicated comes through body language and tone of your voice. To communicate effectively, both must match with the words you convey. 2. Be a better listener. Pay attention to what your subordinates are saying even though they may contradict with management decisions or your own opinion. All too often, these communication opportunities are taken for granted just because management cant be a little more of a better listener. Thus, communication in the workplace is improved and even resolved with better listening. 3. Make time for employees. Schedule a one-on-one talk with your employees, or if you work remotely, talk them over the phone at least twice a month or weekly, if you can. When communicating, give them your full attention, and talk about their career objectives, or how they envision themselves years from now. If they open up to you, you may also talk about their personal issues and what you can do to help. 4. Pass on the word to the people concerned. Go out of your way to let those people who should know about workplace changes coming from the higher ups. How easy it is to forget to let people know, on a timely basis, about what concerns their job. The downfall? You may not get the result you expect from your employees, and may seemingly appear like you are not in the know something that wouldnt exactly inspire confidence among your team. 5. Start with small talk. How easy it would be to lay down the heavy stuff at the beginning of a conversation because you are in a hurry. However, to communicate in the workplace in a conversational manner, start by chatting amiably at first to inspire your employee to open up and spark more substantial conversations. 6. Give regular feedback; avoid surprises. Although performance appraisals are your primary tool in giving performance issues feedback to employees, experts suggest confrontation should be made beforehand (in a humane way) to let them know there
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are things they should improve on. The annual evaluation should only be used to recap performance for the entire year. 7. Speak to groups effectively. While there should be one-on-one meetings, management level people should learn the skill to address to employee groups. When you are effective at this type of communication in the workplace, your employees will look highly at you and give you a boost in credibility as a manager. The same thing goes for writing group emails. 8. Dont use emails for delicate matters. Emails can be good for announcements, but should not be used for sensitive matters, such as performance issues that will need to be discussed in person so you can explain more clearly and get a direct, personal response from the party concerned. 9. Be consistent in your workplace communication. Consistency builds trust and lets your employees feel that you are concerned about whether they understood your explanation. 10. Get them to evaluate you. The only way to know if your management techniques are getting through your subordinates is to let them evaluate you. It helps engender loyalty, and perhaps make you a better boss to them. Large corporations do it by distributing manager feedback forms to employees which they can fill out anonymously, if they so choose.

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Self Check 1 A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. Define communication. What are the two kinds of communication? Give at least three reasons on why communication is important. Enumerate and define the elements of communication. Enumerate and define the different communication barriers. Make a diagram that shows the communication process. Site an example of a situation that the communication process and show each of the elements used. Give two examples on each of the communication barrier. Define workplace communication. Enumerate the basic form of workplace communication. Enumerate 10 workplace communication tips.

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OPERATION SHEET 1 OPERATION TITLE: Develop a short presentation or play that shows workplace communication. CONDITIONS OR SITUATIONS FOR THE Trainees should form a group with 5-10 OPERATION: members. EQUIPMENT, TOOLS , AND Any available props MATERIALS: Competency Based Learning Material in Communication Arts or any relevant resource or reference material. PROCEDURE: 1. Read Information Sheet 1 2. Based on the information you have gathered, the group should develop a short presentation or play. The presentation must not exceed 10 minutes The presentation must show the communication process The group must be able to use and identify all of the elements of communication PRECAUTION: QUALITY CRITERIA: Avoid using stunts that might cause hazard to the group or audience. Your instructor will rate the presentation based on the following factors: Relation of the presentation to communication process. Delivery of dialogue. Adherence to the procedure.

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INFORMATION SHEET 2: Language What is Language? Language is a special set of symbols, letters, numerals, rules, all the vocal sounds, words, and the ways of combining them into a common to a particular nation, tribe, or other speech community. It is vital to ensure the success of a communication process, and considered as one, if not the most important human inventions. Features of Human Language 1. Written Language- it uses visual patterns and symbols such as letters and signs. 2. Spoken Language- it uses vocal patterns and sounds. Functions of Language 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Informative Expressive Directive Practical Performative Logical Ceremonial

Informative Function of Language- this shows statement of fact or any generally accepted truth, and usually takes the declarative type of statement. Example: I was born on March 26 1981. Terry Goodkind is the author of Wizards First Rule. Uzumaki Naruto lives in Konoha Village.

Expressive Function of Language- this shows and expresses the feelings or attitudes of the writer or speaker, and also evokes feelings or attitude from the reader or listener. Example: Poetry and other works of arts such as music. A reaction upon witnessing an emergency

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Exclamatory statement such as Whoa! Dwayne Wade makes a jump shot 28-feet away from the ring and beats the buzzer!

Directive Function of Language- this shows a command or request. Example: Please bring passport-size picture with white background tomorrow. Turn all your gadgets off or silent mode while inside the classroom. You are obliged to wear proper uniform on week days except on wash-day.

Practical Function of Language- this shows the use of language more on establishing a social contact than communicating an idea. It is also called Phatic or Dynamic Function of Language. Example: A small talk or street-corner conversation. Saying Hi! or How are you? to someone you havent seen for a while. A simple nod or waving of hand.

Performative Function of Language- this is used not only to express an idea, but also to perform what is being said. Example: Saying I do on a marriage ceremony. Using performative verbs like apologize, accept, and promise. Demonstrating a task or an operation.

Logical Function of Language- this justifies, proves, or falsifies a statement. It also shows preference. Example: A court-room battle. Playing DOTA is better than having a girlfriend. LeBron James is miles away from dethroning Michael Jordans hold on being the greatest NBA player.

Ceremonial Function of Language- this enhances the social intercourse, relationship, and amenities. It is also called ritual function of language.

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Example: Announcing a couples exchange of vows. Introducing a friend to your other friends. Setting up a group discussion.

Complex Function of Language- this shows the combined use of two or more functions of language. Example: Delivering a speech. Making an in-class discussion. Social networking forums and commentaries.

Self Check 2

A. What is language? B. What are the two features of human language? C. Enumerate and define the functions of language.

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INFORMATION SHEET 3: Communication Aids Language is diverse and it takes a lot of patience, and practice to become proficient in English language. Every now and then a new word arises, and as humans engulf in communicating, language such as English evolves. Im sure people ask this question Is mastery of English possible? The answer to this question lies in the hand of the person who asks. All we need is patience, an open mind that is open with learning, adamant study attitude, and practice. Good thing we have various communication aids and tools that could make our study less arduous. Dictionary Dictionary is a book of alphabetically listed words in language, with definitions, etymologies, pronunciations, and other information.

Uses of Dictionary 1. Definition 2. Spelling 3. Syllabication 4. Grammatical Function 5. Pronunciation 6. Etymology 7. Antonyms 8. Synonyms 9. Prefix 10. Suffix Definition- the main function or use of a dictionary is to give the meaning of a word. Example: Sycophant- A person who seeks favor by flattering people of wealth or influence. Irksome- a tiring or annoying person or thing. Spelling- is the way in which a word is written. It is common for a person consults the dictionary to check the spelling of a word. Example: Excruciating Delusive Syllabication- is the division or form of a word into syllable. It makes it easier for the user to pronounce a word that is syllabicated in a dictionary.
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Example: Moon-shin-er Hoo-doo E-man-ci-pate Lack-a-dai-si-cal Al-bu-men Grammatical Function- This function of the dictionary usually tells the user on how the use or which part of speech does the word belongs. It also shows the singular or plural form of the word. Example: Niv-e-ous - (adjective) snowy or snowlike Goo-goo dolls (noun) a witch doll or doll used for witcraft. Sta-bi-lize (verb) to make stable or firm. Un-veil (verb) to reveal. Pronunciation- this function shows the manner of pronouncing the word with reference to the production of sounds, and the placing of stress, intonation etc. Example: Make-(mk) Untimely- (un tm-l) Etymology this function of dictionary shows the origin of the word. Example: Latent (Latin latens, to lie hidden) Argue (Latin argutare, to prattle) Thieves (O.E. theof, thief) Antonyms are words with opposite meaning Example: Neat - Untidy Good - Bad Mean - Magnanimous Synonyms are words with the same meaning Example: Object - refuse Deed - act Ultra mundane heavens Lackluster dull Efflorescence blooming
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Prefixes - a letter or group of letters added at the beginning of a word to change its meaning Example: Nerve unnerve Able disable Intelligible unintelligible Trust distrust Orientation disorientation Suffixes - a letter or group of letters added at the end of a word to change its meaning. Example: Report Reporter Pretend pretender Love loveless OPERATION SHEET 2 OPERATION TITLE: Using the Dictionary CONDITIONS OR SITUATIONS FOR THE Trainees should form a group OPERATION: with 5-10 members. Borrowing other groups dictionary is not allowed EQUIPMENT, TOOLS , AND Dictionary MATERIALS: Competency Based Learning Material in Communication Arts or any relevant resource or reference material. PROCEDURE: 1. Read Information Sheet 3 2. The instructor will dictate several vocabulary words. 3. Using a dictionary, the group must be able to give information about the vocabulary words. PRECAUTION: None QUALITY CRITERIA: Your instructor will rate the activity based on the following factors: The number of dictionary usage applied to each word. Adherence to the procedure.

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INFORMATION SHEET 4: PARTS OF SPEECH (NOUN) Noun is a word that names something such as person, place, thing, qualities, quantity, and action. Characteristics of a Noun 1. Nouns can either be concrete or abstract. 2. Nouns can be grouped into common nouns and proper nouns. 3. Nouns may be made up by a group of words, these are called compound nouns. 4. Nouns can also name a group of persons, animals, or things; these are called collective noun, count noun, and mass noun. 5. Nouns have possessive form. 6. Nouns have singular and plural form. Kinds of Nouns 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Common Noun Proper Noun Concrete Noun Abstract Noun Collective Noun Count Noun Mass Noun Compound Noun

Common Noun refers to a class or the general name of people, places, and things. Example: Country Date Girl School Book

Proper Noun refers to a particular person, place, or thing. It always begins with a capital letter. Example: Philippines October 28 2009 Akemi Datacom Institute of Computer Technology The Vampire Lestat

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Concrete Noun is a word that names the things that have physical form or things that we can touch, see, smell, or taste. Example: Joan Classmate Watermelon Pencil Computer Abstract Noun is a word that names things that have no physical form. It is the name of things that we cannot touch, see, smell, or taste. Example: Love Honesty Faith Idea beauty Collective Noun it is a word that names people, or things that are taken as a group or unit. Example: choir audience band flock of sheep pile of wood Count Noun is a word that names of things that can be counted individually. Example: Bass guitar Stick Ball

Mass Noun is a word that names that can be measured but cannot be counted individually. Example: Oil Sugar Sand
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Compound Noun is a noun that is made up by a group or words. Example: cross + roads = air + craft editor + in + chief lady + in + waiting runner + up

crossroads = aircraft = editor in chief = lady in waiting = runner up

Singular and Plural Form of a Noun Singular Nouns are words that refer to single person, place, or thing Example: Akemi School Computer Plural Nouns are words that refer to multiple persons, places, or things. Example: Girlfriends Schools Mobile phones

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Rules in Changing a Noun to its Plural Form 1.Add s to most noun Example: Singular Note Place Abbreviation Notes Places abbreviations Plural

2. Add es to nouns ending in x, ch, sh, z, or s Example: Singular Box Church Dish Waltz Glass Boxes Churches Dishes Waltzes Glasses Plural

3.Add s to nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel Example: Singular Toy Boy Monkey Way Key Toys Boys Monkeys Ways Keys Plural

4.For nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant, change y to i and add es Example: Singular City Policy Methodology Prophecy Theory Cities Policies Methodologies Prophecies Theories Plural

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5.For nouns ending in f and fe, change f to v and add es Example: Singular Leaf Wolf Wife Leaves Wolves wives Plural

6.Add es on most nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant Example: Singular Plural Echo Echoes Hero Heroes Tomato Tomatoes 7.Add s to on most nouns ending in o preceded by a vowel e.g. patio-patios zoo-zoos Example: Singular Patio Rodeo Zoo Patios Rodeos Zoos Plural

8.Some nouns form the plural by a change in spelling Example: Singular Tooth Mouse Foot Teeth Mice Feet Plural

9.Some nouns have the same form for singular and plural Example: Singular Series Deer Sheep Series Deer Sheep Plural

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10.Most compound nouns form its plural by adding s, or by applying other rules in the principal word Example: Singular Mother in law Editor in chief Manservant 11.Add s or es in proper nouns Example: Singular Vincent Jones Auelle Vincents Joneses Auelles Plural Plural Mothers in law Editors in chief Menservants

12.Add apostrophe and s [ s ] to form the plural of numbers, letters, signs, and symbols Example: Singular A 28 As 28s s Plural

Nouns Have Possessive Form Possessive nouns are nouns that show ownership. To show ownership of a noun, an apostrophe ( ), or apostrophe and s ( s ) is added to the word. Example: Gideon = Gideons dog = dogs Tess = Tess cats = cats women = womens

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SELF CHECK 4 A. B. C. D. What is a noun? What are the characteristics of a noun? Enumerate the kinds of noun and give 5 examples each. Write the plural of the nouns in the table: SINGULAR Fairy Sandwich Half Ox Deer Sheep Lunch Duke Fairy godmother Officer in charge Mango Cargo Radio Play Book Student Calf Thief Wife Wolf Goose Louse Woman Aircraft Alumnus Crisis Hypothesis Manservant PLURAL

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INFORMATION SHEET 5: PARTS OF SPEECH (PRONOUN) Pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun or antecedent. Example: She He Them Any Both You I Antecedent is the noun for which the pronoun stands. Example: Akemi is lovely.

She is lovely.

In the example above, Akemi is the antecedent replaced by pronoun she Types of Pronoun 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Personal pronoun Interrogative pronoun Demonstrative pronoun Indefinite pronoun Relative pronoun

Personal pronoun refers to the person speaking, person being spoken to, or the person spoken of.

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KINDS OF PERSONAL PRONOUN First person personal pronoun Second person personal pronoun Third person personal pronoun

First person personal pronoun refers to the speaker. e.g. I, me, we, us, myself Second person personal pronoun refers to the person spoken to. e.g. you, yourself Third person personal pronoun refers to the person, place, thing being spoken of. e.g. he, she, him, her, they, them, it, themselves Interrogative pronoun introduces questions. e.g. what, which, who, whom, whose Demonstrative pronoun points out specific persons, places, or things. e.g. this, that, these, those Indefinite pronoun does not specific particular person, place or thing. e.g. another, anybody, both, few, all, any Relative pronoun connects groups of words to another idea in the same sentence e.g. that, which, who, whom, whose. I read the book that you gave me. The former president who is corrupt was charged with plunder

Possessive pronoun shows ownership e.g. my, mine, your, hers, their That is my book. Is this your pen? My heart is hers. The trainees passed their tests.

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SELF CHECK 5 A. B. C. D. What is pronoun? Define antecedent Enumerate the types of pronouns and give five examples. Underline the pronoun on each sentence and identify its type.

1. That is my pen. 2. Is this your car? 3. My heart is hers. 4. The students passed their tests. 5. Its a lovely guitar. 6. The band failed to launch its album 7. The Miami Heat received its third defeat yesterday. 8. If LeBron plays well, he can wear a championship ring. 9. Memlik and Hedea postponed their date. 10. All were waiting for their turn.

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INFORMATION SHEET 6: PARTS OF SPEECH (VERB)

Verbs are words that express an action or state of being. Types of Verbs 1. Action Verbs 2. Linking Verbs Action verbs are verbs that express an action. Example: Jump Study Learn Run KINDS OF ACTION VERB 1. Transitive Verb 2. Intransitive Verb Transitive verb expresses an action that is carried to a receiver or object to complete its meaning. Example: Memlik married Hedea. Batman killed Robin. Intransitive verb does not need a receiver or direct object to complete its meaning. Example: The dog barks. Plants grow. Linking verbs - are verbs that express condition, or join the subject with a word or words in the predicate.

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KINDS OF LINKING VERB 1. Be-verb e.g. is, are, was, were, am 2. Sensation or condition verbs e.g. appear, seem, look, sound, taste, smell, feel, grow, become, stay, remain Verb tense is a form of a verb that shows a time of action or state of being. BASIC TENSES OF VERB 1. Present Tense 2. Past Tense 3. Future Tense Simple tenses express actions that take place in the present, past, or future time. It can be presently or habitually happening, a fact or general truth, occurred in the past, or something that will happen or will be done in the future Time Present Tense Past Tense Future Tense Now In the past In the future Verb Form Present Past Will or Shall + present

Example: Simple present He plays DOTA [ present time ] I usually read novels [ habitual action ] Time is gold [ generally accepted truth ] Simple past I ate my lunch They kissed under the tree

Simple future I will play Godswar later. She will attend the remedial class tomorrow.

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Perfect Tense express actions that were completed or will be completed by a certain time. Time Verb Form Present Perfect Tense Begun in the past continued to Has or have + past participle the present Past Perfect Tense Begun in the past, completed in Had + past participle the past Future Perfect Tense Begun in the future, continued Will or Shall + have + past in the future participle

Example: Present Perfect She has shown me the way. Hedea has completed her training. Past Perfect The mugger had left before the cops arrived Before she became an instructor, Hedea had completed her training. Future Perfect By tomorrow, I shall have finished my lessons At the end of this month, Hedea shall have completed her training. Progressive Tense is a special form of verb that shows continuing or progressing action at the indicated time of a particular tense. Time Begun somewhere in the near past, continuing to the present / shows continuing action Begun in the past, continuing in the past / shows something that was happening in the past Begun in the future, continuing in the future / something that will be happening at some point in the future Verb Form is, are, am + ing form of the verb Was, were + ing form of the verb Shall or Will + V-be + ing form of the verb

Present Progressive

Past Progressive Tense

Future Progressive Tense

Present Progressive tense e.g. I am teaching the 8 parts of speech. Past Progressive tense e.g. I was teaching the 8 parts of speech when she came. Future Progressive tense e.g. I shall be calling you everyday.
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Perfect Progressive Tenses express continuing action. Time Begun in the past, continuing until now Begun in the past, continued, and completed in the past Begun in the past or present continuing into the future Verb Form Has Been or Have Been + ing form of the verb Had been + ing form of the verb Will or Shall + have + been + ing form of the verb

Present Perfect Progressive Tense Past Perfect Progressive Tense Future Perfect Progressive Tense

Present Perfect Progressive Tense E.g. Memlik has been waiting for Hedea for an hour. Past Perfect Progressive Tense E.g. Memlik has been waiting for Hedea for an hour before she arrived. Future Perfect Progressive Tense E.g. By five oclock this afternoon, Memlik will have been waiting for Hedea for twenty eight hours.

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OPERATION SHEET 3 OPERATION TITLE: Develop a short presentation or play that shows part of speech verb CONDITIONS OR SITUATIONS FOR THE Trainees should form a group with 5-10 OPERATION: members. EQUIPMENT, TOOLS , AND Any available props MATERIALS: Competency Based Learning Material in Communication Arts or any relevant resource or reference material. PROCEDURE: 3. Read Information Sheet 6 4. Based on the information you have gathered, the group should develop a short presentation or play. The presentation must not exceed 10 minutes The presentation must show and use different kinds of verbs PRECAUTION: QUALITY CRITERIA: Avoid using stunts that might cause hazard to the group or audience. Your instructor will rate the presentation based on the following factors: Relation of the presentation verb Delivery of dialogue. Adherence to the procedure.

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INFORMATION SHEET 7: PARTS OF SPEECH (ADJECTIVE) An adjective adds life and color to a sentence; it describes a noun and a pronoun. It answers the questions what kind? How many? How much? and which one? KINDS OF ADJECTIVE 1. Descriptive Adjective 2. Limiting Adjective 1. Descriptive adjective - describes or tells a quality e.g. hot chick, blue car 2. Limiting adjective - denotes quantity, or limits in some way. e.g. fourth hokage, my girlfriend, a soldier

Degrees of Comparison of Adjective 1. Positive Degree 2. Comparative Degree 3. Superlative Degree Positive Degree is the degree of an adjective in a simple form and has no comparison made. Example: Fast car Good suggestion Lovely girlfriend Comparative Degree is an adjective that shows how great or how less is a word compared to another word. This degree is used when you are comparing two things or persons. Example: My girlfriend is prettier than you. The Wade is better than James.

Superlative Degree is an adjective that possesses the greatest or least degree. It is used when comparing more than two things or persons.
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Example: NC4 is the toughest National Competency Assessment Level. Communication Arts is the best subject. Auelle is my most trusted friend. Example: POSITIVE Good Loud Bad Difficult Fine Sharp Out Quick Keen COMPARATIVE Better Louder Worse More difficult Finer Sharper Outer Quicker Keener SUPERLATIVE Best Loudest Worst Most difficult Finest Sharpest Outermost Quickest Keenest

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SELF CHECK 6 A. B. C. D. Define adjective What are the kinds of adjective? What are the degrees of comparison of an adjective. Write an adjective on the table below and provide its comparative and superlative form. POSITIVE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE

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INFORMATION SHEET 8: PARTS OF SPEECH (ADVERB) Adverbs are words that modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. KINDS OF ADVERB 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Adverb of manner Adverb of place Adverb of time Adverb of frequency Adverb of degree

Adverb of manner tells how an action takes place e.g. Loj-ik walked slowly Adverb of place tells where an action takes place e.g. Mr. Cabrera teaches here. Adverb of time tells when an action takes place e.g. Mrs. Navia will arrive later Adverb of frequency tells how often an action takes place e.g. They seldom see each other Adverb of degree tells the extent of intensity of an adjective or another adverb. e.g. Memlik loves her so much. The teacher is very strict.

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INFORMATION SHEET 9: PARTS OF SPEECH (PREPOSITION) Preposition - is a word that is placed before a noun or pronoun that shows the relationship of that noun or pronoun to other words in the sentence. Example:

Prepositional Phrase is a group of words that is consist of the preposition and object of the preposition and function as an adjective or an adverb. Types of Prepositional Phrase 1. Adjective Phrase 2. Adverbial Phrase Adjective Phrase is a phrase that modifies or describes a noun or pronoun. Example: The girl next door bought a puppy. The lazy students failed their subject. Adverbial Phrase is a phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. It expresses time, place, manner, and degree. Example: I live at 1028 Shadow Street Partners Ville Subdivision Bacoor, Cavite. The exam is on Friday.

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INFORMATION SHEET 10: PARTS OF SPEECH (CONJUNCTION AND INTERJECTION) Conjunctions are words that link one part of a sentence to another. KINDS OF CONJUNTIONS 1. Coordinating conjunctions 2. Correlating conjunctions 3. Subordinating conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions - join words of equal value in a sentence. e.g. for, and, nor, but, or, yet Example: Akemi and Hedea are lovely ladies. Shes weird, but somewhat pretty. It is a cloudy but lazy afternoon. Correlating conjunctions - are used in pairs to connect the same kind of words or group of words Example: bothand Whetheror Not onlybut also Neithernor Eitheror Subordinating Conjunctions connects two ideas by making one idea dependent to the other e.g. as, because, inasmuch as, since, if, provided, after, until, when, while. Interjection is a word of exclamation that expresses strong feeling or sudden emotion. e.g. Ah, Darn, Oh, Ugh, hey

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SELF CHECK 7 A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Define preposition Define adverb Define conjunction Define interjection Define prepositional phrase Enumerate the types of prepositional phrase and give five examples Enumerate the kinds of conjunction and give five examples

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INFORMATION SHEET 11: SENTENCE Sentence is a word or group of words with a complete thought. It begins with a capital letter, has subject and predicate, and ends with a punctuation mark. Kinds of Sentences According to Use or Purpose 1. 2. 3. 4. Declarative Interrogative Imperative Exclamatory

Declarative Sentence is a sentence that makes a statement. It states a fact, or a generally accepted truth. It ends with a period. Example: The final exam is fast approaching. Anne Rice wrote the Vampire Chronicles. Interrogative Sentence is a sentence that asks a question. It ends with a question mark. Example: Why did I fail this subject? When are going home? Imperative Sentence is a sentence that asks, requests, or commands someone to do something. It ends with a period, or an exclamation point. Example: Get out of my house! Please stay with me until we run out of tomorrow.

Exclamatory Sentence is a sentence that shows strong feeling, or a sudden emotion. It ends with an exclamation point. Example: You are worthless! Fire on the hole!

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Kinds of Sentences According to Form or Structure 1. 2. 3. 4. Simple Sentence Compound Sentence Complex Sentence Compound-Complex Sentence

Simple Sentence is a sentence that expresses a single independent thought. Example: The sky is clear. Mr. Bones and the BloodHound Gang will launch a new album. Compound Sentence is a sentence that expresses two or more co-ordinate thoughts. It is separated by a semi-colon followed sentence connector, or by a comma followed by coordinating conjunction. Example: Edmhel is the author of the comic book, and Akemi is the one who drew the characters. The sky is filled with dark clouds; Rain might fall any moment. Complex Sentence is a sentence that contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. Example: Your parents are working very hard to support your studies, while youre getting drunk. Before you leave, wash the dishes on the sink. Compound-Complex Sentence is a sentence that contains two or more independent clauses, and one or more dependent clauses. Example: You must study harder, also avoid cutting classes; or you will fail this subject. The instructions were ambiguous, although they try their best; the students were not able to follow the instructions.

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SELF CHECK 8 A. Define sentence B. Enumerate the kinds of sentences according to use and give five examples each C. Enumerate the kinds of sentences according to structure and give five examples each.

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INFORMATION SHEET 12: SENTENCE PATTERNS There are ten possible patterns in which a sentence could be formed. These patterns can be classified according to the type of verb used in the sentence; the verb of being patterns, linking verb patterns, and action verb patterns. Ten Sentence Patterns 1. NP1 + V-be + ADV/TP 2. NP1 + V-be + ADJ 3. N P1 + V-be + NP1 4. N P1 + LV + ADJ 5. N P1 + LV + NP1 6. N P1 + V-int 7. N P1 + V-tr + NP2 8. N P1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP3 9. N P1 + V-tr + NP2 + ADJ 10. N P1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP2 These are the terms used in the sentence patterns: 1. NP Noun Phrase. It refers to the headword noun and its modifiers. It can be a subject, direct object, indirect object, subjective compliment, or objective compliment. 2. V-be Verb of Being 3. LV Linking Verb 4. V-int Intransitive Verb 5. ADV/TP Adverbial of time or place 6. ADJ Adjective NP1 + V-be + ADV/TP noun phrase 1 + verb of being + adverbial of time or place Example: Spider Man is at Daily Bugle. NP1 = Spider Man V-be = is ADV/TP = at Daily Bugle The exam is on Friday. NP1 = The exam V-be = is ADV/TP = on Friday

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NP1 + V-be + ADJ Noun phrase 1 + Verb of being + adjective Example: The students are noisy. NP1 = The students V-be = are ADJ = noisy The movie is lackadaisical. NP1 = The movie V-be = is ADJ = lackadaisical NP1 + V-be + NP1 noun phrase 1 + verb of being + noun phrase 1. There are two NP1s in this pattern which convey that they are the same entity. Example: Mrs. Nancy T. Navia is our OIC. NP1 = Mrs. Nancy T. Navia V-be = is ADJ = our OIC This example shows that Mrs. Nancy T. Navia and OIC refers to the same person. NP1 + LV + ADJ noun phrase 1 + linking verb + adjective Example: Her perfume smells like a candy. NP1 = Her perfume LV = smells ADJ = like a candy Your idea seems great. NP1 = Your idea LV = seems ADJ = great NP1 + LV + NP1 noun phrase 1 + linking verb + noun phrase 1 Example: Reg Rubio became Greyhoundz vocalist. NP1 = Reg Rubio LV = became NP1 = Greyhoundz vocalist

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That tree grew to be the tallest tree on Earth. NP1 = That tree LV = grew NP1 = the tallest tree on Earth NP1 + V-int noun phrase 1 + intransitive verb Example: Birds fly. NP1 = Birds. V-int = fly. In a couple of minutes the band will play. NP1 = the band V-int = play. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 noun phrase 1 + transitive verb + noun phrase 2 Example: Memlik kissed Hedea. NP1 = Memlik V-tr = kissed NP2 = Hedea Hedea kicked Memlik. NP1 = Hedea V-tr = kicked NP2 = Memlik NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP3 - noun phrase 1 + transitive verb + noun phrase 2 + noun phrase 3 Example: The instructor gave the students a long quiz. NP1 = The instructor V-tr = gave NP2= the students NP3 = long quiz

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Mirana stabbed Arthas in the chest. NP1 = Mirana V-tr = stabbed NP2= Arthas NP3 = in the chest NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + ADJ - noun phrase 1 + transitive verb + noun phrase 2 + adjective Example: Batman punched Joker continuously. NP1 = Batman V-tr = punched NP2 = Joker ADJ = continuously Memlik strokes Hedeas hair adoringly. NP1 = Memlik V-tr = strokes NP2 = Hedeas hair ADJ = adoringly NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP2 - noun phrase 1 + transitive verb + noun phrase 2 + noun phrase 2 Example: The villagers consider Naruto as The Hero of Konona. NP1 = The villagers V-tr = consider NP2 = Naruto ADJ = The Hero of Konoha. Some people think of LeBron James as the next Michael Jordan. NP1 = Some people V-tr = think NP2 = LeBron James ADJ = the next Michael Jordan

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OPERATION SHEET 4 OPERATION TITLE: Develop a short presentation or report about the ten sentence patterns. CONDITIONS OR SITUATIONS FOR THE Trainees should form a group with 5-10 OPERATION: members. EQUIPMENT, TOOLS , AND Competency Based Learning MATERIALS: Material in Communication Arts or any relevant resource or reference material. PROCEDURE: 1. Read Information Sheet 12 2. The instructor will assign a number of sentence patterns to be discussed or reported by the group PRECAUTION: QUALITY CRITERIA: None Your instructor will rate the presentation based on the following factors: Delivery of the report. Accuracy of the given examples. Adherence to the procedure.

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INFORMATION SHEET 13: SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT An agreement means to be in harmony or in accord between two things or person. In a sentence, a subject and verb must agree with each other to avoid error in grammar. Subject-Verb Agreement 1. Singular subject requires singular verb. Plural subject requires plural verb. 2. You requires a plural verb. 3. Neithernor and eitheror pairs requires a singular verb if both subjects are singular. 4. If Neithernor and eitheror pairs have subjects that are different in number, the verb agrees with the nearest subject. 5. A compound subject separated by the word and is considered plural if both parts refer to different individuals. 6. A compound subject separated by the word and is considered singular if both parts refer to a single person or thing. 7. Abstract nouns requires singular verb. 8. Fractions and percentage take after the noun they refer to. 9. The word number is plural if it is used in the sense of many. 10. The word number is singular if it is used to refer an arithmetical number. 11. Pronouns each, everybody, anyone, somebody, someone, no one, nobody, another, anything, either, and neither requires singular verb. 12. The verb is singular if the subject is modified or quantified by words like each, every, a little, or no. 13. The verb is plural if the subject is the indefinite pronoun several, few, and both. 14. Use singular verb on nouns plural in form but singular in meaning. 15. The verb is singular is used for words like scissors, pants, pliers, and tongs except when the word pair is used as subject.

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Singular subject requires singular verb. Plural subject requires plural verb. Note: A plural noun usually ends with the suffix es or s, while plural verb does not end with the suffix es or s. A singular verb usually ends with the suffix es or s, while singular noun does not end with the suffix es or s. Find out if the subject is singular or plural then apply the appropriate verb. SINGULAR Does not end with S Ends with S PLURAL Ends with S Does not end with S

Noun Verb

Example: The students listen half-heartedly. Subject = students Verb = listen The kid wants to play. Subject = Verb =

kid wants

The man is waiting for his wife. Subject = man Verb = is We are going to a vacation. Subject = we Verb = are

You requires a plural verb. Example: You are the love of my life. Subject = Verb =

You are

You mean everything to me. Subject = You Verb = mean


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Neithernor and eitheror pairs requires a singular verb if both subjects are singular. Example: Neither Hedea nor Catcher shows enthusiasm towards the party. Subject = Hedea/Catcher Verb = shows Either the manager or the supervisor is going to the meeting. Subject = manager/supervisor Verb = is If Neithernor and eitheror pairs have subjects that are different in number, the verb agrees with the nearest subject. Example: Either the president or the cabinet members are hiding the truth to the public. Subject = president/cabinet members Verb = are Neither the employees nor the manager is making a move to fix the problem. Subject = employees/manager Verb = is A compound subject separated by the word and is considered plural if both parts refer to different individuals. Example: The manager and the supervisor are having a debate. Subject = manager and supervisor Verb = are The president and the chief of staff agree to the suggestion. Subject = president and chief of staff Verb = agree

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A compound subject separated by the word and is considered singular if both parts refer to a single person or thing. Example: The administrator and owner of this school is satisfied with his employees performance. Subject = administrator and owner Verb = is Life and death walks side by side. Subject = life and death Verb = walks Abstract nouns requires singular verb. Example: Honesty is the best policy. Subject = Verb =

honesty is

Patience is a virtue I dont possess. Subject = patience Verb = is

Fractions and percentage take after the noun they refer to. Example: 28% of the students are likely to ace the exam. Subject = 28% of students Verb = are 28% percent of his income goes to poker house. Subject = 28% of students Verb = goes The word number is plural if it is used in the sense of many. Example: A number of students were caught playing DOTA during class hour. Subject = a number of students Verb = were

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A number of vehicular accidents happen due to drunk drivers. Subject = a number of vehicular accidents Verb = happen The word number is singular if it is used to refer an arithmetical number, or if it is preceded by the article the Example: A number is given to costumers as they enter the store. Subject = a number Verb = happen The number of satisfied citizens is increasing due to the presidents poor performance. Subject = the number Verb = is

Pronouns each, everybody, anyone, somebody, someone, no one, nobody, another, anything, either, and neither requires singular verb. Example: Anything is possible. Everybody was alarm by the fish kill in Taal Lake. The verb is singular if the subject is modified or quantified by words like each, every, a little, or no. Example: A little patience is all I ask of you. Each of them is a suspect. The verb is plural if the subject is the indefinite pronoun several, few, and both. Example: Both of the bags are lovely. Few trips to the gambling house cost him a fortune.

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Use singular verb on nouns plural in form but singular in meaning. Example: Mathematics is my favorite subject. The news you bring is excruciating.

The verb is singular is used for words like scissors, pants, pliers, and tongs except when the word pair is used as subject. Example: These pliers are useless. A pair of scissors is what I need.

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OPERATION SHEET 4 OPERATION TITLE: Develop a short presentation or report about the Subject-Verb Agreement. CONDITIONS OR SITUATIONS FOR THE Trainees should form a group with 5-10 OPERATION: members. EQUIPMENT, TOOLS , AND Competency Based Learning MATERIALS: Material in Communication Arts or any relevant resource or reference material. PROCEDURE: 1. Read Information Sheet 13 2. The instructor will assign a number of SVA rules to be discussed or reported by the group PRECAUTION: QUALITY CRITERIA: None Your instructor will rate the presentation based on the following factors: Delivery of the report. Accuracy of the given examples. Adherence to the procedure.

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DATACOM INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY


FIRST SEMESTER FIRST TRANSITION

COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL IN FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER

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Prelim

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Lesson 1 : Computer - Overview


Today's world is an information rich world and it has become a necessity for everyone to know about computers. Purpose of this tutorial is to introduce you about computer systems and its fundamentals.

Functionalities of a computer
Any digital computer carries out five functions in gross terms: Takes data as input. Stores the data/instructions in its memory and can use them when required. Process the data and convert it into useful information. Output the information. Control all the above four steps.

Definition
Computer System is an electronic data processing device which does the following: Accept and store an input data. Process the data input. And output the processed data in required format.

Advantages
Following list demonstrates the advantages of Computers in today's arena.

HIGH SPEED
Computer is a very fast device. It is capable of performing addition of very big data. The computer has units of speed in microsecond,nanosecond and even the picosecond. It can perform millions of calculations in a few seconds as compared to man who can spend many months for doing the same task. In addition to being very fast, computer are very accurate. The computer has performed calculations 100% error free. Page 64

ACCURACY

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Computers perform all jobs with 100% accuracy. Memory is a very important characteristic of computers. The computer has much more storage capacity than human beings. It can store large amount of data. It can store any type of data such as images, videos, text, audio and any other type. Unlike human beings, a computer is free from monotony, tiredness and lack of concentration. It can work continuously without creating any error and boredom. It can do repeated work with same speed and accuracy. A computer is a very versatile machine. A computer is very flexible in performing the jobs to be done. This machine can be used to solve the problems relating to various different fields. At one instant, it may be solving a complex scientific problem and the very next moment it may be playing a card game. A computer is a reliable machine. Modern electronic components have failure free long lives. Computers are designed to make maintenance easy. Computer is a automatic machine. Automation means ability to perform the task automatically. Once a program is given to computer i.e stored in computer memory, the program and instruction can control the program execution without human interaction. The use of computers for data processing in an organization leads to reduction in paper work and speeds up the process. As data in electronic files can be retrieved as and when required,the problem of maintenance of large number of files gets reduced. Though the initial investment for installing a computer is high but it substantially reduces the cost of each of its transaction.

STORAGE CAPABILITY

DILIGENCE

VERSATILITY

RELIABILITY

AUTOMATION

REDUCTION IN PAPER WORK


REDUCTION IN COST

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Disadvantages
Following list demonstrates the disadvantages of Computers in today's arena.

NO I.Q
A computer is a machine and has no intelligence of its own to perform any task. Each and every instruction has to be given to computer. A computer can not take any decision on its own.

DEPENDENCY
It can perform function as instructed by user.So it is fully dependent on human being. The operating environment of computer should be dust free and suitable to it.

ENVIRONMENT

NO FEELING
Computer has no feeling or emotions. It cannot make Judgement based on feeling, taste, experience and knowledge unlike a human being.

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Lesson 2 : Computer - Applications


Following list demonstrates the various applications of Computers in today's arena.

1. Business
The computer's characteristic as high speed of calculation, diligence,accuracy, reliability, or versatility has made it an integerated part in all business organisations. Computer used in business organisation for: Payroll Calculations Budgeting Sales Analysis Financial forcasting Managing employees database Maintenance of stocks etc.

2. Banking
Today Banking is almost totally dependent on computer. Banks provide following facilities: Banks on-line accounting facility, which include current balances, deposits, overdrafts, interest charges, shares and trustee records. ATM machines are making it even easier for customers to deal with banks.

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3. Insurance
Insurance companies are keeping all records up to date with the help of computer.The Insurance Companies, Finance houses and Stock broking firms are widely using computers for their concerns. Insurance Companies are maintaining a database of all clients with information showing how to continue with policies starting date of the policies next due installment of a policy maturity date interests due survival benefits bonus

4. Education
The computer has provided a lot of facilities in the Education System. The uses of computer provide a tool in the Education system is known as CBE (Computer Based Education). CBE involves Control, Delivery and Evaluation of learning. The computer education is very familiar and rapidly increasing the graph of computer students. There are number of methods in which educational institutions can use computer to educate the students. It is used for prepare a database about student performance and analysis are carried out.

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5. Marketing
In Marketing uses of computer are following: Advertising: With computers, advertising professionals create art and graphics, write and revise copy, and print and disseminate ads with the goal of selling more products. At Home Shopping: At home shopping has been made possible through use of computerised catalogues that provide access to product information and permit direct entry of orders to be filled by the customers.

6. Health Care
Computers have become important part in all Medical Systems. The computers are being used in hospitals to keep the record of patients and medicines. It is also used in scanning and diagnosing different diseases. ECG, EEG, Ultrasounds and CT Scans etc. are also done by computerised machines. Some of major fields of health care in which computer are used: Diagnostic System: Computers are used to collect data and identify cause of illness. Lab-diagnostic System:All tests can be done and reports are prepared by computer. Patient Monitoring System:These are used to check patient's signs for abnormality such as in Cardiac Arrest, ECG etc. Pharma Information System:Computer checks Drug-Labels, Expiry dates, harmful drug side effects etc. Nowadays, computers are also used in performing surgery.

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7. Engineering Design
Computers are widely used in Engineering purposes. One of major areas is CAD(Computer aided design).CAD provides creation,edition, and modification of image. Some fields are: Structural Engineering:Requires stress and strain analysis required for design of Ships, Buildings, Budgets, Airplanes etc. Industrial Engineering:Computers deals with design, implementation and improvement of Integrated systems of people, materials and equipments. Architectural Engineering:Computers help in planning towns, designing buildings, determining a range of buildings on a site using both 2D and 3D drawings.

8. Military
Computers are largely used in defence.Modern tanks, missiles, weapons etc.employ computerised control systems.Some military areas where a computer has been used are: Missile Control Military Communication Military operation and planning Smart Weapons

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9. Communication
Communication means to convey a message, an idea, a picture or speech that is r eceived and understood clearly and correctly by the person for whom it is meant.Some main areas in this category are: E-mail Chatting Usenet FTP Telnet Video-conferencing

10. Government Applications


Computers play an important role in government applications.Some major fields in this category are: Budgets Sales tax department Income tax department Male/Female ratio Computerization of voters lists Computerization of Driving Licensing system Computerization of PAN card Weather Forecasting.

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Lesson 3 : Computer - Generations


Computer Generations Generation in computer terminology is a change in technology a computer is/was being used. Initially, the generation term was used to distinguish between varying hardware technologies. But nowadays, generation includes both hardware and software, which together make up an entire computer system. There are totally five computer generations known till date. Each generation has been discussedin detail along with their time period, characteristics. We've used approximate dates against each generations which are normally accepted. Following are the main five generations of computers

S.N. Generation & Description 1 First Generation The period of first generation : 1946-1959. Vaccum tube based. Second Generation The period of second generation : 1959-1965. Transistor based. Third Generation The period of third generation : 1965-1971. Integrated Circuit based. Fourth Generation The period of fourth generation : 1971-1980. VLSI microprocessor based. Fifth Generation The period of fifth generation : 1980-onwards.ULSI microprocessor based

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1. First Generation The period of first generation was 1946-1959. First generation of computer started with using vacuum tubes as the basic components for memory and circuitry for CPU(Central Processing Unit). These tubes like electric bulbs produced a lot of heat and were prone to frequent fusing of the installations, therefore, were very expensive and could be afforded only by very large organisations. In this generation mainly batch processing operating system were used. In this generation Punched cards, Paper tape, Magnetic tape Input & Output device were used. There were Machine code and electric wired board languages used.

The main features of First Generation are: Vacuum tube technology Unreliable Supported Machine language only Very costly Generate lot of heat Slow Input/Output device Huge size Need of A.C. Non portable Consumed lot of electricity Some computer of this generation were: ENIAC EDVAC UNIVAC IBM-701 IBM-650

2. Second Generation The period of second generation was 1959-1965. This generation using the transistor were cheaper, consumed less power, more compact in size, more reliable and faster than the first generation machines made of vaccum tubes.In this generation, magnetic cores were used as
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primary memory and magnetic tape and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices. In this generation assembly language and high level programming language like FORTRAN, COBOL were used. There were Batch processing and Multiprogramming Operating system used.

The main features of Second Generation are: Use of transistors Reliable as compared to First generation computers Smaller size as compared to First generation computers Generate less heat as compared to First generation computers Consumed less electricity as compared to First generation computers Faster than first generation computers Still very costly A.C. needed Support machine and assmebly languages Some computer of this generation were: IBM 1620 IBM 7094 CDC 1604 CDC 3600 UNIVAC 1108
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3. Third Generation The period of third generation was 1965-1971. The third generation of computer is marked by the use of Integrated Circuits (IC's) in place of transistors.A single I.C has many transistors, resistors and capacitors along with the associated circuitry.The I.C was invented by Jack Kilby. This development made computers smaller in size, reliable and efficient. In this generation Remote processing, Time-sharing, Real-time, Multiprogramming Operating System were used. High level language (FORTRAN-II TO IV, COBOL, PASCAL PL/1, BASIC, ALGOL-68 etc.) were used during this generation. The main features of Third Generation are: IC used More reliable Smaller size Generate less heat Faster Lesser maintenance Still costly A.C needed Consumed lesser electricity Support high level language Some computer of this generation were: IBM-360 series Honeywell-6000 series PDP(Personal Data Processor) IBM-370/168 TDC-316

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4. Fourth Generation The period of Fourth Generation was 1971-1980. The fourth generation of computers is marked by the use of Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits.VLSI circuits having about 5000 transistors and other circuit elements and their associated circuits on a single chip made it possible to have microcomputers of fourth generation. Fourth Generation computers became more powerful, compact, reliable, and affordable. As a result, it gave rise to personal computer (PC) revolution. In this generation Time sharing, Real time, Networks, Distributed Operating System were used. All the Higher level languages like C and C++, DBASE etc. were used in this generation. The main features of Fourth Generation are: VLSI technology used Very cheap Portable and reliable Use of PC's Very small size Pipeline processing No A.C. needed Concept of internet was introduced Great developments in the fields of networks Computers became easily available Some computer of this generation were: DEC 10 STAR 1000 PDP 11 CRAY-1(Super Computer) CRAY-X-MP(Super Computer)

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5. Fifth Generation The period of Fifth Generation is 1980-till date. In the fifth generation, the VLSI technology became ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology, resulting in the production of microprocessor chips having ten million electronic components. This generation is based on parallel processing hardware and AI (Artificial Intelligence) software. AI is an emerging branch in computer science, which interprets means and method of making computers think like human beings.

All the Higher level languages like C and C++, Java, .Net etc. are used in this generation. AI includes: Robotics Neural networks Game Playing Development of expert systems to make decisions in real life situations. Natural language understanding and generation.

The main features of Fifth Generation are:


ULSI technology Development of true artificial intelligence Development of Natural language processing Advancement in Parallel Processing Advancement in Superconductor technology More user friendly interfaces with multimedia features Availability of very powerful and compact computers at cheaper rates Some computer types of this generation are: Desktop Laptop NoteBook UltraBook ChromeBook

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Lesson 4: Computer - Types


Computer can be broadly classified by their speed and computing power. Sr. No. 1 Type PC (Personal Computer) Specifications Single user computer system. Moderately powerful microprocessor. Single user computer system. Similar to Personal Computer but have more powerful microprocessor. Multi-user computer system. Capable of supporting hundreds of users simulaneously. Multi-user computer system. Capable of supporting hundreds of users simulaneously.Software technology is different from minicomputer. An extremely fast computer which can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per second.

WorkStation

Mini Computer

Main Frame

Supercomputer

PC (Personal Computer)
A PC can be defined as a small, relatively inexpensive computer designed for an individual user. PCs are based on the microprocessor technology that enables manufacturers to put an entire CPU on one chip. Businesses use personal computers for word processing, accounting, desktop publishing, and for running spreadsheet and database management applications. At home, the most popular use for personal computers is for playing games and surfing the Internet. Although personal computers are designed as single-user systems, these systems are normally linked together to form a network. In terms of power, now-a-days High-end models of the Macintosh and PC offer the same computing power and graphics capability as low-end workstations by Sun Microsystems, Hewlett-Packard, and DELL.

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WorkStation
Workstation is a computer used for engineering applications (CAD/CAM), desktop publishing, software development, and other such types of applications which require a moderate amount of computing power and relatively high quality graphics capabilities. Workstations generally come with a large, high-resolution graphics screen, large amount of RAM, inbuilt network support, and a graphical user interface. Most workstations also have a mass storage device such as a disk drive, but a special type of workstation, called a diskless workstation, comes without a disk drive. Common operating systems for workstations are UNIX and Windows NT. Like PC, Workstations are also single-user computers. However, workstations are typically linked together to form a local-area network, although they can also be used as stand-alone systems.

Minicomputer
It is a midsize computer. A minicomputer is a multi-processing system capable of supporting from up to 250 users simultaneously.

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Mainframe
Mainframe is a very large in size and is an expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. Mainframe executes many programs concurrently. Mainframes support many simultaneous programs execution.

Supercomputer
Supercomputers are one of the fastest computers currently available. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations (number crunching). For example, weather forecasting , scientific simulations, (animated) graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, electronic design, and analysis of geological data (e.g. in petrochemical prospecting).

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Lesson 5: Computer - Components

ll types of computer follows a same basic logical structure and perform the following five basic operations for converting raw input data into information useful to their users Sr. No. Operation Description

Take Input

The process of entering data and instructions into the computer system. Saving data and instructions so that they are available for processing as and when required. Performing arithmetic , logical operations on data in order to convert them into useful information. The process of producing useful information or results for the user,such as a printed report or visual display. Direct the manner and sequence in which all of the above operations are performed.

Store Data

Processing Data

Output Information Control the workflow

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Input Unit This unit contains devices with the help of which we enter data into computer.This unit makes link between user and computer. The input devices translate the human being information into the form understandable by computer. CPU (Central Processing Unit) CPU is considered as the brain of the computer. CPU perform all types of data processing operations.It stores data , intermediate results and instructions(program).It controls the operation of all parts of computer. CPU itself has following three components

ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit) Memory Unit Control Unit

Output Unit Output unit consists of devices with the help of which we get the information from computer. This unit is a link between computer and users. Output devices translate the computer's output into the form understandable by users.

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Lesson 6 : Computer - CPU


CPU is considered as the brain of the computer. CPU performs all types of data processing operations. It stores data , intermediate resulta and instructions(program). It controls the operation of all parts of computer.

CPU itself has following three components.


Memory Or Storage Unit: Control Unit ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit)

Memory Or Storage Unit: This unit can store instruction, data and intermediate results.This unit supplies information to the other units of the computer when needed.It is also known as internal storage unit or main memory or primary storage or Random access memory(RAM). Its size affects speed, power and capability.There are primary memory and secondary memory two types of memories in the computer.Function of Memory Unit are:
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It stores all the data to be processed and the instructions required for processing. It stores intermediate results of processing. It stores final results of processing before these results are released to an output device. All inputs and outputs are transmitted through main memory.

Control Unit This unit controls the operations of all parts of computer.It does not carry out any actual data processing operations. Functions of this unit are
It is responsible for controlling the transfer of data and instructions among other units of a computer. It manages and coordinates all the units of the computer. It obtains the instructions from the memory, interprets them and directs the operation of the computer. It communicates with Input/Output devices for transfer of data or results from storage.

It does not process or store data. ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit) This unit consists of two subsection namely Arithmetic section Logic Section

ARITHMETIC SECTION Function of Arithmetic section is to perform arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.All complex operations are done by making repetitive use of above operations. LOGIC SECTION Function of logic section is to perform logic operations such as comparing, selecting, matching and merging of data.

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Leson 7: Computer - Input Devices Following are few of the important input devices which are used in Computer Systems Keyboard Mouse Joy Stick Light pen Track Ball Scanner Graphic Tablet Microphone Magnetic Ink Card Reader(MICR) Optical Character Reader(OCR) Bar Code Reader Optical Mark Reader Keyboard

Most common and very popular input device is keyboard. The keyboard helps in inputting the data to the computer.The layout of the keyboard is like that of traditional typewriter, although there are some additional keys provided for performing some additional functions. Keyboard are of two sizes 84 keys or 101/102 keys, but now 104 keys or 108 keys keyboard is also available for Windows and Internet. The keys are following
Sr. No. 1 Keys Typing Keys Description These keys include the letter keys (A-Z) and digits keys (0-9) which are generally give same layout as that of typewriters. It is used to enter numeric data or cursor movement. Generally, it consists of a set of 17 keys that are laid out in the same configuration used by most adding machine and calculators. The twelve functions keys are present on the keyboard. These are arranged in a row along the top of the keyboard.Each function key has unique meaning and is used for some specific purpose. These keys provides cursor and screen control. It includes four directional arrow key.Control keys also include Home, End,Insert, Delete, Page Up, Page Down, Control(Ctrl), Alternate(Alt), Escape(Esc).

Numeric Keypad

Function Keys

Control keys

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Special Purpose Keys

Keyboard also contains some special purpose keys such as Enter, Shift, Caps Lock, Num Lock, Space bar, Tab, and Print Screen.

Mouse
Mouse is most popular Pointing device. It is a very famous cursor-control device. It is a small palm size box with a round ball at its base which senses the movement of mouse and sends corresponding signals to CPU on pressing the buttons. Generally it has two buttons called left and right button and scroll bar is present at the mid. Mouse can be used to control the position of cursor on screen, but it cannot be used to enter text into the computer. ADVANTAGES Easy to use Not very expensive Moves the cursor faster than the arrow keys of keyboard.

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Joystick
Joystick is also a pointing device which is used to move cursor position on a monitor screen. It is a stick having a spherical ball at its both lower and upper ends. The lower spherical ball moves in a socket.TheJoystic can be moved in all four directions. The function of joystic is similar to that of a mouse. It is mainly used in Computer Aided Designing(CAD) and playing computer games.

Light Pen
Light pen is a pointing device which is similar to a pen. It is used to select a displayed menu item or draw pictures on the monitor screen.It consists of a photocell and an optical system placed in a small tube. When light pen's tip is moved over the monitor screen and pen button is pressed, its photocell sensing element detects the screen location and sends the corresponding signal to the CPU.

Track Ball
Track ball is an input device that is mostly used in notebook or laptop computer, instead of a mouse. This is a ball which is half inserted and by moving fingers on ball, pointer can be moved. Since the whole device is not moved, a track ball requires less space than a mouse. A track ball comes in various shapes like a ball, a button and a square.
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Scanner
Scanner is an input device which works more like a photocopy machine. It is used when some information is available on a paper and it is to be transferred to the hard disc of the computer for further manipulation. Scanner captures images from the source which are then converted into the digital form that can be stored on the disc.These images can be edited before they are printed.

Digitizer
Digitizer is an input device which converts analog information into a digital form. Digitizer can convert a signal from the television camera into a series of numbers that could be stored in a computer. They can be used by the computer to create a picture of whatever the camera had been pointed at. Digitizer is also known as Tablet or Graphics Tablet because it converts graphics and pictorial data into binary inputs. A graphic tablet as digitizer is used for doing fine works of drawing and images manipulation applications.

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Microphone
Microphone is an input device to input sound that is then stored in digital form. The microphone is used for various applications like adding sound to a multimedia presentation or for mixing music.

Magnetic Ink Card Reader(MICR)


MICR input device is generally used in banks because of a large number of cheques to be processed every day. The bank's code number and cheque number are printed on the cheques with a special type of ink that contains particles of magnetic material that are machine readable. This reading process is called Magnetic Ink Character Recognition(MICR). The main advantages of MICR is that it is fast and less error prone.

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Optical Character Reader(OCR)


OCR is an input device used to read a printed text. OCR scans text optically character by character, converts them into a machine readable code and stores the text on the system memory.

Bar Code Readers


Bar Code Reader is a device used for reading bar coded data (data in form of light and dark lines). Bar coded data is generally used in labelling goods, numbering the books etc. It may be a hand held scanner or may be embedded in a stationary scanner. Bar Code Reader scans a bar code image, converts it into an alphanumeric value which is then fed to the computer to which bar code reader is connected.

Optical Mark Reader(OMR)


OMR is a special type of optical scanner used to recognize the type of mark made by pen or pencil. It is used where one out of a few alternatives is to be selected
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and marked. It is specially used for checking the answer sheets of examinations having multiple choice questions.

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Lesson 8 : Computer - Output Devices Following are few of the important output devices which are used in Computer Systems
Monitors Graphic Plotter Printer

Monitors
Monitor commonly called as Visual Display Unit (VDU) is the main output device of a computer. It forms images from tiny dots, called pixels, that are arranged in a rectangular form. The sharpness of the image depends upon the no. of the pixels. There are two kinds of viewing screen used for monitors.

Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT) Flat- Panel Display

Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT) Monitor In the CRT display is made up of small picture elements called pixels for short.The smaller the pixels, the better the image clarity, or resolution.It takes more than one illuminated pixel to form whole character, such as the letter e in the word help. A finite number of character can be displayed on a screen at once.The screen can be divided into a series of character boxes - fixed location on the screen where a standard character can be placed. The most screens are capable of displaying 80 characters of data horizontally and 25 lines vertically. There are some disadvantage of CRT
Large in Size High Power consumption

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Flat-Panel Display Monitor The flat-panel display refers to a class of video devices that have reduced volume, weight and power requirement compare to the CRT. You can hang them on walls or wear them on your wrists. Current uses for flat-panel displays include calculators, videogames, monitors, laptop computer, graphics display. The flat-panel display are divided into two categories Emissive Displays - The emissive displays are devices that convert electrical energy into light. Example are plasma panel and LED(Light-Emitting Diodes). Non-Emissive Displays - The Non-emissive displays use optical effects to convert sunlight or light from some other source into graphics patterns.Example is LCD(LiquidCrystal Device)

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Printers
Printer is the most important output device, which is used to print information on paper. There are two types of printers Impact Printers Non-Impact Printers Impact Printers The printers that print the characters by striking against the ribbon and onto the paper, are called impact printers. Characteristics of Impact Printers are following
Very low consumable costs Impact printers are very noisy Useful for bulk printing due to low cost There is physical contact with the paper to produce an image These printers are of two types Character printers Line printers

Character Printers:
Character Printers are printers which print one character at a time. These are of further two types Dot Matrix Printer(DMP) Daisy Wheel

Dot Matrix Printer In the market one of the most popular printer is Dot Matrix Printer because of their ease of printing features and economical price. Each character printed is in form of pattern of Dot's and head consists of a Matrix of Pins of size(5*7, 7*9, 9*7 or 9*9) which comes out to form a character that is why it is called Dot Matrix Printer. Advantages
Inexpensive Widely Used Other language characters can be printed Disadvantages Slow Speed Poor Quality

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Daisy Wheel Head is lying on a wheel and Pins corresponding to characters are like petals of Daisy(flower name) that is why it is called Daisy Wheel Printer. These printers are generally used for word-processing in offices which require a few letters to be send here and there with very nice quality representation.
Advantages

More reliable than DMP's Better quality The fonts of character can be easily changed. Disadvantages Slower than DMP's Noisy More expensive than DMP's

Line Printers
Line printers are printers which print one line at a time.

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These are of further two types Drum Printer Chain Printer

Drum Printer This printer is like a drum in shape so it called drum printer. The surface of drum is divided into number of tracks. Total tracks are equal to size of paper i.e for a paper width of 132 characters, Drum will have 132 tracks. A character set is embossed on track. The different characters sets are available in market 48 character set, 64 and 96 characters set.One rotation of drum prints one line. Drum Printers are fast in speed and speed in between 300 to 2000 lines per minute. Advantages Very high speed Disadvantages Very expensive Characters fonts can not be changed Chain Printer In this printer chain of character sets are used so it called Chain Printers.A standard character set may have 48, 64, 96 characters. Advantages Character fonts can easily be changed. Different languages can be used with the same printer. Disadvantages Noisy Do not have the ability to print any shape of characters.

Non-impact Printers The printers that print the characters without striking against the ribbon and onto the paper, are called Non-impact Printers. These printers print a complete page at a time, also called as Page Printers. These printers are of two types Laser Printers Inkjet Printers Characteristics of Non-impact Printers Faster than impact printers. They are not noisy. High quality. Support many fonts and different character size.

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Laser Printers These are non-impact page printers. They use laser lights to produces the dots needed to form the characters to be printed on a page. Advantages Very high speed. Very high quality output. Give good graphics quality. Support many fonts and different character size. Disadvantage Expensive. Cannot be used to produce multiple copies of a document in a single printing.

Inkjet Printers Inkjet printers are non-impact character printers based on a relatively new technology. They print characters by spraying small drops of ink onto paper. Inkjet printers produce high quality output with presentable features. They make less noise because no hammering is done and these have many styles of printing modes available. Colour printing is also possible. Some models of Inkjet printers can produce multiple copies of printing also. Advantages High quality printing More reliable Disadvantages Expensive as cost per page is high Slow as compare to laser printer

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Lesson 9 : Computer - Hardware Hardware represents the physical and tangible components of the computer i.e. the components that can be seen and touched. Examples of Hardware are following. Input devices -- keyboard, mouse etc. Output devices -- printer, monitor etc. Secondary storage devices -- Hard disk, CD, DVD etc. Internal components -- CPU, motherboard, RAM etc.

Relationship between Hardware and Software Mutually dependent.Both of them must work together to make computer produce a useful output. Software cannot be utilized without supporting hardware. Hardware without set of programs to operate upon cannot be utilized and is useless. To get a particular job done on the computer, relevant software should be loaded into the hardware Hardware is a one time expense. software development is very expensive and is a continuing expense. Different software can be loaded on a hardware to run different jobs. A software acts as an interface between the user and the hardware. If hardware is the 'heart' of a computer system, then software is its 'soul'.Both are complimentary to each other.

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Lesson 10 : Computer - Software Software is a set of programs, which is designed to perform a well defined function. A program is a sequence of instructions written to solve a particular problem. There are two types of software System Software Application Software System Software The system software is collection of programs designed to operate, control and extend the processing capabilities of the computer itself. System software are generally prepared by computer manufactures. These softwares comprise of programs written in low level languages which interact with the hardware at a very basic level. System software serves as the interface between hardware and the end users. Some examples of system software are Operating System, Compilers, Interpreter, Assemblers etc.

Features of System Software are following

Close to system. Fast in speed. Difficult to design. Difficult to understand. Less interactive. Smaller in size. Difficult to manipulate. Generally written in low level language.

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Application Software Application software are the software that are designed to satisfy a particular need of a particular environment. All software prepared by us in the computer lab can come under the category of Application software. Application software may consists of a single program, such as a Microsoft's notepad for writing and editing simple text. It may also consists of a collection of programs, often called a software package, which work together to accomplish a task, such as a spreadsheet package. Examples of Application software are following Payroll Software Student Record Software Inventory Management Software Income Tax Software Railways Reservation Software Microsoft Office Suite Software Microsoft Word Microsoft Excel Microsoft Powerpoint

Features of Application Software are following It is close to user. It is easy to design. More interactive. Slow in speed. Generally written in high level language. Easy to understand. Easy to manipulate and use. Bigger in size and requires large storage space.

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Midterm

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Lesson 11: Computer - Number System


When we type some letters or words, the computer translates them in numbers as computers can understand only numbers. A computer can understand positional number system where there are only a few symbols called digits and these symbols represent different values depending on the position they occupy in the number. A value of each digit in a number can be determined using
The digit The position of the digit in the number The base of the number system (where base is defined as the total number of digits available in the number system).

Decimal Number System The number system that we use in our day-to-day life is the decimal number system. Decimal number system has base 10 as it uses 10 digits from 0 to 9. In decimal number system, the successive positions to the left of the decimal point represent units, tens, hundreds, thousands and so on. Each position represents a specific power of the base (10). For example, the decimal number 1234 consists of the digit 4 in the units position, 3 in the tens position, 2 in the hundreds position, and 1 in the thousands position, and its value can be written as (1x1000)+ (2x100)+ (3x10)+ (4xl) (1x103)+ (2x102)+ (3x101)+ (4xl00) 1000 + 200 + 30 + 1 1234 As a computer programmer or an IT professional, you should understand the following number systems which are frequently used in computers.

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S.N.

Number System & Description Binary Number System Base 2. Digits used: 0, 1

Octal Number System Base 8. Digits used: 0 to 7 Hexa Decimal Number System Base 16. Digits used: 0 to 9, Letters used: A- F

Binary Number System


Characteristics

Uses two digits, 0 and 1. Also called base 2 number system Each position in a binary number represents a 0 power of the base (2). Example 2 0 Last position in a binary number represents a x power of the base (2). Example 2x where x represents the last position - 1.

EXAMPLE Binary Number: 101012 Calculating Decimal Equivalent:


Step Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Binary Number 101012 101012 101012 Decimal Number
4 3 2 1 0 ((1 x 2 ) + (0 x 2 ) + (1 x 2 ) + (0 x 2 ) + (1 x 2 ))10

(16 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 1)10 2110

Note: 101012 is normally written as 10101.

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Octal Number System


Characteristics Uses eight digits, 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7. Also called base 8 number system Each position in a octal number represents a 0 power of the base (8). Example 80 Last position in a octal number represents a x power of the base (8). Example 8x where x represents the last position - 1. EXAMPLE Octal Number: 125708 Calculating Decimal Equivalent: Step Octal Number Decimal Number ((1 x 84) + (2 x 83) + (5 x 82) + (7 x 81) + (0 x 80))10

Step 1

125708

Step 2

125708

(4096 + 1024 + 320 + 56 + 0)10

Step 3

125708

549610

Note: 125708 is normally written as 12570.

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Hexadecimal Number System


Characteristics Uses 10 digits and 6 letters, 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F. Letters represents numbers starting from 10. A = 10. B = 11, C = 12, D = 13, E = 14, F = 15. Also called base 16 number system Each position in a hexadecimal number represents a 0 power of the base (16). Example 160 Last position in a hexadecimal number represents a x power of the base (16). Example 16xwhere x represents the last position - 1. EXAMPLE Hexadecimal Number: 19FDE16 Calculating Decimal Equivalent: Step Binary Number Decimal Number

Step 1

19FDE16

((1 x 164) + (9 x 163) + (F x 162) + (D x 161) + (E x 160))10

Step 2

19FDE16

((1 x 164) + (9 x 163) + (15 x 162) + (13 x 161) + (14 x 160))10

Step 3

19FDE16

(65536+ 36864 + 3840 + 208 + 14)10

Step 4

19FDE16

10646210

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Lesson 12: Computer - Number Conversion


There are many methods or techniques which can be used to convert numbers from one base to another. We'll demonstrate here the following Decimal to Other Base System Other Base System to Decimal Other Base System to Non-Decimal Shortcut method - Binary to Octal Shortcut method - Octal to Binary Shortcut method - Binary to Hexadecimal Shortcut method - Hexadecimal to Binary Decimal to Other Base System Steps Step 1 - Divide the decimal number to be converted by the value of the new base. Step 2 - Get the remainder from Step 1 as the rightmost digit (least significant digit) of new base number. Step 3 - Divide the quotient of the previous divide by the new base. Step 4 - Record the remainder from Step 3 as the next digit (to the left) of the new base number. Repeat Steps 3 and 4, getting remainders from right to left, until the quotient becomes zero in Step 3. The last remainder thus obtained will be the most significant digit (MSD) of the new base number.
EXAMPLE
Decimal Number: 2910 Calculating Binary Equivalent: Step Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Operation 29 / 2 14 / 2 7/2 3/2 1/2 Result 14 7 3 1 0 Remainder 1 0 1 1 1

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As mentioned in Steps 2 and 4, the remainders have to be arranged in the reverse order so that the first remainder becomes the least significant digit (LSD) and the last remainder becomes the most significant digit (MSD). Decimal Number: 2910 = Binary Number: 111012.

Other base system to Decimal System


Steps

Step 1 - Determine the column (positional) value of each digit (this depends on the position of the digit and the base of the number system). Step 2 - Multiply the obtained column values (in Step 1) by the digits in the corresponding columns. Step 3 - Sum the products calculated in Step 2. The total is the equivalent value in decimal.

EXAMPLE
Binary Number: 111012 Calculating Decimal Equivalent:
Step Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Binary Number 111012 111012 111012 Decimal Number ((1 x 2 ) + (1 x 2 ) + (1 x 2 ) + (0 x 2 ) + (1 x 2 ))10 (16 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 1)10 2910
4 3 2 1 0

Binary Number: 111012 = Decimal Number: 2910

Other Base System to Non-Decimal System


Steps Step 1 - Convert the original number to a decimal number (base 10). Step 2 - Convert the decimal number so obtained to the new base number. EXAMPLE Octal Number: 258 Calculating Binary Equivalent:

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STEP 1: CONVERT TO DECIMAL


Step Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Octal Number 278 278 278 Decimal Number ((2 x 8 ) + (5 x 8 ))10 (16 + 5 )10 2110
1 0

Octal Number: 258 = Decimal Number: 2110

STEP 2: CONVERT DECIMAL TO BINARY


Step Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Operation 21 / 2 10 / 2 5/2 2/2 1/2 Result 10 5 2 1 0 Remainder 1 0 1 0 1

Decimal Number: 2110 = Binary Number: 101012 Octal Number: 258 = Binary Number: 101012

Shortcut method - Binary to Octal


Steps

Step 1 - Divide the binary digits into groups of three (starting from the right). Step 2 - Convert each group of three binary digits to one octal digit. EXAMPLE Binary Number: 101012 Calculating Octal Equivalent:

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Step Step 1 Step 2 Step 3

Binary Number 101012 101012 101012

Octal Number 010 101 28 58 38 258

Binary Number: 101012 = Octal Number: 258

Shortcut method - Octal to Binary


Steps Step 1 - Convert each octal digit to a 3 digit binary number (the octal digits may be treated as decimal for this conversion). Step 2 - Combine all the resulting binary groups (of 3 digits each) into a single binary number.

EXAMPLE
Octal Number: 258 Calculating Binary Equivalent: Step Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Octal Number 258 258 258 Binary Number 210 510 0102 1012 0101012

Octal Number: 258 = Binary Number: 101012

Shortcut method - Binary to Hexadecimal


Steps Step 1 - Divide the binary digits into groups of four (starting from the right). Step 2 - Convert each group of four binary digits to one hexadecimal symbol.

EXAMPLE
Binary Number: 101012 Calculating hexadecimal Equivalent:

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Step Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 5

Binary Number 101012 101012 101012 101012

Hexadecimal Number 0001 0101 110 510 1510 F16

Binary Number: 101012 = Hexadecimal Number: F16

Shortcut method - Hexadecimal to Binary


Steps

Step 1 - Convert each hexadecimal digit to a 4 digit binary number (the hexadecimal digits may be treated as decimal for this conversion). Step 2 - Combine all the resulting binary groups (of 4 digits each) into a single binary number. EXAMPLE Hexadecimal Number: F16 Calculating Binary Equivalent:

Step Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4

Hexadecimal Number F16 F16 F16 F16

Binary Number 1510 110 510 00012 01012 000101012

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Finals

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Lesson 13: Computer - Data & information


What is Data? Data can be defined as a representation of facts, concepts or instruction in a formalized manner which should be suitable for communication , interpretation or processing by human or electronic machine. Data is represented with the help of characters like alphabets (A-Z,a-z), digits (0-9) or special characters(+,-,/,*,<,>,= etc).

What is Information? Information is organised or classified data so that it has some meaningful values to the receiver. Information is the processed data on which decisions and actions are based. For the decision to be meaningful, the processed data must qualify for the following characteristics

Timely - Information should be available when required. Accuracy - Information should be accurate. Completeness - Information should be complete.

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Data Processing Cycle Data processing is the re-structuring or re-ordering of data by people or machine to increase their usefulness & add values for particular purpose. Data processing consists of basic steps input, processing and output. These three steps constitute the data processing cycle.

Input - In this step the input data are prepared in some convenient form for processing. The form will depend on the processing machine. For example, when electronic computers are used, the input data could be recorded on any one of several types of input medium, such as magnetic disks, tapes and so on. Processing - In this step input data are changed to produce data in a more useful form. For example, pay-checks may be calculated from the time cards, or a summary of sales for the month may be calculated from the sales orders. Output -Here the result of the proceeding processing step are collected. The particular form of the output data depends on the use of the data. For example, output data may be pay-checks for employees.

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ALGORITHM What is Algorithm? An algorithm is a list of instructions for carrying out some process step by step. A recipe in a cookbook is an excellent example of an algorithm. The number of its basic steps and position is very small, but putting them together in different ways, an endless variety of delicious food can be cooked.

Example: If we can devise an algorithm for a process, we can usually do so in many different ways. Here is one algorithm for the usual process of changing a flat tire. 1. Jack up the car 2. Unscrew the Lugs 3. Remove the wheel. 4. Put on the spare. 5. Screw the lugs. 6. Jack down the car.

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FLOWCHART What is flowchart? A flowchart is a diagram representing the logical sequence in which a combination of steps or operation is to be performed. It consists of labeled geometrical symbols that are interconnected to provide a pictorial representation of a data processing procedure. A flowchart is actually a visual representation of an algorithm. To the programmer, a flowchart is a kind of an all-purpose tool. It is the blueprint of a program. Advantages and Limitations of Flowchart Advantages: There are advantages and limitations in the use of flowcharts.

Since flowcharts are language-independent, they can be learned and applied without formal knowledge of a programming language. It enforces users to give attention to significant matters over the less significant ones. Being graphically portrayed, flowcharts provided an alternative to the usual description of a system r a program. Flowcharts are easier to understand than a program written in a particular programming language.

Limitations:

Flowcharts do not represent a programming language and are not more of a person-toperson than a person-to-computer means of communication. A computer cannot accept program described in flowcharting form. Since thinking in graphic terms is not normal, flowcharts cannot be viewed as a natural means of communication. Certain details often require a long sequence of interconnected symbols which could easily be described in just a few lines of explanation. It does not convey why a given set of operation is made. Flowcharts only portray how. Flowchart does not highlight the important details since each step receives as much attention in a flowchart as any other.

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TYPES FLOWCHART The two major types of flowcharts are the program and system flowcharts.

Program Flowcharts A program flowchart describes graphically in detail the logical operations and steps within a program and the sequence in which these steps are to be executed for the transformation of data to produce the needed output. System Flowchart A system flowchart is a graphic representation of the procedures involved in converting data on input media to data in output form. It illustrate which data is used or produced at various points in a sequence of operation FLOWCHART SYMBOLS The basic symbols of a program flowchart are given below. Input /Output Symbol (Parallelogram) The input output symbol represents an instruction to an input or an output device.

Processing Symbol (Rectangle) This symbol is used to represent a group of program instructions that perform a processing function of the program such as to perform a arithmetic operations, or to compare.

Decision Symbol (Rectangle) This diamond-shaped box denotes a point in the program where more than one path can be taken.

Preparation Symbol (Hexagon) This symbol is used to represent an instruction or group of instruction that will alter, or modify a programs course of execution. It is commonly used to specify operations such as control, index register, initialization, switch setting, and in indicating loops

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Terminal Symbol (Oval) The terminal symbol is used to designate the beginning and the end of a program.

Predefined Symbol Process Symbol (Rectangle with two vertical Bars) This symbol is a specialized process symbol that represents a named operation or programmed step not explicitly detailed in the program flowchart.

On-Page Connector (Small Circle) This is a non processing symbol which is used to connect one part of flowchart to another without drawing flowlines at the same page.

Off-Page Connector(Small Pentagon) This is a non processing symbol which is used to connect one part of flowchart to another to another page.

Flow line. This indicates the direction flow of the process.

10. Magnetic Disc (Cylinder) The most universally recognizable symbol for a data storage location, this flowchart shape depicts a database.

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11.Document The Document flowchart symbol is for a process step that produces a document.

12. Display Indicates a process step where information is displayed to a person

SAMPLE FLOWCHART Sequential Flowchart


Start

Enter First Number, Second number

Sum=First Number + Second Number

Print Sum

End

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Conditional Flowchart

Start

Enter a Number

Answer=Number/2

Is Answer==0 ? N Print a number is an Odd number A End

Print a number is an Even number

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Sample Loop and Counter Flowchart

Start

Num1=1 A Y End Num1>=5 ? N Print Num1

Is

Num1=Num1+1

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DATACOM INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY


FIRST SEMESTER FIRST TRANSITION

COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM

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Prelim
Introducing W.O.S Hardware and Software Components

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What is operating system?


An operating system is a program that acts as an interface between the software and the computer hardware. It is an integration set of specialized programs that are used to manage overall resources and operations of the computer. It is specialized software that controls and monitors the execution of all other programs that reside in the computer, including application programs and other system software. Objectives of Operating System Making a computer system convenient to use in an efficient manner To hide the details of the hardware resources from the users To provide users a convenient interface to use the computer system. To act as an intermediary between the hardware and its users and making it easier for the users to access and use other resources. Manage the resources of a computer system. keep track of who is using which resource, granting resource requests, according for resource using and mediating conflicting requests from different programs and users. The efficient and fair sharing of resources among users and programs

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Characteristics of Operating System Memory Management -- It keeps tracks of primary memory i.e. what part of it are in use by whom, what part are not in use etc. Allocates the memory when the process or program request it. Processor Management -- Allocate the processor (CPU) to a process. Deallocate processor when processor is no longer required. Device Management -- Keep tracks of all devices. This is also called I/O controller. Decides which process gets the device when and for how much time. File Management -- Allocates the resources. De-allocates the resource. Decides who gets the resources. Security -- By means of passwords & similar other techniques, preventing unauthorized access to programs & data. Job accounting -- Keeping track of time & resources used by various jobs and/or users. Control over system performance -- Recording delays between request for a service & from the system. Interaction with the operators -- The interaction may take place via the console of the computer in the form of instructions. Operating System acknowledges the same, do the corresponding action and inform the operation by a display screen. Error-detecting aids -- Production of dumps, traces, error messages and other debugging and errordetecting methods. Coordination between other software and users -- Coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters, assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems.

The operating system has four main parts:


The KERNEL The DEVICE DRIVERS The USER INTERFACE The SYSTEM UTILITIES

Kernel The kernel is the main component of most computer operating systems, it is a bridge between applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level. Device Drivers Is a group of files that enable one or more hardware devices to communicate with the computer's operating system. Without drivers, a hardware device such as a computer printer would not be able to work with the computer. User Interface The portion of a software program or hardware device that is used to navigate and control aspects of the software program or hardware device.

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System Utilities To manage the memory To manage the IO devices To provide platform for interaction between computer & user To manage the communication between devices Single user Operating System This type of operating system only has to deal with one person at a time, running one user application at a time. An example of this kind of operating system would be the operating system of a basic mobile phone. There can only be one user using the device and that person is only using one of its applications at a time. Single user, Multi Tasking Operating System You will find this kind of operating system on a personal computer. The operating system is designed mainly with a single user in mind, but it can deal with many applications running at the same time. Example operating systems are: Microsoft Windows (began on April 4, 1975) A section of the computer's display in a GUI that shows the program currently being used. For example, the browser window that you are using to view this web page is a window. Windows allow a user to work with multiple programs or view multiple programs at once. Almost all windows will also you to minimize and maximize them, allowing you to hide and view a program temporarily.

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Linux A free and open-source operating system developed by Linus Torvalds and friends and was first announced by Linus in a post he made August 25, 1991.

Mac Os Is an operating system codenamed Cheetah that was released by Apple in 2001 and is a completely new Apple Macintosh operating system

Operating System Classification


Multitasking They enable the computer to run more than one piece of software at the same time. Multi Threading The ruining if several processes in paid sequence, multi tasking w/in a single program. Multi Processing Capable of supporting and utilizing more than one computer processor. Real Time The real instantaneous processing data and feedback so that the user can respond immediately in the computer program. Graphical User Interface (GUI) contains graphics and icons and commonly navigated by the use of the computer mouse.

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Computer Hardware Device


Computer Components

Internal Hardware Hard disk drive Alternatively referred to as a hard disk drive and abbreviated as HD or HDD, the hard drive is the computers main storage media device that permanently stores all data on the computer.

Optical drive Short for Compact Disc-Read Only Memory, CD-ROM drives or optical drives are CD players inside computers that can have speeds in the range from 1x and beyond, and have the capability of playing audio CDs and computer data CDs. Below is a picture of the front and back of a standard CD-ROM drive.

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Ide cable Short for Integrated Drive Electronics or IBM Disc Electronics, IDE is more commonly known as ATA or Parallel ATA (PATA) and is a standard interface for IBM compatible hard drives.

Sata cable Short for Serial ATA, SATA and is a replacement for the Parallel ATA interface.

CPU fan/Heat sink A CPU fan can come in a variety of sizes and is normally sold with a copper and/or aluminum heat sink.

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CPU Alternatively referred to as a processor or microprocessor, the CPU was first developed by Intel in 1974 and is short for Central Processing Unit.

Motherboard Referred to as the mb, main board, mobo, system board or the motherboard is a printed circuit that is the foundation of a computer and allows the CPU, RAM, and all other computer hardware components to function with each other.

RAM Alternatively referred to as main memory, primary memory, or system memory, Random Access Memory (RAM) is a computer storage location that allows information to be stored and accessed quickly from random locations within DRAM on a memory module. Because information is accessed randomly instead of sequentially like a CD or hard drive the computer is able to access the data much faster than it would if it was only reading the hard drive

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Power Supply Short for Power Supply and sometimes abbreviated as PSU, which is short for Power Supply Unit. The PS is an internal hardware component used to supply the components in a computer with power by converting potentially lethal 110-115 or 220-230 volt alternating current (AC) into a steady low-voltage direct current (DC) usable by the computer.

External Hardware Mouse Keyboard Monitor Avr/Ups System Unit Printer

RAM (Random Access Memory)


A RAM constitutes the internal memory of the CPU for storing data, program and program result. It is read/write memory. It is called random access memory (RAM).

RAM is volatile, i.e. data stored in it is lost when we switch off the computer or if there is a power failure. Hence a backup uninterruptible power system (UPS) is often used with computers. RAM is small, both in terms of its physical size and in the amount of data it can hold. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 130

Characteristic of the Static RAM It has long data lifetime There is no need to refresh Faster Used as cache memory Large size Expensive High power consumption

ROM
ROM stands for Read Only Memory. The memory from which we can only read but cannot write on it. This type of memory is non-volatile. The information is stored permanently in such memories during manufacture. A ROM, stores such instruction as are required to start computer when electricity is first turned on, this operation is referred to as bootstrap. ROM chip are not only used in the computer but also in other electronic items like washing machine and microwave oven.

Motherboard The motherboard serves as a single platform to connect all of the parts of a computer together. A motherboard connects CPU, memory, hard drives, optical drives, video card, sound card and other ports and expansion cards directly or via cables. It can be considered as the backbone of a computer.

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Features Motherboard varies greatly in supporting various types of components. Normally a motherboard supports a single type of CPU and few types of memories. Video Cards, Hard disks, Sound Cards have to compatible with motherboard to function properly. Motherboards, cases and power supplies must be compatible to work properly together. Popular Manufacturers Memory Units It is the amount of data that can be stored in the storage unit. The storage capacity is expressed in terms of Bytes. Following are the main memory storage units: Sr. No. 1 2 3 Unit Bit (Binary Digit) Nibble Byte Description A binary digit is logical 0 & 1 representing a passive or an active state of a component in an electric circuit. A group of 4 bits is called nibble. A group of 8 bits is called byte. A byte is the smallest unit which can represent a data item or a character. A computer word like a byte, is a group of fixed number of bits processed as a unit which varies from computer but is fixed for each computer. The length of a computer word is called word-size or word length and it may be as small as 8 bits or may be as long as 96 bits. A computer stores the information in the form of the computer words. Intel ASUS AOpen ABIT Biostar Gigabyte MSI

Word

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Few higher storage units are following Sr. No. 1 1 1 1 1 Unit Kilobyte (KB) Megabyte (MB) GigaByte (GB) TeraByte (TB PetaByte (PB) Description 1 KB = 1024 Bytes 1 MB = 1024 KB 1 GB = 1024 MB 1 TB = 1024 GB 1 PB = 1024 TB

Ports A computer port is a physical docking point using which an external device can be connected to the computer. A computer port can also be programmatic docking point through which information flows from a program to computer or over the internet. Characteristics External devices are connected to a computer using cables and ports. Ports are slots on the motherboard into which a cable of external device is plugged in. Examples of external devices attached via ports are mouse, keyboard, monitor, microphone, speakers etc.

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Following are few important types of ports Serial Port Used for external modems and older computer mouse. Two versions: 9 pin, 25 pin model. Data travels at 115 kilobits per second. Parallel Port Used for scanners and printers Also called printer port. 25 pin model. Also known as IEEE 1284-compliant Centronics port.

PS/2 Port Used for old computer keyboard and mouse Also called mouse port. Most of the old computers provide two PS/2 port, each for mouse and keyboard. Also known as IEEE 1284-compliant Centronics port. Universal Serial Bus (or USB) Port Can connect all kind of external USB devices such as external hard disk, printer, scanner, mouse, keyboard etc. Introduced in 1997. Most of the computers provide two USB port as minimum. Data travels at 12 megabits per seconds USB compliant devices can get power from a USB port
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VGA Port Connects monitor to a computer's video card. Has 15 holes. Similar to serial port connector but serial port connector has pins, it has holes. Power Connector Three-pronged plug Connects to the computer's power cable that plugs into a power bar or wall socket. Firewire Port Transfer large amounts of data at very fast speed. Connects camcorders and video equipments to the computer Data travels at 400 to 800 megabits per seconds Invented by Apple Three variants: 4-Pin FireWire 400 connector, 6-Pin FireWire 400 connector and 9-Pin FireWire 800 connector Modem Connects a PC's modem to the telephone network. Ethernet Port Connects to a network and high speed Internet Connect network cable to a computer. This port resides on an Eternet Card. Data travels at 10 megabits to 1000 megabits per seconds depending upon the network bandwidth. Game Port Connect a PC to a joystick Now replaced by USB. Digital Video Interface , DVI port Connect a Flat panel LCD monitors to the computer's high end video graphic cards. Very popular among video card manufacturers. Sockets Connect microphone, speakers to sound card of the computer.

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Midterm

Installation of Windows XP and Windows 7 Familiarizing Windows XP Installation of Software/Program Components and Uninstalling Software/Program

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Formatting using Windows XP Before you start this procedure. Make sure to back up your data: First, make sure there is absolutely NOTHING you cannot afford to lose on the drive you're going to install Windows on (let's say the C: drive.) Make sure your network cable is unplugged from the wall (to avoid getting viruses from your local area network). You have a Windows XP installation CD with a valid Product Key. Hardware driver discs that shipped with the PC and any components you added on (Optional, but VERY strongly recommended Time & Patience (you need to be calm and give the setup a little time) Make sure you have your own copy of the Motherboard Drivers o Optional if you dont have any drivers follow these steps. Ctrl + r type dxdiag o Click ok/yes then write down the system model and download the drivers thru internet. You have back ups of your recently used software. Step 1: Insert the Windows XP CD into your CD-ROM drive and restart your computer. Step 2: The computer will prompt you to press any key to boot from the CD. Press a key on the keyboard to start the Windows Setup.

The computer will load the setup files automatically. This may take few minutes.

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Next you will prepare your hard drive for the installation of Windows. you will see the list of hard drives and its partitions. Step 3: Delete the partition prefix C: To do this select the partition and press the button D.

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Step 4: Steup will warn you that this is a system partition. Press Enter

Step 5: To complete the removal of the partition, Press L when you see the screen below.

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Step 6: You will return to the partition list. There should be unpartitioned space item on the list.highlight the unpartitioned space and press Enter.

Step 7: You will be asked to select the format of partition you wan to use for your hard drive. I recommend to select NTFS (Quick). Press Enter to continue.

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Setup will format the drive according to the preferences chosen in the previous option. This may take few minutes. After this process is done your hard drive will be completely empty.

Now windows setup will copy the files from the CD that will be needed to install Windows XP. This will take several minutes so please be patient.

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After the files have been copied, Windows setup will restart your computer. Dont remove the Windows XP setup CD, and dont press a key when prompted (we already did that).

Step 8: Setup will ask for your name or the company name. Type in your name.

Step 9: At the next screen, you will be prompted to enter that oh-so-important CD-key, which is located on the back of the sleeve or it should be packed with the license agreement. Enter it carefully (if you make a typo it will not work, but you can return and correct it). The letters will automatically be capitalized. Step 10: Setup will ask for you to assign Computer name. Please type that in.

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Step 11: Setup will ask for current day and time. Make sure you check the date and time and see if its correct or not and then click next. Setup will continue to install windows setup. This may take good bit of time so be patient.

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Once setup has installed Windows it will take you to a welcome screen.

Step 12: You will be given option to help protect the pc by turning on the automatic update. I recommend you choose Help protect my pc by turning on Automatic Update now.(This option can be changed later on).

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Step 13: Windows will ask you to register Windows XP. Choose No, not at this time

Step 14: Window will now make an attempt to connect to the internet. Click the little skip button at the bottom right.

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Step 15: Setup will ask you to type the name of the person using this computer. Fill in the name of the person using this computer that you want and click next.

Finaly you will be flashed with a Thank You! screen. Click Next and your all done for the formatting and reinstalling part!

Congratulations! You have successfully installed Windows. You are now one-step above every person in society that has not installed Windows. You can pat yourself at the back for being so patient throughout the installation. You did it!

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New elements in WindowsXP Introduction The new version of Windows represents an important change from the previous version. Since Windows95 was released the successive versions had only been an evolution from the original, nevertheless on this ocasion a more important change was produced because the very center or Kernell of the operating system has been changed. Although it may seem to the user that no radical changes were made, it could be said that WindowsXP is not just another version of Windows but practically a whole new system. Until now Microsoft had two different operating systems, Windows 98 for personal or domestic use and Windows NT/2000 for the business and professional environment. With WindowsXP a convergence among both versions is produced; the center of the operating system Windows 2000 was divided to create WindowsXP, and some adjustments were done to differentiate WindowsXP Home Edition and WindowsXP Professional. The main benefit of this strategy for the domestic users is going to be that WindowsXP has acquired the sturdiness and stability of WindowsNT/2000, which should imply that WindowsXP will crash less times, and that there will be fewer occasions when we have to restart the system as a result of an error. The improvement for professional users is that WindowsXP has greater compatibility with the hardware than WindowsNT/2000. New user system WindowsXP has a new user system completely different from Windows98. This new system has been inherited from Windows NT/2000. Now various users with independent profiles can be defined. This means that each user can have different permissions that will allow him to carry out certain tasks. Each user will have a different start menu and its own My documents folder that will be able to be protected by password. There also is a folder to which all the users have access where the documents that want to be shared with other users can be placed. For example, a Father user type that has access to all Internets and a Son user type that is not allowed to certain violent or sexual webpages, can be defined. To jump from one user's account to another is not necessary to turn off the computer nor that a user closes what he was doing, one must simply initiate a new session with another user and later it's possible to go back to the other session which will remain in the same state it was left. The system handles the different active users without interferences. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 147

Improvements in Windows Explorer The new Windows Explorer has turned out fairly improved. Now it's better integrated to Internet Explorer. CD's can be burned by dragging and dropping from the explorer to the recording unit, it's not longer necessary to install an additional program to record CD's. The new Windows Explorer also has a very useful way for showing pictures called Filmstrip which exhibits one picture in wide format and the others in reduced format, it incorporates buttons to go forward or backwards along the pictures of the folder. Other improvements. A general change of aspect has been produced among the screens of Windows, the bars, buttons, icons, etc. are more pleasant. Now it's easier to configure a domestic network. It recovers better from errors. When a fatal error occurs WindowsXP creates a register with all the information concerning the error and gives us the option of sending it to Microsoft to be analyzed. WindowsXP initializes faster than Windows98. The start menu has changed, is clearer and now the more used applications are shown to its right. Task bar is far more functional since it organizes in groups the programs of the same type, for instance, if we have several web pages running, a single Internet icon appears and when it's clicked on it shows all of them to select one. There's a new component called Windows Movie Maker that is used to edit films. We can add sound and titles, delete scenes, etc. One of the most controversial upgrades is that the product has to be registered within 30 days from its purchase. The activation consists in letting Microsoft know that the product was installed in a certain computer so it cannot be installed in any other.

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This way Microsoft intents to reduce illegal copying because a program can only be used in one computer. This arises some questions that are difficult to answer: What happens if a user updates his computer with a new processor or with a new hard disk, will his program still be useful or will he have to buy another copy? The windows All the windows have the same structure; don't worry if you are not familiarized with it because we will explain it next.

The window above is the one that opens when you click on My Computer. The structure of this window is very similar to the others. All the windows are formed by:

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The title bar contains the name of the program you are working with (Notepad) and in some cases the name of the opened document (aulaclic) also appears. In the top right corner we can find the minimize, maximize/restore, and close buttons. The minimize button bar. The maximize The restore button shrinks the window it turns it into a button located in the WindowsXP task

amplifies the size of the window to the whole screen. restores the window to its original state.

The close button closes the window. If we' ve modified the document, we are asked if we want to save the changes before closing.

The menu bar has the program functions organized in menus. For example, when we click on File, the different operations that can be performed with files are displayed. All the operations that the program allows us to do are located within the different menus of this bar.

To open a menu with the keyboard, you need to press the Alt key plus the underlined letter of the menu you want to open. For example Alt+F opens the menuFile. In no letter is underlined, press Alt key. If on a menu an option appears with a small arrow pointing to the right it means that that option contains other options. If you want to open the menu related to that option, you only need to maintain the option highlighted for a few seconds and the menu will appear. If on a menu you find an option that contains three dots, (for example Sharing and Security...) it means that the option needs more information to be executed; normally a dialog box will open in which you can place that information. If you find an option that is grey or lighter colored it means that it is not possible to select it at that moment. On this example Copy is lighter colored thanPaste.

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The tool bar contains icons to immediatelly execute some of the most often used commands. These commands can also be executed from the menu bar.

The scroll bars allow us to move through out the page in a quick and simple manner. Simply drag the bar with the mouse or click on the arrows. There are bars to move along the width of the page and bars to move along the height of the page. The little square with dots on the right is used to change the size of the window. Simply click and drag.

The status bar is used to give the user certain information. This information varies depending on the window that is opened at the time. In this case it tells us that we have 3.75 GB free space on the disk, and that the total size of the disk is 19.5 GB. This bar is not shown by default in Windows XP. You can activate or deactivate it from the menu View -> Status Bar. WindowsXP Explorer (I) The Explorer is an indispensible tool in an operating system, since with it we can organize and control the files and folders of the different storage systems at our disposal such as the hard drive, disk drive, etc. The Windows Explorer is also known as the File Manager. Through it we can delete, see, copy, or move files and folders. We suggest you pay particular attention to this unit because of its great importance. Starting the Explorer The quickest way to start up the Explorer is through the icon on the task bar or desktop. If you don't already have the icon created, you can open the Explorer as follows: Click on Start Select All programs Select Accesories Select Windows Explorer

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The Explorer can also be started from the Start button by choosing My documents, My images or My music; the difference is that in these cases we will go directly to those folders. The Windows Explorers window

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This window is similar to the one you can find as you open your Windows explorer. It is possible that it may differ slightly in appearance since we can customize it to our liking. The explorer consists basically of two sections. On the left side there is the directory tree, which is the list of units and folders that we have. Only units and folders appear, no files. On this image we can see a few folders such as My Documents, aulaclic, ... the My Computer icon, My Network Places and the Recycle Bin. On the right side there is another section, which will show the content of the folder that we have opened on the left section. This section shows its folders and files. In this case the files that are contained in the folder Winxp appear. Depending on the type of view that we have activated we will see different type of information regarding the files. On this example we see the name, size, type, and date of last modification on each file because we have the view Details activated. Later we will learn how to change the view. Next we will explain the different bars that make up this window.

Like in any window, we have the title bar that shows the name of the folder we are in.

The menu bar contains the menus that will allow us access to all the operations that can be done with a file or folder. By clicking on each menu the cptions will be displayed.

The standard bar contains the buttons for the most used operations. If this bar is not visible select from the menu View, the option Toolbars, next select the option Standard buttons.

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The Back button will allow us to go to the last page that we have seen. The button next to it, when activated, allows us to move one page forward. The up button will allow us to go up one level, which means going back to the folder that contains the folder we are working with. The search button displays a window where we can search for the file we want.

The folders button shows the folder's structure on the left side of the screen, or it can display an area with the most frequent tasks, depending on the file we have selected. In this area we can find, among others, the following buttons: The last button allows us to change the views on the folders (view details, Thumbnails,...) We'll explain this in more detailed on the next page.

The Address Bar is well known for Internet because it shows the address of the web we are viewing. With Windows Explorer it functions the same way, but it shows the name of the folder we are working with. If we click on the black arrow it will show the structure with our computer's drives. If we write a name in the address bar and we click on the green arrow, it will search for this name.

The Status Bar shows additional information on the elements we have selected. This is an optional bar. In order to activate it, go to the View menu and click on Status Bar. On the Status bar below we can see the number of files the folder contains and the total size of them (in KB, 1MB is 1024KB). If we select some files, the status bar will display the information of selected objects and their total size. This is a very useful bar because we are able to know very quickly if the selected files would fit on a floppy disk (a floppy disk is 1.44Mb, approximately 1474Kb).

Searching Today's computers allow us to store a great deal of information. Because of this, we suggest you keep your information well-classified and organized so that finding it is an easy process. Despite having the information well-clasified, it can happen that sometimes we cannot find a file or folder. When this occurs, we can resort to the Search function provided by Windows to locate the file or folder quickly.

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The search provided by Windows XP also allows us to search for hardware, a network, people in the directory, Internet pages, etc. Searching Click Start Select on the menu Search.

The general search page will be displayed as shown below.

If you look closely you will notice that it is the same window as the windows explorer, but instead of showing folders it shows the search companion. If you are already in the explorer it is not necessary that you click onStart and then on the Search menu; simply click on on the standard bar. First we need to choose one of the options presented, depending on what we are looking Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 155

for. Images..., Documents..., Files..., Hardware..., Search Internet, ... The first three search options are similar and we will see them now grouped into one. We will discuss the equipment, people, and Internet searches a bit later on.

Searching Files or Folders By choosing All files and folders a screen will appear so that we can give more information on what we are looking for. In the first box we will put All or part of the file name that we are looking for, and then windows will show us files or folders that contain the characters that we have typed. The more detailed the name the more concise the search will be, thus facilitating the search. In the box A word or phrase in the file: we can type the text that the file we are looking for should contain. It is not always convenient to use this box because this significantly slows down the process as it looks for that word or phrase in each file. In the box Look in we can indicate in which unit we wish to look for the file or folder. Click Search to start the search. In the event that Windows does not find anything, it will notify you in the window to the right with a message saying that the search has ended and that there are no results to show. While it is carrying out the search, we can stop the search by clicking Stop, either because we have found what we were looking for or because we made a mistake on the search. With the questions that follow we have the possibility of searching by the date it was last modified, size, and other advanced options, such as differentiating between capital letters or lower case letters. The search results will appear on the right side of the window. The operations we carry out on the files or folders found by the search are the same ones that we can do on any other file or folder. We can copy, delete, change name, etc.... The Recycle Bin Get to know the Recycle Bin The Recycle Bin is nothing more than a space on the hard disk reserved to store information that is deleted so that in the event of deleting a file or folder by mistake it is possible to retrieve it. By default the Recycle Bin restores files or folders to the place from where they were deleted. If, for example, a file is deleted from D:\my documents, when it is restored it will go to that folder.

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The Recycle Bin will maintain the deleted documents until it is emptied. To open the Recycle Bin place the cursor on Desktop and double-click on the Recycle Bin icon. The following window is the Recycle Bin window. It is possible that it will not look the same as yours because it can be customized.

The Recycle Bin window is similar to the Windows Explorer window, and they have similar options in common, such as customizing the window, the views, etc... In the Recycle Bin attributes such as the original location of the file or folder before it was deleted will appear as well as the date and time when it was deleted. Restoring Files or Folders. Restoring files or folders to their original location. To restore all of the elements from the Recycle Bin click on the green arrow on the left side that says Restore all items.

If we only want to restore some of the elements: 1) Select the elements to be restored by clicking on them. If the elements are not in subsequent order, use the Ctrl key to select them or the Shift key if they are one below the other. 2) Once selected, a dialog box will appear on the green arrow on the left that will say Restore this item or Restore the selected items. The selected files will return to where they were located before deletion. If the right side of the Recycle Bin is not visible you can also restore from the File menu by choosing the option Restore.

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If you do not know where the files were before deletion, check before restoring on the route that is shown on the column original location because that is where it will save it. Restoring Files or folders in a different location than their original location. 1) Select the elements to be restored. 2) Click on the elements with the right mouse button and the shortcut menu will be displayed; select the option Cutor (ctrl+X). 3) Locate the folder where you want the files to be restored; and click Paste or (ctrl+V). Deleting Files or Folders from the Recycle Bin Before deleting any element from the Recycle Bin you need to realize that once it is deleted it cannot be retrieved or restored. If you want to delete any file or folder from the Recycle Bin follow these steps:

1) Select the Elements to be deleted.. 2) Click on ; this will delete the selected elements. You can also do this by pressing the Delete button. The selected files will disappear and cannot be restored. If a window appears asking if you are sure that you want to delete the selected file or folder click Yes if you are sure you want it deleted. Emptying the Recycle Bin The elements that are deleted usually remain in the recylce bin and in time we need to empty it to free space or because we do not want to have those elements still there. In order to do this, simply empty the Recycle Bin by clicking on the icon located on the left labeled Empty the Recycle Bin. A window will appear asking Confirm you want to delete these X elements? where X is the number of elements currently in the Recycle Bin . Click Yes to empty it. You can also empty the Recycle Bin from the File menu and select Empty the Recycle Bin . There is an even quicker way. Simply right click on the Recycle Bin icon and a menu with the option Empty the Recycle Bin. If you do it this way, you have to be sure that you want to empty the Recycle Bin since you will not be able to see what you are deleting. Configuring the Screen Configuring the screen is important because sometimes we spend many hours in front of the screen, so we recommend spending a few minutes configuring our desktop so that it can be the most comfortable as possible. Click with the right mouse button somewhere that has no icons on the desktop and select the option Properties from the shortcut menu that is displayed. The Display properties window will appear where we can change the configuration parameters.

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The background or wallpaper To change the background or wallpaper, click on the tab labeled Desktop and choose a new background or wallpaper from the list that appears at the bottom left corner. If you are not sure what background goes with what name just highlight the name and a small representation of the background will appear as it would on the screen. Once the background has been selected you can choose how it will appear by clicking on Position: Here are the options: Centered: the image will appear in the center of the screen with its real size. Tile: the image will appear with as many images as necessary to fill the screen. Strech: the image will appear once taking up the entire screen. It is also possible to have another image that does not appear on the list as background. Click on Browse... and look for the image you want as long as the format is compatible. For example .bmp, .jpg, .gif. Once the image and type of view have been selected Click OK.

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The screensaver Sometimes the computer remains inactive a few minutes. It is recommended to have a screensaver to avoid having a still image on the screen too long because this can damage the monitor.

From the list, choose the screensaver you like best; a small preview is shown above. With Preview you can see how it will look once in place. When you move the mouse or press a key the preview will end. You can modify the time it takes for the screensaver to appear by adjusting the time on Wait. The Settings button allows us to customize the image that is used as the screensaver. Depending on the image, the properties we can change vary. Checking On resume, password protect you can place a password protection to keep someone else from working on your account. Once the screensaver is engaged it will only allow you back to the normal screen once you have entered the correct user password. Configuring the Mouse The mouse is a tool that is used constantly and it is recommendable to have it set up to our needs as well as possible. In the following page we show you how to set it up to your own needs. The Buttons Select the Control Panel from the Start menu. Now select Printers and Other Hardware and doubleclick on the mouse icon and the Mouse properties window will open, as in the example below. On the Buttons tab you can adjust the set up of the mouse to suit your needs.

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By default the left mouse button executes the drag and select functions. This, however, can be uncomfortable if you are left handed. WindowsXP allows you to change the configuration of the buttons so that the right button realizes these functions. To switch the button functions select the option Switch primary and secondary buttons. We can also adjust the Double-click speed by moving the arrow to the left, for a slower doubleclick, or to the right, for a faster double-click. If you want to be able to drag an object without having to hold down the mouse select the optionTurn on ClickLock.

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The pointer On the Pointers tab we can choose the type of pointer the mouse is to have when it moves, when it is busy, when it is used, etc. In the Scheme option choose the group of pointers you like best. In the Customize section there is a list of the different movements with their respective pointers. If you do not like a pointer you can change it by selecting it, clicking on search, and once you find the pointer you like, Click OK. You can create your own combination of pointers and save it with its own name. Once you have the style set up, click on Save as and giving it a name. Now when you want to use it you simply need to look for it by the name you gave it. Just as new styles can be created they can also be deleted by selecting the style and clickingDelete. If you modify any of the predetermined styles and you wish to use the original, click on Use default and the style will go back to its original set up.

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System Tools Windows incorporates certain tools such as the Disk Defragmenter, the Disk Cleanup the tool to free disk space, the Scheduled Tasks, etc. Almost all of these tools are designed to optimize the behaviour of the computer. Next we will learn in more detail about some of the most useful tools. The Scandisk

This tool is used to search errors in the systems units and to repair those errors. When the computer is turned off in an abrupt manner it is possible that some files may be damage. Normally when the computer is turned on after being turned off abruptly (without using the option shut down from theStart menu) the Scandisk is launched to check the system and repair any error that it may find. This tool is usually used when we have a damaged disk. By using it we can fix the possible errors and therefore retrieve the information that it contains. Keep in mind that this tool is not a miracle worker and therefore it is not always possible to retrieve the information.

To open Scandisk click on the icon My Computer on the desktop , and the screen shown here will open up. Now select the unit that you want to perform the scandisk on, for example unit (D), and right click it. A shortcut menu will open, like the one shown select Properties from this menu.

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This will cause the window Hard disk (D) Properties to open. Select Tools tab and the window shown on the right will open. If you click Check Now... , the window Checking hard disk (D) will open.

Here you need to choose one of two options available: Automatically fix file system errors or Search for and attempt recovery of bad sectors. Click on Start so that the scan can begin. This process can take a few minutes, depending on the size of the disk. Once the scan has finalized a confirmation window will appear.

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Scheduled Tasks The Scheduled Tasks is used to schedule any program to run at specific times. We can, for example, schedule the use of the Disk Cleanup for once a week; this way we make automatic the tasks that we usually do periodically. We can also have the computer do this task at times when it will not slow our work down. Schedules tasks To use this tool follow these steps: Click on Start. Display the menu All programs. Select the menu Accessories. Open the menu System Tools. Lastly select the option Scheduled Tasks.

When it is running, a window like the one below will appear. In this window, the tasks that have been scheduled until this time will appear, together with the assistant to schedule new tasks.

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How to generate a scheduled task In the Scheduled Task Wizard window select Add scheduled task, and the wizard will begin. The assistant will ask you to select the program that you wish to run, showing a dialog box like this one. Next click Next and you will be asked to select the frequency at which you want the task to be performed. Next click on Next and it will allow you to select some parameters related with the frequency selected. If you, for example, choose weekly, it will ask which day of the week you want the task done. Once all the parameters have been indicated, click Finish so that this task is added to the programmed task list.

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Formatting Windows 7 How To Install Windows 7 (Step-By-Step Tutorial With Screenshots)

Load in your Windows 7 DVD and boot it. It will now load the setup files.

Select your language, time & currency format, keyboard or input method and click Next.

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Click Install now.

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Check I accept the license terms and click Next.

Click Upgrade if you already have a previous Windows version or Custom (advanced) if you dont have a previous Windows version or want to install a fresh copy of Windows 7.

(Skip this step if you chose Upgrade and have only one partition) Select the drive where you want toinstall Windows 7 and click Next. If you want to make any partitions, click Drive options (advanced), make the partitions and then click Next. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 169

It will now start installing Windows 7. The first step, (i.e. Copying Windows files) was already done when you booted the Windows 7 DVD so it will complete instantly.

After completing the first step, it will expand (decompress) the files that it had copied.

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The third and fourth step will also complete instantly like the first step.

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After that it will automatically restart after 15 seconds and continue the setup. You can also click Restart now to restart without any delays.

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After restarting for the first time, it will continue the setup. This is the last step so it will take the most time than the previous steps.

It will now automatically restart again and continue the setup. You can click Restart now to restart without any delays. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 174

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Type your desired user name in the text-box and click Next. It will automatically fill up the computer name.

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If you want to set a password, type it in the text-boxes and click Next.

Type your product key in the text-box and click Next. You can also skip this step and simply click Next if you want to type the product key later. Windows will run only for 30 days if you do that.

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Select your desired option for Windows Updates.

Select your time and click Next.

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If you are connected to any network, it will ask you to set the networks location.

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Congratulations! Youve now finish and learned how to install windows xp and windows 7 great job!

How to Install Windows Components on Windows XP Log on to the computer as an administrator. Note: You must be logged on to the computer as either an administrator or a member of the Administrators group to complete this procedure. Click Start, and then click Control Panel. In Control Panel, double-click Add or Remove Programs. Click Add/Remove Windows Components. The Windows Components Wizard starts and the Windows Components screen appears. The components that are available are: Accessories and Utilities Fax Service Indexing Service Internet Explorer Internet Information Services (IIS) Management and Monitoring Tools Message Queuing MSN Explorer Networking Services Other Network File and Print Services Update Root Certificates

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How to Install a Program from a CD-ROM or Flash Drive on XP Log on to the computer as an administrator. Click Start, and then click Control Panel. Double-click Add or Remove Programs, and then click Add New Programs. Click either CD or Flash Drive. Either an "Install Program from Flash Drive " message or the CD-ROM Wizard prompts you to insert the first installation Flash Drive or CD-ROM of the product. Insert either the floppy disk or CD-ROM, and then click Next. When Setup starts, you must follow the prompts. When Setup is complete, click Close to close the Add or Remove Programs window. Note When you use the Add or Remove Programs tool, you can install only the programs that are written for Windows-based operating systems. How to Install a Program from a Network on XP Log on to the computer as an administrator. Click Start, and then click Control Panel. Double-click Add or Remove Programs, and then click Add New Programs. Note If your computer is connected to a network, the programs that you are authorized to add are displayed at the bottom of the screen. If your network administrator has organized programs into categories, you may need to click a different option in Category to locate the program that you want to add. Click the program that you want to add, and then click Add. When Setup starts, you must follow the prompts. When Setup is complete, click Close to close the Add or Remove Programs window. Note When you start a program or try to perform a task in a program, you may observe a dialog box that indicates that the program is being installed or updated by Windows Installer. This behavior can occur if your administrator has set up the program to be installed in this manner, if program files have been deleted or corrupted, or if you are attempting to use a program feature that had not been installed during Setup. If the program had been installed from a CD-ROM, or if you are not connected to the network, Windows Installer may prompt you to insert the CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive. When Windows Installer finishes, the program or feature that you are attempting to use starts.

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How to Properly Reinstall a Program in Windows XP Reinstalling a particular software program is often a valuable troubleshooting step when you're having problems with that program. Properly reinstalling a program involves uninstalling the software from Windows XP and then installing the program again, sometimes called a "clean reinstall." It's important that a software reinstall is done correctly so you can determine if the program is the cause of your problem. Important: Be sure to backup any specific data that you think might be affected by uninstalling the program. Follow these steps to reinstall just about any program installed on your Windows XP computer: Here's How: Click on Start and then Control Panel. Click on the Add or Remove Programs link. Note: If you're viewing the Classic View of control Panel, double-click on the Add or Remove Programs icon. Important: If the program you're going to reinstall requires a serial number, you'll need to locate that serial number now. If you can't find it, you may be able to locate it with a product key finder program. A key finder program will only work if the program is still installed so you must use it before uninstalling the program. Locate and click on the program you want to uninstall by scrolling through the list of Currently installed programs. Note: If you're wanting to reinstall a Windows Update or an installed update to another program, be sure to check the Show updates checkbox at the top of the Add or Remove Programs window. Not all programs will show their installed updates here but many will. Click the Change/Remove or Remove button to uninstall the program. The specifics of what happens now depends on the program you happen to be uninstalling. Some uninstallation processes require a series of confirmations (similar to what you may have seen when you first installed the program) while others may uninstall without requiring your input at all. Follow whatever prompts make sense - just remember that you are wanting to completely remove the program from your Windows XP computer. Restart your computer, even if you're not required to. Important: I don't consider this an optional step. As frustrating as it might sometimes be, taking the time to reset your computer will help ensure that the program is completely uninstalled. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 184

Verify that the program you uninstalled has been fully uninstalled. Check that the program is no longer listed in your Start menu and also check to make sure that the program's entry in Add or Remove A program has been removed. Note: If you created your own shortcuts to this program, those shortcuts will likely still exist but of course will not work. Feel free to delete them manually. Install the most updated version of the software available. If the best you can find is the original installation disc or file then so be it. However, be sure to check the software developer's website for the latest available version of the program. Important: Unless instructed otherwise by the software documentation, any patches and service packs that might be available should be installed to the program after the reboot following the installation Restart your computer again. Test the reinstalled program.

Congratulations! Youve successfully know how to install/reinstall a program.


Installing Programs in Windows 7:

We can Install a Program in Windows 7, which is Compatible with windows 7 and approved as Authorized by Windows, otherwise while running the program windows will ask for your Permission to Continue, Following are some Simple Steps.

Step 1: Installing From a CD/DVD/ FDISK:

Insert the Disc you have to the Drive of the System, if your Disc is Bootable, then you will have the Auto play Dialog Box, If not Just Brows it through Computer and Locate the Program you need to Install, This Will be Applicable to programs which are Stored in your Pen-drives also.

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Installing by Following the Instructions: Follow the Auto-play/Selecting it from Disc instructions, and correctly follow the Instructions, if it's asked for the Permissions, please provide it and read any information which is provided by windows 7. If a program doesn't begin installation automatically, check the information that came with the program. This information will likely provide instructions for installing the program manually. If you can't access the information, you can also browse through the disc and open the program setup file, usually called Setup.exe or Install.exe. If your program was written for an earlier version of Windows, see Make older programs run in this version of Windows. Tip: If your windows 7 is not happy with what you are installing, just Re-validate it by yourself and Install. Now your Installed program can be found at Start > Program > All program or simply by typing the name at search box.

Installing a Program which is downloaded from Internet/Available in PC:

Find the File you have Downloaded/Available in your PC

Double-Click it, for Windows to allow the program to Run. Follow the Instructions and Finish the Set up.

To install a program from a network in Windows 7


If you connect your computer to a domain (such as an internal corporate network) that has programs that you can add, you can install programs from Control Panel. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 186

Open Get Programs by clicking the Start button , clicking Control Panel, clicking Programs, clicking Programs and Features, and then, in the left pane, clicking Install a program from the network.
Click a program in the list, and then click Install.

If you're prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.
Follow the instructions on your screen. Tip: When downloading and installing programs from the Internet, be sure you trust the publisher of the program and the website that's offering the program.

Tips For Installing New programs on Windows 7: Take Extra care regarding malicious Software As some Programs need Restart to take effect, please Keep your Self ready for the installation by Closing Important Opened Documents, Saving Data s. A lot of Programs Suggest you to Install Toolbar, and other Utilities, kindly Check it and Select/Reselect the Boxes you wish to go with. Always have a Back-up of your Program in External Media.

Uninstall Windows 7 Programs


From: eNzO 1. Find the Control Panel

What used to be "Add or Remove Programs" is now "Programs and Features".

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Knowing how to uninstall a program the right way in Windows is a fundamental skill. Just dragging a program you no longer want to the Recycle Bin can cause all kinds of problems, including system instability, as little bits of the program are often left behind. Why would you want to uninstall a program? The most common reason is that the program doesn't work right; it may have caused problems from the moment you installed it, or it used to work properly, but it's become corrupted over time. You may also want to free up space on your hard drive because you've got too much stuff on it, or perhaps you just don't use the program anymore and don't want it hanging around. Whatever your reason, it's important to note that uninstalling a program in Windows 7 is different than it was under Windows Vista or Windows. Here's a step-by-step guide for uninstalling a program in Windows 7. To uninstall or change a program

Open Programs and Features by clicking the Start button , clicking Control Panel, clicking Programs, and then clicking Programs and Features.
Select a program, and then click Uninstall. Some programs include the option to change or repair the program in addition to uninstalling it, but many simply offer the option to uninstall. To change a program, click Change or Repair. If you're prompted for an administrator

password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.

Notes If the program you want to uninstall isn't listed, it might not have been written for this version of Windows. To uninstall the program, check the information that came with the program. To learn more about turning off programs and features that are included with Windows, see Turn Windows features on or off.

Congratulations! Youve successfully know how to install/reinstall a program.

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FINAL

How to Use MS DOS Short Cut Keys

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Basic DOS commands Occasionally on your Windows computer, you may need to perform a procedure by typing in commands at the 'Command Prompt'. Entering commands in this way allows you to bypass the Windows graphical user interface and communicate directly with the operating system. You are most likely to need to work in this way if you get an infection and have to disinfect your computer from the command line, for example, using one of the Sophos Resolve tools, or SAV32CLI or SWEEP.EXE. To communicate through the Windows command line, you will need to use MS-DOS commands. This article lists some basic DOS commands that you are likely to find useful when working from the command line, but there are many more available. To find out more about MS-DOS, consult a book, online dictionary or encyclopedia, or other specialist publication. Command and Usage Examples

ATTRIB
Change file attributes. '+' adds an attribute, '-' removes it. Attributes are: A=archive; R=read only; S=system; H=hidden.

ATTRIB -R -A -S -H <VIRUS.EXE>
All these attributes will be removed from virus.exe.

C:
Go to the C: drive. Similarly A: and D: etc.

C: CD\ takes you to the top of the directory tree


(typically to C:) . CD.. moves you one level up the directory tree (i.e. up towards the root directory). CD <DIRECTORYNAME> takes you to that directory. You can use one or more subdirectory names, separated by \ e.g. CD WINNT\Media takes you to the directory C:\WINNT\Media To change to another path, type the full path with slashes. e.g.

CD
Change directory. When you change directory, the prompt changes, showing the path of the directory you are currently in. Note, directory is the term used by DOS for what Windows calls a folder.

CD \WINDOWS\SYSTEM CLS
Clear the screen.

CLS DEL <VIRUS.EXE> deletes virus.exe DEL *.JPG will delete all files with the
extension JPG.

DEL
Delete one or more files in the current directory. Can be used with the '*' and the '?' wildcards. DEL *.* will delete ALL files in the current directory, USE WITH CAUTION. (Note: DEL cannot be used to delete directories. Use RD to remove a directory.) Datacom Institute of Computer Technology

DEL MY*.* will delete all files beginning with


MY and with any extension. DEL MY??.* will delete files that are 4 Page 190

characters long and begin with MY and with any extension.

DIR displays all files and folders in the current


directory. Folders are indicated in the list by <DIR>. Files are usually listed by name. DIR DIR /P displays the contents a page at a time, Displays the contents of a directory (folder). i.e. as many as will fit in your command line Note, directory is the term used by DOS for what Windows calls a folder. window. Press any key to display the next page. These switches can be combined, so DIR /W DIR /W displays the files/folders in multiple /P will return multiple rows listing a page at a time. rows. This view gives less information per file. You can use the '*' and the '?' wildcards to search for DIR *.JPG displays all files with the extension JPG in the current directory and all a particular file. The ? character represents ONE subdirectories. character, and the * character represents multiple characters. DIR MY??.* displays all files beginning with DIR *.* lists all the files in a directory. MY, exactly 4 characters long, and with any extension. DIR /S lists the contents of all subdirectories. DIR /AH displays all hidden files.

EDIT
Runs DOS EDIT (a simple text editor). Useful for editing batch files and viewing logs. This command requires QBASIC.EXE to be present.

EDIT <VIRUSLOG.TXT> opens the file


viruslog.txt and allows you to edit it. EDIT <NEWFILE.TXT> creates a new file called newfile.txt and opens it up for you to edit.

HELP
Displays DOS Help. For help on an individual command, type HELP then the command for which you want more information.

HELP DIR displays information on the DIR


command.

MD
Make directory. Creates a new directory below the current one. (The command can also be written as MKDIR)

MD <NEWDIR> creates a new directory called


Newdir.

PRINT
Prints the specified file (if the printer is supported in DOS - many are not).

PRINT <LOGFILE.TXT>
Prints LOGFILE.TXT

RD
Remove directory. Removes a subdirectory of the current directory. The directory you want to remove RD <DIRECTORYNAME> must be empty of all files. (The command can also be written as RMDIR)

RENAME
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Rename a file. You must use the full file name including the suffix.

<NEWNAME.EXE>

TYPE
Displays the contents of a file on the screen. If you use this command on a file which is not a text file, the display will be unintelligible. Use with "|MORE" to display the text on a page by page basis, and prevent it scrolling off the screen. "|" is a pipe character.

TYPE C:\README.TXT|MORE

>
When you run a DOS command, output is usually sent to the screen. Use > to redirect output from the screen to a file. It runs the command preceding the >, creates a file in the current directory with the name you specify, and sends the information/output returned by the command, to that file.

COMMAND > FILENAME.TXT


e.g. SWEEP > REPORT.TXT The details of any infected files reported by SWEEP are sent to a file called REPORT.TXT.

Accessing the command prompt from Windows. To access the command prompt from Windows (a 'DOS box'), do as follows: At the taskbar, select Start|Run. Type

CMD
or on some versions of Windows

COMMAND
Click 'OK'. A command prompt will open. Accessing the command prompt in safe mode For Windows NT/2000/XP/2003, see the knowledgebase article on removing files with SAV32CLI. For Windows 95/98/Me you can boot from a startup disk, or use MS DOS mode At the taskbar, select Start|Shut dows. Select 'Restart in MS-DOS mode'. Click 'OK'.

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General Windows keyboard shortcuts Alt + Tab Switch between open applications in all versions of Windows. Reverse the direction by pressing Alt + Shift + Tab at the same time. Ctrl + Tab Switches between program groups, tabs, or document windows in applications that support this feature. Reverse the direction by pressing Ctrl + Shift + Tab at the same time. Alt + double-click Display the properties of the object you double-click on in Windows 95 and later. For example, doing this on a file would display its properties. Alt + Print Screen Create a screen shot only for the active program window in all versions of Windows. For example, if you opened the calculator and did this only the calculator window would be created as a screen shot. If just thePrint Screen key is pressed the whole screen will be made into a screen shot. Ctrl + Alt + Del Open the Windows option screen for locking computer, switching user, Task Manager, etc. in later versions of Windows. Pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del multiple times will reboot the computer. Ctrl + Shift + Esc Immediately bring up the Windows Task Manager in Windows 2000 and later. Ctrl + Esc Open the Windows Start menu in most versions of Windows. In Windows 8 this will open the Start screenand in Windows 3.x this would bring up the Task Manager. Alt + Esc Switch between open applications on Taskbar in Windows 95 and later. Alt + Space bar Drops down the window control menu for the currently open Windows program in Windows 95 and later. Alt + Enter Opens properties window of selected icon or program in Windows 95 and later. Alt + Space bar Open the control menu for the current window open in all versions of Windows. Shift + Del Will delete any file or other object without throwing it into the Recycle Bin in Windows 95 and later. Hold down the Shift key When putting in an audio CD or other CD that uses Autoplay, holding down the Shift key will prevent that CD from playing. Windows function key shortcuts Below is a listing of keyboard shortcuts that use the keyboard function keys. See our what are F1 through F12 keys page for a full listing of what function keys do with all other programs. F1
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Activates help for current open application. If you're at the Windows Desktop, this will activate the help for Windows. F2 Renames a highlighted icon, file, or folder in all versions of Windows. F3 Starts find or search when at the Windows Desktop in all versions of Windows. F4 In Windows 95 and later this opens the drive selection or address bar when browsing files in Windows Explorer. Pressing Alt + F4 closes the current open program window without a prompt in all versions of Windows. Pressing Ctrl + F4 closes the open window within the current active window in Microsoft Windows. This will only work in programs that support multiple windows or tabs in the same program window. F6 While in Windows Explorer, this will move the cursor to different Windows Explorer pane or in Windows 7 browse available drives. F8 Pressing F8 over and over as the computer is booting will start the computer in Safe Mode. F10 Activates the File menu bar in all versions of Windows. Simulates a right-click on selected item. This is useful if right-click is difficult or impossible using the mouse. Windows keyboard key shortcuts Below is a listing of Windows keys that can be used on computers running a Microsoft Windows 95 or later and using a keyboard with a Windows key. In the below list of shortcuts, the Windows key is represented by "WINKEY" and because not all these shortcuts will work in all versions of Windows we've mentioned what versions of Windows support each Windows key shortcut key. All versions of Windows WINKEY Pressing the Windows key alone will open or hide the Windows Start menu. In Windows 8, this will open or hide the Start screen. WINKEY + F1 Open the Microsoft Windows help and support center. WINKEY + Pause / Break key Open the System Properties window. WINKEY + D Opens the Desktop to the top of all other windows. WINKEY + E Open Microsoft Windows Explorer. WINKEY + F Display the Windows Search or Find feature. WINKEY + Ctrl + F
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Display the search for computers window. WINKEY + L Lock the computer and switch users if needed (Windows XP and above only). WINKEY + M Minimizes all windows. WINKEY + Shift + M Undo the minimize done by WINKEY + M and WINKEY + D. WINKEY + R Open the run window. WINKEY + U Open Utility Manager or the Ease of Access Center. Windows XP only WINKEY + Tab Cycle through open programs through the Taskbar. Windows 7 and 8 only WINKEY + 1-0 Pressing the Windows key and any of the top row number keys from 1 to 0 will open the program corresponding to the number of icon on the Taskbar. For example, if the first icon on the Taskbar was Internet Explorer pressing WINKEY + 1 would open that program or switch to it if already open. WINKEY + (Plus (+) or Minus (-)) Open Windows Magnifier and zoom in with the plus symbol (+) and zoom out with the minus symbol (-). Press the WINKEY + ESC to close the Magnifier WINKEY + Home Minimize all windows except the active window. WINKEY + P Change between the monitor and projection display types or how second screen displays computer screen. WINKEY + T Set the focus on the Taskbar icons WINKEY + Left arrow Shrinks the window to 1/2 screen on the left side for side by side viewing. WINKEY + Right arrow Shrinks the window to 1/2 screen on the right side for side by side viewing. WINKEY + Up arrow When in the side by side viewing mode, this shortcut takes the screen back to full size.

WINKEY + Down arrow Minimizes the screen. Also, when in the side by side viewing mode, this shortcut takes the screen back to a minimized size. Windows 8 only WINKEY + ,
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Peek at the Windows Desktop. WINKEY + . Snap a Windows App to the sides of the screen. Pressing it multiple times will switch between the right and left-hand side of the screen or unsnap the app. WINKEY + Enter Open Windows Narrator WINKEY + C Open the Charms. WINKEY + G Cycle through Desktop gadgets. WINKEY + H Open Share in Charms. WINKEY + I Open the Settings in Charms. WINKEY + J Switch between snapped apps. WINKEY + K Open Devices in Charms. WINKEY + O Lock the screen orientation. WINKEY + X Open the power user menu, which gives you access to many of the features most power users would want to use such as Device Manager, Control Panel, Event Viewer, Command Prompt, and much more. Shortcut keys ABCs Shortcuts keys help provide an easier and usually quicker method of navigating and using computer software programs. Shortcut keys are commonly accessed by using the Alt (on IBM compatible computers), command key (on Apple computers), Ctrl, or Shift in conjunction with a single letter. The de facto standard for listing a shortcut is listing the modifier key, a plus symbol, and the single character. In other words, "ALT+S" is telling you to press the Alt key and while continuing to hold the Alt key, press the S key to perform the shortcut.

In addition to the shortcuts listed on this page, users can find the shortcut keys to their most popular program by looking for underlined letters in their menus.
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For example, in the picture to the right you'll can notice that the "F" in File has been underlined. This means you can press the Alt key and F to access the File menu. Note: Some programs require the user press and hold ALT to see the underlined characters. Finally, as can also be seen some of the common features such as Open (Ctrl+O) and Save (Ctrl+S) have shortcut keys assigned to them. As you begin to memorize shortcut keys, you'll notice that many applications share the same shortcut keys. We have the most commonly shared shortcut keys in the below basic PC shortcut keys section. Tip: Users outside the United States or users using a foreign copy of a Microsoft Windows or Microsoft application may not be able to get all the below shortcut keys to perform the function listed below. Basic PC shortcut keys The below basic shortcut keys are a listing of shortcut keys that will work with almost all IBM compatible computers and software programs. It is highly recommended that all users keep a good reference of the below shortcut keys or try to memorize the below keys. Doing so will dramatically increase your productivity. Shortcut Keys Alt + F Alt + E F1 Ctrl + A Ctrl + X Shift + Del Ctrl + C Ctrl + Ins Ctrl + V Shift + Ins Ctrl + P Description File menu options in current program. Edit options in current program Universal Help in almost every Windows program. Select all text. Cut selected item. Cut selected item. Copy selected item. Copy selected item Paste Paste Print the current page or document.
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Home Ctrl + Home End Ctrl + End Shift + Home

Goes to beginning of current line. Goes to beginning of document. Goes to end of current line. Goes to end of document. Highlights from current position to beginning of line. Highlights from current position to end of line. Moves one word to the left at a time.

Shift + End Ctrl + Left arrow Ctrl + Right arrow

Moves one word to the right at a time.

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DATACOM INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY


FIRST SEMESTER SECOND TRANSITION

COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL IN ALGEBRA

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Subject Objectives: For the completion of this subject the students should be able to demonstrate
knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts, theories and principles of algebra, manifest appreciation of algebra as a symbolic language and as an important tool in problem and decision making, develop algebraic skills and apply these skills in other fields such as computer programming, computer technology and others.

References: College Algebra

Author:

Corazon Bagaipo Jaennete Manalaysay Maria Manalo-Ofanda

College Algebra

Author:

The Mathematics Faculty Manila Doctors College

College Algebra

Author:

Ferdinand P. Nocon Wilfredo B. Daguia Joel T. Torrecampo Magdalena P. Balacua Edna G. Ofrasio

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Subject Outline

Session Day Prelim

Learning Concepts / Topics

Learning Activities *Interactive Discussion

Training Resources *Learning Aids

Training Methods *Discussion *Lectures

Assessments

Chapter I : Review of Elementary College Algebra

*Oral Questioning *Written

*White Board and *Cooperative Learning *Assignments *Seatwork *Board *Activity Sheet *Self- check *Model Recitation *Self-pacing *Competition

*Real Numbers *Lecture *Addition And Subtraction Of Signed Numbers *Multiplication and Division of Signed Numbers *Grouping of Symbols *Fractions *Algebraic Expressions *Mathematical Phrases/Statement Chapter II : Fundamentals Operations

Test *Self- check

White Board Marker *Information Sheet

Answer key

*Addition of Monomials/Polynomials *Subtraction of Monomials/Polynomials *Multiplication of Monomials/Polynomials *Recall the Definition and Laws Of Exponents *Division of Polynomials

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Midterm

Chapter III : Special Products and Factoring

*Interactive Discussion

*Learning Aids *White Board and

*Discussion *Lectures *Cooperative Learning

*Oral Questioning *Written Test

*Square of Monomials *Lecture *Product of The Sum and Difference of The Same Two Terms *Square of Binomials *Product of Two Binomials Having Similar Term *Cube of Binomials *Product of a Binomial and a Special Trinomial *Square of a Trinomial *Factoring Polynomials Having a Common Factor *Factoring Difference of Two Squares *Factoring Perfect Trinomial Squares *Factoring General Quadratic Trinomial *Factoring Sum and Difference of Two Cubes *Factoring by Grouping Finals Chapter IV : Quadratic Equations *Interactive Discussion *Solution to Quadratic Equations by Quadratic Formula *Solution to Quadratic Equations *Lecture

White Board Marker *Information Sheet

*Self- check *Assignments *Seatwork *Board

*Activity Sheet *Self- check *Model Answer key Recitation *Self-pacing *Competition

*Learning Aids

*Discussion *Lectures

*Oral Questioning *Written

*White Board and White Board Marker *Cooperative

Test Learning *Self- check *Assignments

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by Completing the Square *Solution to Quadratic Equations by Factoring

*Information Sheet *Activity Sheet

*Seatwork *Board Recitation *Self-pacing *Competition

Chapter V : Systems of Linear Equations

*Self- check *Model

*Linear Equation in One Variable *Linear Equations in Two Variables *Linear Equations in Three Variables

Answer key

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PREFACE

This module is primarily designed for the use of the freshman computer programming, computer technology and computer secretarial students who have varying degrees of preparation in Algebra in the high school. Not only does the first chapter bridge the gap between elementary algebra and the so-called college algebra, but also it gives the students a better and clearer understanding of the fundamental principles as well as practical working knowledge of the subject. One of the most important features of this module is the large number of solved exercises and variety of verbal problems related in the exercises concludes every chapter. The problems were presented according to the degrees of

difficulty to provide encouragement to computer programming, computer technology and computer secretarial students. The author would welcome valuable suggestions and constructive comments for the improvement of this module.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The writers would like to acknowledge with deep appreciation and gratitude the invaluable help of the following:

Corazon L. Bagaipo, Jeannete C. Manalaysay, Maria Manalo-Ofanda, Mathematics Professor, Adamson University Manila

Miss Letty G. Custodio, National Bookstore, Inc.

Ferdinand P. Nocon, Wilfredo B. Daguia, Joel T. Torrecampo, Magdalena P. Balacua, Edna G. Ofasio, Author, College Algebra Made Simple for Filipinos

The Mathematics Faculty, Manila Doctors College, Pres. Diosdado Macapagal Blvd., Metropolitan Park, Pasay City

Mr. Christian Victor Ibay, Mrs. Nancy Navia, Mr. Rogie Rico, Mr. Edison Cabrera, Miss Ma.Vanessa Aspa, Miss Joecamille Saez, Miss Krisha Ramos and Miss Charity Posas for their inspiration and understanding.

Miss Charmaine Maluto, Mr. Paolo Jalop, Mr. Angello Joseph Doronia, Mr. John Alexis Comia and Miss Angie Veluz for their technical assistance.

Once again, we thank all those who have encouraged and helped us in preparing this edition for publication and who have extended us much understanding, patience, and support.

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COLLEGE ALGEBRA

CHAPTER I

Algebra is a branch of Mathematics that involves the study of the fundamental properties of numbers, mainly the real numbers. In the study of the arithmetic, the student is taught the fundamental operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division as applied to specific numbers which are either positive or zero. The concepts of negative numbers are introduced in algebra for the first time. Failure to grasp the importance of these concepts at the beginning hinders the progress of a student in this cause and in many instances diminishes his interest to learn.

Real Numbers: Numbers are essentials not only in arithmetic and algebra but also other fields like economics and business. The development of science and technology needs a scientific number system. The most important number system in algebra is the set of real numbers. It is the result of gradual development in the different number systems.

Let us have the number 1, 2, 3, 4, and so on. This set of number is known as natural numbers or counting numbers. If we let N be the set of natural numbers, then in set notation, we shall have

N = {x/x = 1, 2, 3, 4,}

Natural numbers

Where the three dots means and so on. When we have the system of whole number we include the number 0. We shall use the letter W to represent the set of whole number. Using our usual set notation, we have Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 206

W = {x/x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,}

Whole Numbers

The inclusion of set of negative natural numbers to the whole numbers extends the set of whole numbers. These set of numbers are then called s Integers represented by I. Integers are described in set notation as

I = {x/x = 0, -1, 1, -2, 2, -3, 3, -4, 4, ...}

Integers

The term fraction is the number obtained by dividing an integer by another integer. We usually represent a fraction by a/b where b 0. The union of fractions and integers is known as the system of rational numbers. If we let P be the set of rational numbers, then

P = {x/x I or x = a/b, where b 0} Set of rational numbers

The numbers can either be repeating or terminating when a rational number is presented in decimals. Repeating numbers are usually presented with a dash sign written above the number or numbers being repeated. Below are examples of rational numbers.

1. -3, 0, 15, -6, 7, -2, 3 000

(these numbers are integers)

2. = 0.25 (this is a terminating numbers)

3. 3/11 = 0.272727

=0.27 (this is a repeating decimal) Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 207

Rational numbers include natural numbers, whole numbers, integers and fraction. But, when a certain number is non-repeating or non-terminating, then that number is called irrational number. These numbers are non-rational and hence cannot be named with the fractional notation a/b. Like the numbers; irrational numbers belong to a set of infinite elements. The numbers 2, 3, and 5, are examples of irrational numbers. However the square root of 25 and 81 are rational numbers since the square root of 25 is 5 and 81 = 9. If we let Q be the set of irrational numbers, then

Q = {x/x P}

Irrational Numbers

The union of rational and irrational numbers made up of constitutes the real number system. This number system is represented by R. In symbols

R = {x/x P or Q}

Real Number

Throughout this book, we shall use the word number to represent real numbers without further qualification.

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ACTIVITIES CHAPTER I REAL NUMBERS

Check whether the given number is a natural, whole, integer, rational, irrational, real numbers.

Natural 1. 8 2. -11 3. -0/10 4. -16.2 5. -3 1/6 6. 7. .33

Whole

Integer

Rational

Irrational

Real

8. 7 2 9. 25% 10. 10 1/2

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RULES FOR OPERATIONS ON SIGNED NUMBERS

ADDITION To add two real numbers having like signs, add their absolute values and prefix their common sign. To add two real numbers having unlike signs, find the difference of their absolute values and prefix to it the sign of the number having the larger absolute value.

Examples:

20 + 5 = 5 -7 + (-9) = -16

13 + (-8) = 5 -22 + 6 = -16

SUBTRACTION To subtract two real numbers change the sign of the subtrahend and follow the rules for addition.

Examples:

23 9 = 23 + (-9) = 14 23 (-9) = 23 + 9 = 32

-23 9 = -23 + 9 = -14 -23 (-9) = -23 + 9 = -14

MULTIPLICATION To multiply two real numbers, neither of which is zero, multiply their absolute values; prefix the plus sign to the product if the two numbers have like signs and prefix the minus sign if they have unlike signs.

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Examples:

12(3) = 36 -12(-3) = 36

12(-3) = -36 -12(3) = -36

DIVISION To divide two real numbers with like signs, divide their absolute values and prefix the plus sign. To divide two real numbers with unlike signs divide their absolute values and prefix the minus sign.

Examples:

15/3 = 5 -15/3 = -5

15/-3 = -5 -15/-3 = 5

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ACTIVITIES ADDITION and SUBTRACTION of SIGNED NUMBERS

Evaluate the following operation of sign numbers.

ADD

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

93 + 85 -345 + ( 66) -18 + 17 7897 + 8941 -247 + 45 563 + (- 235) 789 + 345 -84 + (-15) -359 + 284 956 + (-742)

SUBTRACT

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

348 (200) 818 (+137) 955 (+432) 243 (-2346) 820 (+8471) -572 (359) 476 (+415) -538 (+241) 184 (-534) 901 (+845) Page 212

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ACTIVITIES MULTIPLICATION and DIVISION of SIGNED NUMBERS

Evaluate the following operation of signed numbers.

MULTIPLY

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

32 * 5 -854 * -8 -317 * -9 47 * -6 -589 * 510 45 * 7 -215 * -2 53 * -5 -94 * 4 34 * -6

DIVISION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

-84 / 4 -72 / -9 895 / -5 -99 / 3 -30 / -2 567 / 7 459 / -9 366 / 6 755 / -5 -721 / 7

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GROUPING SYMBOLS

1. When pairs of grouping symbols (parentheses, braces, brackets) are enclosed within other pairs of grouping symbols, perform the operations in the innermost parenthesis first, and work your way outward until all symbols of grouping have been removed. Perform the operations in the numerator and denominator of a fraction separately.

Example:

6+[3-{7-2(6)+2-5}]-4+6 =6+[3-{7-12+2-5}]-4+6 =6+[3-{-8}]-4+6 =6+[3+8]-4+6 =6+3+8-4+6 =19

2. To remove pair of grouping symbols preceded by a plus sign, leave the sign, do not change the sign of each enclosed term.

Example:

=(6-8+3)-6 =6-8+3-6 = -5 3. To remove pair of grouping symbols preceded by a minus sign, change the sign of each enclosed term.

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Example:

- (5-10+2) = -5+10-2 =3 4. To remove pair of grouping symbols preceded by a factor, use the distributive property.

Example:

4+2(-7+5) =4-14+10 =0

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ACTIVITIES GROUPING of SYMBOLS

I.

Find the numerical value of each of the following:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

5 / 5 + 5 * 5 -5 3 (6) 10 / 5 9 7 * 6 / -3 + 8 / 4 33 / 9 4 * 22 + 10 20 + ( -2 ) 52 22 + ( -2)2 3 / 3 3 ( 32 ) - 25 + 3 (2) + 8/2 102 + 5 (2) 4 (5) / 30 62 168/7 / 23 + 108/8 -8 * 12 / 24 30 - 62

12. 12 32/8 + 57/19 23 13. (5)2 25/5 + 15(2) 14. (20)2 / 2(5) + 6 9 15. 15 / 3 + 3 / 3 -2

II.

Remove all symbols of grouping and simplify:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

5+{7+83} 8 ( 3+10 -9) 2 (-5 +2 -3) 16 { 3 ( -2 )3 3 27 } 11 { 8 ( 4 + 5 )} + 10 ( 5/2) 24 / ( -12 + 4) 9( -7 + 5 ) 62 / 4 * 3 42 ( 4 ) ( -3 )2 / ( -3 ) ( -2)2 ( - 4 )2 2 ( -32 ) ( -1 )2 ( - 9 )2 / ( - 3 ) 9 - 58 / 2

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FRACTIONS

Conversion Involving Fractions: 1. Changing Improper Fractions to Mixed Numbers Rule: Divide the numerator by the denominator and write the remainder as a fraction. Examples: 25 / 3 = 8 1/3 34 / 4 = 8 2/4 or 8

2.

Changing Mixed Numbers to Improper Fractions Rule: Multiply the numerator by the whole number and add the product to the numerator. Write the sum over the same denominator. Examples: 9 4/5 = 49/5 21 3/2 = 45/2

3.

Reducing Fractions to Lowest Terms Rule: Divide the numerator and denominator of the given fraction by their greatest common factor (GCF). Examples: 21/39 = 7/13 GCF = 3 220/365 = 44/73 GCF = 5

4.

Raising the Fractions to Higher Terms Rule: Multiply the numerator and denominator of the given fraction by the same number. Examples: Raise 3/8 to the 24ths 3/8 = 9/24 5/9 = N/54 5/9 = 30/54

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Operations with Fractions 1. ADDITION a. Like Fractions Rule: Add the numerators and copy the common denominator. Example: 5/17 + 2/17 + 3/17 = 10/17

b. Unlike Fractions Rule: First, find the least common denominator (LCD), then divide the LCD by the denominator of each fraction and multiply the result by its numerator, apply (a). Example: 2. SUBTRACTION a. Like Fractions Rule: Subtract the numerators and copy the common denominator. Example: b. 11/25 3/25 = 8/25 1/8 + 2/3 + 3/ 4 = 3+16+18 / 24 = 37/24 or 1 13/24

Unlike Fractions Rule: Find the least common denominator (LCD). Divide the LCD by the denominator of each fraction and multiply the result by its numerator, then apply (a). Example: 4/15 1/ 4 = 16 15 / 60 = 1/60

3.

MULTIPLICATION Rule: a. Multiply the numerators of the given fractions to get the numerator of the product and multiply their common denominators to get the denominator of the product. Then simplify the result. Example: 4/9 x 3/5 = 12/45 or 4/15

c. Another method is by cancellation. That is, a numerator may be cancelled with the denominator in the given fractions dividing each by their GCF. Then apply (a). Example: 1 14 / 21 3 x 7 49 / 56 4 = 7/12

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4.

DIVISION Rule: Multiply the dividend by the reciprocal, or multiplicative inverse of the divisor. Example: 16/35 4/7 = 4 16 / 35 5 = 4/5 x 1 7/ 4 1

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ACTIVITES FRACTIONS
I. Find the sum of the following fractions. Simplify your answer into lowest term.

1. 2. 3. 4.

1/4+3/2 2/3+4/7 3/8+2/5 4/9+1/3

II.

Find the difference of the following fractions. Simplify your answer into lowest term.

1. 2. 3. 4.

8/91/3 2/33/7 3/28/9 7/45/6

III.

Find the product of the following fractions. Simplify your answer into lowest term.

1. 2. 3. 4.

24 / 45 * 9 / 12 27 / 64 * 16 / 54 15 / 36 * 9 / 5 25 / 75 * 90 / 27

IV.

Find the quotient of the following fractions. Simplify your answer into lowest term.

1. 2. 3. 4.

14 / 24 7 / 6 27 / 48 9 / 8 54 / 64 27 / 8 99 / 72 11 / 8

V.

Perform the given fraction. Simplify your answer into lowest term.

1. 2. 3. 4.

-1/4+2/3 -4/35/8 27 / 25 * - 5 / 9 36 / 64 - 9 / 16

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ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION

An algebraic expression is a constant, or variable, or a combination of constants and variables related by the fundamental operations of Algebra.

Examples:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

5 -3ab 2x +5y x3-2x2y + 5xy2 6x4 + 8x3 + 7x2 -2x +4

Terms to be understand:

1. Constant Is an order or symbol that does not change its value in a particular problem or discussion. 2. Variable Is an object or symbol that change its value in a particular problem or discuss. 3. Literal Coefficient It is the symbol or letter in a particular expression. 4. Numerical Coefficient A numeral/number in a particular expression. 5. Monomial An Algebraic expression consisting of only one term. 6. Binomial An Algebraic expression consists of exactly two terms. 7. Trinomial An Algebraic expression, which has exactly three terms. 8. Multinomial/Polynomial An Algebraic expression, which consists of many terms.

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ACTIVITIES ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION

Name the a.) numerical coefficient b.) literal coefficient of each of the following monomials:

Numerical Coefficient 1. 10 2. x2

Literal Coefficient

3. 5x4

4. 2x5y 5. -1/3 m3 6. -1/2 p2r2t 7. x4y5 8. 25a3b4c2 9. w2x3 10. 143 t6u2v3

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MATHEMATICAL PHRASES and STATEMENTS

To use the tools of Algebra for solving problems, one must be able to recognize phrases in the English language that translate into algebraic expressions involving the operations of Arithmetic.

Examples:

1. 2. 3. 4.

The English phrase 5 more than a number n when translated to algebraic expression is n+5. The English phrase the difference between a number x and 2 is translated to x-2. The English phrase 3 increase by the quotient of a number y and 7 is translated to y/7+3. Myrna has c five centavo coins, d ten centavo coins and f one-peso coins in her wallet. How much money does she have?

In algebraic symbol her money is 0.05c+0.10d+f.

5.

If 32 is subtracted from five times a certain number x, the result is 18.

The English sentence translated to mathematical sentence is 5x-32 = 18.

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ACTIVITIES MATHEMATICAL PHRASES/STATEMENTS

I.

Translate each English phrase into mathematical phrase using n to represent the unknown number.

2. The sum of a number and 3. 3. A number decreased by 7. 4. A number subtracted from 75. 5. Four less than one-half of a number. 6. Two more than three times a number. 7. Ten times the difference of a number 6. 8. The quotient of a number and three less than the number. 9. The sum of a number and one-half the difference between x and y. 10. One-third the product of a number and q. 11. Twice a number decreased by seven times y.

II. Write each of the following in algebraic symbols:

1. P equals 4 times s. 2. The sum of a and b is 5. 3. A equals one-half the product of b and h. 4. The sum of one-half x and one-third y is 10. 5. x is two-thirds of y. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 224

EVALUATION OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

Evaluating the expression or finding its value is a process by which each variable in the expression is replaced by the numeral for a given value of the variable and finally simplifying the result, provided the rules in grouping and order of operations are complied with.

Examples:

1. Find the value of 2a-3b when a = 2 and b = 3.

Solution:

2a 3b = 2(2) 3(3) = 4+9 =13

by replacement performing the indicated operations

2. Evaluate x2 + 3xy 4y2 for x = -1 and y = -2.

Solution:

x2 + 3xy -4y2 = (-1)2 + 3(-1)(-2) -4(-2)2 = 1+6-4(4)

replacement performing the indicated operations

= 1+6-16 = -9

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3. Evaluate 5(3n-1)-7(-2n+1)+4(3n-1) for n= -5.

Solution:

=5(3[-5]-1)-7(-2[-5]+1)+4(3[-5]-1) =5(-15-1) -7(10+1)+4(-15-1)

replacement remove parenthesis by applying distributive property

=5(-16)-7(11)+4(-16) = -80-77-64 = -221

perform the indicated operations simplify

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CHAPTER II FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS OF POLYNOMIALS ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS To add polynomials, arrange similar terms to columns then find the sum of each term. Examples: a.) (3x2-3x+2) + (2x2+7x-4)

Solution: Method 1: Adding Horizontally =3x2+2x2-3x+7x+2-4 =5x2+4x-2

b.) (8x3-5x2-7) + (4x2-2x+3) Solution: Method 2: Adding Vertically 8x3-5x2 + -7

4x2-2x+3

8x3-x2-2x-4

c.)

Combine 9x-3y+4z, 5x-4y+6z, -3x+5y-7z

Solution:

Solution:

Method 1: Adding Horizontally Method 2: Adding Vertically =9x+5x-3x-3y-4y+5y+4z+6z-7z =14x-3x-7y+5y+10-7z =11x-2y+3z 9x-3y+4z 5x-4y+6z + -3x+5y-7z 11x-2y+3z Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 227

ACTIVITIES CHAPTER II FUNDAMENTALS OPERATION ADDITION of POLYNOMIALS

I.

Find the sum:

1. 8x 12y -7x -8y + 6 7x 2x + 5y 2. 13xy + x -9x + 4y 6x 9xy -14x -5xy 3. 4y2x 5x2 + 5xy 11x2y 5xy + 8xy 9x2y 4. 5ab + 12abc ab -12a2b + 4abc 2abc 3abc + 16a2b 5. 35s3t2 + 48st -53s3t2 155st -69s3t2 6. 4xy ; 10xy ; -6xy ; -3xy

7. x + 3y ; 3x y ; -4x + 7y ; 5x 6y 8. ( a2 + b2 ) ; -8 ( a2 + b2 ) ; 5 ( a2 + b2 ) 9. 8a2 + 7a 3 ; -5a2 4a + 7 ; a2 + 2a 5 10. 7x3y + 2y3 ; 3x2 + 7y3 ; 9x2y + 6xy + 8y3 ; 10x3 + 9y3

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SUBTRACTION OF POLYNOMIALS To subtract polynomials, change the sign of the subtrahend then proceed to addition.

Examples:

a.)

(x2-7x-2)-(-5x2+6x-4)

b.)

(6y3z-5yz+7)-(4y2z-3yz-9)

Solution: Method 1: Subtracting Horizontally =x2-7x-2-5x2-6x+4 =x2-5x2-7x-6x-2+4 =-4x2-13x+2

Solution: Method 2: Subtracting Vertically 6y3z -5yz + 7 4y2z (-) 3yz (-) 9 + +

6y3z-4y2z-2yz+16

c.)

Subtract x3-2x2y+3xy2+y3 from 2x3-y3+2xy2

Solution: Method 1: Adding Horizontally

Solution: Method 2: Adding Vertically

=2x3-y3+2xy2-x3+2x2y-3xy2-y3 =2x3-x3+2x2y+2xy2-3xy2-y3-y3 =x3+2x2y-xy2-2y3

2x3

+2xy2 y3

x3 (-) 2x2y (+) 3xy2 (+) y3 + -2y3

x3 +2x2y - xy2

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ACTIVITIES SUBTRACTION of POLYNOMIALS


I. Subtract expression from the first: 1. 5a2 + 9b ; 2a2 -8b 2. 14r + 15s -5q ; 13r + 12s + 11q 3. 31x2 + 19y2 18z2 ; 16x2 18z2 4. 4y2 5x2 +4z2 ; -5z2 + 8y2 5. 48m 53n +41p ; 89m2 24n + 57p II. Perform as indicated: 1. Subtract 4x 8 from 2x 3 2. Subtract 9x 4y from -5x + 2y 3. From x2 2x + 1 subtract x2 + 3x 4 4. From the sum of 2x4 x3 + 2x 3 and 2x3 + 1, subtract x4 + 3x +2. 5. Subtract the sum of 9a2 + 6a + 4 and 12a2 + 4a 5 from 6.

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MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS Before multiplying one algebraic expression by another, students must be able to recall the definition and laws of exponents.

Recall: DEFINITION OF TERMS

i.

An exponent is the number or letter written above to show how many times the quantity is to be taken as a factor. Usually, positive integers are used as exponents to simplify repeated products.

Examples:

a) 53 = 555 = 125 b) x4 = xxxx= x4

3 is the exponent 4 is the exponent

ii.

The base is the number or expression which serves as a factor.

Examples:

a) 53 = 555 = 125 b) x4 = xxxx= x4

5 is the base x is the base

iii.

The power is the product of a certain quantity or expression multiplied by itself as many times as indicated by the exponent.

Examples:

a) 53 = 555 = 125

125 is the power Page 231

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b) x4 = xxxx= x4

x4 is the power

iv.

Positive Integral Exponents If n is a positive integer and x is nonzero real number, then

n factor of x

xn = xxxx

Examples:

a) (-m2 )5 = (-m2 ) (-m2 ) (-m2 ) (-m2 ) (-m2 )


2

b)

3 5

xy

3 xy = 5

3 xy 5

v.

Negative Integral Exponents If n is a positive integer and x is nonzero real number, then

1 x-n = xn ,

1 = xn x-n

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A negative exponent does not cause an expression to have negative value. exponent causes the reciprocal.

The negative

Examples:

1 a) 3-4 = 3
4

1 = 81 b) 2x 2 = 2 1 = 2 x2 x2

c) ( - 2w ) 4 =

1 (-2w)4

1 (-2)4w4

1 16w4

d) (- 3x3x2) 3 = (- 3) 3 (x5) 3 =1 27 x15

v.

Zero Exponent If x is a nonzero real number, then x0 = 1.

Any number raised to zero power is always equal to one.

Examples:

a)

1 13

=1

b) x5 = x5 5 = x0 x5 =1

c) 7n = 7n n = 70 7n =1

d) 3x0 = 3( 1 ) = 3

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Recall: Laws of Exponents

1.)

Product Law If m and n are positive integers and x is nonzero real number, then

xm xn = xm+n

To mult6iply two or more exponential expressions with the same base, keep the base and add the exponents.

Examples:

Simplify each expression.

a) x3 x4 = x3+4 = x7 b) y2 y4 - y3 - y5 = - y2+4+3+5 = - y14 c) ( - 5m3 )( 4m2 ) = - 20 m3+2 = - 20 m5

Caution! The product law for exponents applies only to exponential expressions with the same base. An expression such as x2y3 cannot be simplified because x2 and y3 have different bases.

2.)

Power of a Power Law If m and n are positive integers and x is nonzero real number, then

( x m )n = x m n To raise am exponential expression to a power, keep the base and multiply the exponents. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 234

Examples: Simplify each expression.

a) ( x7 )5 = x7 5 = x35 b) ( p2 p3 )4 = ( p5 )4 = p20 c) ( k3 )2 (k5 k4 )3 = k6 ( k9 )3 = k6 k27 = k33

3.)

Power of a Product Law If n is positive integer and x and y are nonzero real numbers, then

( xy )n = xn yn

To raise a product to a power, raise each factor of the product to that power.

Examples:

Simplify each expressions. a) ( 3c )4 = 34 c4 = 81 c4 b) ( m2 n3 )5 = ( m2 )5 ( n3 )5 = m10 n15 c) ( - 2x2 y )5 = ( - 2 )5 ( x2 )5 ( y )5 = - 32x10 y5

4.)

Power of a Quotient Law If n is a positive integer and x and y are nonzero real numbers, then

x y

= xn yn

To raise a fraction to a power, raise both the numerator and the denominator to that power.

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Examples: Simplify each expression.

a)

4 k

= 43 = 64 k 3 k3

b)

- 2d 5 = ( - 2 )5 d5 = - 32d5 e3 ( e3 ) 5 e15

c)

3a3b 2c4

= ( 3 )2 ( a3 )2 ( b )2 = 9a6 b2 ( 2 ) 2 ( c 4 )2 4c8

5.)

Quotient Law If m and n are positive integers, where m>n and x is a nonzero real number, then

xm = xm n xn

To divide exponential expressions with the same base, keep the base and subtract the exponents.

Examples:

a) x4 = x4 3 = x1 = x b) 8y2 y6 = 4 2 y8 = - 2y8 3 = - 2y5 -4 y3 - 4 y3 c) ( - 4a3 b4 )2 = 16a6 b8 = 8 2 a6 3 b8 6 = - 2a3 b2 ( - 2ab3 )3 - 8a3 b6 -8 Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 236

ACTIVITIES DEFINITION of EXPONENT and LAW of EXPONENT

I.

Determine the base, exponent and power. 1. 72 2. 34 3. 93 4. 112 5. 25 6. a7 7. b6 8. c9 9. d10 10. e12

II. Simplify the following: 1. ( 4 / 25 )0 2. ( 2a / 4b )0 3. 2 a-2 b3 4. 5 a4 b2 c -3 5. 32 x3 y -4 z -2

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MULTIPLYING MONOMIALS To multiply monomials, multiply the numerical factors and then multiply the variable factors.

Examples:

a) 3x5 ( 2x7 ) = 3( 2 ) x5 x7 = 6x12 b) 4y5 z2 ( 2y3 z3 )( - 3yz ) = - 4( 2 )( - 3 )y5y3y z2z3z = 24y9z6

MULTIPLY POLYNOMIALS by MONOMIALS To multiply a polynomial by a monomial, use the distributive property and simplify.

Examples:

a) 5x( 2x + 4 ) = 5x ( 2x ) + 5x ( 4 ) = 10x2 + 20x b) 1 x2 ( 8x5 4 ) = 1 x2 ( 8x5 ) 1 x2 ( 4 ) 4 4 4 = 2x7 x2

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MULTIPLYING TWO BINOMIALS To multiply two binomials, use the shortcut method called the FOIL method ( FOIL is the acronym for First term, Outer term, Inner term, Last term ) or the HALFMOON method ( because the process looks like a half-moon ).

Examples: a) ( 3x + 4 )( 2x 3 )

FOIL METHOD

HALFMOON METHOD

( 3x + 4 )( 2x 3 )

( 3x + 4 )( 2x 3 )

= 6x2 9x + 8x 12 = 6x2 x 12 b) ( 2a 7b )( 5a 4b )

( 2a 7b )( 5a 4b )

( 2a 7b )( 5a 4b )

= 10a2 8ab 35ab + 28b2 = 10a2 43ab +28b2 c) (3m2 + 6n)(2m2 + n)

( 3m2 + 6n )( 2m2 + n )

( 3m2 + 6n )( 2m2 + n )

= 6m4 +3m2 n + 12m2 n + 6n2 = 6m4 + 15m2n + 6n2 Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 239

MULTIPLYING POLYNOMIALS To multiply a polynomial by another polynomial, multiply each term of one polynomial by each term of the other polynomial and combine like terms.

Examples:

VERTICAL METHOD

LATTICE METHOD

a)(3a2 4a + 7)( 2a + 5)

b)(x2 + 5x 9)( 3x2 + 4x -1)

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c)(4t2 t 6)( - 2t2 5)

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ACTIVITIES MULTIPLICATION of POLYNOMIALS

I.

Get the product of the following expressions:

1. 3x2 ( 3x 3y +z ) 2. 25 a2 b2 ( 2a2 5 a2 b + 3 ab2 ) 3. 4x3 ( -3 a2 x + 5 a2 x2 15 ax3 ) 4. 3 xy2 (4 xy2 3 x2 y2 + 2 x3 y4 ) 5. 8 jk2 ( 2k 4 jk2 + 5 j2k)

II.

Write out the product of the following binomials:

1. ( x + 5y ) ( x 5y) 2. ( 4 x2 1 ) ( 4 x2 + 1 ) 3. ( x2 y2 ) ( x2 + y2 ) 4. ( a3 + b3 ) ( a3 b3 ) 5. ( 8c 4b ) ( 8c + 4b )

III.

Get the product:

1. 7 m3 n2 ( 3 m2 + 2 mn m3 ) 2. 5 a2 b3 c4 ( 2 a3 + 4 a2 c3 2 b2 c2 ) 3. ( 4m + 3) ( 5m3 4m2 + m 5 ) 4. ( 9y 2 ) ( 8y2 6y + 1 ) 5. (2m2 + m 3 ) ( m2 4m + 5 )

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DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS DIVIDING a MONOMIAL by a MONOMIAL To divide monomials, use the method for simplifying arithmetic fractions or use the rules of exponents.

Examples: a) 16 40 b) x2 y x y2

Using Fractions 16 = 8 2 = 2 40 8 5 5 x2 y = x x y = x x y2 x y y y

Using Rules of Exponents 16 = 2 3 2 = 2 40 2 3 5 5 x2 y = x2 1 y1 2 = x2 y 1=x xy2 y

DIVIDING a POLYNOMIAL by a MONOMIAL To divide polynomial by a monomial, divide each term in the polynomial by the monomial, then add the results.

Examples:

a) 9x + 6y = 9x + 6y = 3 3x + 3 2y = 3 + 2 3xy 3xy 3xy 3xy 3xy y x

b) 6m2 n2 + 4m2 n 2mn = 6m2 n2 + 4m2 n 2mn = 3mn + 2m 1 2mn 2mn 2mn 2mn c) 4e4 f 5 2( e3 f 4 + e2 f 3 ) = 4e4 f 5 2e3 f 4 2e2 f 3 = 4e4 f 5 2e3 f 4 2e2 f 3 2ef 2ef 2ef 2ef 2ef 3 4 2 3 2 = 2e f e f e f

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DIVIDING POLYNOMIALS by POLLYNOMIALS To divide a polynomial by another polynomial, use the method similar to long division method in arithmetic. Examples: a) Divide 7x 2 + 6x2 by 2x 1 Note: divisor 2x - 1 dividend - 7x 2 + 6x2 arrange in descending order

6x2 7x 2

Solution:

3x Step 1: 2x 1 6x2 7x - 2

Divide 6x2 by 2x 6x2 = 3x2 1 = 3x 2x Place the 3x above the division symbol

3x Step 2: 2x 1 6x2 7x 2
(+)

6x2 ( - )3x

Multiply each term in the divisor by 3x. Place the product under 6x2 7x and draw a line.

3x Step 3: 2x 1 6x2 7x 2
(+)

Subtract 6x2 3x from 6x2 7x. Bring down 2.

6x2 ( - )3x -4x 2

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Step 4:

3x 2 2x 1 6x2 7x 2
(+)

Divide 4x by 2x -4x = - 2 2x Place the 2 above the division symbol

6x2 ( - )3x -4x 2

3x 2 2x 1 6x2 7x 2 Step 5:
(+)

6x2 ( - )3x -4x 2


(-)

Multiply each term in the divisor by 2. Place the product under 4x 2 and draw a line.

4x ( + )2

3x 2 2x 1 6x2 7x 2 Step 6:
(+)

Subtract 4x + 2 from 4x -2. Bring down 2.

6x2 ( - )3x -4x 2


(-)

4x ( + )2 -4

Step 7:

3x 2 + - 4 2x - 1

Here the quotient is 3x 2 and the remainder is 4. It is common to write the answer inquotient + remainder form. divisor

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b) Divide 3x4 7x2 3x + 15 by x + 1 Note: In case of the missing terms. Write the missing term with a coefficient of zero or leave a blank space for it.

Solution: 3x3 3x2 4x + 1 x+1 3x4


(+)

- 7x2 3x + 15

3x4(+)3x3 - 3x3 7x2 (-) 3 (-) 3x 3x2 -4x2 3x


(-)

4x2 (-) 4x x + 15
(+) (+)

x 1 14

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SYNTHETIC DIVISION When dividing polynomial by a binomial of the form x a where a is constant, use synthetic division to speed up the process. For synthetic division write only the numerical coefficients of the dividend in order of descending exponents. Form the divisor use a.

Examples:

a) Divide x3 5x2 + 4x 3 by x 2 Note: general divisor given divisor xa x2 a=2

Solution:

Step 1:

-5 4 -3

List the coefficients of the polynomial (the dividend) in order of descending exponents. Be sure to include zeros for any missing term.

2 Step 2:

-5 4 -3

Place a to the left. Bring down the first numerical coefficient.

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2 Step 3:

-5 4 -3 2

Multiply the first numerical coefficient by a. Place the answer under the next column, and then add that column.

-3

2 Step 4:

-5 4 -3 2 -6

Repeat the multiply-and-add step for each of the remaining columns.

-3 -2

-5 4 -3 2 -6 -4

1 Step 5:

-3 -2 -7

Write the quotient and remainder from the bottom row.

x2 3x 2 + - 7 x2

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Caution! Synthetic division is used only for dividing a polynomial by the binomial x a where a is a constant. If the binomial is (a) x 7 then general divisor given divisor xa x7 a=7

If the binomial is (b) x + 7 then general divisor given divisor xa x (-7) a=-7

b) ( 9- 5x2 + 2x4 + 6x ) ( x + 2 )

c) ( m3 + 64 ) ( m + 4 )

Solution:

Solution:

divisor dividend

x+2 2x4 + 0x3 5x2 + 6x + 9

divisor dividend

m+4 m3 + 0m2 + 0m 64

-2

0 -4

-5 8 3

6 -6 0

9 0 9

-4

0 -4

0 16 16

- 64 - 64 0

-4

-4

2x3 4x2 + 3x + 9 x+2

m2 4m + 16

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ACTIVITIES DIVISION of POLYNOMIALS

I.

Get the quotient of the following expression using long method:

1. x3 4x2 + 2 divided by x 2 2. x3 + 2x 4 divided by x + 4 3. x5 + 4x4 3x3 + 2x2 9 divided by x 3 4. x7 + 4x6 5x5 + 8x4 6x2 + 14 divided by x 4 5. x6 5x4 + 8x3 +15x2 2x + 2 divided by x + 3

II.

Get the quotient of the following expression using synthetic division:

1. x3 4x2 + 2 divided by x 2 2. x3 + 2x 4 divided by x + 4 3. x5 + 4x4 3x3 + 2x2 9 divided by x 3 4. x7 + 4x6 5x5 + 8x4 6x2 + 14 divided by x 4 5. x6 5x4 + 8x3 +15x2 2x + 2 divided by x + 3

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CHAPTER III

SPECIAL PRODUCT and FACTORING

SPECIAL PRODUCTS

(Note: This section may be discussed simultaneously with factoring).

There are certain products which occur so frequently that they are referred to as the special products. These groups of products deal with a simpler or shortcut way of finding the product either by the use of a pattern or by inspection.

SQUARE OF MONOMIALS The square of monomial is equal to square of all term including the numerical coefficient and all variables.

Examples:

(2x2)2 = 22 x22 = 4 x4 (3a2b3c3)2 = 32 a22 b32c32 = 9a4b6c6

Case 1 : PRODUCT OF A POLYNOMIAL WITH A MONOMIAL

Pattern: a( a + b + c ) = a2 + ab + ac a( a b c ) = a2 ab ac Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 251

Case 1 is a generalization of the distributive law. The first factor is a monomial and the second factor could be a polynomial of n terms.

Example 1: Find the product of 3( 5p2 pq + q2 )

Solution: 3( 5p2 pq + q2 ) = 15p2 3pq + 3q2

using distributive law

Example 2: Find the product of 2a2( a3 3a2b + ab2 )

Solution: 2a2( a3 3a2b + ab2 ) = 2a4 6a4b + 2a3b2

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ACTIVITES CHAPTER III

SPECIAL PRODUCTS SQUARE of MONOMIALS

Get the product of the following expression: 1. ( 6 a2 b3 )2 2. ( - 8 m3 n5 )2 3. (11 u3 v2 w4 )2 4. ( - 7 h4 k2 m3 n5 )2 5. ( 9 w6 x3 y4 z8 )2 6. ( 12 p4 q8 r2 s5 )2 7. ( - 14 a3 b8 c3 d7 e2 )2 8. ( 22 d2 e5 f3 g4 )2 9. ( - 20 r3 s4 t4 u2 v5 w8 )2 10. ( - 15 b6 c8 d2 e4 f3 g4 h6 )2

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Case 2 : SQUARE OF BINOMIALS

Pattern: ( a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2

The square of the sum (or difference) of two term is equal to the square of the first term plus (or minus) twice the product of the two terms plus the square of the second term. The resulting trinomial is a perfect square trinomial.

Example:

(3m +n)2

= (3m)2 + 2(3m)(n) + n2 = 9m2 + 6mn + n2

Example:

(5x 7y)2

= (5x)2 -2(5x)(7y) + (-7y)2 = 25x2 -70xy + 49y2

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ACTIVITIES SQUARE of BINOMIALS

Find the product of the following expression:

1. ( 5x + 4 )2 2. ( 6y2 + 3 )2 3. ( 4a2 b + 5 )2 4. ( 7a + 3b )2 5. ( 6a2 b3 + 2c2 d 3 )2 6. ( 5 a2 b3 c2 + 4 e2 f 3 g2 )2 7. ( 8 s2 t3 u4 + 4 v2 w3 x4 )2 8. ( 3a 4 )2 9. ( 4b2 5 )2 10. ( 8 a2 b2 3 c2 d 2 )2 11. ( 6 c2 d3 5 e2 f 3 )2 12. ( 3 k2 l2 m3 4 n2 q2 p3 )2 13. ( 5 a2 b3 c3 2 d 2 e3 f 3)2 14. ( 9 u2 v3 w4 2 x2 y3 z4 )2 15. ( 2 a3 b3 c3 d 3 4 e2 f 2 g2 h2 )2

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Case 3 : PRODUCT OF THE SUM AND DIFFERENCE OF THE SAME TWO TERMS

Pattern: (a + b) (a b) = a2 b2

The product of the sum and difference of the same two terms is equal to the square of the first term minus the square of the second term. The product is called the difference of two squares.

Examples:

1.) Find the product of (3x + 5y) (3x 5y) Solution:

(3x + 5y) (3x 5y) = (3x)2 (5y)2 = 9x2 25y2

2.) Find the product of (4c + 3d) (4c 3d) Solution:

(4c +3d) (4c 3d) = (4c)2 (3d)2 = 16c2 9d2

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ACTIVITIES PRODUCT of SUM and DIFFERENCE of THE SAME TWO TERMS

Write out the product of the following binomials:

1. ( x + 5 )( x 5 ) 2. ( 4x2 1 )( 4x2 1 ) 3. ( x2 y2 )( x2 + y2 ) 4. ( a3 + b3 )( a3 b3 ) 5. ( 8c 4b )( 8c + 4b ) 6. ( xyz 9 )( xyz + 9 ) 7. ( 5k 3q )( 5k + 3q ) 8. ( 3kmn 5abc )( 3kmn + 5abc ) 9. ( 7 s2 t3 u2 3 v2 w3 x2 ) ( 7 s2 t3 u2 + 3 v2 w3 x2 ) 10. ( 6 m3 n2 p4 q3 r2 + 5 s3 n2 p4 q3 r2 )( 6 m3 n2 p4 q3 r2 - 5 s3 n2 p4 q3 r2 )

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Case 4 : CUBE OF A BINOMIAL

Pattern: (a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3 (a - b)3 = a3 - 3a2b + 3ab2 - b3

If we take (a + b) three times as a factor by the long method we would derive the pattern. Observe the numerical coefficients in the pattern which are 1, 3, 3, and 1 and the descending powers of the first term of a and the ascending powers of the second term of b.

Example 1:

Expand (2x + 3y)3

Solution:

first term = 2x; second term = 3y

(2x + 3y)

= (2x)3 + 3(2x)2 (3y) + 3(2x)(3y)2 + (3y)3 = 8x3 + 36x2y + 54 xy227y3

Example 2:

Expand (7c d)3

Solution:

first term = 7c;

second term = -d

(7c d)3

= (7c)3 + 3(7c)2 (-d) + 3(7c)(-d)2 + (-d)3 = 343c3 147c2d + 21cd2 d3

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ACTIVITIES CUBE of BINOMIALS

Find the product of the following expression:

1. ( 3x + 4y )3 2. ( 2wx + 5 yz )3 3. ( 5a - 3b )3 4. ( 4ab - 6 cd )3 5. ( 3x2 + 5y2 )3 6. ( 4w2x2 + 3y2z2 )3 7. ( 6a2 - 3b2 )3 8. ( 5a2b2 - 3c2 d2 )3 9. ( 2uvw + 6xyz )3 10. ( 4abc - 3def )3

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Case 5 : PRODUCT OF TWO BINOMIALS HAVING SIMILAR TERMS

Pattern: (ax + by) ( cx +dy) = acx2 + ( ad + bc) xy + bdy2

The pattern used follows the FOIL method or HALF-MOON method of multiplying polynomials.

Example 1:

Find the product of ( x 4y) (x + 7y)

Solution: (x 4y) (x + 7y) = x2 +x (7y) + x(-4y) + (-4y) (7y) = x2 +7xy 4xy -28y2 =x2 + 3xy - 28y2

Example 2:

Find the product of (10r + 3t) (3r + 2t)

Solution: (10r + 3t) (3r + 2t) = (10r)(3r) + (10r) (2t) + (3r)(3t) + (3t)(2t) = 30r2 + 20rt + 9rt + 6t2 = 30r2 + 29rt + 6t2

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ACTIVITIES PRODUCT of BINOMIALS HAVING SIMILAR TERMS

Write out the product of the following expression:

1. ( 5x2 + 3y )( 4x2 + 2y ) 2. ( 7 ab + 3 cd )( 4 ab + 2 cd ) 3. ( 6 s2 t3 + 4 u2 v3 )( 3 s2 t3 + 5 u2 v3 ) 4. ( 2 w2 x2 + 5 y2 z2 )( 3 w2x2 + 5 y2 z2 ) 5. ( 8 a2 b2 c2 + 4 d2 e2 f2 ) ( 4 a2 b2 c2 + 8 d2 e2 f2 ) 6. ( 5x2 - 3y )( 4x2 + 2y ) 7. ( 7 ab + 3 cd )( 4 ab - 2 cd ) 8. ( 6 s2 t3 - 4 u2 v3 )( 3 s2 t3 + 5 u2 v3 ) 9. ( 2 w2 x2 + 5 y2 z2 )( 3 w2x2 - 5 y2 z2 ) 10. ( 8 a2 b2 c2 - 4 d2 e2 f2 ) ( 4 a2 b2 c2 + 8 d2 e2 f2 )

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Case 6 : PRODUCT OF A BINOMIAL AND A SPECIAL TRINOMIAL

Pattern: (a + b)(a2 ab + b2) = a3 + b3 (a - b)(a2 + ab + b2) = a3 - b3

When (a + b) is multiplied by (a2 ab + b2) the result contains two terms, a sum of cubes, a3 + b3.

Studying the relation of the trinomial factor a2 ab + b2 to the binomial factor (a + b).

a2 is the square of the first term a; -ab is the product of the two terms but opposite in sign; b2 is the square of the second term b.

The same is true for difference of two cubes.

Comparing the results, to find the product we merely get the cube of the terms in the binomial factor.

Example 1:

Find the product of (3x + 2y) (9x2 6xy +4y2)

Solution: (3x + 2y) (9x2 6xy + 4y2) = (3x3) + (2y)3 = 27x3 +8y3

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ACTIVITIES PRODUCT of BINOMIAL with a SPECIAL TRINOMIAL

Find the product of the following expression:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

( 2a + 3b )( 4a2 6ab + 9b2 ) ( 3a2 + 4b2 )( 9a4 12a2b2 + 16b4 ) ( 5ab 4cd )( 25a2b2 + 20abcd + 16c2d2 ) ( 6x3 3y3 )( 36x6 + 18x3y3 + 9y6 ) ( 7uvw + 4xyz )( 49u2v2w2 28uvwxyz + 16x2y2z2 ) ( 8abc 5def )( 64a2b2c2 + 40abcdef + 25d2e2f 2 ) ( 2a2b2c2 + 6d2e2f 2 )( 4a4b4c4 12a2b2c2d2e2f 2 + 36 d4e4f 4 ) ( 5a3b3 6c3d3 )( 25a6b6 + 30a3b3c3d3 + 36c6d6 ) ( 3a3b3c3 + 7d3e3f 3 )( 9a6b6c6 21a3b3c3d3e3f 3 + 49d6e6f 6 )

10. ( 4w4x4 9y4z4 )( 16w8x8 + 36w4x4y4z4 +81y4z4 )

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Case 7 : SQUARE OF A TRINOMIAL

Pattern: ( a + b + c )2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2ac + 2bc

To square a trinomial or any multinomial, square each term plus twice the product of terms taken in pairs.

Example:

Expand ( 2x + 3y z )2

Solution:

( 2x + 3y z )2 = ( 2x )2 + ( 3y )2 + ( - z )2 + 2( 2x )( 3y ) + 2( 2x )( - z ) + 2( 3y )( - z ) = 4x2 + 9y2 + z2 +12xy 4xz 6yz

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ACTIVITIES SQUARE of a TRINOMIAL

Find the product of following expression.

1. ( 2a + 3b + 4c )2 2. ( 2a2 + 2b2 + 2c2 )2 3. ( 3ab + 3cd + 3ef )2 4. ( 4a2b2 + 4c2d2 + 4e2f 2 )2 5. ( 3abc + 4def + 5ghi )2 6. ( 2a 4b 3c )2 7. ( 3a2 5b2 2c2 )2 8. ( 3ab 3cd 4ef )2 9. ( 4a2b2 2c2d2 5e2f 2 )2 10. ( 3abc 6def 2ghi )2

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FACTORING

TYPES OF FACTORING

Case 1 : FACTORING POLYNOMIALS HAVING A COMMON FACTOR

To factor a polynomial with a common factor: Determine by inspection the greatest common factor to all of the terms of the polynomial. This is the first factor. b. Find the second factor by dividing each term of the polynomial by the GCF. a. Factor 7x3 21x2 GCF = 7x2 ( first factor ) ( second factor )

Example 1: Solution:

7x3 21x2 = x 3 7x2 thus 7x3 21x2 = 7x2 (x 3)

Example 2: Solution:

Factor 5a(x 2y) + 3b(x 2y) GCF = (x 2y) ( first factor ) (5a + 3b) ( second factor)

thus

5a(x - 2y) + 3b(x - 2y) = (x 2y)(5a + 3b)

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Case 2 : FACTORING DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARE

To factor the difference of two squares write the product of the sum and difference of their positive square roots.

Example 1:

4a2 25b2

= (2a + 5b)(2a 5b)

Example 2:

16t2 49

= (4t + 7)(4t 7)

Example 3:

9(x + y)2 121(a b)2 = [3(x + y) + 11(a b)][3(x + y) 11(a b)] =(3x + 3y + 11a 11b)(3x + 3y 11a + 11b)

Case 3 : FACTORING PERFECT SQUARES TRINOMIAL

A perfect square trinomial is readily recognized by the following characteristics: a) the first and the last terms are perfect squares b) the middle term is numerically twice the product of the square roots of the first and the last terms.

To factor a perfect square trinomial get the square roots of the perfect square terms, connect them with the sign of the remaining term and indicate that the expression is to be taken twice as a factor.

Example 1: Example 2: Example 3:

4a2 + 20ab + 25 b2 = (2a + 5b)2 9x2 12xy + 4y2 = (3x 2y)2 (x 3y)2 + 6(x 3y) + 9 = [(x-3y) + 3]2 Page 267

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Case 4 : FACTORING GENERAL QUADRATIC TRINOMIAL

A trinomial of the form ax2 + bx + c and is not a perfect square trinomial can be factored out by using trial and error method.

In factoring trinomials of this type the cross product (OI terms in FOIL) concept is very important.

Example 1: Factor x2 7x + 12 Solution: Since only first term has a coefficient of 1, it is only necessary to determine the correct factors of 12 which will give an algebraic sum of -7 ( the coefficient of the middle term) 12 has the following factors: 1, 12; 2, 6; -2, -6; 3,4; and -3, -4. The last sets of factors give a sum of -7 and therefore:

x2 -7x + 12 = (x 3) (x 4)

Example 2: Factor 4x2 +5xy 6y2 Solution: 4x2 has the following factors: 4x, x; -4x, -x; 2x, 2x; -2x, -2x -6y2 has the following factors: -6y, y;3-y , 6y; 3y. 2y; -3y, 2y

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Taking the cross products and adding,

4x x

-6y y

4xy + (-6xy ) = -2xy

x 4x

-y 6y

6xy + ( -4xy) = 2xy

4x x

3y -2y

-8xy + 3xy = -5xy

x 4x

2y -3y

-3xy + 8xy = 5xy

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Case 5 : SUM OR DIFFERENCE OF TWO CUBES

The factors of the sum or difference of two cubes consists of a binomial and a trinomial. The binomial is the sum or difference of the cube roots of the given perfect cubes. The sign in the binomial is the same as in the given polynomial.

The trinomial consists of the square of the first terms of the binomial plus or minus the product of the trinomial is the opposite of the given binomial.

Example 1:

Factor 8a3 + 27b3

= ( 2a + 3b )( 4a2 6ab + 9b2 )

Case 6 : FACTORING BY GROUPING

When a polynomial consists of 4 or more terms and not one of the proceeding types applies, then it can be factored by grouping. To factor:

a) Arrange the terms of the polynomials into groups so that each group has a common factor. b) Divide each group by the common factor and write the quotient in the parenthesis preceded by the common factor.

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Example:

Factor xy + 3x + 2y + 6

Solution:

xy + 3x + 2y + 6 = ( xy + 3x ) + ( 2y + 6 ) Grouping = x(y + 3 ) + 2( y + 3 ) = ( y + 3 )( x + 2 ) Distributing Law Case 1

Example:

Factor 25x2 y2 + 2yz z2

Solution:

25x2 y2 + 2yz z2

= 25x2 ( y2 2yz + z2 ) Grouping 2 2 = 25x ( y z ) Case 3 = [ 5x + ( y z )][ 5x ( y z )] Case 2 = ( 5x + y z )( 5x y + z)

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Case 7 : COMBINATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES

It is advisable to take out the greatest common factor first and then apply whatever types of factoring seem appropriate.

Example:

Factor 3x5y + 24x2y4

Solution:

Take out the common factor first, Applying sum of two cubes,

3x5y + 24x2y4 = 3x2y( x3+ 8y3 ) = 3x2y( x + 2 )( x2 2xy + 4y+2 ).

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CHAPTER IV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

SOLUTIONS TO QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

There are three methods of solving a quadratic namely:

1. By Completing the square 2. By Quadratic Formula 3. By Completing the Square

( Note: To check if the value of x is correct substitute the value of x in the given equation.)

SOLUTION BY COMPLETING THE SQUARE

If the quadratic equation cannot be solved by factoring, completing the square maybe applied.

Rules for solving a quadratic equation by completing the square:

1. Arrange the equation in the form ax2 + bx = - c. 2. Divide the both members of the equation by the coefficient of x2, if this coefficient is not 1. 3. Make the left member a perfect square trinomial by taking the square of one-half the coefficient of x and adding the result to both sides of the equation. 4. Factor the left member as a perfect square trinomial. 5. Take the square root of both sides of the equation using the double sign to the right member of the equation. 6. Solve the resulting equation. Solve x2 5x 24 = 0 Page 273

Example:

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Solution:

x2 5x 24 = 0 x2 5x = 24 Arrange the equation in the form ax2 + bx = - c Make the left member a perfect square trinomial 4

x2 5x + 25 = 24 + 25 4

x5 2

= 121 4

Factor the left member of the equation

x5 2

= + 121 - 4

Extract the square root of both members

x 5 = + 11 2 - 2

x = 5 + 11 2 2

x = 5 - 11 2 2

x = 16 2 x=8

x=-6 2 x=-3

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ACTIVITIES CHAPTER IV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS SOLUTION to QUADRATIC EQUATION by COMPLETING THE SQUARE
Find the value of x using Solution to Quadratic Equation by Completing the Square. Show your checking.

1. x2 + 5x + 6 = 0 2. x2 + 6x + 8 = 0 3. x2 + 7x + 10 = 0 4. x2 + 8x + 15 = 0 5. x2 + 9x + 18 = 0 6. x2 4x 5 = 0 7. x2 6x 27 = 0 8. x2 7x 18 = 0 9. x2 + 5x 36 = 0 10. x2 + 4x 21 = 0

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SOLUTION BY QUADRATIC FORMULA

The quadratic formula x = - b + b2 4ac implies that there are two roots 2a

X1 = - b + b2 4ac and X2 = - b - b2 4ac 2a 2a

Where a is the coefficient of x2 b is the coefficient of x c is the constant, when the given quadratic equation is in standard form. Solve x2 + 5x = 6

Example:

Solution:

In standard form x2 + 5x = 6 is x2 + 5x 6 = 0 where a = 1, b = 5, c = - 6.

Substituting in x = - b +

b2 4ac

2a

x=-5+

52 4(1)(-6)

2( 1 )

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x=-5+

25 + 24

x=-5+

49

x=-5+ 7 2

x1 = - 5 + 7 2

x2 = - 5 7 2

x1 = 2 2

x2 = - 12 2

x1 = 1

x2 = - 6

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ACTIVITIES SOLUTION to QUADRATIC EQUATION by QUADRATIC FORMULA


Find the value of x using Solution to Quadratic Equation by Quadratic Formula. Show your checking.

1. x2 + 5x + 6 = 0 2. x2 + 6x + 8 = 0 3. x2 + 7x + 10 = 0 4. x2 + 8x + 15 = 0 5. x2 + 9x + 18 = 0 6. x2 4x 5 = 0 7. x2 6x 27 = 0 8. x2 7x 18 = 0 9. x2 + 5x 36 = 0 10. x2 + 4x 21 = 0

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SOLUTION BY FACTORING The method consists of the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Write the quadratic in standard form. Factor the left member, each factor must contain the variable to the first power. Set each factor equal to zero. Solve the resulting equations.

Example 1. Solve the equation 42 = 2x. Solution: 42 2x = 0 2x (2x-1) = 0 Write in standard form Factor the left member

2x = 0 or 2x 2x 1= 0 Equate each of the linear factor to zero.

x= 0 2

2x = 1

Solve for x.

x=0

x= 1 2

Example 2. Solve equation 2y2 3y = 2y 2 Solution: 2y2 5y + 2 = 0 (2y 1) ( y 2) = 0 2y 1 = 0 or y 2 =0 2y = 1 Write in standard form Factor the left member Equate each of the linear factors to zero.

If b = 0 in a quadratic equation, the equation has no linear term and takes the form Ax 2 + c = 0. Equations of this can be solved by the Square Root Method.

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THE SQUARE ROOT PROPERTY:

If c > 0, then the equation x2 = c has two real roots: x = c and x = - c. Example 1. Solve 2y2 3 = 0 Solution: 2y2 3 = 0 2y2 = 3 y2 = 3 2 Property of addition property of division

y=

3 2

y = - 3 Apply the square Root Property 2

y= 6 2 Example 2: Solution: x2 : ( x )( x )

y=-6 2 x2 + 3x + 2 = 0

2 : ( - 1 )( - 2 ) , ( 1 )( 2 ) -3 +3

( x + 1 )( x + 2 ) = 0

(x+1)=0 x+1=0 x=-1

(x+2)=0 x+2=0 x=-2

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ACTIVITIES SOLUTION to QUADRATIC EQUATION by FACTORING


Find the value of x using Solution to Quadratic Equation by Factoring. Show your checking.

1. x2 + 5x + 6 = 0 2. x2 + 6x + 8 = 0 3. x2 + 7x + 10 = 0 4. x2 + 8x + 15 = 0 5. x2 + 9x + 18 = 0 6. x2 4x 5 = 0 7. x2 6x 27 = 0 8. x2 7x 18 = 0 9. x2 + 5x 36 = 0 10. x2 + 4x 21 = 0

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CHAPTER V SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

LINEAR EQUATION IN ONE VARIABLE DEFINITION and TERMINOLOGIES An equation is a statement that two algebraic expressions are equal. The expression on each side of the equality is a member of the equation. Examples: 1. 3x + 2 = x 6 2. y2 -4 = ( y+2 ) ( y 2 ) 3. 4m 2 = 2 ( m 2 ) 4. ( x 3 )2 = x2 6x + 9 In an equation, the letter whose value is to be found is called the unknown. The value of the unknown, which satisfies the equation, is called the root of the equation. In the equation 3x + 2 = x 6, the expression 3x + 2 is a member of the equation so with the expression x 6 . Also, x is the unknown and the root of the equation is 4.

In general, there are two kinds of equations, they are: 1. Identity or identical equation is an equation which is true for all values of the unknown. Examples (2) and (4).

2.

Conditional equation is an equation which is true for some permissible values of the unknown. Examples (1) and (3).

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SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

To solve a linear equation in one variable, use the axioms and properties of equality.

Solving a linear equation with grouping of symbols. Example: Solve for x: 3( x+ 5 ) + 4( x + 5 ) = 21 3( x + 5 ) + 4( x + 5 )= 21 3x + 15 + 4x + 20 = 21 7x + 35 = 21 Distributive Property combining similar terms

7x = - 14 property of subtraction x=-2 property of division

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ACTIVITIES CHAPTER V SYSTEM of LINEAR EQUATIONS LINEAR EQUATION in ONE VARIABLE


Find the value of x with checking. Show your solutions on your paper. 1. x + 7 = 9 2. 6x + 3 = 8 3. 3a + 4 = a 8 4. 3x + 6 x = 10 2x 5. T2 + 3t 4 = t2 + t + 6 6. 4 (x -3) = 6 5x 7. 2(6 8x) = 2(2 2x) 8. 5y (7y 13) = 10y - (-y + 39) 9. 7x 11 ( -16 + 2x ) = 0 10. 2x + 3x + x + 12 = 64 10 + 3x

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SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES ALGEBRAIC METHOD Under this method, there are two ways of finding the solution to a system namely:

a. Elimination by substitution b. Elimination by multiplication and addition c. By Determinants A. ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION The Steps are: 1. Solve one equation for one unknown in terms of the other. 2. Substitute the expression obtained in the other equation, thus obtaining an equation in one unknown only. 3. Solve the equation obtained. 4. Substitute the value obtained in the expression obtained in step (1) thus obtaining the value for the first unknown. 5. Check by substitution in both equations.
Example: Solve the system by substitution

3x 6y = 2 x 4y = 3 3x 6y = 2 (1) x 4y = 3 (2) Solve for x in eq. (2) x 4y = 2 x = 3 + 4y Solution: Substitute eq. (3) in eq. (1)

(3)

3x 6y = 2 3 ( 3 + 4y ) 6y = 2 9 + 12y 6y = 2 Solve for y: 9 + 6y = 2 6y = 2 9 6y = - 7 y = - 7/6 Substitute the value of y in eq. (3) x = 3 + 4y x = 3 + 4 ( -7/6 ) x = 3 28/6 x = 18/6 28/6 x = - 10/6 or 5/3

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Checking: Substitute the value of x and y in eq. (1) or (2) x = - 10/6 y = - 7/6 Equation (1) 3x -6y = 2 3 ( - 10/6 ) 6 ( -7/6 ) = 2 -30/6 + 42/6 = 2 12/6 = 2 2=2 Equation (2) x 4y = 3 -10/6 4 ( - 7/6 ) = 3 -10/6 + 28/6 = 3 18/6 = 3 3=3 B. ELIMINATION BY MULTIPLICATION and ADDITION The Steps are: 1. Multiply both equations by constant chosen ( one negative and one positive constant) so that the coefficients of one unknown become negative of each other. 2. Add the resulting equations, thus eliminating one unknown. 3. Solve the resulting equation for the unknown. 4. Repeat the process with the rules of the unknown interchanged, solving for the other unknown. 5. Check by substituting in both equations. Example: Solve: 2x + 5y = 10 3x 8y = 15 2x + 5y = 10 (1) 3x 8y = 15 (2) multiply eq. (1) by 3, then add to eq. (2) multiplied by -2 6x + 15y = 30 -6x + 16y = - 30 31y = 0 y=0 multiply eq. (1) by 8,then add to eq. (2) multiplied by 5 16x + 40y = 80 15x 40y = 75 31x = 155 x=5
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Solution:

Eliminate x: Add

Eliminate y: Add

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Checking: Substitute the value of x and y to eq. (1) and (2) x=5 y=0 Equation (1) 2x + 5y = 10 2 ( 5 ) + 5 ( 0 ) = 10 10 + 0 = 10 10 = 10 Equation (2) 3x 8y = 15 3 ( 5 ) 8 ( 0 ) = 15 15 0 = 15 15 = 15

C. BY DETERMINANTS We have show that a system of linear equation can be obtained by using a formula for x and y in terms of the constants a, b, c. X= Y= a1x1 + b1y1 + c1 a2x2 + b2y2 + c2 c1b2 c2b1 a1b2 a2b1 a1c2 a2c1 a1b2 a2b1

X=

Y=

OR In solving a system of equations using determinants, we will compute the value of three determinants: D, Dx, Dy. The value of D is just the denominator of EQN1 and EQN2. The entries of this determinant are coefficients of x and y, that is D= a1 a2 b1 b2

The determinant Dx is the denominator of EQN1. The entries are Dx = c1 c2 b1 b2

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It can be seen that we just replace the coefficients of x by the constants on the right hand side of the equation. The determinant Dy is the numerator of EQN2, that is, Dy = a1 a2 c1 c2

In solving for the values of x and y, we will use the formula X= Dx D

Y=

Dy D

The preceding formulas show what is known as CRAMERS RULE. After we get the value of x and y, substitute it in the original equation to check if we get the right value for x and y. Solve the following system of equations using Cramers Rule: 2X + Y = 1 XY=2 Solution: By Linear Equation X= Y= X= a1x1 + b1y1 + c1 a2x2 + b2y2 + c2

Example:

c1b2 c2b1 a1b2 a2b1 ( 1 )( - 1 ) ( 2 )( 1 ) ( 2 )( - 1 ) ( 1 )( 1 ) (-1)(2) (-2)(1) -12 -2 1 -3 -3

x=

x =

X =

X=

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X= 1 a1c2 a2c1 a1b2 a2b1 ( 2 )( 2 ) ( - 1 )( - 1 ) ( 2 )( - 1 ) ( 1 )( 1 ) (4)(1) (-2)(1) 41 -2 1 3 -3 -1 Compute the value of determinants D, Dx, Dy = ( 2 )( - 1 ) ( 1 )( 1 ) = - 2 1 =

Y=

Y=

Y=

Y=

Y= Y= Solution:

D=

2 1

1 -1

-3

Dx = 1 2 Dy = 2 1

1 -1 1 2

= ( 1 )( - 1 ) ( 1 )( 2) = - 1 3 = = ( 2 )( 2 ) ( 1 )( 1 ) = 4 1 =

-3

Applying Cramers Rule, we have

X=

Dx D Dy D

-3 -3 3 -3

Y=

-1

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Checking: 2X + Y = 1 Xy=2 eqn. 1 eqn. 2

X=1 Y=-1 Substitute x and y to eqn. 1 2X + Y = 1 2 ( 1 ) + ( -1 ) = 1 21=1 1=1 Substitute x and y to eqn. 2 XY=2 1(-1)=2 1+1=2 2=2

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ACTIVITIES LINEAR EQUATIONS in TWO VARIBLES

Find the value of the checking unknown variables with. Show your solutions on your paper.

1. y x = 3 y + 2x = -3 2. 2y x = 4 4y = 2x = 12 3. x + y = 2 y = 2x 1 4. x + y = 3 y = 3x 1 5. 3x + y = 5 xy=7 6. 3x 4y = 13 2x + y = 5 7. x + x = 4 x=1y 8. y + x = 1 7y 7x = -7 9. 2x = y = 0 2x + 4y = -10 10. y - x + 0 = 2 y=-x+4

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SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS IN THREE EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY MULTIPLICATION, ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

We will use this method since elimination by substitution is not a convenient method of solving for the roots of the system of equation involving three unknowns. To find for the roots of the equation, we will use the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Take any two equations from the system. Eliminate one of the variables by addition / subtraction. Take another two of the three equations then eliminate the same variables as in step 1. We shall be able to produce two equations involving two unknowns. Solve for the two unknowns. Find for the value of the third variable by substituting the values to any of the three equations. Check by substituting all the computed values to original equations.

Example:

Using elimination by addition / subtraction, solve the system of equation below.

x y + 2z = - 3 x + 2y + 3z = 4 2x + y + z = - 3

EQN1 EQN2 EQN3

Solution: Let us first take EQN1 and EQN3. Take note that the coefficients of the variable y are additive inverses, thus we can eliminate y by adding the two equations:

x y + 2z = - 3 2x + y + z = - 3 3x + 3z = - 6 EQN4

Then, take EQN1 and EQN2. We will eliminate the variable y. We can do this if EQN1 is multiplied by 2. Thus, 2x 2y + 4z = - 6

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x + 2y + 3z = 4 3x + 7z = - 2 EQN5

To solve EQN4 and EQN5 simultaneously, we get

3x + 3z = - 6 3x + 7z = - 2 -4z = - 4 z=1 Now we can solve for y, we substitute the value of x by substituting z = 1 to any of EQNs 4 and 5. When we take EQN4, then we will have

3x + 3z = - 6 3x = - 6 3z 3x = - 6 3( 1 ) 3x = - 6 3 3x = - 9 x = -3

In solving for y, we substitute the values x = - 3 and z = 1 to any of EQNs 1, 2, and 3. When we take equation 3, then we get

2x + y + z = - 3 2(-3)+y+1=-3 -6 + y + 1 = - 3 -6 + 1 + y = - 3

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-5 + y = - 3 y = -3 + 5 y=2

The answers are x = - 3, y = 2 and z = 1.

Checking: Substitute the value of x, y and z to equation 1, 2 or 3.

X = -3 Y=2 Z=1

Substitute the value of x, y and z to equation 1.

x y + 2z = - 3 ( - 3 ) ( 2 ) + 2( 1 ) = - 3 -3 2 + 2 = - 3 -5 + 2 = - 3 -3=-3

Substitute the value of x, y and z to equation 2.

x + 2y + 3z = 4 ( - 3 ) + 2( 2 ) + 3( 1 ) = 4

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-3 + 4 + 3 = 4 -3+7=4 4=4

Substitute the value of x, y and z to equation 3.

2x + y + z = - 3 2( - 3 ) + 2 + 1 = - 3 -6 + 3 = - 3 -3=-3

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DATACOM INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY


FIRST SEMESTER SECOND TRANSITION

COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL IN TURBO C++

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LEARNING GOALS

1. Recognize the different control structures of C++ 2. Create C++ programs based on certain requirements. 3. Demonstrate the ability to modify and debug C++ programs.

LESSON 1 INTRODUCTION TO C++ PROGRAMMING Programming Languages Brief History of TURBO C++ Environment of TURBO C++

LESSON 2 STARTING TURBO C++ Parts of C++ Program Comments Keywords Variables Data types The cout and cin Statements Constant Operators

LESSON 3 CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS One-Way Selection Statements Compound Statements and Blocks Two-Way Selection Statement Multi-Way Selection Statement

LESSON 4 LOOPS Counter Controlled Loops Condition-Controlled Loops

LESSON 5 ARRAYS What is Array? How to use Array Page 297

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LESSON 1 INTRODUCTION TO C++ PROGRAMMING

Programming Languages

A programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely. A programming language is a computer language programmers applications, scripts, or other set of instructions for a computer to execute. use to develop

Are coded language used by programmers to write instructions that a computer can understand to do what the programmer (or the computer user) wants. The most basic (called lowlevel) computer language is the machine language that uses binary ('1' and '0') code which a computer can run (execute) very fast without using any translator or interpreter program, but is tedious and complex. The high-level languages (such as Basic, C, Java) are much simpler (more 'English-like') to use but need to use another program (a compiler or an interpreter) to convert the high-level code into the machine code, and are therefore slower. There are dozens of programming languages and new ones are being continuously developed. Also called computer language

History of C++
In 1972, Ken Tompson and Dennis Ritchie created an improved version of the B language, and named it C. When C started to become an extremely popular language, plenty of companies began to offer their own versions of C. These companies had a different direction in which they were moving the language. No longer could the programmers, using different versions of C, write compatible code. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) solved this problem by creating a subcommittee named X3J11. This committee's purpose was to standardize the C programming language, and so they did. The official standard language name was pronounced ANSI C, or Standard C. It no longer mattered which company's version of C programmers were using, the language features were reliable and available in all existing versions of compiler software that was based on the ANSI C standard specification.

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In the coming two years after C was released, the code written in C began to suffer from a problem. As the programmers harnessed the power of Personal Computer, the software grew more complex, and the C programs have gotten longer and longer. There had to be a solution. In 1983, Bjarne Stroustrup developed such a solution, and named it the C++ programming language. In 1980, Bjarne Stroustrup, from Bell labs, began the development of the C++ language, that would receive formally this name at the end of 1983, when its first manual was going to be published. In October 1985, the first commercial release of the language appeared as well as the first edition of the book "The C++ Programming Language" by Bjarne Stroustrup. During the 80s, the C++ language was being refined until it became a language with its own personality. All that with very few losses of compatibility with the code with C, and without resigning to its most important characteristics. In fact, the ANSI standard for the C language published in 1989 took good part of the contributions of C++ to structured programming. C++ was derived from the original C languages; most programs created in C can still be compiled and run on C++. Howe ever, slight changes in the syntaxes of keywords may prevent some C programs from being executed.

Programming Languages C++ C++ is one of the most widely used software tools in the world with millions of users. For several years, an international standard for the language has existed but it has continued to rise in popularity. C++ gradually became the dominant programming language for applications in fields ranging from computer-aided design to telecommunications. The C++ standard covers both the C++ language itself and its standard library. This will make it easier to write programs that run on a variety of platforms. The C++ library provides standard input/output, containers (such as vectors, lists, maps and strings), non-numerical algorithms (such as sort, search, and merge), and support for numeric computation. As a result of the international effort, the C++ standard provides extensive support for the use of national character sets (e.g., European national characters and Japanese characters). ASSEMBLER: A program that translates assembly language programs into machine code. BINARY: Having only two possible values (0 or 1, Yes or No, On or OFF) COMPILATION: The process of translating a high-level language program in to a machine code. INPUT-PROCESS-OUTPUT: Refers to the process of gathering input from the computer user, and the delivery of output after the encoded data were processed by the computer.
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SOURCE CODE: the code written by the programmer before it is compiled into object code.

ENVIRONMENT OF TURBO C++


TITLE BAR MENU BAR

TOOL BAR

PROGRAM FILE NAME

SCROLL BAR

EDITOR WINDOW

STATUS BAR

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LESSON 2 STARTING TURBO C++

General Format of a C++ Program

Preprocessor Directives

Data type f1 (parameter list);

Data type f2 (parameter list); . . . Data type fn (parameter list);

main () { local variables statements }

Data type f1 (parameter list) } local variables statements } Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 301

data type f2 (parameter list) { local variables statements } . . . Data type fn (parameter list) } local variables statements }

PREPROCESSOR DIRECTIVES

To start off, we have the preprocessor directives at the topmost part of C++ program. This is where all functions are imported or, in C++ terms, included. Without it you wont be able to execute any command at all, since commands are always included from other functions. This is very important because without it, the command getch() will not execute properly since it was imported from conio.h. Code: #include <conio.h>

conio stands for console input/output an H-file because its extension is .h h signifies a header file.

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Code: #include<iostream.h>

iostream stands for input/output an H-file because its extension is .h h signifies a header file.

FUNCTIONS Are lines of code grouped that performed several tasks in a program. They are easily recognizable because names are immediately followed by parenthesis. The number of functions found in a C++ program can range from 1 to as many as the user desires. The main() function, as long as main() is present , the program will still compile and run- assuming all the codes inside the main() functions can stand on their own and are not cross-referencing other functions. DATA TYPES When we declare variables, we also declare the variables data type and determines what kind of values it can store within itself. When a program that has a variable declared within it is run, OS reserves memory locations to hold these variables.

DATA TYPES integer float character int float char

CODE

EXAMPLE 1,2,3,4,5,6... 13.1,3.14.. A,b,c,d,e

INTERGER holds whole number. FLOAT- holds decimal numbers. CHARACTER can store single character.

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VARIABLE AND CONSTANT

Variable- Change values throughout the program- you can think of variables as containers whose contents can change and be accessed for future use. (HOLDS SINGLE VALUE)

Constant - should be given initial values. Retain that same value throughout the program; values cannot be change during the execution of the program. (FIXED VALUE) Identifier is the variable name, or how you present it in your program code. Example. studentsAge, grade;

Rules in declaring variables or naming identifiers : 1.) Identifier can only contain letters, numbers, dollar sign($), and underscore. 2.) Identifier cannot start in numbers. 3.) If the identifier is consist of two or more words, the words must be considered as one, by making them connected with underscore, or just remove the spaces. 4.) Identifiers are case sensitive.

EXAMPLE OF IDENTIFIER

VALID
num1 numOne $econdName3 your_Name fName love2love

INVALID
1num num one myN@m? yo-ur/Na*me float "love,love"

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STATEMENTS

A statement is an instructional code that commands the computer to do certain action upon its execution. A semicolon (;) signifies the end of an statement. The declaration of a variable in a function is also considered as a statement since the entire line of code ends with a semicolon.

COMMENTS

Comments- are lines of code that are not executed during the program. They are used either to give a brief labeling and explanation to lines of codes or to temporarily disable lines of code during the development phase. There are two kinds of comments that C++ utilizes. Single-line Comment a double slash (//) at the beginning of a line of code disables the entire statement and considers it merely as a comment Multi-line Comment several lines of code can be disabled by placing the code block between a slash- asterisk (/*) and an asterisk-slash (*/)

Example of variable declarations int studentsAge; where int is a data type And studentsAge is the variable.

CODING GUIDELINES Use comments for documentation and readability. White spaces are ignored. Indent for readability .

THE COUT AND CIN STATEMENTS

cout - statement outputs all the variables or constants that are declared in it. Syntax: cout <<C++ is cool!\ n; Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 305

cin statement asks for an input from the user. Create a new C++ program with the following lines of code and observed what happens;

#include <iostream.h> #include <conio.h>

main() { int int1; cout<<\n Enter an integer : \n; cin>>int1; cout<<int1; getch(); return 0; }

The statements cin >> int1; asks for user input then places whatever the input is on the variable int1 (which was declared to be as an int data type in the line int int1; ). To see if it works, the next line cout << int1; displays the value of int1 after the user input. This is the output when the program above is run. Notice that when a number with a decimal value is entered, its decimal part is omitted.

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CONSTANTS

Constants act like containers which are user-defined and are given initial values. However, the values of constants can never change during the program. There are two ways to declare constants.

1. #define standardAge 18

standardAge is the constant name and 18 is the declared value.

2. int standardAge = 18 ;

int is the data type for the constant, standardAge is the constant name, and 18 is the declared value.

Note that the whole statements end with the semicolon (;).

OPERATORS
Operators are symbols that execute a corresponding action during the program. In C++ there are several categories of operators each having a unique feature. Below are the commonly known categories of operators. Assignment Operators o o o O Mathematical Operators Increment and Decrement Operators Relational Operators Logical Operators

ASSIGNMENT OPERATORS (=, += , -= , *= , /= , %=)


Ex. A= b+c; Assigning A as with the sum of b and c. The operand that holds the value is found on the left side of the assignment statement operator while the assigned values were found on the right side. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 307

MATHEMATICAL OPERATORS (+, - , *, /, %)


+ * / % for addition for subtraction for multiplication for division for yielding the remainder

For example: If b=10 c= 2 and d=6, a=b/d; will yield the answer 5 for a. on the other hand, a= b%d; will yield the answer 0 for a. Because when we divide 10 from 2 the remainder is 0.

// Adding and Subtracting Two Input Numbers

#include <iostream.h> #include <conio.h>

main() { int num1, numTwo, sum, difference;

cout<<" Enter 1st number : "; cin>>num1;

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cout<<" Enter 2nd number : "; cin>>numTwo;

sum = num1 + numTwo; difference = num1 - numTwo;

cout<<"\n The Sum is : "; cout<<sum;

cout<<"\n The Difference : " <<difference;

getch(); clrscr(); return 0;

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OUTPUT :

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INCREMENT (++) AND DECREMENT OPERATORS (--)


The operators increase and decrease the original values assigned to them by 1. Simply put a++; will yield an equivalent result to a=a+1; similarly, a--; is the same as a=a-1.

// Increment

#include <iostream.h> #include <conio.h>

main() { int x = 6;

cout<<"\nBefore Increment : X now is : " <<x;

x++;

cout<<"\nAfter Increment : X now is : " <<x;

getch();

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clrscr(); return 0;

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RELATIONAL OPERATIONS (==, !=, >,<,>=,<=)


== != > < >= <= EQUAL NOT EQUAL GREATER THAN LESS THAN GREATER THAN OR EQUAL LESS THAN OR EQUAL

LOGICAL OPERATIONS ( &&, ||, !)

TRUTH TABLE OF && (AND), || (OR), and !(NOT)

AND (&&) X T T F F Y T F T F RESULT T F F F X T T F F

OR (||) Y T F T F RESULT T T T F X T F

NOT (!) RESULT F T

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Ex . (a==b) this test a if equal to b. (a==b && a==c) this statement show that a=b and also if a=c. (a==b || a==c) this statement show that a=b and also if a=c. !(a==b) - ! is reverse whatever the output the other logical operators return. If the value of a and b is equal it will return false instead of true, and vice versa.

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How To Make a Program Pause

The command: getch(); will wait for the user to press any key on the keyboard. You must have #include <conio.h> to make this work. It is usually good to have a cout statement preceding this so the user knows why the program is stopping (user friendly).

#include <iostream.h> #include <conio.h>

main() { getch(); cout<<" HELLO "; getch();

cout<< endl;

cout<< " H "; getch(); cout<< " E "; getch(); cout<< " L "; getch(); Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 315

cout<< " L "; getch(); cout<< " O ";

return 0;

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Clear Screen The command: clrscr( ); will clear all text from the text screen. You must have #include <conio.h> to make this work.
//Sample Program for clearing the Scree #include <iostream.h> #include <conio.h> main() { cout<<" H"; cout<<" I ";

getch(); clrscr();

cout<<"\nCLEARED?? "; return 0; }

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LESSON 3

One Way Selection Statement (if Statement) The simplest among all the conditional statement is if statement. If the condition in the if statement is true, the succeeding statement will be executed. With the if statement, you can also execute several statements, just enclose them within open and close braces ({}).

SYNTAX of IF CONDITION if (condition) { statement_1; statement_2; : : statement_n; }

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Control Structure

//if.cpp

#include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h>

main() { int x; clrscr(); cout<< enter an integer: ; cin>>x; if (x%2==0) { cout <<x<< :is an even number.; } if (x%2==1) { cout <<x<< :is an odd number.; } getch(); return 0; }

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Explaining the if Application:

if (x==0)

This is the file statement and its condition. If the remainder when x is divided by is equal to 0, the code. cout <<x<<is an even number.; is executed. Otherwise, It will immediately go to the next line after the close brace (}). That marks the end of the scope of the first if statement. { cout<<x<<is an even number.; } COMPOUND STATEMENTS AND BLOCKS A collection of individual program statements that have been grouped together and enclosed with braces. This mechanism is used to group a sequence of program statements and get them to be treated syntactically as only one statement, for use when the structure of the programming language requires it. As a result, it becomes possible to use a compound statement where a single program statement can be used.

if (i==10) { statement_1; statement_2; : statement_n; }

} Compound Structure

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In some programming languages, compound statements are also called blocks. More specially, a block is a compound statement that contains data declarations in the beginning. Variables that are declared within a block can only be used and referenced within that block, and defines the local scope that the variables can be used.

TWO-WAY SELECTION STATEMENT

Two factors have posed considerable influence in determining how well-accepted and widely used a programming language can become.

At times, we are given conditions that may not be true. When you need to execute specific statements depending on whether the condition is true or false, use the if-else statement. The program below is an implementation of a two-way selection statement for determining whether the user input is an even determining whether the user input is an even or odd number.

//if_else.cpp

#include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h>

main() { int x,y; clrscr();

cout<<"enter an integer:; cin >>x; Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 321

y = x % 2;

if (y==0) { cout <<x<<"is an even number.; } else { cout <<x<<"is an odd number.; }

getch(); return 0; }

If the if expressions evaluates to false, the statements within the scope of the else part will executed.

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MULTI-WAY SELECTION STATEMENT Many times, we have several paths to choose from when we decide. When you want to evaluate several conditions, use the nested if structure.

//nested_if.cpp #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h>

main() { clrscr(); int grade; cout<<"enter grade: ; cin>>grade; cout<<"converted grade is: ;

if (grade<80) { cout <<"c; }

else if (grade<95) { cout <<"b; }

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else { cout<<"a; }

getch(); return 0; }

EXPLAINING THE NESTED IF APPLICATION In this program, we declared a variable grade which stores user input, and then we display the equivalent letter score of the numeric grade.

If (grade<83) The condition above test the variable grade is less than 80. if it is then the display is c, if the grade is less than 90 the display is b but if not the last condition will be executed which the program print letter a.

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SWITCH STATEMENT

The switch statement provides a convenient alternative to the if when dealing with a multi-way branch. Suppose we have some integer value called test and want to do different operations depending on whether it has the value 1, 5 or any other value, then the switch statement could be employed:

switch ( test ) { case 1 : // Process for test = 1 ... break; case 5 : // Process for test = 5 ... break; default : // Process for all other cases. ... }
It works as follows:

The expression, just test in this case, is evaluated. The case labels are checked in turn for the one that matches the value. If none matches, and the optional default label exists, it is selected, otherwise control passes from the switch compound statement If a matching label is found, execution proceeds from there. Control then passes down through all remaining labels within the switch statement. As this is normally not what is wanted, the break statement is normally added before the next case label to transfer control out of the switch statement. One useful exception occurs when you want to do the same processing for two or more values. Suppose you want values 1 and 10 to do the same thing, then:-

case 1 : case 10: // Process for test = 1 or 10 break;


works because the test = 1 case just "drops through" to the next section.

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#include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h.>

main() { int month =0; clrscr(); cout<<enter value of month :; cin>>month; switch(month) { case 1: cout<<January has 31 days; break; case 2: cout<<February has 28 or 29 days; break; case 3: cout<<March has 31 days; break; case 4: cout<<April has 30 days; break; case 5: cout<<May has 31 days; break; case 6: cout<<June has 30 days; break; case 7: cout<<July has 31 days; break;

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case 8: cout<<August has 31 days; break; case 9: cout<<September has 30 days; break; case 10: cout<<October has 31 days; break; case 11: cout<< November has 30 days; break; case 12: cout<<December has 31 days; break; default: cout<<Sorry that is not a valid month!; break; } getch(); return 0; }

EXPLAINING THE SWITCH APPLICATION

switch (month) The switch statement starts where the value of the variable month is being tested. This means that the value of month is checked against the case constant defined.

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case 1: cout <<January has 31 days; break; . . case 12: cout<<December has 31 days; break; default: cout<<sorry that is not a valid month!; break;

There are 12 case constants (one for each month of the year) and one default case when the value of month is not within the specified range. Each case ends with a break command so that if the switch statement finds a matching value from the case constants with the value of month, all other succeeding lines within the switch statement are ignored.

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LESSON 4 LOOPING

Spaghetti Code: Goto statements can allow flow of control to jump all over a program, wearing and out of various sections of the program code, much like spaghetti noodles all tangled up on a plate, Because of this, such a program can be very difficult to trace and understand, and can be nightmare for another programmer to debug and maintain. For this reason, programmers rarely use goto statements. They use it very sparingly and with great care, and only as a last resort.

#include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h>

main() { int i=0; loop1: i= i +1; if (i < 100) { cout<<i<<"\n"; goto loop1; } getch(); return 0; }

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Fortunately, there are repetition control structures specifically meant to handle the repeated execution of proportions of a program. These control structures are called loops. With loops, a test condition for repetition is already built-in, and a separate goto statements is no longer required. Each pass through the loop is called iteration. COUNTER-CONTROLLED LOOPS A counter-controlled loop is control structure that allows us to specify the repeated execution of a group of program statements a definite number of times. A variable that serves as an index or counter is used to indicate how many times an enclosed block of statements is to be executed repeatedly. THE FOR LOOP The most common type of counter-controlled loop is the for loop. The for loop is used when the number of repeatedly of iteration is already known before entering the loop.

The for loop follows this format: for (<initialization>; <condition>; <increment/operations>) { <statement/s> }

From the syntax, you can see that the for loop has three main parts separated by a semicolon(;) :

1. Initialization- this is where you assign values to variables that will be used in your loop. 2. Condition made up of conditional statements that (if true) determine whether or not the statements within the for loop will be executed. 3. Increment/operations can b a place where operations are done every time the loop iterates. For do loop that prints the number 1-10 #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h>

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int main() { int i; cout<<"\n FOR LOOP \n"; for (i=1; i<=10; i++) { cout<<i <<endl; } getch(); return 0; }

OUTPUT :

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CONDITION-CONTROLLED LOOPS

It is not always possible to know in advance how many times a particular set of operations should be repeated. In such cases, a for loop is not the best repetition control structure to use. Rather than a counter-controlled loop, what is needed is a loop that reacts to changing conditions. A condition-controlled is a loop that tests a condition to determine whether a block of enclosed statements should be executed repeatedly.

One type of condition-controlled loop evaluates an expression prior to entering the loop. This called the pre-test loop. This condition determines whether program flow can proceed into the loop body. If the condition is satisfied, the statement block inside the loop structure is executed. Once the last statement is executed, control is transferred back to the beginning of the loop where the pre-test is evaluated again. As long as the expression remains true, the execution of the statement block inside the loop will be repeated.

If the condition is not a satisfied, then the loop execution ends. The loop body is disregarded and control is transfer to the next executable statement after the loop structure. If , at the very start, the result of the pre-test condition is already false, then the loop body wont even be executed.

Condition for loop continuation

F TRUE A L S E Exit Pre-test Loop Loop Body

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FLOWCHART OF A PRE-TEST LOOP The while loop The while loop is the common example of a loop structure that uses a pre-test. The while loop follows this format: while (<expression>) /* pre-test loop*/ { statement_list; } statement_list2; while loop that prints the number 1-10 #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> main() { int i=1; cout<<"\n WHILE LOOP \n"; while (i<=10) { cout<<i; i++; } getch(); return 0; }

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OUTPUT:

The example below computes the average grade of a class.

The example below computes the average grade of a class. It asks the user how many students there are in the class, and later, what their individual grades are. A counter keeps track of how many students have been processed so far. The while loop uses the counter as part of the pretest condition that determines whether the loop body should be executed again or not.

#include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> main() { clrscr(); int vTotal ; int vGrade_Counter= 1; int vNum_Students; float vGrade,vAverage;

cout<<"Enter the number of students:"; Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 334

cin>>vNum_Students;

while (vGrade_Counter <= vNum_Students) { cout<<"Enter a grade:"; cin>> vGrade; vTotal= vTotal + vGrade; vGrade_Counter = vGrade_Counter +1; }

vAverage= vTotal/vNum_Students; cout<<"class average is : "<<vAverage; getch() ; return 0; }

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OUTPUT:

THE DO LOOP Another type of repetition control structures tests the condition at the end of the loop body. This is called the post post-test loop. Since the expression is evaluated at the end of the loop structure, this assures us that the enclosed statement block inside the loop structure will be executed at least once. The do-while loop is the most common example of a loop structure that uses a posttest.

The do-while loop follows this format:

do { statement_list1; } while (<condition>) ;

statement_list2;

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Flowchart of a pre-test loop The example below repeatedly prompts the user for predefined numeric password. The loop will terminate and proceed to the next executable statement outside of the do-while loop only after the user has provided the correct password.

#include <iostream.h> #include <conio.h> #define Pass 591

main() { clrscr(); int vPasswd;

do { cout<<" Please enter password: "; cin>>vPasswd; }

while(vPasswd!=Pass); cout<<" Password is correct. You may proceed."; getch (); return 0 ; }

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OUTPUT :

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do while loop that prints the number 1-10: #include<iostream.h> #include<conio.h> main() { int i=1;

cout<<"\n DO WHILE LOOP \n";

do { cout<<i; i++; }while (i<=10);

getch(); return 0; }

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LESSON 5

ARRAYS
An array is a series of elements of the same type placed in contiguous memory locations that can be individually referenced by adding an index to a unique identifier.

That means that, for example, we can store 5 values of type int in an array without having to declare 5 different variables, each one with a different identifier. Instead of that, using an array we can store 5 different values of the same type, int for example, with a unique identifier. For example, an array to contain 5 integer values of type int called billy could be represented like this:

where each blank panel represents an element of the array, that in this case are integer values of type int. These elements are numbered from 0 to 4 since in arrays the first index is always 0, independently of its length. Like a regular variable, an array must be declared before it is used. A typical declaration for an array in C++ is: type name [elements]; where type is a valid type (like int, float...), name is a valid identifier and the elements field (which is always enclosed in square brackets []), specifies how many of these elements the array has to contain. Therefore, in order to declare an array called billy as the one shown in the above diagram it is as simple as: int billy[5]; NOTE: The elements field within brackets [] which represents the number of elements the array is going to hold, must be a constant value, since arrays are blocks of non-dynamic memory whose size must be determined before execution. In order to create arrays with a variable length dynamic memory is needed, which is explained later in these tutorials.

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Initializing arrays.
When declaring a regular array of local scope (within a function, for example), if we do not specify otherwise, its elements will not be initialized to any value by default, so their content will be undetermined until we store some value in them. The elements of global and static arrays, on the other hand, are automatically initialized with their default values, which for all fundamental types this means they are filled with zeros.

In both cases, local and global, when we declare an array, we have the possibility to assign initial values to each one of its elements by enclosing the values in braces { }. For example: int billy [5] = { 16, 2, 77, 40, 12071 }; This declaration would have created an array like this:

The amount of values between braces { } must not be larger than the number of elements that we declare for the array between square brackets [ ]. For example, in the example of array billy we have declared that it has 5 elements and in the list of initial values within braces { } we have specified 5 values, one for each element. When an initialization of values is provided for an array, C++ allows the possibility of leaving the square brackets empty [ ]. In this case, the compiler will assume a size for the array that matches the number of values included between braces { }: int billy [] = { 16, 2, 77, 40, 12071 }; After this declaration, array billy would be 5 ints long, since we have provided 5 initialization values. Accessing the values of an array. In any point of a program in which an array is visible, we can access the value of any of its elements individually as if it was a normal variable, thus being able to both read and modify its value. The format is as simple as: name[index] Following the previous examples in which billy had 5 elements and each of those elements was of type int, the name which we can use to refer to each element is the following:

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For example, to store the value 75 in the third element of billy, we could write the following statement: billy[2] = 75; and, for example, to pass the value of the third element of billy to a variable called a, we could write: a = billy[2]; Therefore, the expression billy[2] is for all purposes like a variable of type int. Notice that the third element of billy is specified billy[2], since the first one is billy[0], the second one is billy[1], and therefore, the third one is billy[2]. By this same reason, its last element is billy[4]. Therefore, if we write billy[5], we would be accessing the sixth element of billy and therefore exceeding the size of the array. In C++ it is syntactically correct to exceed the valid range of indices for an array. This can create problems, since accessing out-of-range elements do not cause compilation errors but can cause runtime errors. The reason why this is allowed will be seen further ahead when we begin to use pointers. At this point it is important to be able to clearly distinguish between the two uses that brackets [ ] have related to arrays. They perform two different tasks: one is to specify the size of arrays when they are declared; and the second one is to specify indices for concrete array elements. Do not confuse these two possible uses of brackets [ ] with arrays. int billy[5]; billy[2] = 75; // declaration of a new array // access to an element of the array.

If you read carefully, you will see that a type specifier always precedes a variable or array declaration, while it never precedes an access. Some other valid operations with arrays: billy[0] = a; billy[a] = 75; b = billy [a+2]; billy[billy[a]] = billy[2] + 5;
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// Array Example ( STRING )

#include <iostream.h> #include <conio.h>

main() {

char name[10];

cout<<" Enter Name : "; cin>>name;

cout<<"\n Welcome : " <<name << " !!";

getch(); clrscr(); return 0; }

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OUTPUT :

// Array Example ( NUMBER )

#include <iostream.h> #include <conio.h>

main() {

int x[2];

cout<<" Enter 1st Number : "; cin>> x[0];

cout<<" Enter 2nd Number : "; cin>> x[1];

x[3] = x[0] + x[1];


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cout<<" The SUM is : " <<x[3];

getch(); clrscr(); return 0; }

OUTPUT:

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DATACOM INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY


FIRST SEMESTER SECOND TRANSITION

COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL IN OFFICE SUITE I A. MICROSOFT WORD

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Lesson 1: Getting Familiar with Microsoft Word 2007 for Windows


Microsoft Word is a word processing software package. You can use it to type letters, reports, and other documents. This tutorial teaches Microsoft Word 2007 basics. Although this tutorial was created for the computer novice, because Microsoft Word 2007 is so different from previous versions of Microsoft Word, even experienced users may find it useful. This lesson will introduce you to the Word window. You use this window to interact with Word. To begin this lesson, open Microsoft Word 2007. The Microsoft Word window appears and your screen looks similar to the one shown here.

Note: Your screen will probably not look exactly like the screen shown. In Word 2007, how a window displays depends on the size of your window, the size of your monitor, and the resolution to which your monitor is set. Resolution determines how much information your computer monitor can display. If you use a low resolution, less information fits on your screen, but the size of your text and images are larger. If you use a high resolution, more information fits on your screen, but the size of the text and images are smaller. Also, Word 2007, Windows Vista, and Windows XP have settings that allow you to change the color and style of your windows.

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The Microsoft Office Button


In the upper-left corner of the Word 2007 window is the Microsoft Office button. When you click the button, a menu appears. You can use the menu to create a new file, open an existing file, save a file, and perform many other tasks.

The Quick Access Toolbar


Next to the Microsoft Office button is the Quick Access toolbar. The Quick Access toolbar provides you with access to commands you frequently use. By default Save, Undo, and Redo appear on the Quick Access toolbar. You can use Save to save your file, Undo to rollback an action you have taken, and Redo to reapply an action you have rolled back.

The Title Bar


Next to the Quick Access toolbar is the Title bar. The Title bar displays the title of the document on which you are currently working. Word names the first new document you open Document1. As you open additional new documents, Word names them sequentially. When you save your document, you assign the document a new name.

The Ribbon
You use commands to tell Microsoft Word what to do. In Microsoft Word 2007, you use the Ribbon to issue commands. The Ribbon is located near the top of the screen, below the Quick Access toolbar. At the top of the Ribbon are several tabs; clicking a tab displays several related command groups. Within each group are related command buttons. You click buttons to issue commands or to access menus and dialog boxes. You may also find a dialog box launcher in the bottom-right corner of a group. Clicking the dialog box launcher gives you access to additional commands via a dialog box.

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The Ruler
The ruler is found below the Ribbon.

You can use the ruler to change the format of your document quickly. If your ruler is not visible, follow the steps listed here:

1. Click the View tab to choose it. 2. Click the check box next to Ruler in the Show/Hide group. The ruler appears below the Ribbon.

The Text Area


Just below the ruler is a large area called the text area. You type your document in the text area. The blinking vertical line in the upper-left corner of the text area is the cursor. It marks the insertion point. As you type, your text displays at the cursor location. The horizontal line next to the cursor marks the end of the document.

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The Vertical and Horizontal and Vertical Scroll Bars


The vertical and horizontal scroll bars enable you to move up, down, and across your window simply by dragging the icon located on the scroll bar. The vertical scroll bar is located along the right side of the screen. The horizontal scroll bar is located just above the status bar. To move up and down your document, click and drag the vertical scroll bar up and down. To move back and forth across your document, click and drag the horizontal scroll bar back and forth. You won't see a horizontal scroll bar if the width of your document fits on your screen.

The Status Bar


The Status bar appears at the very bottom of your window and provides such information as the current page and the number of words in your document. You can change what displays on the Status bar by right-clicking on the Status bar and selecting the options you want from the Customize Status Bar menu. You click a menu item to select it. You click it again to deselect it. A check mark next to an item means it is selected.

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Understanding Document Views


In Word 2007, you can display your document in one of five views: Draft, Web Layout, Print Layout, Full Screen Reading, or Online Layout. Draft View Draft view is the most frequently used view. You use Draft view to quickly edit your document. Web Layout Web Layout view enables you to see your document as it would appear in a browser such as Internet Explorer. Print Layout The Print Layout view shows the document as it will look when it is printed. Reading Layout Reading Layout view formats your screen to make reading your document more comfortable. Outline View Outline view displays the document in outline form. You can display headings without the text. If you move a heading, the accompanying text moves with it. You should use Draft view for these lessons. Before moving ahead, make sure you are in Draft view:

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1. Click the View tab. 2. Click Draft in the Document Views group. When the Draft option is selected it appears in a contrasting color.

Click
During the lessons that follow, you will be asked to "click" items and to choose tabs. When asked to click: 1. Point to the item. 2. Press your left mouse button once. If you are asked to double-click an item: 1. Point to the item. 2. Quickly press your left mouse button twice. If you are asked to right-click: 1. Point to the item. 2. Press your right mouse button. If you are asked to choose a tab, click the tab.

Understanding Nonprinting Characters


Certain characters, called nonprinting caharacters, do not print and will not appear in your printed document but do affect your document layout. You can elect to see these characters on the screen as you type or you can elect to have them remain invisible. For these lessons, opt to see them onscreen. This table describes most of them:

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Character

Denotes A tab

A space The end of a paragraph Hidden text

To view nonprinting characters:

1. Choose the Home tab. 2. Click the Show/Hide button in the Paragraph group . The Show/Hide button appears in a contrasting color, when it is selected.

Create Sample Data and Select Text


If you type =rand() in your Word document and then press Enter, Word creates three paragraphs. You can use these paragraphs to practice what you learn. Throughout these lessons, you will be asked to select text. The following exercise teaches you how to create data and how to select data. You can select by using the arrow keys or by clicking and dragging. When using the arrow keys, use the up arrow to move up, the down arrow to move down, the left arrow to move left, and the right arrow to move right. When using the mouse, press the left mouse button and then drag in the direction you want to move.

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EXERCISE 1 Create Sample Data


1. Type =rand(). 2. Press Enter. Three paragraphs appear in your document.

Select with the Shift and Arrow Keys


1. Place your cursor before the word "On" in the first paragraph. 2. Press and hold down the Shift key, which serves as an "anchor" showing where text you wish to select begins or ends. 3. Press the right arrow key until the first line of text is highlighted. 4. Press the down arrow key until the first paragraph is highlighted. 5. Click anywhere outside the highlighted area to remove the highlighting.

Select with the Mouse


1. 2. 3. 4. Place your cursor before the word "You" in the second paragraph. Press and hold down the left mouse button. Drag the mouse until you have highlighted the second paragraph. Click anywhere outside the highlighted area to remove the highlighting.

Place the Cursor


During the lessons, you will often be asked to place the cursor at a specific location (the insertion point) on the screen. You place the cursor by moving the cursor to the specified location and pressing the left mouse button or by using the arrow keys to move to the specified location.

EXERCISE 2 The Arrow Keys


1. 2. 3. 4. Use the down arrow key to move down your document. Use the right arrow key to move to the right. Use the up arrow key to move up. Use the left arrow key to move to the left.

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Cursor 1. Move around you document by using you mouse and clicking in a variety of location. 2. Click in a location and type. Note what happens.

Execute Commands with Keyboard Shortcuts


There are many methods you can use to accomplish tasks when using Word. Generally, you choose an option by clicking the option on the Ribbon. However, you can also use shortcut keys. A key name followed by a plus and a letter means to hold down the key while pressing the letter. For example, Ctrl+b means you should hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "b." A shorthand notation of the above would read as follows: Press Ctrl+b Typists who are slowed down by using a mouse usually prefer using keys.

Start a New Paragraph


When you type in Microsoft Word, you do not need to press a key to move to a new line. To start a new paragraph, press the Enter key.

Exit Word
You have completed Lesson One. Typically, you save your work before exiting.

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EXERCISE 3 Close and SaveWindows Vista

1. Click the Microsoft Office button. A menu appears. 2. Click Exit Word, which you can find in the bottom-right corner.

3. You are prompted: "Do you want to save changes to Document1?" To save your changes, click Yes. Otherwise, click No. If you click Yes, the Save As dialog box appears.

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4. Move to the correct folder. 5. Name your file by typing Lesson One.doc in the File Name field. 6. Click Save. Word saves your file.

Close and SaveWindows XP


1. Click the Microsoft Office button. A menu appears. 2. Click Exit Word, which is in the bottom-right corner. 3. You will be prompted: "Do you want to save changes to Document1?" To save your changes, click Yes. Otherwise, click No. If you click Yes, the Save As dialog box appears. 4. Specify the correct folder in the Save In box. 5. Name your file by typing Lesson One.doc in the File Name field. 6. Click Save. Word saves your file.

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Lesson 2: Microsoft Word 2007 Basic Features


Lesson 1 familiarized you with the Microsoft Word window. You are now ready to learn how to create a Word document. This lesson covers typing, using the Backspace key, using the Delete key, inserting text, bolding, underlining, and italicizing. To begin, open Microsoft Word.

Type, Backspace, and Delete


In Microsoft Word, you create documents by typing them. For example, if you want to create a report, you open Microsoft Word and then begin typing. You do not have to do anything when your text reaches the end of a line and you want to move to a new line Microsoft Word automatically moves your text to a new line. If you want to start a new paragraph, press Enter. Microsoft word creates a blank line to indicate the start of a new paragraph. To capitalize, hold down the Shift key while typing the letter you want to capitalize. If you make a mistake, you can delete what you typed and then type your correction. You can use the Backspace key to delete. Each time you press the Backspace key, Microsoft Word deletes the character that precedes the insertion point. The insertion point is the point at which your mouse pointer is located. You can also delete text by using the Delete key. First, you select the text you want to delete; then you press the Delete key.

EXERCISE 1 Type and Backspace


1. Type the following sentence: Joe has a very large house. 2. Delete the word "house." Using either the arrow keys or the mouse, place the cursor between the period and the "e" in "house." 3. Press the Backspace key until the word "house" is deleted. 4. Type boat. The sentence should now read: "Joe has a very large boat."

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Delete
Delete the word "very" from the sentence you just typed. 1. Select the word "very." You can place the cursor before the "v" in the word "very," press and hold down the Shift key, and then press the right arrow key until the word "very" is highlighted. 2. Press the Delete key. The sentence should now read: "Joe has a large boat."

Insert and Overtype


While creating your document, you may find you need to insert text place new text between existing text. Suppose, you type the sentence, "Joe has a large boat." After typing it, you decide you want to change the sentence to "Joe has a large blue boat." With Microsoft Word, inserting a word, phrase, or even several paragraphs is easy. Alternatively, you may want to overtype textreplace old text with new text. For example, suppose you type the sentence, "Joe has a large blue boat." After typing it, you decide you want to change the sentence to "Joe has a large gray boat." With Microsoft Word, overtyping the word blue with the word gray is also easy. Before you attempt to insert or overtype, you should check the mode you are inInsert or Overtype. You right-click the Status bar and then use the Customize Status Bar menu to place the Insert/Overtype button on the Status bar. You can then use the Insert/Overtype button to switch between Insert and Overtype mode. When you are in Insert mode, you can insert text. When you are in Overtype mode, you can overtype text. By default, Microsoft Word is in the Insert mode.

EXERCISE 2 Placing the Insert/Overtype button on the Status bar


1. 2. 3. 4. Right-click the Status bar. The Customize Status Bar menu appears. Click Overtype. The Insert/Overtype button appears on the Status bar. If the word Insert appears on the Status bar, you are in Insert mode. If the word Overtype appears on the Status bar, click the word Overtype and it will change to Insert, thereby changing Word to Insert mode.

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Insert
Make sure you are in Insert mode before proceeding. You are going to insert the word "blue" between the words "large" and "boat." 1. 2. 3. 4. Place the cursor after the space between the words "large" and "boat." Type the word blue. Press the spacebar to add a space. The sentence should now read: "Joe has a large blue boat."

Overtype
You can type over the current text (replace the current text with new text) in the Overtype mode. Do the following to change to the Overtype mode.

Click "Insert" on the Status bar. The word Insert changes to Overtype.

Change the word "blue" to "gray." 1. Place the cursor before the letter "b" in "blue." 2. Type the word gray. 3. The sentence should "Joe has a large gray boat."

now

read:

Note: You can overtype text without changing to Overtype mode by selecting the text you want to overtype and then typing.

Bold,

Italicize,

and

Underline

When creating a document, you may need to emphasize particular words or phrases by bolding, underlining, or italicizing. Also, certain grammatical constructs require that you bold, underline, or italicize. You can bold, underline, and italicize when using Word. You also can combine these featuresin other words, you can bold, underline, and italicize a single piece of text. When you need to perform a task in Microsoft Word, you can usually choose from several methods. The exercises that follow show you how to bold, underline, or italicize using four different methods: using the launcher, the Ribbon, the Mini-toolbar/context menu, and the keyboard.

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EXERCISE 3
Type the following exactly as shown. Remember, pressing the Enter key starts a new paragraph. Press the Enter key at the end of each of the following lines to start a new paragraph. Launcher: Bold Italicize Underline these words. All three Regular Ribbon: Bold Italicize Underline these words. All three Regular Mini toolbar: Bold Italicize Regular Keys: Bold Italicize Underline these words. All three Regular

Your screen should look similar to the one shown here.

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Bold with the Dialog Box Launcher

1. On the line that begins with Launcher, select the word "Bold." You can place the cursor before the letter "B" in "Bold." Press the Shift key; then press the right arrow key until the entire word is highlighted. 2. Choose the Home tab. 3. Click the dialog box launcher in the Font group. The Font dialog box appears.

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4. Click Bold in the Font Style box. Note: You can see the effect of your action in the Preview window. To remove the bold, click Regular. 5. Click OK to close the dialog box. 6. Click anywhere in the text area to remove the highlighting. You have bolded the word bold.

Alternate MethodBold with the Ribbon

1. On the line that begins with "Ribbon," select the word "Bold." You can place the cursor before the letter "B" in "Bold." Press the Shift key; then press the right arrow key until the entire word is highlighted. 2. Choose the Home tab. 3. Click the Bold button in the Font group. You have bolded the word bold. Note: To remove the bold, you can select the text and then click the Bold button again. 4. Click anywhere in the text area to remove the highlighting.

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Alternate Method - Bold with the Mini Toolbar

1. On the line that begins with "Mini Toolbar," select the word "Bold." You can place the cursor before the letter "B" in "Bold."Press the Shift key; then press the right arrow key until the entire word is highlighted. 2. Right-click. The Mini toolbar appears. 3. Click the Bold button . You have bolded the word bold.

Alternate MethodBold with Keys


1. On the line that begins with "Keys," select the word "Bold." You can place the cursor before the letter "B" in "Bold." Press the Shift key; then press the right arrow key until the entire word is highlighted. 2. Press Ctrl+b (hold down the Ctrl key while pressing b). Note: To remove the Bold, press Ctrl+b again. You can also remove formatting by pressing Ctrl+spacebar. 3. Click anywhere in the text area to remove the highlighting.

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Italicize with the Dialog Box Launcher

1. On the line that begins with Launcher, select the word "Italicize." You can place the cursor before the letter "I" in "Italicize." Press the Shift key; then press the right arrow key until the entire word is highlighted. 2. Choose the Home tab. 3. Click the dialog box launcher in the Font group. The Font dialog box appears.

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4. Click Italic in the Font Style box. Note: You can see the effect of your selection in the Preview window. To remove the italics, click Regular in the Font Style box. 5. Click OK to close the Font dialog box. 6. Click anywhere in the text area to remove the highlighting. You have italicized the word Italicize.

Alternate MethodItalicize with the Ribbon

1. On the line that begins with "Ribbon," select the word "Italicize." You can place the cursor before the letter "I" in "Italicize." Press the Shift key; then press the right arrow key until the entire word is highlighted. 2. Choose the Home tab. 3. Click the Italic button on the Ribbon. You have italicized the word Italicize. Note: To remove the italics, select the text and click the Italicize button again. 4. Click anywhere in the text area to remove the highlighting.

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Alternate MethodItalicize with the Mini Toolbar

1. On the line that begins with "Mini Toolbar," select the word "Italicize." You can place the cursor before the letter "I" in "Italicize." Press the Shift key; then press the right arrow key until the entire word is highlighted. 2. Right-click. The Mini toolbar appears. 3. Click the Italic button . You have italicized the word Italicize.

Alternate MethodItalicize with Keys


1. On the line that begins with "Keys," select the word "Italicize." You can place the cursor before the letter "I" in "Italicize." Press the Shift key; then press the right arrow key until the entire word is highlighted. 2. Press Ctrl+i (hold down the Ctrl key while pressing i). Note: To remove italics, press Ctrl+i again. You can also remove formatting by pressing Ctrl+spacebar. 3. Click anywhere in the text area to remove the highlighting.You have italicized the word Italicize.

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Underline with the Dialog Box Launcher


You can underline when using Word. Word provides you with many types of underlines from which to choose.The following are some of the underlines that are available if you use the dialog box launcher:

The following illustrates underlining with the dialog box launcher:

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1. On the line that begins with "Launcher," select the words "Underline these words." 2. Choose the Home tab. 3. Click the dialog box launcher in the Font group. The Font dialog box appears.

4. In the Underline Style box, click the down arrow to open the pull-down menu. 5. Click the type of underline you wish to use. Note: To remove an underline, you select None from the pull-down menu. 6. Click OK to close the dialog box. The underline you selected appears under the words. 7. Click anywhere in the text area to remove the highlighting.

Alternate MethodUnderline with the Ribbon

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1. On the line that begins with "Ribbon," select the words "Underline these words." 2. Choose the Home tab. 3. Click the Underline button in the Font group . Alternatively, you can press the and click to choose the type of again. down arrow next to the underline button underline you want.

Note: To remove the underlining, click the Underline button 4. Click anywhere in the text area to remove the highlighting.

Alternate MethodUnderline with Keys


1. On the line that begins with "Keys," select the words "Underline these words." 2. Press Ctrl+u (hold down the Ctrl key while pressing u). Note: To remove the underlining, press Ctrl+u again. 3. Click anywhere in the text area to remove the highlighting.

All Three with the Dialog Box Launcher


1. 2. 3. 4. On the line that begins with "Launcher," select the words "All three." Choose the Home tab. Click the dialog box launcher in the Font group. The Font dialog box appears. In the Font Style box, click Bold Italic. Note: You can see the effect of your selection in the preview window. To turn off the Bold Italic, click Regular. 5. In the Underline box, click to open the pull-down menu. Click the type of underline you want to use. Note: To remove an underline, select None from the pull-down menu. 6. Click OK to close the dialog box. 7. Click anywhere in the text area to remove the highlighting.

Alternate MethodAll Three with the Ribbon


1. 2. 3. 4. On the line that begins with "Ribbon," select the words "All three." Choose the Home tab. Click the Bold button in the Font group. Click the Italic button in the Font group.

5. Click the Underline button in the Font group. 6. Click anywhere in the text area to remove the highlighting.

Alternate MethodAll Three with Keys


1. On the line that begins with "Keys," select the words "All three." 2. Press Ctrl+b (bold). 3. Press Ctrl+i (italicize).
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4. Press Ctrl+u (underline). Note: You can remove formatting by highlighting the text and pressing Ctrl+spacebar. 5. Click anywhere in the text area to remove the highlighting.

Save a File and Close Word


You must save your documents if you wish to recall them later. You can use the Save option on the Microsoft Office menu, to save a document. You can also save a document by typing Ctrl+s. The first time you save a document, the Save As dialog box appears. Use the Save As dialog box to locate the folder in which you want to save your document and to give your document a name. After you have saved your document at least once, you can save any changes you make to your document simply by clicking the Save after you click the Microsoft Office button. The following exercise shows you how to save the file you just created and close Word. You will name your file Lesson Two.

EXERCISE 4 Save a FileWindows Vista:

1. Click the Microsoft Office button. A menu appears. 2. Click Save. The Save As dialog box appears, if you are saving your document for the first time.

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Use the Address bar to locate the folder in which you want to save your file. Name your file by typing Lesson Two.docx in the File Name box. Click Save. Click the Microsoft Office button. A menu appears. Click Exit Word, which is located in the bottom-right corner of the window. Word closes.

Save a FileWindows XP
1. Click the Microsoft Office button. A menu appears. 2. Click Save. The Save As dialog box appears if you are saving your document for the first time. 3. Specify the correct folder in the Save In box. 4. Name your document by typing Lesson Two in the File Name box. 5. Click Save. 6. Click the Microsoft Office button. A menu appears. 7. Click Exit Word, which is located in the bottom-right corner of the window. Word closes. Every time you save your document, you overwrite the previous version of your document. For example, you create a document and save it. Later you delete several passages from the document and then save your changes. The passages from the first draft of the document no longer exist. If you want to save both the original draft of your document and the revised document, you must save the second draft of the document using a different name. To save the document using a different name, click the Microsoft Office button. A menu appears. Click Save As. The Save As dialog box appears. Use the File Name box to give your document a new name.

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Lesson 3: More Basic Features


The features in Word 2007 can make your work easier, make your documents more attractive, and/or enable you to work more efficiently. This Microsoft Word lesson teaches you how to open a file, cut, copy, paste, use AutoText, use spell check, use Find and Replace, and change fonts. All of these features either make your work easier or make your document more attractive.

Open a File
When you do not have time to complete your work or when you finish your work, you can save and close your file. After saving a file, you can later open it to revise or finish it. You learned how to save a file in Lesson 2. In the exercise that follows, you learn how to open the file you saved.

EXERCISE 1 Open a File with Windows Vista


If you are using Windows Vista: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Open Word 2007. Click the Microsoft Office button. A menu appears. Click Open. The Open dialog box appears. Locate the folder in which you saved the file. The file is named Lesson Two.docx. Click Lesson Two.docx. Click Open. The file you created during the previous lesson appears.

Open a File with Windows XP


If you are using Windows XP: 1. 2. 3. 4. Open Word 2007. Click the Microsoft Office button. A menu appears. Click Open. The Open dialog box appears. Use the Look In field to move to the folder in which you saved the file. The file is named Lesson Two.docx. 5. Click Lesson Two.docx. 6. Click Open. The file you created during the previous lesson appears.

Alternate MethodOpening a File with Keys


1. Open Word 2007. 2. Press Ctrl+o.
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3. Locate the folder in which you saved your file. The file is named Lesson Two.docx 4. Click Lesson Two.docx 5. Click Open. The file you created during the previous lesson appears.

Cut and Paste


You can use Word's Cut feature to remove information from a document. The you can use the Paste feature to place the information you cut anywhere in the same or another document. In other words, you can move information from one place in a document to another place in the same or different document by using the Cut and Paste features. The Office Clipboard is a storage area. When you cut, Word stores the data you cut on the Clipboard. You can paste the information that is stored on the Clipboard as often as you like.

EXERCISE 2 Cut with the Ribbon

1. Type the following: I want to move. I am content where I am. 2. Select "I want to move. " 3. Choose the Home tab. 4. Click the Cut button in the Clipboard group. Word cuts the text you selected and places it on the Clipboard. Your text should now read: "I am content where I am."
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Paste with the Ribbon

1. Place the cursor after the period in the sentence "I am content where I am." 2. Press the spacebar to leave a space. 3. Choose the Home tab. 4. Click the Paste button in the Clipboard group. Word pastes the text on the Clipboard. Your text should now read: "I am content where I am. I want to move."

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Alternate MethodCut with a Context Menu

1. Type the following: I want to move. I am content where I am. 2. Select "I want to move. " 3. Right-click. The Mini toolbar and a context menu appear. 4. Click Cut on the menu. Your text should now read: "I am content where I am."

Alternate MethodPaste with a Context Menu

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1. Place the cursor after the period in the sentence "I am content where I am." 2. Press the spacebar to leave a space. 3. Right-click. A Mini toolbar and a context menu appear. 4. Click Paste. Your text should now read: "I am content where I am. I want to move."

Alternate MethodCut with Keys


1. Type the following: I want to move. I am content where I am. 2. Select "I want to move." 3. Press Ctrl+x. 4. Your text should now read: " I am content where I am."

Alternate MethodPaste with Keys


1. 2. 3. 4. Place the cursor after the period in the sentence: "I am content where I am." Press the spacebar to leave a space. Press Ctrl+v. Your text should now read: "I am content where I am. I want to move."

Copy and Paste


In Microsoft Word, you can copy information from one area of a document and place the information you copied anywhere in the same or another document. In other words, after you type information into a document, if you want to place the same information somewhere else, you do not have to retype the information. You simple copy it and then paste it in the new location. As with cut data, Word stores copied data on the Clipboard.

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EXERCISE 3 Copy with the Ribbon

1. Type the following: You will want to copy me. One of me is all you need. 2. Select "You will want to copy me." 3. Choose the Home tab. 4. Click the Copy button in the Clipboard group. Word copies the data you selected to the Clipboard.

Paste with the Ribbon

1. Place the cursor after the period in the sentence: "One of me is all you need." 2. Press the spacebar to leave a space. 3. Choose the Home tab.
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4. Click the Paste button in the Clipboard group. Word places the data you copied at the insertion point. Your text should now read: "You will want to copy me. One of me is all you need. You will want to copy me."

Alternate MethodCopy with a Context Menu

1. Type the following: You will want to copy me. One of me is all you need. 2. Select "You will want to copy me." 3. Right-click. A Mini toolbar and a context menu appear. 4. Click Copy. Word places the data you copied at the insertion point. Your text should now read: "You will want to copy me. One of me is all you need. You will want to copy me."

Alternate MethodPaste with a Context Menu

1. 2. 3. 4.

Place the cursor after the period in the sentence: "One of me is all you need." Press the spacebar to leave a space. Right-click. A context menu appears. Click Paste. Word pastes the information on the Clipboard into the document.

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Alternate MethodCopy with Keys


1. Type the following: You will want to copy me. One of me is all you need. 2. Select "You will want to copy me. " 3. Press Ctrl+c. Word copies the information you selected to the Clipboard.

Alternate MethodPaste with Keys


1. 2. 3. 4. Place the cursor after the period in the sentence "One of me is all you need." Press the spacebar to leave a space. Press Ctrl+v. Your text should now read: "You will want to copy me. One of me is all you need. You will want to copy me."

Use the Clipboard


As you cut or copy, Word can store the information you have cut or copied on the Clipboard in a hierarchy. Then each time you cut or copy, the data you just cut or copied moves to the top of the Clipboard hierarchy and the data previously at the top moves down one level. When you choose Paste, the item at the top of the hierarchy is the item Word pastes into your document. The Clipboard can store up to 24 items. You can paste any item on the Clipboard into your document by placing your cursor at the insertion point, displaying the Clipboard pane, and then clicking the item. The Clipboard pane includes an Options button. You can click the Options button to set the Clipboard options described in the following table. Option Show Office Clipboard Automatically Show Office Clipboard When Ctrl+c Pressed Twice Collect Without Showing Office Clipboard Show Office Clipboard Icon on Taskbar Show Status Near Taskbar When Copying Description Shows the Clipboard automatically when you copy items. Shows the Clipboard when you press Ctrl+c twice. Copies to the Clipboard without displaying the Clipboard pane. Displays the Clipboard icon on your system taskbar. Displays the number of items copied on the taskbar when copying.

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EXERCISE 4 Use the Clipboard

1. 2. 3. 4.

Place the cursor at the point at which you want to insert your text. Choose the Home tab. Click the Clipboard dialog box launcher to open the Clipboard. Click the item on the clipboard you want to insert into your document. Word pastes the Clipboard item into your document at the insertion point.

Create AutoText
Cut and Copy both store information on the Clipboard. Information you store on the Clipboard is eventually lost. If you want to store information permanently for reuse, use AutoText. AutoText permanently stores information for future use.

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EXERCISE 5 Create AutoText

1. Type the following: AutoText information is stored permanently. 2. Select "AutoText information is stored permanently." 3. Choose the Insert tab. 4. Click Quick Parts in the Text group. A menu appears. 5. Click Save Selection to Quick Part Gallery. The Create New Building Block dialog box appears.

6. Microsoft Word suggests a name. Change the name by typing AT in the Name field. 7. Click OK. The dialog box closes. 8. Click anywhere in the text area to remove the highlighting. 9. Place the cursor between the period in the sentence you just typed and the paragraph marker (). 10. Press the spacebar to leave a blank space. 11. Type AT.
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12. Press F3. Your text should now read: "AutoText information is stored permanently. AutoText information is stored permanently." Note: Whenever you need the text, simply type the name (AT) and then press F3.

Use Spell Check


Word checks your spelling and grammar as you type. Spelling errors display with a red wavy line under the word. Grammar errors display with a green wavy line under the error. In Word 2007, you can use the Review tab's Spelling & Grammar button to initiate a spell and grammar check of your document.

EXERCISE 6 Use Spell Check

1. Type the following exactly as shown. Include all errors. Open thr door for Mayrala. She is a teacher from the town of Ridgemont. 2. Select: "Open thr door for Mayrala. She is a teacher from the town of Ridgemont." 3. Choose the Review tab. 4. Click the Spelling & Grammar button. The Spelling and Grammar dialog box appears.

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6. "The" is misspelled, so it is highlighted on the screen and noted in the Not in Dictionary box. Word suggests correct spellings. These suggestions are found in the Suggestions box. 7. Click "the" in the Suggestions box. 8. Click Change. Note: If the word is misspelled in several places, click Change All to correct all misspellings. 9. The name "Mayrala" is not in the dictionary, but it is correct. Click Ignore Once to leave "Mayrala" in the document with its current spelling. Note: If a word appears in several places in the document, click Ignore All so you are not prompted to correct the spelling for each occurrence. 10. "Ridgemont" is not found in the dictionary. If you frequently use a word not found in the dictionary, you might want to add that word to the dictionary by clicking the Add to Dictionary button. Word will then recognize the word the next time it appears. Click Add to Dictionary. 11. The following should appear on your screen: "Word finished checking the selection. Do you want to continue checking the remainder of the document?" 12. Click No. If you wanted Word to spell-check the entire document, you would have clicked Yes. Note: You can also press F7 to initiate a spelling and grammar check. If you don't have anything selected, Word checks the entire document.

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Find and Replace


If you need to find a particular word or phrase in your document, you can use the Find command. This command is especially useful when you are working with large files. If you want to search the entire document, simply execute the Find command. If you want to limit your search to a selected area, select that area and then execute the Find command. After you find the word or phrase you are searching for, you can replace it with new text by executing the Replace command.

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EXERCISE 7 Use Find with the Ribbon

1. Type the following: Monica is from Easton. She lives on the east side of town. Her daughter attends Eastern High School. 2. Select: "Monica is from Easton. She lives on the east side of town. Her daughter attends Eastern High School." 3. Choose the Home tab. 4. Click Find in the Editing group. A menu appears. 5. Click the Find option on the menu. The Find and Replace dialog box appears.

6. Type east in the Find What field. 7. Click Find Next. Note that the "East" in Easton is highlighted. 8. Click Find Next again. Note that "east" is highlighted.
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9. Click Find Next again. Note that the "East" in Eastern is highlighted. 10. Click Find Next. The following message should appear: "Word has finished searching the selection. Do you want to search the remainder of the document?" 11. Click No. 12. Click Cancel.

Alternate MethodFind with Keys


1. Select: "Monica is from Easton. She lives on the east side of town. Her daughter attends Eastern High School." 2. Press Ctrl+f. 3. Follow steps 6 through 12 in the preceding section.

Use Replace with the Ribbon

1. Select "Monica is from Easton. She lives on the east side of town. Her daughter attends Eastern High School." 2. Choose the Home tab. 3. Click Replace in the Editing group. The Find and Replace dialog box appears.

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4. 5. 6. 7.

Type east in the Find What box. Type west in the Replace With box. Click Find Next. The East in Easton is highlighted. Click Replace. Word replaces the "East" in "Easton" with "West" and then highlights the word "east." 8. Click Replace. Word replaces the word "east" with "west" and then highlights the word "Eastern." 9. Click Close. Do not replace the "East" in "Eastern" with "West." 10. Your text should now read, "Monica is from Weston. She lives on the west side of town. Her daughter attends Eastern High School."

Alternate MethodReplace with Keys


1. Select "Monica is from Easton. She lives on the west side of town. Her daughter attends Western High School." 2. Press Ctrl+h. 3. Follow steps 4 through 11 in the preceding section.

Change the Font Size


A font is a set of characters (text) represented in a single typeface. Each character within a font is created by using the same basic style. In Microsoft Word, you can change the size of your font. The following exercise illustrates changing the font size.

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EXERCISE 8 Change the Font Size

1. Type the following: I can be any size you want me to be. 2. Select "I can be any size you want me to be." 3. Choose the Home tab. 4. In the Font group, click the down arrow next to the Font Size box. A menu of font sizes appears. 5. Move your cursor over the menu of font sizes. As you do, Word 2007 provides a live preview of the effect of applying each font size. 6. Click 36 to select it as your font size. Note: If you know the font size you want, you can type it in the Font Size field.

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Alternate MethodChange the Font Size with Grow Font and Shrink Font
You can also change the size of your font by clicking the Grow Font and Shrink Font buttons. Selecting text and then clicking the Grow Font button makes your font larger. Selecting text and then clicking the Shrink Font button makes your font smaller.

1. Type the following: Grow Shrink 2. Select "Grow" 3. Choose the Home tab. 4. Click the Grow Font button 5. Select Shrink. 6. Click the Shrink Font button

several times. You font becomes larger. several times. Your font becomes smaller.

Change the Font


In Microsoft Word, you can change the font (the "family" of type you use for your text). This feature is illustrated in the following exercise:

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EXERCISE 9 Change the Font with the Ribbon

1. Type the following: Changing fonts 2. Select "Changing fonts." 3. Choose the Home tab. 4. Click the down arrow next to the Font field. A menu of fonts appears. 5. Move the cursor over the list of fonts. Word 2007 provides a live preview of what the font will look like if you select it. 6. Click the font name to select the font you want.

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Alternate MethodChange the Font with the Mini Toolbar

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Select "Changing fonts." Right-click. The Mini toolbar and a menu appears. Move to the Mini toolbar. Click the down arrow next to the Font field. A menu of fonts appears. Click the name of the font you want.

Save Your File


This is the end of Lesson 3. You can save your file and close Word. See Lesson 2 to learn how to save and close.

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Lesson 4: Formatting Paragraphs and Working with Styles


When you type information into Microsoft Word, each time you press the Enter key Word creates a new paragraph. You can format paragraphs. For example, you can indent the first line of a paragraph, you can set the amount of space that separates paragraphs, and you can align a paragraph left, right, center, or flush with both margins. Styles are a set of formats you can quickly apply to a paragraph. For example, by applying a style, you can set the font, set the font size, and align a paragraph all at once. In this lesson, you will learn about the various formats you can apply to a paragraph and about styles. When you are formatting a paragraph, you do not need to select the entire paragraph. Placing the cursor anywhere in the paragraph enables you to format it. After you format a paragraph, pressing the Enter key creates a new paragraph in the same format.

Open a Blank Document


To begin a new Word project, you start by opening a new document.To begin this lesson, open a blank document in Microsoft Word.

EXERCISE 1 Open a Blank Document

1. Open Word 2007. 2. Click the Microsoft Office button. A menu appears. 3. Click New. The New Document dialog box appears.

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4. Click Blank Document. 5. Click Create. A new blank document opens.

Add Sample Text


This lesson uses sample text provided by Microsoft for training and demonstration purposes. You can type the text; however, there is a quicker way. You can use the rand function. Functions are used to obtain information. You tell the function what you want and the function returns that information to you. By default, in Word, when you type the rand function, Word returns three paragraphs. When working with functions, you use arguments to be specific about what you want the function to return. There are two arguments you can use with the rand function. The first one tells Word how many paragraphs you want, and the second one tells Word how many sentences you want in a paragraph. You place arguments between the parentheses and you separate them with a comma. For example, if you type =rand() and then press Enter, word returns three paragraphs. To tell Word you want two paragraphs with three sentences in each paragraph, you type =rand(2,3).

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EXERCISE 2 Add Sample Text


1. Type =rand(). 2. Press the Enter key. The following text appears: On the Insert tab, the galleries include items that are designed to coordinate with the overall look of your document. You can use these galleries to insert tables, headers, footers, lists, cover pages, and other document building blocks. When you create pictures, charts, or diagrams, they also coordinate with your current document look. You can easily change the formatting of selected text in the document text by choosing a look for the selected text from the Quick Styles gallery on the Home tab. You can also format text directly by using the other controls on the Home tab. Most controls offer a choice of using the look from the current theme or using a format that you specify directly. To change the overall look of your document, choose new Theme elements on the Page Layout tab. To change the looks available in the Quick Style gallery, use the Change Current Quick Style Set command. Both the Themes gallery and the Quick Styles gallery provide reset commands so that you can always restore the look of your document to the original contained in your current template.

Add Space Before or After Paragraphs


When creating a document, space is often used to clearly identify where each paragraph begins and ends. By default, Word may place slightly more space between paragraphs than it does between lines in a paragraph. You can increase or decrease the amount of space that appears before and after paragraphs by entering amounts in the Before and After fields in the Paragraph section of the Page Layout tab. Use the up arrows next to the Before and After fields to increase the amount of space before or after each paragraph; use the down arrows to decrease the amount of space before or after each paragraph. The following illustrates:

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EXERCISE 3 Add Space Before or After Paragraphs

1. Place your cursor anywhere in the second paragraph of the sample text you created in Exercise 2. 2. Choose the Page Layout tab. The default spacing appears in the Spacing Before field. 3. Click the up arrow next to the Spacing Before field to increase the space before the paragraph. 4. Click the up arrow next to the Spacing After field to increase the amount of space after the paragraph. Note: You can click the down arrows next to the Spacing Before and the Spacing After fields to decrease the amount of space before or after a paragraph. You can also type the amount of space you want to use directly into the fields. Space is measured in points. There are 72 points to an inch.

Change Line Spacing


Line Spacing sets the amount of space between lines within a paragraph. The spacing for each line is set to accommodate the largest font on that line. If the lines include smaller fonts, there will appear to be extra space between lines where the smaller fonts are located. At 1.5, the line spacing is set to one-and-a-half times the single-space amount. At 2.0, the line spacing is set to two times the single-space amount (double space).

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EXERCISE 4 Change Line Spacing

1. Place your cursor anywhere in the first paragraph of the sample text you created in Exercise 2. 2. Choose the Home tab. 3. Click the Line Spacing button in the Paragraph group. A menu of options appears. 4. Click 2.0 to double-space the first paragraph.

Create a First-Line Indent


Some people and organizations delineate the start of a new paragraph by indenting the first line. If you want to indent the first line of your paragraphs, you can use the Paragraph dialog box to set the amount by which you want to indent. In the Special Field of the Paragraph dialog box, you tell Word you want to indent the first line by choosing First Line from the menu options. In the By field, you tell Word the amount, in inches by which you want to indent. EXAMPLE: First-line Indent On the Insert tab, the galleries include items that are designed to coordinate with the overall look of your document. You can use these galleries to insert tables, headers, footers, lists, cover pages, and other document building blocks. When you create pictures, charts, or diagrams, they also coordinate with your current document look.

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EXERCISE 5 Create a First-line Indent

1. Place your cursor anywhere within the first paragraph of the sample text you created in Exercise 2. 2. Choose the Home tab. 3. In the Paragraphs group, click the launcher. The Paragraph dialog box appears.

4. Choose the Indents and Spacing tab. 5. Click to open the drop-down menu on the Special field.
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6. Click First Line. 7. Enter 0.5" in the By field. 8. Click OK. The first line of your paragraph is now indented half an inch. Special Note: To remove the first line indent: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Place the cursor anywhere in the paragraph. Choose the Home tab. In the Paragraphs group, click the launcher. The Paragraph dialog box opens. Choose the Indents and Spacing tab. Click the down arrow next to the Special field and then click None. Click OK.

Indent Paragraphs
Indentation allows you to indent your paragraph from the left and/or right margin. You may find this necessary when you are quoting a large block of text. The following exercise shows you how to indent a paragraph 1 inch from each side. EXAMPLE: Indentation On the Insert tab, the galleries include items that are designed to coordinate with the overall look of your document. You can use these galleries to insert tables, headers, footers, lists, cover pages, and other document building blocks. When you create pictures, charts, or diagrams, they also coordinate with your current document look. You can easily change the formatting of selected text in the document text by choosing a look for the selected text from the Quick Styles gallery on the Home tab. You can also format text directly by using the other controls on the Home tab. Most controls offer a choice of using the look from the current theme or using a format that you specify directly.

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EXERCISE 6 Indent Paragraphs

1. Place your cursor anywhere in the second paragraph of the sample text you created in Exercise 2. 2. Choose the Page Layout tab. 3. Type 1" in the Indent Left field or use the up or down arrows to set the field value to 1". 4. Type 1" in the Indent Right field or use the up or down arrows to set the field value to 1". Your paragraph is now indented one inch from both the left and right margins, as in the example.

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Align Paragraphs
Microsoft Word gives you a choice of several types of alignments. Left-aligned text is flush with the left margin of your document and is the default setting. Right-aligned text is flush with the right margin of your document, centered text is centered between the left and right margins, and Justified text is flush with both the left and right margins.

EXAMPLE: Left-Aligned Sample Paragraph On the Insert tab, the galleries include items that are designed to coordinate with the overall look of your document. You can use these galleries to insert tables, headers, footers, lists, cover pages, and other document building blocks. When you create pictures, charts, or diagrams, they also coordinate with your current document look. EXAMPLE: Right-aligned Sample Paragraph On the Insert tab, the galleries include items that are designed to coordinate with the overall look of your document. You can use these galleries to insert tables, headers, footers, lists, cover pages, and other document building blocks. When you create pictures, charts, or diagrams, they also coordinate with your current document look. EXAMPLE: Centered Sample Paragraph On the Insert tab, the galleries include items that are designed to coordinate with the overall look of your document. You can use these galleries to insert tables, headers, footers, lists, cover pages, and other document building blocks. When you create pictures, charts, or diagrams, they also coordinate with your current document look. EXAMPLE: Justified Sample Paragraph On the Insert tab, the galleries include items that are designed to coordinate with the overall look of your document. You can use these galleries to insert tables, headers, footers, lists, cover pages, and other document building blocks. When you create pictures, charts, or diagrams, they also coordinate with your current look.

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The following exercises demonstrate how to justify text.

EXERCISE 7 Create the Paragraphs


1. 2. 3. 4. Type Sample Paragraph. Press Enter. Type =rand(1) to create a paragraph. Press Enter.

Right-align

1. Select the paragraphs you created. 2. Choose the Home tab. 3. Click the Align-right button in the Paragraph group. Word right-aligns your paragraphs.

Left-align
1. Select the paragraphs you created. 2. Choose the Home tab. 3. Click the Align-left button in the Paragraph group. Word left-aligns your paragraph.

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Center
1. Selected the paragraphs you created. 2. Choose the Home tab. 3. Click the Center button in the Paragraph group. Word centers your paragraph.

Justify
1. Select the paragraphs you created. 2. Choose the Home tab. 3. Click the Justify button in the Paragraph group. Word justifies your paragraph.

Alternate MethodRight-Justify with Keys


1. Select the paragraphs you created. 2. Press Ctrl+r. The paragraph is now right-aligned.

Alternate MethodLeft-Justify with Keys


1. Select the paragraphs you created. 2. Press Ctrl+l. The paragraph is now left-aligned.

Alternate MethodCenter with Keys


1. Select the paragraphs you created. 2. Press Ctrl+e. The paragraph is now centered.

Alternate MethodJustify with Keys


1. Select the paragraphs you created. 2. Press Ctrl+j. The paragraph is now justified.

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Create a Hanging Indent


The hanging indent feature indents each line except the first line by the amount specified in the By field, as shown in the example. EXAMPLE:Hanging Indent Hanging Indent: The hanging indent feature indents the first line of the paragraph from the margin by the amount specified in the Left field. The amount in the Left field plus the amount specified in the By field indent all subsequent lines.

EXERCISE 8 Create a Hanging Indent

1. Type the following: Hanging Indent: The hanging indent feature indents the first line by the amount specified in the Left field. Subsequent lines are indented by the amount specified in the Left field plus the amount specified in the By field. 2. Select the paragraph you just typed. 3. Choose the Home tab. 4. Click the launcher in the Paragraph group. The Paragraph dialog box appears.

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5. Choose the Indents and Spacing tab. 6. In the Special field, click to open the pull-down menu. 7. Click Hanging. 8. In the By box, type 2". 9. Click OK. 10. Place the cursor after the colon following "Hanging Indent." 11. Press the Tab key. Notice that the indentation changes.

Choose a Style Set


When working with Word, you can use styles to quickly format your documents. A style is a set of formats consisting of such things as fonts, font color, font sizes, and paragraph formats. Word 2007 supplies you with predesigned style sets that contain styles for titles, subtitles, quotes, headings, lists and more. The sections that follow all show you how to work with styles. The exercises are based on a file you must download. Right click here to download the file. Click Save Target As from the menu that appears, and save the linked file to a directory on your computer. The file will download as a zip file. A zip file is a file that is compressed. Compressed files are smaller and easier to download. To open the file: 1. Open the folder you downloaded the file to. 2. Right-click on the file name. 3. Click Extract All on the menu that appears. The Extract Compressed (Zipped) Folders dialog box appears. 4. Enter the folder you want to put the file in or except to suggested location. 5. Click Extract. Windows Explorer extracts the file. 6. You can use Microsoft Word to open the file.
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EXERCISE 9 Choose a Style Set

1. Choose the Home tab. 2. Click Change Styles in the Styles group. A menu appears. 3. Click Style Set. A menu appears. You can choose from any of the styles listed on the menu. 4. Click Simple. Word 2007 reformats all of the paragraphs into the Simple style by applying the Normal format to each paragraph.

Apply a Style
You can see of all the styles available to you in the style set by clicking the launcher in the Styles group and opening the Styles pane. You can leave the Styles pane open and available for use by docking it. To dock the Styles pane, click the top of the pane and drag it to the left or right edge of the Word window. You do not need to select an entire paragraph to apply a style. If the cursor is anywhere in the paragraph, when you click on the style, Word formats the entire paragraph.

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EXERCISE 10 Apply the Title Style

1. Choose the Home tab. 2. Click the launcher in the Styles Group. The Styles pane appears. You can drag it to the side of the Word window to dock it. To close the Styles pane, click the Close button in the upper right corner of the pane . 3. Click anywhere in the paragraph "Single-Parent FamilyCareer Help." 4. Click Title in the Styles pane. Word 2007 applies the Title style to the paragraph. Headings and subheadings mark major topics within your document. With Word 2007, you can easily format the headings and subheadings in your document.

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Apply Headings
1. Click anywhere in the paragraph "The Nature of Single Parenthood." 2. In the Style box, click Heading 1. Word reformats the paragraph. 3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 in the following paragraphs:

Types of Single Parents Career Development Needs of Single Parents Career Development Programs

Apply Subheadings
1. Click anywhere in the paragraph "Displaced Homemakers" 2. In the Style box, click Heading 2. Word reformats the paragraph. 3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for the following paragraphs:

Displaced Homemakers Adolescent Mothers Single Fathers High School Dropout Prevention Established Education Sites

Alternate Method -- Apply Styles with the Ribbon


You can also choose styles by selecting the option you want from the Styles group on the Ribbon. First you must place your cursor in the paragraph to which you want to apply the style. Then you click the More button in the Styles group to see all of the styles in the currently selected set. As you roll your cursor over each of the styles listed, Word 2007 provides you with a live preview of how the style will appear when applied. 1. Select the paragraphs "Emotional Support" through "Parenthood Education" (they are probably on page two). 2. Click the More button in the Styles group. 3. Locate and click the List Paragraph style. Word applies the List Paragraph style to the paragraphs you selected.

Change Style Sets


Once you have applied styles, changing to another style set is easy. You simply open the Style Set gallery. As you move your cursor down the menu, Word 2007 provides you with a live preview of the effect of applying the style set. To choose a style set, you click it.

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EXERCISE 11 Change Style Sets


1. Click Change Styles in the Styles group. A menu appears. 2. Click Style Set. A menu appears. As you move your cursor down the menu Word 2007 provides you with a live preview of the effect of applying the Style set to your document. 3. Click Formal. Word 2007 reformats all of the paragraphs into the Formal style applying the appropriate format to each paragraph. This is the end of Lesson 3. You can save you file and close Word. See Lesson 2 to learn how to save and close.

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Lesson 5: Adding Bullets and Numbers, Undoing and Redoing, Setting Page Layouts and Printing Documents
If you have lists of data, you may want to bullet or number them. When using Microsoft Word, bulleting and numbering are easy. The first part of this lesson teaches you to bullet and number. After you have completed your document, you may want to share it with others. One way to share your document is to print and distribute it. However, before you print you may want to add page numbers and tell Word such things as the page orientation, the paper size, and the margin setting you want to use. In this lesson you will learn how to layout and how to print your documents.

Add Bullets and Numbers


In Microsoft Word, you can easily create bulleted or numbered lists of items. Several bulleting and numbering styles are available, as shown in the examples. You can select the one you wish to use. EXAMPLES: Numbering

EXAMPLES: Bulleting

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EXERCISE 1 Bullets

1. Type the following list as shown: Apple Orange Grape Mango Cherry 2. Select the words you just typed. 3. Choose the Home tab. 4. In the Paragraph group, click the down arrow next to the Bullets button . The Bullet Library appears. 5. Click to select the type of bullet you want to use. Word adds bullets to your list. Note: As you move your cursor over the various bullet styles, Word displays the bullet style onscreen. To remove the bulleting: 1. Select the list again. 2. Choose the Home tab. 3. In the Paragraph group, click the down arrow next to the Bullets icon. The Bullet dialog box appears. 4. Click None. Word removes the bullets from your list.

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Numbers

1. Type the following list as shown: Apple Orange Grape Mango Cherry 2. Select the words you just typed. 3. Choose the Home tab. 4. In the Paragraph group, click the down arrow next to the Numbering button . The Numbering Library appears. 5. Click to select the type of numbering you want to use. Word numbers your list. Note: As you move your cursor over the various number styles, Word displays the number style onscreen. To remove the numbering: 1. Select the list again. 2. Choose the Home tab.

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3. In the Paragraph group, click the down arrow next yo the Numbering icon. The Number dialog box appears. 4. Click None. Word removes the numbering from your list.

Undo and Redo


You can quickly reverse most commands you execute by using Undo. If you then change your mind again, and want to reapply a command, you can use Redo.

EXERCISE 2 Undo and Redo

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Type Undo example. Click the Undo button on the Quick Access menu. The typing disappears. Click the Redo button on the Quick Access menu. The typing reappears. Select "Undo example." Press Ctrl+b to bold. Word bolds the text. Press Ctrl+i. Word italicizes the text. Press Ctrl+u Word underlines the text. Click the down arrow next to the Undo icon. You will see the actions you performed listed. To undo the underline, click Underline; to undo the underline and italic, click Underline Italic; to undo the underline, italic, and bold click Bold etc. 9. To redo, click the Redo icon several times.

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Alternate Method -- Undo & Redo by Using Keys


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Type Undo example. Press Ctrl+z. The typing disappears. Press Ctrl+y. The typing reappears. Select "Undo example." Press Ctrl+u to underline. Press Ctrl+z. The underline is removed. Press Ctrl+y. The underline reappears.

Set the Orientation


Before you print your document, you may want to change the orientation of your pages. There are two orientations you can use: portrait and landscape. Paper, such as paper sized 8 1/2 by 11, is longer on one edge than it is on the other. If you print in Portrait, the shortest edge of the paper becomes the top of the page. Portrait is the default option. If you print Landscape, the longest edge of the paper becomes the top of the page.

Portrait

Landscape
The exercises that follow use a file named SamplePrint.docxy Right click here to download the file. Click Save Target As from the menu that appears, and save the linked file to a directory on your computer. The file will download as a zip file. A zip file is a file that is compressed. Compressed files are smaller and easier to download. To open the file: 1. Open the folder you downloaded the file to. 2. Right-click on the file name. 3. Click Extract All on the menu that appears. The Extract Compressed (Zipped) Folders dialog box appears. 4. Enter the folder you want to put the file in or except to suggested location. 5. Click Extract. Windows Explorer extracts the file. 6. You can use Microsoft word to open the file.

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EXERCISE 3 Set the Orientation

1. Choose the Page Layout tab. 2. Click Orientation in the Page Setup group. A menu appears. 3. Click Portrait. Word sets your page orientation to Portrait.

Set the Page Size


Paper comes in a variety of sizes. Most business correspondence uses 8 1/2 by 11 paper which is the default page size in Word. If you are not using 8 1/2 by 11 paper, you can use the Size option in the Page Setup group of the Page Layout tab to change the Size setting.

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EXERCISE 4 Set the Page Size

1. Choose the Page Layout tab. 2. Click Size in the Page Setup group. A menu appears. 3. Click Letter 8.5 x 11in. Word sets your page size.

Set the Margins


Margins define the amount of white space that appears at the top, bottom, left, and right edges of your document. The Margin option in the Page Setup group of the Page Layout tab provides several standard margin sizes from which you can choose.

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EXERCISE 5 Set the Margins

1. Choose the Page Layout tab. 2. Click Margins in the Page Setup group. A menu appears. 3. Click Moderate. Word sets your margins to the Moderate settings.

Add Page Numbers


Page number help you keep your document organized and enable readers to find information quickly. You can add page numbers to the top, bottom, or margins of your pages, and you can choose where the numbers appear. For example, numbers can appear at the top of the page, on the left, right, or center of the page. Word also offers several number styles from which you can choose.

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EXERCISE 6 Add Page Numbers

1. 2. 3. 4.

Choose the Insert tab. Click the Page Number button in the Header & Footer group. A menu appears. Click Bottom of Page. Click the right-side option.

Insert Page Breaks


As you learned in Lesson 1, you can display your document in any of five views: Draft, Web Layout, Print Layout, Full Screen Reading, or Online Layout. In Print Layout view you see your document as it will appear when you print it. You can clearly see where each page ends and a new page begins. As you review your document, you may find that you want to change the point at which a new page begins. You do this by inserting a page break. For example, if a page heading appears on one page and the first paragraph under the heading appears on the next page, you may want to inser a page break before the heading to keep the heading and the first paragraph together.

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EXERCISE 7 Change to Print View

1. Choose the View tab. 2. Click Print Layout in the Document Views group. Your document changes to the Print Layout view.

Insert Page Breaks

1. Place your cursor before the D in "Displaced Homemakers" 2. Choose the Insert tab. 3. Click Page Break. Word places a page break in your document. To delete a page break, you select the page break and then press the Delete key.
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Preview and Print Documents


When you have your margins, tabs, and so on the way you want them, you are ready to print. In Word, You can preview your document before you print. In the Preview mode, you can review each page, view multiple pages at the same time, zoom in on a page, and access the Size, Orientation, and Margin options. If you press the Zoom button while you are in Preview mode, the Zoom dialog box appears. In the Zoom dialog box you can set the sizes of the pages that display as well as the number of pages that display. When you are ready to print, you use the Print dialog box. In the Print Range area, choose All to print every page of your document, choose Current Page to print the page you are currently on, or choose Pages to enter the specific pages you want to print. Type the pages you want to print in the Pages field. Separate individual pages with commas (1,3, 13); specify a range by using a dash (4-9).

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EXERCISE 8 Print Preview


1. Click the Microsoft Office button. A menu appears. 2. Highlight the Print option. The Preview and Print the Document menu appears. 3. Click Print Preview. The Preview window appears, with your document in the window. 4. Click One Page to view one page at a time. Click Two Pages to view two pages at a time. 5. To view your document in normal size, click 100%. 6. Click the Zoom Button. The Zoom dialog box appears. 7. Select an option and then click OK. Perform this task for each option and note the results. Note: As you review your document, if you see changes you would like to make to the layout, use the Margin, Orientation, or Page Size options to make the changes. If you want to make other types of changes to your document, click the Close Print Preview button, to return to your document. Once you are satisfied with your document, you are ready to print.

Print
1. Click the Print button. The Print dialog box appears. 2. Click the down arrow next to the Name field and select the printer to which you want to print. 3. Choose All as the page range. 4. Click OK. Word prints your document. You have completed Lesson 5. You can save your document and close Word.

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DATACOM INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY


FIRST SEMESTER SECOND TRANSITION

COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL IN OFFICE SUITE I A. MICROSOFT POWER POINT

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Lesson 1: The PowerPoint Window


PowerPoint is a presentation software package. With PowerPoint, you can easily create slide shows. Trainers and other presenters use slide shows to illustrate their presentations. This lesson introduces you to the PowerPoint window. You use the window to interact with the software. To begin, open PowerPoint 2007. The window appears and your screen looks similar to the one shown. Note: Your screen will probably not look exactly like the screen shown. In PowerPoint 2007, how a window displays depends on the size of the window, the size of your monitor, and the resolution to which your monitor is set. Resolution determines how much information your computer monitor can display. If you use a low resolution, less information fits on your screen, but the size of your text and images are larger. If you use a high resolution, more information fits on your screen, but the size of the text and images are smaller. Also, settings in PowerPoint 2007, Windows Vista, and Windows XP allow you to change the color and style of your windows.

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The Microsoft Office Button

In the upper-left corner is the Microsoft Office button. When you click the button, a menu appears. You can use the menu to create a new file, open an existing file, save a file, and perform many other tasks.

The Quick Access Toolbar

Next to the Microsoft Office button is the Quick Access toolbar. The Quick Access toolbar provides you with access to commands you frequently use. By default, Save, Undo, and Redo appear on the Quick Access toolbar. You use Save to save your file, Undo to rollback an action you have taken, and Redo to reapply an action you have rolled back.

The Title Bar

The Title bar is located at the top in the center of the PowerPoint window. The Title bar displays the name of the presentation on which you are currently working. By default, PowerPoint names presentations sequentially, starting with Presentation1. When you save your file, you can change the name of your presentation. The Ribbon

1 Tabs 2 Command Group 3 Command Buttons 4 Launcher

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You use commands to tell PowerPoint what to do. In PowerPoint 2007, you use the Ribbon to issue commands. The Ribbon is located near the top of the PowerPoint window, below the Quick Access toolbar. At the top of the Ribbon are several tabs; clicking a tab displays several related command groups. Within each group are related command buttons. You click buttons to issue commands or to access menus and dialog boxes. You may also find a dialog box launcher in the bottom-right corner of a group. When you click the dialog box launcher, a dialog box makes additional commands available.

Rulers

Rulers are vertical and horizontal guides. You use them to determine where you want to place an object. If the rulers do not display in your PowerPoint window: 1. Click the View tab. 2. Click Ruler in the Show/Hide group. The rulers appear.

Slides, Placeholders, and Notes

1 2 3

Slide Placeholders Notes

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Slides appear in the center of the window. You create your presentation on slides. Placeholders hold the objects in your slide. You can use placeholders to hold text, clip art, charts, and more. You can use the notes area to creates notes to yourself. You can refer to these notes as you give your presentation.

Status Bar, Tabs, View Buttons, and More

1 2

Status Bar 6

Outline 7 Tab 3 Slides Tab 8 4 5 View Buttons Zoom 9

Vertical & Horizontal Splitter Bars Minimize Button Maximize/Restore Button Close Button

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The Status bar generally appears at the bottom of the window. The Status bar displays the number of the slide that is currently displayed, the total number of slides, and the name of the design template in use or the name of the background. The Outline tab displays the text contained in your presentation. The Slides tab displays a thumbnail of all your slides. You click the thumbnail to view the slide in the Slide pane. The View buttons appear near the bottom of the screen. You use the View buttons to change between Normal view, Slider Sorter view, and the Slide Show view. Normal View Normal view splits your screen into three major sections: the Outline and Slides tabs, the Slide pane, and the Notes area. The Outline and Slides tabs are on the left side of your window. They enable you to shift between two different ways of viewing your slides. The Slides tab shows thumbnails of your slides. The Outline tab shows the text on your slides. The Slide pane is located in the center of your window. The Slide pane shows a large view of the slide on which you are currently working. The Notes area appears below the Slide pane. You can type notes to yourself on the Notes area. Slide Sorter View Slide Sorter view shows thumbnails of all your slides. In Slide Sorter view, you can easily add, delete, or change their order of your slides. Slide Show Use the Slide Show view when you want to view your slides, as they will look in your final presentation. When in Slide Show view:

Esc

Returns you to the view you were using previously. Moves you to the next slide or animation effect. When you reach the last slide, you automatically return to your previous view. Opens a pop-up menu. You can use this menu to navigate the slides, add speaker notes, select a pointer, and mark your presentation.

Leftclicking

Rightclicking

Zoom allows you to zoom in and zoom out on the window. Zooming in makes the window larger so you focus in on an object. Zooming out makes the window smaller so you can see the entire window. You can click and drag the vertical and horizontal splitter bars to change the size of your panes. You use the Minimize button to remove a window from view. While a window is minimized, its title appears on the taskbar. You click the Maximize button to cause a window to fill the screen. After you maximize a window, clicking the Restore button returns the window to its former smaller size. You click the Close button to exit the Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 427

Lesson 2: Creating Your First PowerPoint Presentation


You create your PowerPoint presentation on slides. You use layouts to organize the content on each slide. PowerPoint has several slide layouts from which to choose. Themes are sets of colors, fonts, and special effects. Backgrounds add a colored background to your slides. You can add themes and backgrounds to your slides. After you complete your slides, you can run your presentation.

Create a Title Slide


When you start PowerPoint, PowerPoint displays the title slide in the Slide pane. You can type the title of your presentation and a subtitle on this slide. To enter text:

Click and type the title of your presentation in the "Click to add title" area. Click and type a subtitle in the "Click to add subtitle" area. in the Slides group on

If you do not wish to use the title slide, click the Delete Slide button the Home tab.

EXERCISE 1 Create a Title Slide

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1. Open PowerPoint. You are presented with a title slide.

2. Enter the information shown here. Type College Scholarships and Financial Aid in the Click to Add Title text box. Type Paying for College in the Click to Add Subtitle text box.

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Create New Slides


After completing your title slide, you can create additional slides. To create a new slide: 1. Choose the Home tab. 2. Click the New Slide button in the Slides group. The Office Theme dialog box appears and displays several layout templates. 3. Click the layout you want. The layout appears in the Slide pane of the PowerPoint window.

3. To add text, click inside the placeholder and type. 4. To add an additional slide to your presentation, do one of the following: Right-click the slide layout. A menu appears. Click Layout and then click the layout you want.

Choose the Home tab, click the New Slide button layout you want.

, and then choose the slide

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EXERCISE 2 Create New Slides


1. Choose the Home tab. 2. Click the New Slide button in the Slides group. The Office Theme dialog box appears. 3. Click the Title and Content Layout. The slide appears on the Slides tab.

4. Enter the information shown here. Type Here is what to do: (including the colon) in the Click to Add Title text box. Type the bulleted text in the Content text box.

Create an Outline
If you need to present the information in your slide in outline form, you can easily create an outline by using the Increase List Level button 1. Choose the Home tab. 2. Click the New Slide button in the Slides group. The Office Theme dialog box appears. 3. Click the Title and Content layout. 4. Enter the information shown here. Click the Increase List Level button in the Paragraph group to indent the bullets for Stafford Loans and PLUS Loans. If you ever need to decrease an indent, use the Decrease List Level button group. in the Paragraph to create a hierarchy.

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Use Two-Column Text


You can also place text in two separate columns. 1. Choose the Home tab. 2. Click the New Slide button in the Slides group. The Office Theme dialog box appears. 3. Click the Two Content layout. 4. Enter the information shown here.

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Make Changes to Your Slides


After creating a slide, if you want to add text: 1. Place the mouse pointer at the point at which you would like to add text. 2. Type the information you want to add. If you would like to change text: 1. Select the text you want to change. 2. Type the new text. You can use the Backspace key to delete text. You can also delete text by highlighting the text and pressing the Delete key.

Apply a Theme
A theme is a set of colors, fonts, and special effects. Themes provide attractive backgrounds for your PowerPoint slides. To apply a theme to all of the slides in your presentation: 1. Choose the Design tab. 2. Click the More button in the Themes group. 3. Click the design you want. To apply a theme to selected slides: 1. Click the Slides tab, located on the left side of the window. 2. Hold down the Ctrl key and then click to select the slides to which you want to apply a theme. 3. Choose the Design tab. 4. Click the More button in the Themes group. 5. Right-click the theme you want to apply. A menu appears. 6. Click Apply to Selected Slides. Excel applies the theme to the slides you selected. You can add a dramatic effect to your theme by applying a background. 1. Choose the Design tab. 2. Click the Background Styles button 3. Click the background you want. .

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EXERCISE 3 Apply a Theme

1. Choose the Design tab. 2. Click the More button in the Themes group.

3. Click the theme you want. PowerPoint applies the theme to all of the slides in your presentation.

Add a Background

1. Choose the Design tab. 2. Click the Background Styles button . 3. Click the background you want. PowerPoint applies the background to your slides.

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Run Your PowerPoint Slide Show


After you create your slides, you can run your slide show: 1. Do any one of the following: o Press F5.
o o

Choose the Slide Show tab. Click the From Beginning button in the Start Slide Show group. Click the Slide Show icon in the bottom-right corner of your screen.

Your slide show appears on your screen.

Navigating the Slide Show Task Go to the next slide. Procedure

Do one of the following:


Press the Right Arrow key. Press the Enter key. Press the Page Down key. Left-click the slide.

Go to the previous slide.

Do one of the following:


Press the Left Arrow key. Press the Backspace key. Press the Page Up key.

End the slide show and return to PowerPoint.

Press the Esc key.

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EXERCISE 4 Run Your Slide Show


1. Press F5 to run the slide show. 2. Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to move forward and backward through your slides. 3. Use the Esc key to return to Normal view.

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Lesson 3: Animations, Transitions, Spell Check, Outline Tab, Slides Tab, Sorter View, and Printing
Animations control how objects move onto, off of, and around your slides. Transitions control how your presentation moves from one slide to the next. This lesson teaches you how to create animations and transitions. It also teaches how to spell-check your document, how to use the Outline and Slides tabs, how to use Sorter view, and how to print.

Add Animations
You can animate the objects on your PowerPoint slides. PowerPoint provides four types of animations: Entrance, Emphasis, Exit, and Motion Paths. An Entrance animation determines the manner in which an object appears on a slide; for example, an object can move onto a slide. An Emphasis animation does something to draw attention to an object; for example, the object can become larger. An Exit animation determines the manner in which an object leaves a slide; for example, an object can move off a slide. A Motion Paths animation determines how an object moves around a slide; for example, an object can move from left to right. After you add an animation, you can use the Custom Animation pane to modify it by choosing an effect. Choosing an effect enables you to define what starts the animation, its properties (such the direction from which an object moves onto the slide), and control the speed of the animation. In addition, you can have an animation start when you click the mouse, start along with the previous animation, or start at a specified time after the previous animation. If the Auto Preview box is checked on the Custom Animation pane, PowerPoint provides you with preview of your animation after you create it and each time you modify it. You can also use the Play button on the Custom Animation pane to preview an animation. To choose an effect: 1. Select the object you want to animate. 2. Choose the Animations tab. 3. Click the Custom Animation button . The Custom Animation pane appears. 4. Click the Add Effect button . A menu appears. 5. Choose the type of effect you want. A submenu appears. 6. Click the effect you want. PowerPoint applies the effect. To modify an effect: 1. Click the down arrow next to the Start field on the Custom Animations pane and then select the start method you want. 2. Click the down arrow next to the Property field on the Custom Animations pane and the select the property you want. The Property field might be labeled Direction, Size, or some other property. 3. Click the down arrow next to the Speed field on the Custom Animations pane and then select the speed you want to apply to your animation. To preview the animation, click the Play button on the Custom Animations pane.

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EXERCISE 1 Add an Animation to a Slide

1. Click Slide 2 on the Slides tab. 2. Select "Start saving early." 3. Choose the Animations tab. 4. Click the Custom Animation button . The Custom Animation pane appears. 5. Click the Add Effect button . A menu appears. 6. Choose Entrance. A submenu appears. 7. Click Fly In. PowerPoint applies the effect. If the Auto preview box is checked, PowerPoint automatically provides you with a preview of the animation.

Modify the Effect

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1. Click the down arrow next to the Start field and then select After Previous. 2. Click the down arrow next to the Direction field and then select From Bottom. 3. Click the down arrow next to the Speed field and then select Medium.

Add Another Animation

1. 2. 3. 4.

Select "Apply for financial aid." Click the Add Effect button . A menu appears. Choose Entrance. A submenu appears. Click Fly In. PowerPoint applies the effect. If the Auto preview box is checked, PowerPoint automatically provides you with a preview of the animation.

Modify the Animation

1. Click the down arrow next to the Start field and then select After Previous. The Apply for Financial Aid field appears in the center of the Custom Animation pane. 2. Click the down arrow next to the Apply for Financial Aid field and then click Timing. The Fly In dialog box appears.

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3. Type 0.05 in the Delay text box. 4. Click OK.

5. Click the down arrow next to the Direction field and then select From Bottom. 6. Click the down arrow next to the Speed field and then select Medium. If the Auto preview box is checked, PowerPoint automatically provides you with a preview of the animation. You can click the Play button on the Custom Animation pane at anytime to preview an animation.

Add Transitions
Transitions determine how your presentations move from one slide to the next. For example, a slide can move up onto the screen and replace the previous slide. PowerPoint provides several transition methods. You can add sound to a transition and you can control its speed. You can apply a transition to selected slides or to all of the slides in your presentation. A transition can occur when the presenter clicks the mouse or after the amount of time you specify.

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To apply a transition to selected slides: 1. On the Slides tab, hold down the Ctrl key and then click the slides to which you want to apply the transition. 2. Choose the Animations tab. 3. Click the More button in the Transition to this Slide group. A menu of transitions appears. 4. Click the transition you want to apply. PowerPoint applies the transition. As you roll your pointer over each transition, PowerPoint provides you with a live preview of the transition. To apply a transition to all slides: 1. Choose the Animations tab. 2. Click the More button in the Transition to this Slide group. A menu of transitions appears. 3. Click the transition you want to apply. As you roll your pointer over each transition, PowerPoint provides you with a live preview of the transition. 4. Click the Apply to All button To add a sound to a transition: 1. Choose the Animations tab. 2. Click the down arrow next to the Transition Sound field and then click the sound you want. As you roll your pointer over each sound, PowerPoint plays the sound. To set the speed of a transition: 1. Choose the Animations tab. 2. Click the down arrow next to the Transition Speed field and then click the speed you want. If you want the transition to occur after the presenter clicks the mouse, check the On Mouse Click check box. If you want a transition to occur after a specified period of time, check the Automatically After check box and then specify the amount of time you want to elapse before the transition occurs. The On Mouse Click check box and the Automatically After check box are both located on the Animations tab in the Transition to This Slide group. in the Transition to This Slide group.

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EXERCISE 2 Add Transitions

1. Choose the Animations tab. 2. Click the More button in the Transition to this Slide group. A menu of transitions appears.

s 3. Click the Push Up transition. As you roll your pointer over each transition, PowerPoint provides you with a live preview of the transition.

Add Sound and Set the Speed

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1. Click the down arrow next to the Transition Sound field and then click Click. 2. Click the down arrow next to the Transition Speed field and then click Slow.

Advance Slide

1. Check the On Mouse Click check box. 2. Click the Automatically After check box. 3. Type 00:07 in the Automatically After text box. 4. Click the Apply to All button . PowerPoint applies all of your changes to all of the slides. 5. Click Slide 1 on the Slides tab. 6. Type 00:03 in the Automatically After text box. PowerPoint changes the timing for Slide 1.

Spell Check
PowerPoint checks your spelling as you type and displays errors with a red wavy line under the misspelled word. You can right-click and then select the correct spelling from the list of offerings on the menu that appears or select Spelling to open the Spelling dialog box. If you need to, you can initiate a spell check anytime you like. To start a spell check, do one of the following:

Press F7. Choose the Review tab and then click the Spelling button

If the spell check finds a possible spelling error, the Spelling dialog box opens with the spelling error highlighted. You can respond in several ways.

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Response Do not change spelling. Correct spelling.

Procedure Click Ignore. 1. Click the correct spelling in the Suggestions box. 2. Click Change. Click Add. Click Ignore All.

Add to dictionary. Word is correct. Do not change presentation. Word is incorrect. Change entire presentation.

Click Change All.

EXERCISE 3 Spell Check


1. Press F7 2. Correct any spelling errors PowerPoint finds. If PowerPoint does not find any errors, the Spelling Check is Complete message box appears. Click OK.

Use the Outline and Slides Tabs


By default, the Outline and Slides tabs are located on the left side of your PowerPoint window. The Outline tab displays the text contained in your presentation. The Slides tab displays a thumbnail of all your slides. You click the thumbnail to view the slide in the Slide pane.

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EXERCISE 4 Use the Outline and Slides Tabs

1. Choose the Slides tab to view thumbnails of your slides.

2. Choose the Outline tab to view the text of your presentation as an outline. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 445

Use Slide Sorter View


After you have created your PowerPoint slide, you can move, cut, copy, paste, duplicate, navigate, and view them in Sorter view. To view the slides in Sorter view, do one of the following:

Choose the View tab and then click the Slide Sorter button in the Presentation Views group. Click the Slide Sorter button in the bottom-right corner of the PowerPoint window.

Slide Sorter View Task Move to first slide. Move to last slide. Move to next slide. Move to previous slide. Select a slide. Open a slide in Normal view. Select slides. Procedure Use Ctrl+Home. Use Ctrl+End. Use the right arrow. Use the left arrow. Single-click the slide. Double-click the slide. Select a single slide: 1. Click the slide you
want to select.

Select multiple slides:


1. Hold down the Ctrl key. 2. Click the slides you want to select.

Delete a slide.

1. Select the slide or slides you want to delete. 2. Press the Delete key.
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Slide Sorter View Task Procedure


1. Select the slide or slides you want to delete. 2. Choose the Home tab and then click the Delete button .

Copy a slide.

1. Select the slide. 2. Choose the Home tab. 3. Click the Copy button in the Clipboard group. 1. Select the slide. 2. Press Ctrl+C.

Paste a slide.

1. Select the slide after which you want the new slide or slides to appear. 2. Choose the Home tab. 3. Click the Paste button in the Clipboard group. 1. Select the slide after which you want the new slide or slides to appear. 2. Press Ctrl+V.

Cut a slide.

1. Select the slide or slides you want to cut. 2. Choose the Home Tab.
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Slide Sorter View Task Procedure 3. Click the Cut button


in the Clipboard group. 1. Select the slide or slides you want to cut. 2. Press Ctrl+X.

Move a slide.

1. Select the slide (or slides) you want to move. 2. Drag it to the new location. 1. Select the slide (or slides) you want to duplicate. 2. Press Ctrl+D.

Duplicate a slide.

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EXERCISE 5 Use Slide Sorter View

1. Choose the View tab. 2. Click Slide Sorter in the Presentation Views group. 3. Double-click a slide to view it in Normal view.

Print

PowerPoint provides you with many printing options. You can print a large view of your slides
or you can print your slides as handouts with 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, or 9 slides per page. You can also print your Notes pages or the Outline view of your slides. To print: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click the Microsoft Office button. A menu appears. Choose Print. Click Print Preview. Click the down arrow next to the Print What field in the Page Setup group and then select what you would like to print. A preview appears onscreen. 5. Click the Print . The Print dialog box appears. 6. Click the down arrow next to the Color/Grayscale field to select whether you want your slides to print in color, grayscale, or black and white. If you are using a black and white printer, choose black and white. You will use less ink or toner. 7. Click OK.

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EXERCISE 6 Print an Outline

1. Click the Microsoft Office button. A menu appears. 2. Choose Print. 3. Click Print Preview. The Print Preview tab appears.

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4. Click the down arrow next to the Print What field in the Page Setup group and then select Outline View. 5. Click the Print button . The Print dialog box appears.

6. Click the down arrow next to the Color/Grayscale field to select whether you want your slides to print in color, grayscale, or black and white. If you are using a black and white printer, choose black and white. You will use less ink or toner. 7. Set the other print settings. 8. Click OK. Your outline prints. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 451

Print Your Slides


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click the Microsoft Office button. A menu appears. Choose Print. Click Print Preview. The Print Preview tab appears. Click the down arrow next to the Print What field in the Page Setup group and then select Slides. Click the Print button . The Print dialog box appears. Click the down arrow next to the Color/Grayscale field to select whether you want your slides to print in color, grayscale, or black and white. If you are using a black and white printer, choose black and white. You will use less ink or toner. Set the other print settings. Click OK. Your slides print.

7. 8.

Print Your Slides as a Handout


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click the Microsoft Office button. A menu appears. Choose Print. Click Print Preview. The Print Preview tab appears. Click the down arrow next to the Print What field in the Page Setup group and then select Handouts (4 slides per page). Click the Print button . The Print dialog box appears. Click the down arrow next to the Color/Grayscale field to select whether you want your slides to print in color, grayscale, or black and white. If you are using a black and white printer, choose black and white. You will use less ink or toner. Set the other print settings. Click OK. Your handouts print.

7. 8.

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DATACOM INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY


SECOND SEMESTER FIRST TRANSITION

COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL IN WEB DEVELOPMENT I (HTML)

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Introducing HTML:
HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language, and it is the most widely used language to write Web Pages. As its name suggests, HTML is a markup language compared to programming language which is used for creating programs.

Hypertext refers to the way in which Web pages (HTML documents) are linked together. When you click a link in a Web page, you are using hypertext. Markup Language describes how HTML works. With a markup language, you simply "mark up" a text document with tags that tell a Web browser how to structure it to display.

Originally, HTML was developed with the intent of defining the structure of documents like headings, paragraphs, lists, and so forth to facilitate the sharing of scientific information between researchers. All you need to do to use HTML is to learn what type of markup to use to get the results you want. The following are the terms or words that you should familliarize before creating your own HTML document. HTML - Hypertext Mark-up Language is the main markup language for creating web pages and other information that can be displayed in a web browser. HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of tags enclosed in angle brackets (like <html>), within the web page content. HTML tags most commonly come in pairs like <h1> and </h1>, although some tags, known as empty elements, are unpaired, for example <img>. The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag (they are also called opening tags and closing tags). In between these tags web designers can add text, tags, comments and other types of text-based content.

HTML tag

formatted text attribute

<font size="2">text</font>
opening tag closing tag

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Web page or webpage is a web document or other web resource that is suitable for the world wide web and can be accessed through a web browser and displayed on a monitor or mobile device. This information is usually in HTML or XHTML format, and may provide navigation to other web pages via hypertext links.
Website is a set of related web pages served from a single web domain. A website is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via a network such as the Internet or a private local area network through an Internet address known as a uniform resource locator. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the world wide web.

World Wide is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia, and navigate between them via Hyperlinks. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organzation for the World WideWeb Web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the world wide web. Although browsers are primarily intended to use the World Wide Web, they can also be used to access information provided by web servers in private networks or files in file system. The major web browsers are Google Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Opera, and Safari. Web search engine is software code that is designed to search for information on the world wide web. The search results are generally presented in a line of results often referred to as search engine results pages. Web search engine are also considered as web sites. Some examples og search engine are google, yahoo, baidu, bing, yandex, ask, AOL, and iAlgae. Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wde Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support email. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. HTTP functions as a request-response protocol in the clientDatacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 455

sever computing model. A web browser, for example, may be the client and an application running on a computer hosting a web site may be the server. The client submits an HTTP request message to the server. The server, which providesresources such as HTML files and other content, or performs other functions on behalf of the client, returns a response message to the client. The response contains completion status information about the request and may also contain requested content in its message body. Uniform Resource Locator, abbreviated URL, also known as web address, is a specific character string that constitutes a reference to a resource. In most web browsers, the URL of a web page is displayed on top inside an address bar. An example of a typical URL would be"http://en.example.org/wiki/Main_Page". Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides access to the Internet. Access ISPs directly connect clients to the Internet using copper wires, wireless or fiber-optic connections. Text Editor is a type of program used for editing plain text files. In this module we will be using notepad or notepad++ as text editor in creating and editing a webpage.

Creating HTML Document:


Creating an HTML document is easy. To begin coding HTML you need only two things: a simpletext editor and a web browser. Notepad is the most basic of simple-text editors and you will probably code a fair amount of HTML with it. Here are the simple steps to create a baisc HTML document:

Open Notepad or another text editor. At the top of the page type <html>. On the next line, indent five spaces and now add the opening header tag: <head>. On the next line, indent ten spaces and type <title> </title>. Go to the next line, indent five spaces from the margin and insert the closing header tag: </head>. Five spaces in from the margin on the next line, type<body>. Now drop down another line and type the closing tag right below its mate: </body>. Finally, go to the next line and type </html>. In the File menu, choose Save As. In the Save as Type option box, choose All Files. Name the file template.htm or template.html .(NOTE: One HTML file can have extension
as .htm or .html. So you can use either of them based on your comfort.)

Click Save.
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You have basic HTML document now, to see some result put the following code in title and body tags.

<html> <head> <title>This is document title</title> </head> <body> This is where the body or the content of the webpage </body> </html>

Now you have created one HTML page and you can use a Web Browser to open this HTML file to see the result. To oview your web page open any web browser (recommended google chrome), press Ctrl O to browse the web page you created (dont forget the location of your file where you saved it). if you already found your web page click it, then click open.

HTML Tags and Elements:


HTML language is a markup language and we use many tags to markup text. In the above example you have seen <html>, <body> etc. are called HTML tags or HTML elements. Every tag consists of a tag name, sometimes followed by an optional list of tag attributes , all placed between opening and closing brackets (< and >). The simplest tag is nothing more than a name appropriately enclosed in brackets, such as <head> and <i>. More complicated tags contain one or more attributes , which specify or modify the behavior of the tag. According to the HTML standard, tag and attribute names are not case-sensitive. There's no difference in effect between <head>, <Head>, <HEAD>, or even <HeaD>; they are all equivalent. But with XHTML, case is important: all current standard tag and attribute names are in lowercase. The basic structure for all HTML documents is simple and should include the following minimum elements or tags:

<html> - The main container for HTML pages <head> - The container for page header information <title> - The title of the page <body> - The main body of the page

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The <html> Element:


The <html> element is the containing element for the whole HTML document. Each HTML document should have one <html> and each document should end with a closing </html> tag. Following two elements appear as direct children of an <html> element:

<head> <body>

The <title> Element:


You should specify a title for every page that you write inside the <title> element. This element is a child of the <head> element). It is used in several ways:

It displays at the very top of a browser window. It is used as the default name for a bookmark in browsers such as IE and Netscape. Its is used by search engines that use its content to help index pages.

Therefore it is important to use a title that really describes the content of your site. The <title> element should contain only the text for the title and it may not contain any other elements. Example: Here is the example of using title tag.
<head> <title>HTML Basic tags</title> </head>

The <body> Element:


The <body> element appears after the <head> element and contains the part of the Web page that you actually see in the main browser window, which is sometimes referred to as body content. A <body> element may contain anything from a couple of paragraphs under a heading to more complicated layouts containing forms and tables.

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Example: Here is the example of using body tag.


<body> <p>This is a paragraph tag.</p> </body>

HTML Attributes
Attributes are another important part of HTML markup. An attribute is used to define the characteristics of an element and is placed inside the element's opening tag. All attributes are made up of two parts: a name and a value:

The name is the property you want to set. For example, the <font> element in the example carries an attribute whose name is face, which you can use to indicate which typeface you want the text to appear in. The value is what you want the value of the property to be. The first example was supposed to use the Arial typeface, so the value of the face attribute is Arial.

The value of the attribute should be put in double quotation marks, and is separated from the name by the equals sign. You can see that a color for the text has been specified as well as the typeface in this <font> element:
<font face="arial" color="#CC0000">

Many HTML tags have a unique set of their own attributes.

Generic Attributes:
Here's a table of some other attributes that are readily usable with many of HTML's tags.
Attribute align bgcolor Options right, left, center numeric, hexidecimal, RGB values Function Horizontally aligns tags Places a background color behind an element

background URL id width height title User Defined Numeric Value Numeric Value User Defined

Places an background image behind an element Names an element for use with Cascading Style Sheets. Specifies the width of tables, images, or table cells. Specifies the height of tables, images, or table cells. "Pop-up" title for your elements.

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HTML Formatting Tags


If you want people to read what you have written, then structuring your text well is even more important on the Web than when writing for print. People have trouble reading wide, long, paragraphs of text on Web sites unless they are broken up well. This section will teach you basic text formatting elements like heading elements and paragraph elements.

Create Headings - The <hn> Elements:


Any documents starts with a heading. You use different sizes for your headings. HTML also have six levels of headings, which use the elements <h1>, <h2>, <h3>, <h4>, <h5>, and <h6>. While displaying any heading, browser adds one line before and after that heading. Example:
<h1>This <h2>This <h3>This <h4>This <h5>This <h6>This is is is is is is heading heading heading heading heading heading 1</h1> 2</h2> 3</h3> 4</h4> 5</h5> 6</h6>

This will display following result:

This is heading 1
This is heading 2
This is heading 3
This is heading 4
This is heading 5
This is heading 6

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Create Paragraph - The <p> Element:


The <p> element offers a way to structure your text. Each paragraph of text should go in between an opening <p> and closing </p> tag as shown below in the example:
<p>Here is a paragraph of text.</p> <p>Here is a second paragraph of text.</p> <p>Here is a third paragraph of text.</p>

This will produce following result:


Here is a paragraph of text. Here is a second paragraph of text. Here is a third paragraph of text.

You can use align attribute to align your paragraphs.


<p align="left">This is left aligned.</p> <p align="center">This is center aligned.</p> <p align="right">This is right aligned.</p> <p align="justify">This is jutified. This works when you have multiple lines in your paragraph and you want to justfy all the lines so that they can look more nice.</p>

This will produce following result:


This is left aligned. This is center aligned. This is right aligned. This is jutified. This works when you have multiple lines in your paragraph and you want to justfy all the lines so that they can look more nice.

Create Line Breaks - The <br> Element: Whenever you use the <br> element, anything following it starts on the next line. This tag is an example of an empty element, where you do not need opening and closing tags, as there is nothing to go in between them.

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Example:
Hello<br> You come most carefully upon your hour.<br> Thanks<br> Mahnaz

This will produce following result:


Hello You come most carefully upon your hour. Thanks Mahnaz

Centring Content - The <center> Element:


You can use <center> tag to put any content in the center of the page or any table cell. Example:
<p>This is not in the center.</p> <center> <p>This is in the center.</p> </center>

This will produce following result:


This is not in the center. This is in the center.

Nonbreaking Spaces: Suppose you were to use the phrase "12 Angry Men." Here you would not want a browser to split the "12" and "Angry" across two lines:
A good example of this technique appears in the movie "12 Angry Men."

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In cases where you do not want the client browser to break text, you should use a nonbreaking space entity (&nbsp;) instead of a normal space. For example, when coding the "12 Angry Men" paragraph, you would use something similar to the following code:
<p>A good example of this technique appears in the movie "12&nbsp;Angry&nbsp;Men."</p>

Preserve Formatting - The <pre> Element:


Sometimes you want your text to follow the exact format of how it is written in the HTML document. In those cases, you can use the preformatted tag (<pre>). Any text between the opening <pre> tag and the closing </pre> tag will preserve the formatting of the source document.
<pre> function testFunction( strText ){ alert (strText) } </pre>

This will produce following result:


function testFunction( strText ){ alert (strText) }

Horizontal Rules - The <hr /> Element


Horizontal rules are used to visually break up sections of a document. The <hr> tag creates a line from the current position in the document to the right margin and breaks the line accordingly. For example you may want to give a line between two paragraphs as follows:
<p>This is paragraph one and should be on top</p> <hr /> <p>This is paragraph two and should be at bottom</p>

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This will produce following result:


This is paragraph one and should be on top

This is paragraph two and should be at bottom

Again <hr /> tag is an example of an empty element, where you do not need opening and closing tags, as there is nothing to go in between them.
Attribute Value Description

align

left center right

Not supported in HTML5. Deprecated in HTML 4.01. Specifies the alignment of a <hr> element

size

pixels

Not supported in HTML5. Deprecated in HTML 4.01. Specifies the height of a <hr> element

width

width

Not supported in HTML5. Deprecated in HTML 4.01. Specifies the width of a <hr> element

color

Color names, alpanumeric codes

Names an element for use with Cascading Style Sheets.

Presentational Tags:
If you use a word processor, you are familiar with the ability to make text bold, italicized, or underlined; these are just three of the ten options available to indicate how text can appear in HTML and XHTML.

Bold Text - The <b> Element:


Anything that appears in a <b>...</b> element is displayed in bold, like the word bold here:
<p>The following word uses a <b>bold</b> typeface.</p>

This will produce following result:


The following word uses a bold typeface.

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Italic Text - The <i> Element:


Anything that appears in a <i>...</i> element is displayed in italicized, like the word italicized here:
<p>The following word uses a <i>italicized</i> typeface.</p>

This will produce following result:


The following word uses a italicized typeface.

Underlined Text - The <u> Element:


Anything that appears in a <u>...</u> element is displayed with underline, like the word underlined here:
<p>The following word uses a <u>underlined</u> typeface.</p>

This will produce following result:


The following word uses a underlined typeface.

Strike Text - The <strike> Element:


Anything that appears in a <strike>...</strike> element is displayed with strikethrough, which is a thin line through the text:
<p>The following word uses a <strike>strikethrough</strike> typeface.</p>

This will produce following result:


The following word uses a strikethrough typeface.

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Monospaced font - The <tt> Element:


The content of a <tt> element is written in monospaced font. Most fonts are known as variable-width fonts because different letters are of different widths (for example, the letter m is wider than the letter i). In a monospaced font, however, each letter is the same width.
<p>The following word uses a <tt>monospaced</tt> typeface.</p>

This will produce following result:


The following word uses a monospaced typeface.

Superscript Text - The <sup> Element:


The content of a <sup> element is written in superscript; the font size used is the same size as the characters surrounding it but is displayed half a character.s height above the other characters.
<p>The following word uses a <sup>superscript</sup> typeface.</p>

This will produce following result:


The following word uses a
superscript

typeface.

Subscript Text - The <sub> Element:


The content of a <sub> element is written in subscript; the font size used is the same as the characters surrounding it, but is displayed half a character.s height beneath the other characters.
<p>The following word uses a <sub>subscript</sub> typeface.</p>

This will produce following result:


The following word uses a
subscript

typeface.

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Larger Text - The <big> Element:


The content of the <big> element is displayed one font size larger than the rest of the text surrounding it.
<p>The following word uses a <big>big</big> typeface.</p>

This will produce following result:


The following word uses a big typeface.

Smaller Text - The <small> Element:


The content of the <small> element is displayed one font size smaller than the rest of the text surrounding it.
<p>The following word uses a <small>small</small> typeface.</p>

This will produce following result:


The following word uses a small typeface.

Grouping - The <div> and <span> Elements :


The <div> and <span> elements allow you to group together several elements to create sections or subsections of a page. For example, you might want to put all of the footnotes on a page within a <div> element to indicate that all of the elements within that <div> element relate to the footnotes. You might then attach a style to this <div> element so that they appear using a special set of style rules. The <div> element is used to group block-level elements together:
<div id="menu" align="middle" > <a href="/index.htm">HOME</a> | <a href="/about/contact_us.htm">CONTACT</a> | <a href="/about/index.htm">ABOUT</a> </div>

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<div id="content" align="left" bgcolor="white"> <h5>Content Articles</h5> <p>Actual content goes here.....</p> </div>

This will produce following result:


HOME | CONTACT | ABOUT
Content Articles

Actual content goes here.....

HTML Phrase Tags


While some of these phrase elements are displayed in a similar manner to the <b>, <i>, <pre>, and <tt> elements you have already seen, they are designed for specific purposes. For example, the <em> and <strong> elements give text emphasis and strong emphasis respectively and there are several elements for marking up quotes.

Emphasized Text - The <em> Element:


The content of an <em> element is intended to be a point of emphasis in your document, and it is usually displayed in italicized text. The kind of emphasis intended is on words such as "must" in the following sentence:
<p>You <em>must</em> remember to close elements in XHTML.</p>

This will produce following result:


You must remember to close elements in XHTML.

Strong Text - The <strong> Element:


The <strong> element is intended to show strong emphasis for its content; stronger emphasis than the <em> element. As with the <em> element, the <strong> element should be used only when you want to add strong emphasis to part of a document.
<p>You <strong>must</strong> remember to close elements in XHTML.</p>

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This will produce following result:


You must remember to close elements in XHTML.

Text Abbreviation - The <abbr> Element :


You can indicate when you are using an abbreviated form by placing the abbreviation between opening <abbr> and closing </abbr> tags.
<p>I have a friend called <abbr title="Abhishek">Abhy</abbr>.</p>

This will produce following result:


I have a friend called Abhy.

Using Acronym - The <acronym> Element :


The <acronym> element allows you to indicate that the text between an opening <acronym> and closing </acronym> element is an acronym. When possible use a title attribute whose value is the full version of the acronyms on the <acronym> element, and if the acronym is in a different language, include an xml:lang attribute in XHTML documents.
<p>This chapter covers marking up text in <acronym title="Extensible Hypertext Markup Language">XHTML</acronym>.</p>

This will produce following result:


This chapter covers marking up text in XHTML.

At present, the major browsers do not change the appearance of the content of the <acronym> element.

Special Terms - The <dfn> Element :


The <dfn> element allows you to specify that you are introducing a special term. Its use is similar to the words that are in italics in the midst of paragraphs in this book when new key concepts are introduced. Typically, you would use the <dfn> element the first time you introduce a key term and only in that instance. Most recent browsers render the content of a <dfn> element in an italic font.
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<p>This tutorial teaches you how mark up your documents for the web using <dfn>XHTML</dfn>.</p>

This will produce following result:


This tutorial teaches you how mark up your documents for the web using XHTML.

Quoting Text - The <blockquote> Element :


When you want to quote a passage from another source, you should use the <blockquote> element. Text inside a <blockquote> element is usually indented from the left and right edges of the surrounding text, and sometimes uses an italicized font.
<p>The following description of XHTML is taken from the W3C Web site:</p> <blockquote> XHTML 1.0 is the W3C's first Recommendation for XHTML, following on from earlier work on HTML 4.01, HTML 4.0, HTML 3.2 and HTML 2.0. </blockquote>

This will produce following result:


The following description of XHTML is taken from the W3C Web site: XHTML 1.0 is the W3C's first Recommendation for XHTML, following on from earlier work on HTML 4.01, HTML 4.0, HTML 3.2 and HTML 2.0.

You can use the cite attribute on the <blockquote> element to indicate the source of the quote.
<p>The following description of XHTML is taken from the W3C Web site:</p> <blockquote cite="http://www.w3.org/markup/"> XHTML 1.0 is the W3C's first Recommendation for XHTML, following on from earlier work on HTML 4.01, HTML 4.0, HTML 3.2 and HTML 2.0. </blockquote>

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Short Quotations - The <q> Element :


The <q> element is intended to be used when you want to add a quote within a sentence rather than as an indented block on its own.
<p>Amit is in Spain, <q>He is their at my home. I think I am wrong</q>.</p>

This will produce following result:


Amit is in Spain, He is their at my home. I think I am wrong.

The <q> element can also carry the cite attribute. The value should be a URL pointing to the source of the quote.

Citations - The <cite> Element :


If you are quoting a text, you can indicate the source placing it between an opening <cite> tag and closing </cite> tag As you would expect in a print publication, the content of the <cite> element is rendered in italicized text by default.
<p>This HTML Tutorial is derived from <cite>World Wide Web Standard for HTML</cite>.</p>

This will produce following result:


This HTML Tutorial is derived from World Wide Web Standard for HTML.

Computer Code - The <code> Element :


Any code to appear on a Web page should be placed inside a <code> element. Usually the content of the <code> element is presented in a monospaced font, just like the code in most programming books.
<h1> <code>This is inside code element</code></h1>

This will produce following result:


This is inside code element

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Keyboard Text - The <kbd> Element :


When you are talking about computers, if you want to tell a reader to enter some text, you can use the <kbd> element to indicate what should be typed in, as in this example. The content of a <kbd> element is usually represented in a monospaced font rather like the content of the <code> element.
<h1> <kbd>This is inside kbd element</kbd></h1>

This will produce following result:


This is inside kbd element

Programming Variables - The <var> Element :


This element is usually used in conjunction with the <pre> and <code> elements to indicate that the content of that element is a variable that can be supplied by a user.
<p><code>document.write("<var>user-name</var>")</code></p>

This will produce following result:


document.write("user-name")

Program Output - The <samp> Element :


The <samp> element indicates sample output from a program, script, or the like. Again, it is mainly used when documenting programming concepts. For example:
<p>Result produced by the program is <samp>Hello World</samp></p>

This will produce following result:


Result produced by the program is Hello World

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Addresses - The <address> Element :


The <address> element is used to contain any address. For example:
<address>304, Menna Colony, Hyderabad - INDIA, 500032</address>

This will produce following result:


304, Menna Colony, Hyderabad - INDIA, 500032

HTML Comments
Comments are piece of code which is ignored by any web browser. It is good practice to comment your code, especially in complex documents, to indicate sections of a document, and any other notes to anyone looking at the code. Comments help you and others understand your code. HTML Comment lines are indicated by the special beginning tag <!-- and ending tag --> placed at the beginning and end of EVERY line to be treated as a comment. Comments do not nest, and the double-dash sequence "--" may not appear inside a comment except as part of the closing --> tag. You must also make sure that there are no spaces in the start-of-comment string. For example: Given line is a valid comment in HTML
<!-This is commented out -->

This will produce following result:


< !-This is commented out -->

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HTML Fonts
Font face and color depends entirely on the computer and browser that is being used to view your page. But the <font> tag is used to add style, size, and color to the text on your site. You can use a <basefont> tag to set all of your text to the same size, face, and color. The font tag is having three attributes called size, color, and face to customize your fonts. To change any of the font attributes at any time within your page, simply use the <font> tag. The text that follows will remain changed until you close with the </font> tag. You can change any or all of the font attributes at the one time, by including all the required changes within the one <font> tag.

Font Size:
You can set the size of your font with size attribute. The range of accepted values is from 1(smallest) to 7(largest). The default size of a font is 3. Example:
<font <font <font <font <font <font <font size="1">Font size="2">Font size="3">Font size="4">Font size="5">Font size="6">Font size="7">Font size="1"</font> size="2"</font> size="3"</font> size="4"</font> size="5"</font> size="6"</font> size="7"</font>

This will produce following result:


Font size="1"

Font size="2"

Font size="3"

Font size="4"

Font size="5"

Font size="6"

Font size="7"
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SPECIFY THE RELATIVE FONT SIZE. <font size="+n"> or <font size="-n">: You can specify how many sizes larger or how many sizes smaller than the preset font size should be. Example:
<font <font <font <font <font size="-1">Font size="+1">Font size="+2">Font size="+3">Font size="+4">Font size="-1"</font> size="+1"</font> size="+2"</font> size="+3"</font> size="+4"</font>

This will produce following result:


Font size="-1"

Font size="+1"

Font size="+2"

Font size="+3"

Font size="+4"
Font Face:
You can set any font you like using face attribute but be aware that if the user viewing the page doesn't have the font installed, they will not be able to see it. Instead they will default to Times New Roman of your font with size attribute. See below few examples on using different font face

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Example:
<font <font <font <font <font face="Times New Roman" size="5">Times New Roman</font> face="Verdana" size="5">Verdana</font> face="Comic sans MS" size="5">Comic Sans MS</font> face="WildWest" size="5">WildWest</font> face="Bedrock" size="5">Bedrock</font>

This will produce following result:

Times New Roman Verdana Comic Sans MS WildWest Bedrock


Specify alternate font faces: A visitor will only be able to see your font if they have that font installed on their computer. So, it is possible to specify two or more font face alternatives by listing the font face names, separated by a comma. Example:
<font face="arial,helvetica"> <font face="Lucida Calligraphy,Comic Sans MS,Lucida Console>

When your page is loaded, their browser will display the first font face that it has available. If none of your selections are installed....then it will display the default font face Times New Roman.

Font Color:
You can set any font color you like using color attribute. You can specify the color that you want by either the color name or hexadecimal code for that color.

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Example:
<font color="#FF00FF">This text is hexcolor #FF00FF</font> <font color="red">This text is red</font>

This will produce following result:


This text is hexcolor #FF00FF This text is red

Color Name aqua black blue fuchsia green gray lime maroon navy olive purple red silver teal white yellow aliceblue antiquewhite aquamarine azure beige bisque blanchedalmond blueviolet brown burlywood cadetblue

Hex Value #00ffff #000000 #0000ff #ff00ff #008000 #808080 #00ff00 #800000 #000080 #808000 #800080 #ff0000 #c0c0c0 #008080 #ffffff #ffff00 #f0f8ff #faebd7 #7fffd4 #f0ffff #f5f5dc #ffe4c4 #ffebcd #8a2be2 #a52a2a #deb887 #5f9ea0

chartreuse chocolate coral cornflowerblue cornsilk crimson cyan darkblue darkcyan darkgoldenrod darkgray darkgreen darkkhaki darkmagenta darkolivegreen darkorange darkorchid darkred darksalmon darkseagreen darkslateblue darkslategray darkturquoise darkviolet deeppink deepskyblue dimgray dodgerblue

#7fff00 #d2691e #ff7f50 #6495ed #fff8dc #dc143c #00ffff #00008b #008b8b #b8860b #a9a9a9 #006400 #bdb76b #8b008b #556b2f #ff8c00 #9932cc #8b0000 #e9967a #8fbc8f #483d8b #2f4f4f #00ced1 #9400d3 #ff1493 #00bfff #696969 #1e90ff

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firebrick floralwhite forestgreen gainsboro ghostwhite gold goldenrod gray greenyellow honeydew hotpink indianred indigo ivory khaki lavender lavenderblush lawngreen lemonchiffon lightblue lightcoral lightcyan lightgreen lightgrey lightpink lightsalmon lightseagreen lightskyblue lightslategray lightsteelblue lightyellow limegreen linen magenta mediumblue mediumorchid mediumpurple midnightblue

#b22222 #fffaf0 #228b22 #dcdcdc #f8f8ff #ffd700 #daa520 #808080 #adff2f #f0fff0 #ff69b4 #cd5c5c #4b0082 #fffff0 #f0e68c #e6e6fa #fff0f5 #7cfc00 #fffacd #add8e6 #f08080 #e0ffff #90ee90 #d3d3d3 #ffb6c1 #ffa07a #20b2aa #87cefa #778899 #b0c4de #ffffe0 #32cd32 #faf0e6 #ff00ff #0000cd #ba55d3 #9370db #191970

mistyrose moccasin oldlace orange orchid peachpuff peru pink plum purple rosybrown royalblue salmon sandybrown seagreen sienna skyblue slateblue steelblue tan thistle tomato violet wheat whitesmoke yellow yellowgreen

#ffe4e1 #ffe4b5 #fdf5e6 #ffa500 #da70d6 #ffdab9 #cd853f #ffc0cb #dda0dd #800080 #bc8f8f #4169e1 #fa8072 #f4a460 #2e8b57 #a0522d #87ceeb #6a5acd #4682b4 #d2b48c #d8bfd8 #ff6347 #ee82ee #f5deb3 #f5f5f5 #ffff00 #9acd32

lightgoldenrodyellow #fafad2

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HTML and Entities Reference


Characters with special meaning in HTML Some characters are reserved in HTML XHTML. For example, you cannot use the greater than and less than signs or angle brackets within your text because the browser could mistake them for markup. HTML and XHTML processors must support the five special characters listed in the table that follows.
Symbol " ' & < > Description quotation mark apostrophe ampersand less-than greater-than Entity Name &quot; &apos; &amp; &lt; &gt; Number Code &#34; &#39; &#38; &#60; &#62;

To write an element and attribute into your page so that the code is shown to the user rather than being processed by the browser (for example as <div id="character">) you would write:
&div id=&quot;character&quot;&gt;

There is also a long list of special characters that HTML 4.0.aware processors should support. In order for these to appear in your document, you can use either the numerical code or the entity name. For example, to insert a copyright symbol you could use either of the following:
&copy; 2007 or &#169; 2007

ISO 8859-1 Character set is the most widly used character set. A complete reference of ISO 885901 character set is gievn below.

ISO 8859-1 Symbol Entities


Result Description non-breaking space inverted exclamation mark Entity Name &nbsp; &iexcl; Number Code &#160; &#161;

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currency cent pound yen broken vertical bar section spacing diaeresis copyright feminine ordinal indicator angle quotation mark (left) negation soft hyphen

&curren; &cent; &pound; &yen; &brvbar; &sect; &uml; &copy; &ordf; &laquo; &not; &shy; &reg; &trade; &macr; &deg; &plusmn; &sup2; &sup3; &acute; &micro; &para; &middot; &cedil; &sup1; &ordm; &raquo; &frac14; &frac12; &frac34; &iquest; &times; &divide;

&#164; &#162; &#163; &#165; &#166; &#167; &#168; &#169; &#170; &#171; &#172; &#173; &#174; &#8482; &#175; &#176; &#177; &#178; &#179; &#180; &#181; &#182; &#183; &#184; &#185; &#186; &#187; &#188; &#189; &#190; &#191; &#215; &#247;

registered trademark trademark spacing macron degree plus-or-minus superscript 2 superscript 3 spacing acute micro paragraph middle dot spacing cedilla superscript 1 masculine ordinal indicator angle quotation mark (right) fraction 1/4 fraction 1/2 fraction 3/4 inverted question mark multiplication division

ISO 8859-1 Character Entities


Result Description Entity Name Number Code

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capital a, grave accent capital a, acute accent capital a, circumflex accent capital a, tilde capital a, umlaut mark capital a, ring capital ae capital c, cedilla capital e, grave accent capital e, acute accent capital e, circumflex accent capital e, umlaut mark capital i, grave accent capital i, acute accent capital i, circumflex accent capital i, umlaut mark capital eth, Icelandic capital n, tilde capital o, grave accent capital o, acute accent capital o, circumflex accent capital o, tilde capital o, umlaut mark capital o, slash capital u, grave accent capital u, acute accent capital u, circumflex accent capital u, umlaut mark capital y, acute accent capital THORN, Icelandic small sharp s, German small a, grave accent small a, acute accent small a, circumflex accent small a, tilde small a, umlaut mark

&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring; &AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml; &Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &ETH; &Ntilde; &Ograve; &Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave; &Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &Yacute; &THORN; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute; &acirc; &atilde; &auml;

&#192; &#193; &#194; &#195; &#196; &#197; &#198; &#199; &#200; &#201; &#202; &#203; &#204; &#205; &#206; &#207; &#208; &#209; &#210; &#211; &#212; &#213; &#214; &#216; &#217; &#218; &#219; &#220; &#221; &#222; &#223; &#224; &#225; &#226; &#227; &#228;

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small a, ring small ae small c, cedilla small e, grave accent small e, acute accent small e, circumflex accent small e, umlaut mark small i, grave accent small i, acute accent small i, circumflex accent small i, umlaut mark small eth, Icelandic small n, tilde small o, grave accent small o, acute accent small o, circumflex accent small o, tilde small o, umlaut mark small o, slash small u, grave accent small u, acute accent small u, circumflex accent small u, umlaut mark small y, acute accent small thorn, Icelandic small y, umlaut mark

&aring; &aelig; &ccedil; &egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute; &icirc; &iuml; &eth; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute; &ucirc; &uuml; &yacute; &thorn; &yuml;

&#229; &#230; &#231; &#232; &#233; &#234; &#235; &#236; &#237; &#238; &#239; &#240; &#241; &#242; &#243; &#244; &#245; &#246; &#248; &#249; &#250; &#251; &#252; &#253; &#254; &#255;

Other Entities Supported by HTML Browser:


Result Description capital ligature OE small ligature oe capital S with caron small S with caron capital Y with diaeres modifier letter circumflex accent small tilde Entity Name &OElig; &oelig; &Scaron; &scaron; &Yuml; &circ; &tilde; Number Code &#338; &#339; &#352; &#353; &#376; &#710; &#732;

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en space em space thin space zero width non-joiner zero width joiner left-to-right mark right-to-left mark en dash em dash left single quotation mark right single quotation mark single low-9 quotation mark left double quotation mark right double quotation mark double low-9 quotation mark dagger double dagger horizontal ellipsis per mille single left-pointing angle quotation single right-pointing angle quotation euro

&ensp; &emsp; &thinsp; &zwnj; &zwj; &lrm; &rlm; &ndash; &mdash; &lsquo; &rsquo; &sbquo; &ldquo; &rdquo; &bdquo; &dagger; &Dagger; &hellip; &permil; &lsaquo; &rsaquo; &euro;

&#8194; &#8195; &#8201; &#8204; &#8205; &#8206; &#8207; &#8211; &#8212; &#8216; &#8217; &#8218; &#8220; &#8221; &#8222; &#8224; &#8225; &#8230; &#8240; &#8249; &#8250; &#8364;

HTML Background
Web Page background color can be added through the use of the attribute bgcolor which is the attribute of the tag <body> this is the snytax used for adding background color
<body bgcolor="red">

Additional background effects can be attain by the use of the attribute background which is also a attribute of the tag <body> to have a background picture. this is the snytax used for adding background picture
<body background="dog.jpg">

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HTML Marquees
A HTML marquee is a scrolling piece of text displayed either horizontally across or vertically down your web site page depending on the settings. This is created by using HTML tag <marquees>. Syntax: A simple syntax to use marquee is as follows:
<marquee attribute_name="attribute_value"....more attributes> One or more lines or text message or image </marquee>

Attrubutes: A HTML marquee can have following attributes:


width: how wide the marquee is. This will have a value like 10 or 20%etc. height: how tall the marquee is. This will have a value like 10 or 20% etc. direction: which direction the marquee should scroll. This will have value either up,down, left or right. behavior: what type of scrolling. This will have value scroll, slid and alternate. scrolldelay: how long to delay between each jump. This will have a value like 10 etc. scrollamount: how far to jump. This will have a value like 10 etc. loop: how many times to loop. The default value is INFINITE, which means that the marquee loops endlessly. bgcolor: background color. This will have any color name or color hex value. hspace: horizontal space around the marquee. This will have a value like 10 or 20%etc. vspace: vertical space around the marquee. This will have a value like 10 or 20%etc.

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Examples: Here are few examples to demonstrate the usage of marquee tag.
<marquee>This is basic example of marquee</marquee> <marquee width="50%">This example will take only 50% width</marquee> <marquee direction="right">This text will scroll from left to right</marquee> <marquee direction="up">This text will scroll from bottom to up</marquee>

HTML Images
Images are very important to beautify as well as to depicts many concepts on your web page. Its is true that one single image is worth than thuasands of words. So as a Web Developer you should have clear understanding on how to use images in your web pages.

Insert Image - The <img> Element:


You will insert any image in your web page by using <img> tag. Following is the simple syntax to use this tag.

<img src="image URL" attr_name="attr_value"...more attributes />

Image Attributes:
Following are most frequently used attributes for <img> tag.

width: sets width of the image. This will have a value like 10 or 20%etc. height: sets height of the image. This will have a value like 10 or 20% etc. border: sets a border around the image. This will have a value like 1 or 2 etc. src: specifies URL of the image file. alt: this is an alternate text which will be displayed if image is missing. align: this sets horizontal alignment of the image and takes value either left, right orcenter. valign: this sets vertical alignment of the image and takes value either top, bottom orcenter.
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hspace: horizontal space around the image. This will have a value like 10 or 20%etc. vspace: vertical space around the image. This will have a value like 10 or 20%etc. name: name of the image with in the document. id: id of the image with in the document. style: this will be used if you are using CSS. title: specifies a text title. The browser, perhaps flashing the title when the mouse passes over the link. ismap and usemap: These attributes for the <img> tag tell the browser that the image is a special mouse-selectable visual map of one or more hyperlinks, commonly known as an image map. A Simple Example:

<img src="http://www.tutorialspoint.com/images/html.gif" alt="HTML Tutorial" />

This will produce following result:

Image Attributes - width, height, title, border and align:


Now let us try to set some more attributes:
<img src="http://www.tutorialspoint.com/images/html.gif" alt="HTML Tutorial" width="100" height="100" border="2" align="right" title="HTML Tutorial" />

This will produce following result:

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Remember that all the images will have a border by default. In our examples its not showing because our global style sheet has set img {border:0px;} which means that no border will be displayed till it is mentioned explicitly.

Wrapping text around images:


Example 1:
<p>This is the first paragraph that appears above the paragraph with the image!</p> <p><img src="http://www.tutorialspoint.com/images/html.gif" width="75" height="75" alt="HTML Tutorial" align="right"> The image will appear along the right hand side of the paragraph. As you can see this is very nice for adding a little eye candy that relates to the specified paragraph.</p> <p>The left and right image-alignment values tell the browser to place an image against the left or right margin, respectively, of the current text flow. The browser then renders subsequent document content in the remaining portion of the flow adjacent to the image. The net result is that the document content following the image gets wrapped around the image. </p>

This will produce following result:


This is the first paragraph that appears above the paragraph with the image! The image will appear along the right hand side of the paragraph. As you can see this is very nice for adding a little eye candy that relates to the specified paragraph. The left and right image-alignment values tell the browser to place an image against the left or right margin, respectively, of the current text flow. The browser then renders subsequent document content in the remaining portion of the flow adjacent to the image. The net result is that the document content following the image gets wrapped around the image.

Example 2: You can use vspace or hspace attributes if you want to keep some distance between text and image. Let us revise above example:
<p>This is the first paragraph that appears above the paragraph with the image!</p> <p><img src="http://www.tutorialspoint.com/images/html.gif" vspace="10" hspace="15" width="75" height="75" alt="HTML Tutorial" align="right">

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The image will appear along the right hand side of the paragraph. As you can see this is very nice for adding a little eye candy that relates to the specified paragraph.</p> <p>The left and right image-alignment values tell the browser to place an image against the left or right margin, respectively, of the current text flow. The browser then renders subsequent document content in the remaining portion of the flow adjacent to the image. The net result is that the document content following the image gets wrapped around the image. </p>

This will produce following result:


This is the first paragraph that appears above the paragraph with the image! The image will appear along the right hand side of the paragraph. As you can see this is very nice for adding a little eye candy that relates to the specified paragraph. The left and right image-alignment values tell the browser to place an image against the left or right margin, respectively, of the current text flow. The browser then renders subsequent document content in the remaining portion of the flow adjacent to the image. The net result is that the document content following the image gets wrapped around the image.

Which image format is suitable for you ?


The images in Graphics Interchange Format - GIF format are best used for banners, clip art, and buttons. The main reason for this is that gifs can have a transparent background which is priceless when it comes to web design. On the down side, gifs are usually larger files, not as compressed as a jpeg, which calls for slow load times and large transfer rates. Gifs are also limited to the 256 color scheme.

Ths images in Joint Photographic Experts Group - JPEG format have an unlimited color wheel, and have a high compression rate downsizing your load times and saving hard drive space. JPEGs don't allow for transparent backgrounds, but their size/quality ratio is outstanding. Its best to use JPEG format for photo galleries, or artwork to allow the viewer to catch that extra bit of detail. Avoid Jpegs for graphical design, stick to using them for thumbnails and backgrounds. The images in Portable Network Graphics - PNG format is an extensible file format for the lossless, portable, well-compressed storage of raster images. PNG provides a patent-free replacement for GIF and can also replace many common uses of TIFF. Indexedcolor, grayscale, and truecolor images are supported, plus an optional alpha channel. Sample depths range from 1 to 16 bits. PNG also compresses better than GIF in almost every case (5% to 25% in typical cases).
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HTML Text Links


Web pages can contain links that take you directly to other pages and even specific parts of a given page. These links are known as hyperlinks. Hyperlinks allow visitors to navigate between Web sites by clicking on words, phrases, and images. Thus you can create hyperlinks using text or images available on your any web page.

Linking Documents - The <a> Element:


A link is specified using the <a> element. This element is called anchor tag as well. Anything between the opening <a> tag and the closing </a> tag becomes part of the link and a user can click that part to reach to the linked document. Following is the simple syntax to use this tag.

<a href="Document URL" attr_name="attr_value"...more attributes />

Anchor Attributes:
Following are most frequently used attributes for <a> tag.

href: specifies the URL of the target of a hyperlink. Its value is any valid document URL, absolute or relative, including a fragment identifier or a JavaScript code fragment. target: specify where to display the contents of a selected hyperlink. If set to "_blank" then a new window will be opened to display the loaded page, if set to "_top" or "_parent" then same window will be used to display the loaded document, if set to "_self" then loads the new page in current window. By default its "_self". name & id: attributes places a label within a document. When that label is used in a link to that document, it is the equivalent of telling the browser to goto that label.

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A Simple Example:
<a href="http://www.tutorialspoint.com/" target="_blank" >TP Home</a> | <a href="http://www.amrood.com/" target="_self" >AMROOD Home</a> | <a href="http://www.change-images.com/" target="_top" >Change Images Home</a>

This will produce following result


Tutorials Point | AMROOD | Change Images

Linking to a Page Section:


You can create a link to a particular section of a page by using name attribute. Here we will create three links with-in this page itself. First create a link to reach to the top of this page. Here is the code we have used for the title heading HTML Text Links
<h1>HTML Text Links <a name="top"></a></h1>

Now you have a place where you can reach. To reach to this place use the following code with-in this document anywhere:
<a href="/html/html_text_links.htm#top">Go to the Top</a>

This will produce following link and you try using this link to reach to the top of this page:
Go to the Top

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HTML Lists Formatting


You can list out your items, subjects or menu in the form of a list. HTML gives you three different types of lists.

<ul> - An unordered list. This will list items using bullets <ol> - A ordered list. This will use different schemes of numbers to list your items <dl> - A definition list. This is arrange your items in the same way as they are arranged in a dictionary.

HTML Unordered Lists:


An unordered list is a collection of related items that have no special order or sequence. The most common unordered list you will find on the Web is a collection of hyperlinks to other documents. This list is created by using <ul> tag. Each item in the list is marked with a butllet. The bullet itself comes in three flavors: squares, discs, and circles. The default bullet displayed by most web browsers is the traditional full disc. One Movie list is given below:
<center> <h2>Movie List</h2> </center> <ul> <li>Ram Teri Ganga Meli</li> <li>Mera Naam Jocker</li> <li>Titanic</li> <li>Ghost in the ship</li> </ul>

This will produce following result:

Movie List

Ram Teri Ganga Meli Mera Naam Jocker Titanic Ghost in the ship

You can use type attribute to specify the type of bullet you like. By default its is a disc. Following are the possible way:
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<ul type="square"> <ul type="disc"> <ul type="circle">


<ul <ul type="disc"> type="square">

<ul type="circle">

Hindi English Maths Physics

Hindi English Maths Physics

o o o o

Hindi English Maths Physics

HTML Ordered Lists:


The typical browser formats the contents of an ordered list just like an unordered list, except that the items are numbered instead of bulleted. The numbering starts at one and is incremented by one for each successive ordered list element tagged with <li> This list is created by using <ol> tag. Each item in the list is marked with a number. One Movie list is given below:
<center> <h2>Movie List</h2> </center> <ol> <li>Ram Teri Ganga Meli</li> <li>Mera Naam Jocker</li> <li>Titanic</li> <li>Ghost in the ship</li></ol>

This will produce following result:

Movie List
1. 2. 3. 4. Ram Teri Ganga Meli Mera Naam Jocker Titanic Ghost in the ship

You can use type attribute to specify the type of numbers you like. By default its is a generic numbers. Following are the other possible way:
<ol <ol <ol <ol type="I"> type="i"> type="a"> type="A"> Upper-Case Lower-Case Lower-Case Upper-Case Numerals. Numerals. Letters. Letters. Page 492

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<ol type="I">

<ol type="i">

<ol type="a">

<ol type="A"> A. B. C. D. Hindi English Maths Physics

I. II. III. IV.

Hindi English Maths Physics

i. ii. iii. iv.

Hindi English Maths Physics

a. b. c. d.

Hindi English Maths Physics

You can use start attribute to specify the beginning of any index. By default its is a first number or character. In the following example index starts from 5:
<center> <h2>Movie List</h2> </center> <ol start="5"> <li>Ram Teri Ganga Meli</li> <li>Mera Naam Jocker</li> <li>Titanic</li> <li>Ghost in the ship</li> </ol>

This will produce following result:

Movie List
5. 6. 7. 8. Ram Teri Ganga Meli Mera Naam Jocker Titanic Ghost in the ship

HTML Definition Lists:


HTML and XHTML also support a list style entirely different from the ordered and unordered lists we have discussed so far - definition lists . Like the entries you find in a dictionary or encyclopedia, complete with text, pictures, and other multimedia elements, the Definition List is the ideal way to present a glossary, list of terms, or other name/value list. Definition List makes use of following three tags.

<dl> - Defines the start of the list <dt> - A term <dd> - Term definition </dl> - Defines the end of the list
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Example:
<dl> <dt><b>HTML</b></dt> <dd>This stands for Hyper Text Markup Language</dd> <dt><b>HTTP</b></dt> <dd>This stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol</dd> </dl>

This will produce following result:


HTML This stands for Hyper Text Markup Language HTTP This stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

Appropriate List Usage:


Following are just a suggestion and there is no hard and fast rule to use them: Use unordered lists for:

Link collections Short, nonsequenced groups of text Emphasizing the high points of a presentation

Use ordered lists for:


Tables of contents Sets of sequential sections of text Assigning numbers to short phrases that can be referenced elsewhere

Use definition lists for:


Glossaries Custom bullets - make the item after the <dt> tag an icon-sized bullet image) Any list of name/value pairs

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Tables
Tables are very useful to arrange in HTML and they are used very frequently by almost all web developers. Tables are just like spreadsheets and they are made up of rows and columns. You will create a table in HTML/XHTML by using <table> tag. Inside <table> element the table is written out row by row. A row is contained inside a <tr> tag . which stands for table row. And each cell is then written inside the row element using a <td> tag . which stands for table data. Example:
<table border="1"> <tr> <td>Row 1, Column 1</td> <td>Row 1, Column 2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Row 2, Column 1</td> <td>Row 2, Column 2</td> </tr> </table>

This will produce following result:


Row 1, Column 1 Row 1, Column 2 Row 2, Column 1 Row 2, Column 2

NOTE: In the above example border is an attribute of <table> and it will put border across all the cells. If you do not need a border then you cal use border="0". The border attribute and other attributes also mentione din this session are deprecated and they have been replaced by CSS. So it is recommended to use CSS instead of using any attribute directly.

Table Heading - The <th> Element:


Table heading can be defined using <th> element. This tag will be put to replace <td> tag which is used to represent actual data. Normally you will put your top row as table heading as shown below, otherwise you can use <th> element at any place:
<table border="1"> <tr> <th>Name</th> <th>Salary</th> </tr> <tr>

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<td>Ramesh Raman</td> <td>5000</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Shabbir Hussein</td> <td>7000</td> </tr> </table>

This will produce following result. You can see its making heading as a bold one:
Name Salary

Ramesh Raman 5000 Shabbir Hussein 7000

NOTE: Each cell must, however, have either a <td> or a <th> element in order for the table to display correctly even if that element is empty.

Table Cellpadding and Cellspacing:


There are two attribiutes called cellpadding and cellspacing which you will use to adjust the white space in your table cell. Cellspacing defines the width of the border, while cellpadding represents the distance between cell borders and the content within. Following is the example:
<table border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="5"> <tr> <th>Name</th> <th>Salary</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Ramesh Raman</td> <td>5000</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Shabbir Hussein</td> <td>7000</td> </tr> </table>

This will produce following result:


Name Ramesh Raman Salary 5000

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Shabbir Hussein 7000

Colspan and Rowspan Attributes:


You will use colspan attribute if you want to merge two or more columns into a single column. Similar way you will use rowspan if you want to merge two or more rows. Following is the example:
<table border="1"> <tr> <th>Column 1</th> <th>Column 2</th> <th>Column 3</th> </tr> <tr><td rowspan="2">Row 1 Cell 1</td> <td>Row 1 Cell 2</td><td>Row 1 Cell 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Row 2 Cell 2</td><td>Row 2 Cell 3</td></tr> <tr><td colspan="3">Row 3 Cell 1</td></tr> </table>

This will produce following result:


Column 1 Column 2 Column 3

Row 1 Cell 1 Row 1 Cell 2 Row 1 Cell 3 Row 2 Cell 2 Row 2 Cell 3 Row 3 Cell 1

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Tables Backgrounds
You can set table background using of the following two ways:

Using bgcolor attribute - You can set background color for whole table or just for one cell. Using background attribute - You can set background image for whole table or just for one cell.

NOTE:You can set border color also using bordercolor attribute. Here is an example of using bgcolor attribute:
<table border="5" bordercolor="green" bgcolor="gray"> <tr> <th>Column 1</th> <th>Column 2</th> <th>Column 3</th> </tr> <tr><td rowspan="2">Row 1 Cell 1</td> <td bgcolor="red">Row 1 Cell 2</td><td>Row 1 Cell 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Row 2 Cell 2</td><td>Row 2 Cell 3</td></tr> <tr><td colspan="3">Row 3 Cell 1</td></tr> </table>

This will produce following result:


Column 1 Column 2 Column 3

Row 1 Cell 1 Row 1 Cell 2 Row 1 Cell 3 Row 2 Cell 2 Row 2 Cell 3 Row 3 Cell 1

Here is an example of using background attribute:


<table border="1" background="/images/home.gif"> <tr> <th>Column 1</th> <th>Column 2</th> <th>Column 3</th> </tr> <tr><td rowspan="2">Row 1 Cell 1</td>

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<td bgcolor="red">Row 1 Cell 2</td><td>Row 1 Cell 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Row 2 Cell 2</td><td>Row 2 Cell 3</td></tr> <tr><td colspan="3" background="/images/pattern1.gif"> Row 3 Cell 1 </td></tr> </table>

This will produce following result:


Column 1 Column 2 Column 3

Row 1 Cell 1 Row 1 Cell 2 Row 1 Cell 3 Row 2 Cell 2 Row 2 Cell 3 Row 3 Cell 1

Table height and width:


You can set a table width and height using width and height attrubutes. You can specify table width or height in terms of integer value or in terms of percentage of available screen area. Following is the example:
<table border="1" <tr> <td>Row 1, Column <td>Row 1, Column </tr> <tr> <td>Row 2, Column <td>Row 2, Column </tr> </table> width="400" height="150"> 1</td> 2</td> 1</td> 2</td>

This will produce following result:


Row 1, Column 1 Row 2, Column 1 Row 1, Column 2 Row 2, Column 2

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Using Table Caption:


The caption tags will serve as a title or explanation and show up at the top of the table. This tag is depracated in newer version of HTML/XHTML.
<table border="1"> <caption>This is the caption</caption> <tr> <td>row 1, column 1</td><td>row 1, columnn 2</td> </tr> </table>

This will produce following result:


This is the caption row 1, column 1 row 1, columnn 2

Using a Header, Body, and Footer:


Tables can be divided into three portions: a header, a body, and a foot. The head and foot are rather similar to headers and footers in a word-processed document that remain the same for every page, while the body is the main content of the table. The three elements for separating the head, body, and foot of a table are:

<thead> - to create a separate table header. <tbody> - to indicate the main body of the table. <tfoot> - to create a separate table footer.

A table may contain several <tbody> elements to indicate different pages or groups of data. But it is notable that <thead> and <tfoot> tags should appear before <tbody>
<table border="1" width="100%"> <thead> <tr> <td colspan="4">This is the head of the table</td> </tr> </thead> <tfoot> <tr> <td colspan="4">This is the foot of the table</td> </tr> </tfoot> <tbody> <tr>

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<td>Cell 1</td> <td>Cell 2</td> <td>Cell 3</td> <td>Cell 4</td> </tr> <tr> ...more rows here containing four cells... </tr> </tbody> <tbody> <tr> <td>Cell 1</td> <td>Cell 2</td> <td>Cell 3</td> <td>Cell 4</td> </tr> <tr> ...more rows here containing four cells... </tr> </tbody> </table>

This will produce following result:


This is the head of the table This is the foot of the table Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4

...more rows here containing four cells... Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4

...more rows here containing four cells...

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Nested Tables:
You can use one table inside another table. Not only tables you can use almost all the tags inside table data tag <td>. Following is the example of using another table and other tags inside a table cell.
<table border="1"> <tr> <td> <table border="1"> <tr> <th>Name</th> <th>Salary</th> </tr> <tr> <td>Ramesh Raman</td> <td>5000</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Shabbir Hussein</td> <td>7000</td> </tr> </table> </td> <td> <ul> <li>This is another cell</li> <li>Using list inside this cell</li> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Row 2, Column 1</td> <td>Row 2, Column 2</td> </tr> </table>

This will produce following result:


Name Salary

This is another cell Using list inside this cell

Ramesh Raman 5000 Shabbir Hussein 7000 Row 2, Column 1 Row 2, Column 2

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HTML Page Layouts


Web page layout is very important to give better look to your website. You should design your webpage layout very carefully. You may have noticed that there are many websites which have put their content in multiple columns - they are formatted like a magazine or newspaper. This is easily achieved by using tables or division or span tags. Sometime you use CSS as well to position various elements or to create backgrounds or colorful look for the pages.

HTML Layout - Using Tables:


The simplest and most popular way of creating layouts is using HTML <table> tag. These tables are arranged in columns and rows, so you can utilize these rows and columns in whatever way you like. For example, the following HTML layout example is achieved using a table with 3 rows and 2 columns - but the header and footer column spans both columns using the colspan attribute:
<table width="100%" border="0"> <tr> <td colspan="2" style="background-color:#CC99FF;"> <h1>This is Web Page Main title</h1> </td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td style="background-color:#FFCCFF; width:100px;text-align:top;"> <b>Main Menu</b><br /> HTML<br /> PHP<br /> PERL... </td> <td style="background-color:#eeeeee;height:200px; width:300px;text-align:top;"> Technical and Managerial Tutorials </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" style="background-color:#CC99FF;"> <center> Copyright 2007 Tutorialspoint.com </center> </td> </tr> </table>

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This will produce following result:

This is Web Page Main title


Main Menu HTML PHP PERL... Technical and Managerial Tutorials

Copyright 2007 Tutorialspoint.com

Multiple Columns Layouts - Using Tables


You can design your webpage to put your web content in multiple pages. You can keep your content in middle column and you can use left column to use menu and right column can be used to put advertisement or some other stuff. It will be very similar to our site tutorialspoint.com. Here is an example to create three column layout:
<table width="100%" border="0"> <tr valign="top"> <td style="background-color:#FFCCFF;width:20%; text-align:top;"> <b>Main Menu</b><br /> HTML<br /> PHP<br /> PERL... </td> <td style="background-color:#eeeeee;height:200px; width:60%;text-align:top;"> Technical and Managerial Tutorials </td> <td style="background-color:#FFCCFF; width:20%;text-align:top;"> <b>Right Menu</b><br /> HTML<br /> PHP<br /> PERL... </td> </tr> <table>

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This will produce following result:


Main Menu HTML PHP PERL... Technical and Managerial Tutorials Right Menu HTML PHP PERL...

HTML Layouts - Using DIV, SPAN


The div element is a block level element used for grouping HTML elements. While the div tag is a block-level element, the HTML span element is used for grouping elements at an inline level. Although we can achieve pretty nice layouts with HTML tables, tables weren't really designed as a layout tool. Tables are more suited to presenting tabular data. You can achieve same result whatever you have achieved using <table> tag in previous example.
<div style="width:100%"> <div style="background-color:#CC99FF;"> <b style="font-size:150%">This is Web Page Main title</b> </div> <div style="background-color:#FFCCFF; height:200px;width:100px;float:left;"> <b>Main Menu</b><br /> HTML<br /> PHP<br /> PERL... </div> <div style="background-color:#eeeeee; height:200px;width:300px;float:left;"> Technical and Managerial Tutorials </div> <div style="background-color:#CC99FF;clear:both"> <center> Copyright 2007 Tutorialspoint.com </center> </div> </div>

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This will produce following result:


This is Web Page Main title
Main Menu HTML PHP PERL... Technical and Managerial Tutorials Copyright 2007 Tutorialspoint.com

HTML Frames
Frames divide a browser window into several pieces or panes, each pane containing a separate XHTML/HTML document. One of the key advantages that frames offer is that you can then load and reload single panes without having to reload the entire contents of the browser window. A collection of frames in the browser window is known as a frameset. The window is divided up into frames in a similar pattern to the way tables are organized: into rows and columns. The simplest of framesets might just divide the screen into two rows, while a complex frameset could use several rows and columns. There are few drawbacks also you should be aware of with frames are as follows:

Some browsers do not print well from framesets. Some smaller devices cannot cope with frames, often because their screen is not big enough to be divided up. Some time your page will be displayed differently on different computers due to different screen resolution. The browser's back button might not work as the user hopes. There are still few browsers who do not support frame technology.

To create a frameset document, first you need the <frameset> element, which is used instead of the <body> element. The frameset defines the rows and columns your page is divided into, which in turn specify where each individual frame will go. Each frame is then represented by a <frame> element.

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Creating Frames - The <frameset> Element:


The <frameset> tag replaces the <body> element in frameset documents. The <frameset> tag defines how to divide the window into frames. Each frameset defines a set of rows or columns. If you define frames by using rows then horizontal frames are created. If you define frames by using columns then vertical farmes are created. The values of the rows/columns indicate the amount of screen area each row/column will occupy. Each farme is indicated by <frame> tag and it defines what HTML document to put into the frame.

Following is the example to create three horizontal frames:


<html> <head> <title>Frames example</title> </head> <frameset rows="10%,80%,10%"> <frame src="/html/top_frame.htm" /> <frame src="/html/main_frame.htm" /> <frame src="/html/bottom_frame.htm" /> <noframes> <body> Your browser does not support frames. </body> </noframes> </frameset> </html>

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The <frameset> Element Attributes:


Following are important attributes of <frameset> and should be known to you to use frameset.

cols: specifies how many columns are contained in the frameset and the size of each column. You can specify the width of each column in one of four ways: o Absolute values in pixels. For example to create three vertical frames, usecols="100, 500,100". o A percentage of the browser window. For example to create three vertical frames, use cols="10%, 80%,10%". o Using a wildcard symbol. For example to create three vertical frames, usecols="10%, *,10%". In this case wildcard takes remainder of the window. o As relative widths of the browser window. For example to create three vertical frames, use cols="3*,2*,1*". This is an alternative to percentages. You can use relative widths of the browser window. Here the window is divided into sixths: the first column takes up half of the window, the second takes one third, and the third takes one sixth. rows: attribute works just like the cols attribute and can take the same values, but it is used to specify the rows in the frameset. For example to create two horizontal frames, use rows="10%, 90%". You can specify the height of each row in the same way as explained above for columns.

Loading Content - The <frame> Element:


The <frame> element indicates what goes in each frame of the frameset. The <frame> element is always an empty element, and therefore should not have any content, although each <frame> element should always carry one attribute, src, to indicate the page that should represent that frame. From the above example, let's take small snippet:
<frame src="/html/top_frame.htm" /> <frame src="/html/main_frame.htm" /> <frame src="/html/bottom_frame.htm" />

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The <frame> Element Attributes:


Following are important attributes of and should be known to you to use frames.

src: indicates the file that should be used in the frame. Its value can be any URL. For example, src="/html/top_frame.htm" will load an HTML file avaible in html directory. name: attribute allows you to give a name to a frame. It is used to indicate which frame a document should be loaded into. This is especially important when you want to create links in one frame that load pages into a second frame, in which case the second frame needs a name to identify itself as the target of the link. frameborder: attribute specifies whether or not the borders of that frame are shown; it overrides the value given in the frameborder attribute on the <frameset> element if one is given, and the possible values are the same. This can take values either 1 (yes) or 0 (no). marginwidth: allows you to specify the width of the space between the left and right of the frame's borders and the frame's content. The value is given in pixels. For example marginwidth="10". marginheight: allows you to specify the height of the space between the top and bottom of the frame's borders and its contents. The value is given in pixels. For example marginheight="10". noresize: By default you can resize any frame by clicking and dragging on the borders of a frame. The noresize attribute prevents a user from being able to resize the frame. For example noresize="noresize". scrolling: controls the appearance of the scrollbars that appear on the frame. This takes values either "yes", "no" or "auto". For example scrolling="no" means it should not have scroll bars.

Frame's name and target attributes:


One of the most popular uses of frames is to place navigation bars in one frame and then load the pages with the content into a separate frame. As you have already seen, each <frame> element can carry the name attribute to give each frame a name. This name is used in the links to indicate which frame the new page should load into. Consider this very simple example, create following content in index.htm file:

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<frameset cols="200, *"> <frame src="/html/menu.htm" name="menu_page" /> <frame src="/html/main.htm" name="main_page" /> </frameset>

There are two columns in this example. The first is 200 pixels wide and will contain the navigation bar. The second column or frame will contain the main part of the page. The links on the left side navigation bar will load pages into the right side main page. Keep some content in main.htm file and the links in the menu.htm file look like this:
<a href="http://www.google.com" target="main_page">Google</a> <br /><br /> <a href="http://www.microsoft.com" target="main_page">Microsoft</a> <br /><br /> <a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/" target="main_page">BBC News</a>

Syntax for adding an iframe:


<iframe src="URL"></iframe> The URL points to the location of the separate page. Iframe - Set Height and Width The height and width attributes are used to specify the height and width of the iframe. The attribute values are specified in pixels by default, but they can also be in percent (like "80%"). Example
<iframe src="demo_iframe.htm" width="200" height="200"></iframe>

Use iframe as a Target for a Link An iframe can be used as the target frame for a link. The target attribute of a link must refer to the name attribute of the iframe: Example
<iframe src="demo_iframe.htm" name="iframe_a"></iframe> <p><a href="http://www.w3schools.com" target="iframe_a">W3Schools.com</a></p>

Iframe - Remove the Border The frameborder attribute specifies whether or not to display a border around the iframe. Set the attribute value to "0" to remove the border:

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Example
<iframe src="demo_iframe.htm" frameborder="0"></iframe>

HTML iframe Tag


Tag Description

<iframe>

Defines an inline frame

HTML Forms Tutorial


HTML Forms are required when you want to collect some data from the site visitor. For example registration information: name, email address, credit card, etc. A form will take input from the site visitor and then will post your back-end application such as CGI, ASP Script or PHP script etc. Then your back-end application will do required processing on that data in whatever way you like. Form elements are like text fields, textarea fields, drop-down menus, radio buttons, checkboxes, etc. which are used to take information from the user. A simple syntax of using <form> is as follows:
<form action="back-end script" method="posting method"> form elements like input, textarea etc. </form>

Most frequently used form attributes are:


name: This is the name of the form. action: Here you will specify any script URL which will receive uploaded data. method: Here you will specify method to be used to upload data. It can take various values but most frequently used are GET and POST. target: It specifies the target page where the result of the script will be displayed. It takes values like _blank, _self, _parent etc.

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There are different types of form controls that you can use to collect data from a visitor to your site.

Text input controls Buttons Checkboxes and radio buttons Select boxes File select boxes Hidden controls Submit and reset button

HTML Forms - Text Input Controls:


There are actually three types of text input used on forms:

Single-line text input controls: Used for items that require only one line of user input, such as search boxes or names. They are created using the <input> element. Password input controls: Single-line text input that mask the characters a user enters. Multi-line text input controls: Used when the user is required to give details that may be longer than a single sentence. Multi-line input controls are created with the <textarea> element.

Single-line text input controls:


Single-line text input controls are created using an <input> element whose type attribute has a value of text. Here is a basic example of a single-line text input used to take first name and last name:
<form action="/cgi-bin/hello_get.cgi" method="get"> First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" /> <br> Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" /> <input type="submit" value="submit" /> </form>

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This will produce following result:


First name: Last name:
submit

Following is the list of attributes for <input> tag.


type: Indicates the type of input control you want to create. This element is also used to create other form controls such as radio buttons and checkboxes. name: Used to give the name part of the name/value pair that is sent to the server, representing each form control and the value the user entered. value: Provides an initial value for the text input control that the user will see when the form loads. size: Allows you to specify the width of the text-input control in terms of characters. maxlength: Allows you to specify the maximum number of characters a user can enter into the text box.

Password input controls:


This is also a form of single-line text input controls are created using an <input> element whose type attribute has a value of password. Here is a basic example of a single-line password input used to take user password:
<form action="/cgi-bin/hello_get.cgi" method="get"> Login : <input type="text" name="login" /> <br> Password: <input type="text" name="password" /> <input type="submit" value="submit" /> </form>

This will produce following result:


Login : Password :
submit

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Multiple-Line Text Input Controls:


If you want to allow a visitor to your site to enter more than one line of text, you should create a multiple-line text input control using the <textarea> element. Here is a basic example of a multi-line text input used to take item description:
<form action="/cgi-bin/hello_get.cgi" method="get"> Description : <br /> <textarea rows="5" cols="50" name="description"> Enter description here... </textarea> <input type="submit" value="submit" /> </form>

This will produce following result:


Description :

submit

Following is the detail of above used attributes for <textarea> tag.


name: The name of the control. This is used in the name/value pair that is sent to the server. rows: Indicates the number of rows of text area box. cols: Indicates the number of columns of text area box.

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HTML Forms - Creating Button:


There are various ways in HTML to create clickable buttons. You using <input> tag.
can create clickable button

When you use the <input> element to create a button, the type of button you create is specified using the type attribute. The type attribute can take the following values:

submit: This creates a button that automatically submits a form. reset: This creates a button that automatically resets form controls to their initial values. button: This creates a button that is used to trigger a client-side script when the user clicks that button.

Here is the example:


<form action="http://www.example.com/test.asp" method="get"> <input type="submit" name="Submit" value="Submit" /> <br /><br /> <input type="reset" value="Reset" /> <input type="button" value="Button" /> </form>

This will produce following result:


Submit

Reset

You can use an image to create a button. Here is the syntax:


<form action="http://www.example.com/test.asp" method="get"> <input type="image" name="imagebutton" src="URL" /> </form>

Here src attribiute specifies a location of the image on your webserver.

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You can use <button> element to create various buttons. Here is the syntax:
<form action="http://www.example.com/test.asp" method="get"> <button type="submit">Submit</button> <br /><br /> <button type="reset"> Reset </button> <button type="button"> Button </button> </form>

This will produce following result:


Submit Reset Button

HTML Forms - Checkboxes Control:


Checkboxes are used when more than one option is required to be selected. They are created using <input> tag as shown below. Here is example HTML code for a form with two checkboxes
<form action="/cgi-bin/checkbox.cgi" method="get"> <input type="checkbox" name="maths" value="on"> Maths <input type="checkbox" name="physics" value="on"> Physics <input type="submit" value="Select Subject" /> </form>

The result of this code is the following form


Select Subject

Maths

Physics

Following is the list of important checkbox attributes: type: Indicates that you want to create a checkbox. name: Name of the control. value: The value that will be used if the checkbox is selected. More than one checkbox should share the same name only if you want to allow users to select several items from the same list. checked: Indicates that when the page loads, the checkbox should be selected.

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HTML Forms - Radio box Control:


Radio Buttons are used when only one option is required to be selected. They are created using <input> tag as shown below: Here is example HTML code for a form with two radio button:
<form action="/cgi-bin/radiobutton.cgi" method="post"> <input type="radio" name="subject" value="maths" /> Maths <input type="radio" name="subject" value="physics" /> Physics <input type="submit" value="Select Subject" /> </form>

The result of this code is the following form


Select Subject

Maths

Physics

Following is the list of important radiobox attributes:


type: Indicates that you want to create a radiobox. name: Name of the control. value: Used to indicate the value that will be sent to the server if this option is selected. checked: Indicates that this option should be selected by default when the page loads.

HTML Forms - Select box Control:


Drop Down Box is used when we have many options available to be selected but only one or two will be selected.. Here is example HTML code for a form with one drop down box
<form action="/cgi-bin/dropdown.cgi" method="post"> <select name="dropdown"> <option value="Maths" selected>Maths</option> <option value="Physics">Physics</option> </select> <input type="submit" value="Submit" /> </form>

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The result of this code is the following form


Maths

Submit

Following is the list of important attributes of <select>:


name: This is the name for the control. size: This can be used to present a scrolling list box. multiple: If set to "multiple" then allows a user to select multiple items from the menu.

Following is the list of important attributes of <option>:


value: The value that is sent to the server if this option is selected. selected: Specifies that this option should be the initially selected value when the page loads. label: An alternative way of labeling options.

HTML Forms - File Select Boxes:


If you want to allow a user to upload a file to your web site from his computer, you will need to use a file upload box, also known as a file select box. This is also created using the <input> element. Here is example HTML code for a form with one file select box
<form action="/cgi-bin/hello_get.cgi" method="post" name="fileupload" enctype="multipart/form-data"> <input type="file" name="fileupload" accept="image/*" /> </form>

The result of this code is the following form

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HTML Forms - Hidden Controls:


If you will want to pass information between pages without the user seeing it. Hidden form controls remain part of any form, but the user cannot see them in the Web browser. They should not be used for any sensitive information you do not want the user to see because the user could see this data if she looked in the source of the page. Following hidden form is being used to keep current page number. When a user will click next page then the value of hidden form will be sent to the back-end application and it will decide which page has be displayed next.
<form action="/cgi-bin/hello_get.cgi" method="get" name="pages"> <p>This is page 10</p> <input type="hidden" name="pgaenumber" value="10" /> <input type="submit" value="Next Page" /> </form>

This will produce following result:


This is page 10
Next Page

HTML Forms - Submit and Reset Button:


These are special buttons which can be created using <input> When submit button is clicked then Forms data is submitted to the back-end application. When reset button is clicked then all the forms control are reset to default state. You already have seen submit button above, we will give one reset example here:
<form action="/cgi-bin/hello_get.cgi" method="get"> First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" /> <br> Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" /> <input type="submit" value="Submit" /> <input type="reset" value="Reset" /> </form>

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This will produce following result. Type something and click reset button.
First name: Last name:
submit Reset

HTML Embed Multimedia - Movie, Music


You can add music or video into your web page. The easiest way to add video or sound to your web site is to include the special HTML tag called <embed>. This tag causes the browser itself to include controls for the multimedia automatically. You do not need to have any ActiveX, Java VM, VBscript or JavaScript to support this <embed> tag. It's also a good idea to include the <noembed> tag to support browsers which don't recognize the <embed> tag. You could, for example, use <embed> to display a movie of your choice, and <noembed> to display a single JPG image. Here is a simple example to play embed a midi file:
<embed src="/html/yourfile.mid" width="100%" height="60" > <noembed><img src="yourimage.gif" ></noembed> </embed>

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Attributes:
Following is the list of important attributes for <embed> element.

align - Determines how to align the object. It takes either center, left or right. autostart - Indicates if the media should start automatically. Netscape default is true, Internet Explorer is false. loop - Specifies if the sound should be played continuously (set loop to true), a certain number of times (a positive value) or not at all (false). This is supported by Netscape only. hidden - Defines if the object shows on the page. A false value means no and true means yes. height - Height of the object in pixels or en. width - Width of the object in pixels or en. pluginspage - Specifies the URL to get the plugin software. name - A name used to reference the object. src - URL of the object to be embedded. This can be any recognizable by the user's browser. It could be .mid, .wav, .mp3, .avi and so on). volume - Controls volume of the sound. Can be from 0 (off) to 100 (full volume). This attribute is supported by Netscape only.

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DATACOM INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY


SECOND SEMESTER FIRST TRANSITION

COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL IN OFFICE SUITE II A. MICROSOFT EXCEL

Information Sheet #1 Environment of MS Excel Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 522

What is Microsoft Excel? Microsoft Excel is an electronic spreadsheet application. You can use it to organize your data into rows and columns. You can also use it to perform mathematical calculations quickly. And his full name is Microsoft Office Excel. What is Microsoft Excel 2007? Microsoft Office Excel 2007 is a powerful and widely used tool that helps people analyze information to make more informed decisions. The Microsoft Office Excel 2007 Window This example is the window which is similar to your excel once you open it.

Here are the Parts of Excel 2007: The Microsoft Office Button This is located at the upper-left corner of the Excel 2007. This button contains menu which are New, Save, Save As, Open, Print and many other task. The Quick Access Toolbar It is beside of Office Button, which easily access the specific commands that are frequently used.

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The Title Bar Title bar has the capability to show the name of the workbook that you are currently using. It is located at the top of Excel Window. The Ribbon

It is located below MS office button and quick access tool bar. It is consist of commands found in standard and formatting tool bar in 2003 version. It is designed to help you quickly find the commands that you need to complete a task. Ribbon Tab

It is contains different groups Each tab relates to a type of activity, such as writing or laying out a page. Group

It is contains command use for editing, enhancing and formatting text or images. Dialog Box Launcher

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The arrow is called a Dialog Box Launcher. If you click it, you will see more options related to that group. Those options will appear in the form of a dialog box or it will appear in a familiar-looking task pane.

The Active cell An active cell refers to the currently selected cell in spreadsheet. It can be identified by black outline that surrounds the cell

The Name box It is located below the ribbon and beside formula bar. It displays the cell reference of the active cell combination of letter and number. It can also use to locate specific cell. The Formula Bar

It is located below the ribbon and beside name box. It is use to enter or copy an existing formula into the cells. NOTE: if you include computation starts it with equal sign (=). It displays the content of the active cell.

The Column letter/ Column Header

It is the grayish - colored row containing the letters used to identify each column in the worksheet. It runs vertically on a worksheet. The column header is located above row 1 in the worksheet.

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The Row Number

Rows run horizontally in an Excel worksheet It is identified by a number in the row header.

The Sheet Tab

Switching between worksheets in a Microsoft Excel file is done by clicking on the sheet tab at the bottom of the screen. A sheet tab appears at the bottom of your worksheet. By clicking a sheet tab, you can make that sheet active so that you can work on it.

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Name:________________________________________________ Score:_______________

Activity No.1 Environment of MS Excel

I.

Define the following terms:

1. MSOffice Excel __________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ________

2.

MS Office Excel 2007 __________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _________

3.

Microsoft Office Button __________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _________

4.

Quick Access Toolbar __________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _________

5.

Title Bar __________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _________

6.

Ribbon

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__________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _________

7.

Ribbon Tab __________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _________

8. Group __________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _________

9.

Dialog Box Launcher __________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _________

10. Active cell __________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _________

11. Name box __________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _________

12. Formula Bar __________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _________

13. Column letter/ Column Header

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__________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _________

14. Row Number __________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _________

15. Sheet Tab __________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _________

II.

Name the part of MS Excel

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Information Sheet #2 Starting MS office Excel How to open Ms Office Excel? There are several ways to open MS office Excel. Here are the ways on how to do it. 1. Press + R (run) 2. If the dialog appear type excel on the textbox 3. Click ok or press enter. OR 1. Click 2. Click 3. Find 4. Find How to Save Ms Office Excel?

As default the filename of your excel file is Book 1.xlxs. There are several ways on how to save your excel file you can use shortcut keys to make you task faster or you can use MS office button to save. Here are the ways on how to save you excel files 1. 2. 3. 4. Click the Microsoft Office Button , and then click Save, or press CTRL+S. To save the copy in a different location, click a different folder in the folder list. In the File name box, enter a name for the file. Click Save button.

How to Save Copy of Excel File?

To save a copy of your file, follow the steps below: 1. Click the Microsoft Office Button , and then click Save As 2. In the File name box, enter a new name for the file. 3. Click Save button.

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How to Save as an earlier version of Office


If you are using the 2007 office version you can share your files with people using an earlier version of Microsoft Office by saving your file in the 97-2003 file format. For example, you can save your Microsoft Office Word 2007 document (.xlsx) as a 97-2003 document (.xls). 1. Click the Microsoft Office Button , and then click Save As 2. On the menu on the right side choose

3. In the File name box, enter a name for the file. 4. Click Save button.

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Name:________________________________________________ Score:_______________

Activity No.2 Starting MS office Excel

I.

Give the Procedure of the following: a. How to open Ms Office Excel?(Give the two possible ways)

b. How to Save Ms Office Excel?

c. How to Save Copy of Excel File?

d.

How to Save as an earlier version of Office

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Information Sheet #3 Entering and formatting data in MS Office Excel Entering data in MS Office Excel Entering data into a spreadsheet is always a three step process. These steps are: 1. Click on the cell where you want the data to go. 2. Type your data into the cell. 3. Press the ENTER key on the keyboard or click on another cell with the mouse.

Basic Formatting In Ms Excel In creating report we follow different format. We need to change the size of the font the alignment its margin and etc. This helps us to make the report presentable and organized.

Home tab The home tab, replace the format menu and formatting toolbar in older version of MS excel. It allows you to text, number and border styles of the cell.

FONT GROUP Changing Font size To change font size: 1. Select the cell or range of cell you want to format. 2. Locate the font group on the home tab

3. Click the down-facing arrow next to the drop-down font list 4. From the list that appears, click the size that you want.

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Changing Font Face To change font Face: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the cell or range of cell you want to format. Locate the font group on the home tab Click the down-facing arrow next to the drop-down font list From the list that appears, click the font face that you want.

Changing Font Style To change font styles of the text: 1. Select the cell or range of cell you want to format. 2. Locate the font group on the home tab.

3. Click on one of the buttons to apply text formatting

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Changing Font Color To change font styles of the text: 1. Select the cell or range of cell you want to format. 2. Locate the font group on the home tab.

3. Click the down-facing arrow next to the drop-down font list 4. From the list that appears, click the font color that you want.

Applying Advance Formatting If you want to apply formatting and you do not see appropriate button on the home tab. 1. Select the cell or range of cell you want to format. 2. Locate the font group on the home tab.

3. Click Dialog Box launcher

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4. Format cell window will appear

5. Select the additional formatting you wish to the cell(s) you selected. 6. If youre done, Click ok button. ALIGNMENT GROUP Applying Horizontal Alignment 1. Select the cell or range of cells you wish to format 2. Locate the alignment area of the Home tab.

3. Click on one of the following buttons to apply horizontal text alignment.

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Applying Vertical Alignment 1. Select the cell or range of cells you wish to format 2. Locate the alignment area of the Home tab.

3. Click on one of the following buttons to apply vertical text alignment.

Formatting long Text Phrase within a cell In many situations, the line of text you enter into a cell will be wider than the cell itself. In these situations, the text may be hidden beyond the edge of the cell. Although one solution to that problem is to resize the cell, there are several additional solutions: shrinking the text to fit the cell, Wrapping the text and merging cell so that text is displayed on multiple line within the cell.

Wrapping text within a cell 1. Select the cell or range of cells you wish to format. 2. Locate the alignment group of the home tab.

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3. Click wrap text button

Merging Cells Another solution for handling long text phrases is to merge several cells together so the text can be fully displayed. To merge several cells: 1. Select the cell or range of cells you wish to format 2. Locate the alignment group of the home tab.

3. Click on the down-facing arrow located next to the Merge & Center button. 4. From the list that appears, select the formatting you wish to apply(for example, Merge & Center)

Shrinking text to fit within a cell 1. Select the cell or range of cells you wish to format. 2. Locate the alignment group of the home tab.

3. Click Dialog Box Launcher, Format Cells Alignment Button

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4. The Alignment tab of the Format Cells window will appear.

5. Locate the Text control area 6. Click to place a check-mark in the box beside Shrink to fit 7. Click ok button

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Number Group Types of Number Formats: Excel permit numbers to be formatted in many different ways. Without changing the value of the number in a cell, number formats allow data to be represented so that they can be used in many different kinds of reports.

Applying number format 1. Select the cell or range of cells you wish to format. 2. Locate the number group of the home tab.

3. Click on the down-facing arrow located next to the Number Format button. 4. From the list that appears, select the number format you wish to applyto the cell(s)you selected (for example, Percentage)

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Cell Border and Background Colors Border can provide contrast, serving to highlight cells containing important data.

Applying a Basic Cell Border To create a border around one cell or around a group cells: 1. Select the cell or range of cells you wish to have a border. 2. Locate the font group on the home tab.

3. Click on the down-facing of the border button. 4. From the list that appears, select the border style you wish to apply to your cells(for example, All border)

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Applying a Custom Cell Border 1. Select the cell or range of cell you wish to have a border. 2. Locate the font group on the home tab.

3. Click on the down-facing of the border button. 4. From the list that appears, select the More Borders.

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5. The Border tab of the format Cells window will appear.

6. In the Styles section of the line frame, choose the line style you wish to use for your cell border. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 543

7. Click on the down-facing arrow next to the color button. 8. From the options that appear, select the color you wish to use for your border.

9. From the Border area, click on the section of the border you wish to add 10. Repeat the previous step until you have added all desired border sections.

Applying a background Color


Background colors (called Fill Color in Excel) can provide additional contrast in your worksheet, whether you see them alone or to complement existing cell borders. To apply a background color: 1. Select the cell or range of cell you wish to apply the background color. 2. Locate the font group on the home tab.

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3. Click on the down-facing arrow of the Fill Color button. 4. From the options that appear, select the color you wish to apply to your background.

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Name:________________________________________________ Score:_______________

Activity No. 3 Entering and formatting data in MS Office Excel PART 1. Enter the data listed below into a blank spreadsheet using the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Open a blank Excel spreadsheet file. Select the cell indicated by the cell reference provided. Type the corresponding data into the selected cell. Press the Enter key on the keyboard or click on the next cell in the list with the mouse. Cell Data A2 - Deduction Calculations for Employees A8 - Last Name A9 - Smith B. A10 - Wilson C. A11 - Thompson J. A12 - James D. B4 - Date: B6 - Deduction Rate: B8 - Gross Salary B9 - 45789 B10 - 41245 B11 - 39876 B12 - 43211 C6 - .06 C8 - Deduction D8 - Net Salary Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 546

SAMPLE OUTPUT

PART 2

I.

Give the Procedure of the following: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Changing Font size Changing Font Face Changing Font Style Changing Font Color Applying Horizontal Alignment Applying Vertical Alignment Merging Cells Applying number format Applying a Basic Cell Border

j. Applying a background Color

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Information Sheet #4 Formulas Excel Formulas Excel formulas are one of the most useful features of the program. Formulas can be as simple as adding two numbers or can be complex calculations needed for high end business projections. Once you learn the basic format of creating a formula, Excel does all the calculations for you. When entering a mathematical formula, precede the formula with an equal sign. Use the following to indicate the type of calculation you wish to perform Perform Mathematical Calculations

In you can enter numbers and mathematical formulas into cells. Whether you enter a number or a formula, you can reference the cell when you perform mathematical calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division. Addition In adding numbers, you need at least two or more cells that contain numbers to add. 1. Put 1 on cell A1. 2. Put 2 on cell B1. 3. To calculate the sum: On cell C1, put = A1+B1, then press enter to see the result. Example Output

NOTE: as you can see instead of using the value in the cell we use the cell reference to compute for the sum to make the calculation flexible, if just in case the user want to change the value of the specific cell the answer will be still correct. Subtraction In subtracting numbers, you need two cells that contain numbers to subtract which consider as the subtrahend and minuend. 1. Put 5 on cell A1. 2. Put 2 on cell B1. 3. To calculate the difference: On cell C1, put = A1-B1, then press enter to see the result. Example Output

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NOTE: as you can see instead of using the value in the cell we use the cell reference to compute for the difference to make the calculation flexible, if just in case the user want to change the value of the specific cell the answer will be still correct. Multiplication In multiplying numbers, you need at least two or more cells that contain numbers to multiply. 1. Put 4 on cell A1. 2. Put 3 on cell B1. 3. To calculate the product: On cell C1, put = A1*B1, then press enter to see the result. Example Output

NOTE: as you can see instead of using the value in the cell we use the cell reference to compute for the product to make the calculation flexible, if just in case the user want to change the value of the specific cell the answer will be still correct.

Division In dividing numbers, you need two cells that contain numbers to divide which consider as numerator and denominator. 1. Put 50 on cell A1. 2. Put 10 on cell B1. 3. To calculate the quotient: On cell C1, put = A1/B1, then press enter to see the result.

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Example Output

NOTE: as you can see instead of using the value in the cell we use the cell reference to compute for the quotient to make the calculation flexible, if just in case the user want to change the value of the specific cell the answer will be still correct. Average In excel we follow the rules of PEMDAS (Parenthesis, Exponent, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction) to get the answer. In getting the average of the numbers or series of number we need to add first all the numbers and divide it to the count of those numbers 1. Put 10on cell A1. 2. Put 50 on cell B1. 3. Put 30 on cell C1. 4. To calculate the average: On cell D1, put =(A1+B1+C1)/3, then press enter to see the result.

Example Output

NOTE: as you can see instead of using the value in the cell we use the cell reference to compute for the average to make the calculation flexible, if just in case the user want to change the value of the specific cell the answer will be still correct. Use parenthesis to indicate that all the operation inside the parenthesis must be perform first

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Name:____________________________________________________SCORE:___________

Activity No. 4 Formulas

I.

Construct you own formulas based on the needed output below


1. Create a spreadsheet contain the output below. 2. Column C must contain a formula that gets the Sum of Column A and Column B. Fill the cell with color yellow.

3. Column D must contain a formula that gets the Difference of Column A and Column B. Fill the cell with color red.

4. Column E must contain a formula that gets the Product of Column A and Column B. Fill the cell with color green

5. Column F must contain a formula that gets the Quotient of Column A and Column B. Fill the cell with color violet.

6. Column G must contain a formula that gets the Average of Column A and Column B. Fill the cell with color Blue.

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Information Sheet #5 Function Functions By using functions, you can quickly and easily make many useful calculations, such as finding an average, the highest number, the lowest number, and a count of the number of items in a list. Microsoft Excel has many functions that you can use. Functions are prewritten formulas. Functions differ from regular formulas in that you supply the value but not the operators, such as +, -, *, or /. For example, you can use the SUM function to add. When using a function, remember the following: o o o Use an equal sign to begin a formula. Specify the function name. Enclose arguments within parentheses. Arguments are values on which you want to perform the calculation. For example, arguments specify the numbers or cells you want to add. Use a comma to separate arguments.

Here is an example of a function: =SUM(B2:C7) In this function: o o o o o o The equal sign begins the function. SUM is the name of the function. B2:C7 are the arguments. Parentheses enclose the arguments. Commas separate the arguments. After you type the first letter of a function name, the AutoComplete list appears. You can double-click on an item in the AutoComplete list to complete your entry quickly. Excel will complete the function name and enter the first parenthesis.

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Average Function It is the arithmetic mean and it is calculated by adding a group of numbers and then dividing by the count of those numbers. Syntax AVERAGE(number1,number2,...) 1. 2. 3. 4. Put 2 on A1 Put 3 on A2 Put 5 on A3 Put 2 on A4

5. On cell A5, put =average(A1,A2,A3,A4), then press enter to see the result. Example output

Answer: Getting the average using array

In getting the average using array we use colon (:) that signify range of cells; example A1:A4 which is also equal to A1 to A4 1. 2. 3. 4. Put 2 on cell A1 Put 3 on cell A2 Put 5 on cell A3 Put 2 on cell A4

5. On cell A6, put =average(A1:A4), then press enter to see the result.
Example output

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Answer:

Bin2dec Function Function uses to converts a binary number to decimal. Syntax BIN2DEC(number) Number is the binary number you want to convert. Number cannot contain more than 10 characters (10 bits). 1. Put 101010 in cell A1 2. On cell B1, Put =BIN2DEC(A1) then press enter to see the result. Example Output

Bin2Hex Function Function uses to converts a binary number to hexadecimal. Syntax BIN2HEX(number,places) Number is the binary number you want to convert. Number cannot contain more than 10 characters (10 bits). Places is the number of characters to use. If places is omitted, BIN2HEX uses the minimum number of characters necessary. Places is useful for padding the return value with leading 0s (zeros). Example No.1 1. Put 101010 in cell A1 2. On cell B2, Put =BIN2HEX(A1,3) then press enter to see the result.

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Answer:02A Example No.2 1. Put 101010 in cell A1 2. On cell B1, Put =BIN2HEX(A1) then press enter to see the result.

Answer:2A Bin2Oct Function Function uses to converts a binary number to octal. Syntax BIN2OCT(number,places) Number is the binary number you want to convert. Number cannot contain more than 10 characters (10 bits). Places is the number of characters to use. If places is omitted, BIN2OCT uses the minimum number of characters necessary. Places is useful for padding the return value with leading 0s (zeros). Example No.1 1. Put 101010 in cell A1 2. On cell B1, Put =BIN2OCT(A1,4) then press enter to see the result.

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Answer:52 Example No.2 1. Put 101010 in cell A1 2. On cell B1, Put =BIN2OCT(A1) then press enter to see the result.

Answer:0052 Char Function Returns the character specified by a number. Use CHAR to translate code page numbers you might get from files on other types of computers into characters. Syntax CHAR(number) Number is a number between 1 and 255 specifying which character you want. The character is from the character set used by your computer. 1. Put 97 in cell A1 2. On cell B1, Put =CHAR(A1) then press enter to see the result.

Answer:a Code Function Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string. The returned code corresponds to the character set used by your computer. Syntax CODE(text)

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Text is the text for which you want the code of the first character. 1. Put A in cell A1 2. On cell B1, Put =CODE(A1) then press enter to see the result.

Answer: 65 Concatenate Function Joins two or more text strings into one text string.

Syntax CONCATENATE (text1,text2,...) Text1, text2, ... are 2 to 255 text items to be joined into a single text item. The text items can be text strings, numbers, or single-cell references. 1. Put anna in cell A1 2. Put lyn in cell B1 3. On cell C1, Put =CONCATENATE(A1,B1) then press enter to see the result. Answer:annalyn

Concatenate using (&)

Ampersand

You can also use the ampersand (&) calculation operator instead of the CONCATENATE function to join text items.

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1. Put anna in cell A1 2. Put lyn in cell B1 3. On cell A5, Put = A1&B1 then press enter to see the result.

Answer:annalyn Count Function Counts the number of cells that contain numbers and counts numbers within the list of arguments. Use COUNT to get the number of entries in a number field that is in a range or array of numbers. Syntax COUNT(value1,value2,...) Value1, value2, ... are 1 to 255 arguments that can contain or refer to a variety of different types of data, but only numbers are counted. Example No. 1 1. 2. 3. 4. Put 10 in cell A1 Put 5 in cell A2 Put 50 in cell A3 On cell B1, Put =count(A1,A2,A3) then press enter to see the result.

Answer:3

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Example No. 2 1. 2. 3. 4. Put 10 in cell A1 Put anna in cell A2 Put 50 in cell A3 On cell B1, Put =count(A1,A2,A3) then press enter to see the result.

Answer:2

Count A Function Counts the number of cells that are not empty and the values within the list of arguments. Use COUNTA to count the number of cells that contain data in a range or array. Syntax COUNTA(value1,value2,...) Value1, value2, ... are 1 to 255 arguments representing the values you want to count. 1. 2. 3. 4. Put 10 in cell A1 Put anna in cell A2 Put 50 in cell A3 On cell B1, Put countA(A1,A2,A3) then press enter to see the result.

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Answer:3 Count blank Function Counts empty cells in a specified range of cells. Syntax COUNTBLANK(range) Range is the range from which you want to count the blank cells.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Put 10 in cell A1 In cell A2 leave it blank Put 50 in cell A3 On cell B1, Put =COUNTBLANK(A1:A3) then press enter to see the result.

Answer:2 Dec2Bin Function Function that use to convert a decimal number to binary.

Syntax DEC2BIN(number,places) Number is the decimal integer you want to convert Places is the number of characters to use.

1. Put 25 in cell A1 2. On cell B1, Put =DEC2BIN(A1) then press enter to see the result.

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Answer:11001

Dec2hex Function Function that use to convert a decimal number to hexadecimal. Syntax DEC2HEX(number,places) Number is the decimal integer you want to convert Places is the number of characters to use. 1. Put 25 in cell A1 2. On cell B1, Put =DEC2HEX(A1) then press enter to see the result.

Answer:19 Dec2oct Function Function that use to convert a decimal number to octal. Syntax DEC2OCT(number, places) Number is the decimal integer you want to convert. Places is the number of characters to use. 1. Put 125 in cell A1 2. On cell B1, Put =DEC2OCT(A1) then press enter to see the result.

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Answer:175 Even Function Returns number rounded up to the nearest even integer. You can use this function for processing items that come in twos. For example, a packing crate accepts rows of one or two items. The crate is full when the number of items, rounded up to the nearest two, matches the crate's capacity. Syntax
EVEN(number) Number is the value to round.

1. Put 5 in cell A1 2. On cell B1, Put =even(A1) then press enter to see the result.

Answer:6 Exact Function Compares two text strings and returns TRUE if they are exactly the same, FALSE otherwise. EXACT is case-sensitive but ignores formatting differences. Syntax EXACT(text1,text2) Text1 is the first text string. Text2 is the second text string. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Put excel in cell A1 Put Excel in cell B1 On cellC1, Put =exact(A1,B1) then press enter to see the result. Put office in cell A2 Put office in cell B2 On cellC2, Put =exact(A2,B2) then press enter to see the result.

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Answers C1:false; C2:true Fixed Function Rounds a number to the specified number of decimals, formats the number in decimal format using a period and commas, and returns the result as text. Syntax FIXED(number,decimals,no_commas) Number is the number you want to round and convert to text. Decimals is the number of digits to the right of the decimal point. No_commas is a logical value that, if TRUE, prevents FIXED from including commas in the returned text. Example No.1 1. Put 1200 in cell A1 2. On cell B1, Put =fixedA1,2,FALSE) then press enter to see the result.

Answer:1,200.00

Example No.2 1. Put 1200 in cell A1 2. On cell B1, Put =fixedA1,2,True) then press enter to see the result.

Answer:1200.00

Hex2Bin Function Function use to convert a hexadecimal number to binary. Syntax HEX2BIN(number,places)

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Number is the hexadecimal number you want to convert. Number cannot contain more than 10 characters Places is the number of characters to use. 1. Put 12 in cell A1 2. On cell B1, Put =HEX2BIN(A1) then press enter to see the result.

Answer:10010

Hex2Dec Function Functions that use to convert a hexadecimal number to decimal. Syntax HEX2DEC(number) Number is the hexadecimal number you want to convert. Number cannot contain more than 10 characters (40 bits). 1. Put 12 in cell A1 2. On cell B1, Put =HEX2Dec(A1) then press enter to see the result.

Answer:18

Hex2Oct Function Function use to convert a hexadecimal number to octal. Syntax HEX2OCT(number,places) Number is the hexadecimal number you want to convert. Number cannot contain more than 10 characters. Places is the number of characters to use. 1. Put 12 in cell A1 2. On cell B1, Put =HEX2OCT(A1) then press enter to see the result.

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Answer:22

Large Function Returns the k-th largest value in a data set. You can use this function to select a value based on its relative standing. For example, you can use LARGE to return the highest, runner-up, or third-place score. Syntax LARGE(array,k) Array is the array or range of data for which you want to determine the k-th largest value. K is the position (from the largest) in the array or cell range of data to return. 1. 2. 3. 4. Answer:50 Put 10 in cell A1 Put 5 in cell A2 Put 50 in cell A3 On cell B1, Put =large(A1:A3,1) then press enter to see the result.

Left Function LEFT returns the first character or characters in a text string, based on the number of characters you specify. Syntax LEFT(text,num_chars) Text is the text string that contains the characters you want to extract. Num_chars specifies the number of characters you want LEFT to extract.

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1. Put datacom in cell A1. 2. On cell B1, Put =left(A1,2) then press enter to see the result.

Answer: da

Len Function LEN returns the number of characters in a text string. Syntax LEN(text) Text is the text whose length you want to find. Spaces count as characters. 1. Put datacom in cell A1. 2. On cell B1, Put =len(A1) then press enter to see the result.

Answer:7 Lower Function Function use to converts all uppercase letters in a text string to lowercase.

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Syntax LOWER(text) Text is the text you want to convert to lowercase. LOWER does not change characters in text that are not letters. 1. Put DATACOM in cell A1. 2. On cell B1, Put =lower(A1) then press enter to see the result.

Answer:datacom

Max Function Function that use to return the largest value in a set of values. Syntax MAX(number1,number2,...) Number1, number2, ... are 1 to 255 numbers for which you want to find the maximum value. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Put 100 in cell A1. Put 200 in cell A2. Put 50 in cell A3. Put 10 in cell A4. On cell B1, Put =Max(A1:A4) then press enter to see the result.

Answer:200

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Mid Function Function use to return a specific number of characters from a text string, starting at the position you specify, based on the number of characters you specify. Syntax MID(text,start_num,num_chars) Text is the text string containing the characters you want to extract. Start_num is the position of the first character you want to extract in text. The first character in text has start_num 1, and so on. Num_chars specifies the number of characters you want MID to return from text. 1. Put datacom in cell A1. 2. On cell B1, Put =mid(A1,2,3) then press enter to see the result.

Answer:ata

Min Function Function use to return the smallest number in a set of values.

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Syntax MIN(number1,number2,...) Number1, number2, ... are 1 to 255 numbers for which you want to find the minimum value. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Put 100 in cell A1. Put 200 in cell A2. Put 50 in cell A3. Put 10 in cell A4. On cell B1, Put =MIN(A1:A4) then press enter to see the result.

Answer:10

Mod Function Returns the remainder after number is divided by divisor. The result has the same sign as divisor. Syntax MOD(number,divisor) Number is the number for which you want to find the remainder. Divisor is the number by which you want to divide number. 1. Put 201 in cell A1. 2. Put 100 in cell A2 3. on the cell B1, Put =MOD(A1,A2) then press enter to see the result.

Answer:1 Oct2Bin Function Function use to convert an octal number to binary.

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Syntax OCT2BIN(number,places) Number is the octal number you want to convert. Number may not contain more than 10 characters. Places is the number of characters to use. 1. Put 100 in cell A1 2. On the cell B1, Put =OCT2BIN(A1) then press enter to see the result Answer:1000000 Oct2Dec Function Function use to convert an octal number to decimal. Syntax OCT2DEC(number) Number is the octal number you want to convert. Number may not contain more than 10 octal characters (30 bits). 1. Put 100 in cell A1 2. On the cell B1, Put =OCT2Dec(A1) then press enter to see the result

Answer:64 Oct2Hex Function Converts an octal number to hexadecimal. Syntax OCT2HEX(number,places) Number is the octal number you want to convert. Number may not contain more than 10 octal characters (30 bits).

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Places is the number of characters to use. 1. Put 100 in cell A1 2. On the cell B1, Put =OCT2HEX(A1) then press enter to see the result

Answer:40

Odd Function Function that return number rounded up to the nearest odd integer. Syntax ODD(number) Number is the value to round. 1. Put 12 in cell A1 2. On the cell B1, Put =ODD(A1) then press enter to see the result

Answer: 13

Product Function Multiplies all the numbers given as arguments and returns the product. Syntax PRODUCT(number1,number2,...) Number1, number2, ... are 1 to 255 numbers that you want to multiply. 1. Put 12 in cell A12 2. On the cell C1, Put =Product(A1,B1) then

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Answer: 144 Proper Function Function use to capitalize the first letter in a text string and any other letters in text that follow any character other than a letter. Convert all other letters to lowercase letters. Syntax PROPER(text) Text is text enclosed in quotation marks, a formula that returns text, or a reference to a cell containing the text you want to partially capitalize. 1. Put datacom in cell A1 2. On the cell B1, Put =Proper(A1) then press enter to see the result

Answer: Datacom

Quotient Function Function use to return the integer portion of a division. Use this function when you want to discard the remainder of a division. Syntax QUOTIENT(numerator,denominator) Numerator is the dividend. Denominator is the divisor. 1. Put 10 in cell A1. 2. Put 5 in cell B1. 3. On the cell C1, Put =QUOTIENT(A1,B1) then press enter to see the result Answer: 2 Replace Function Function use to replaces part of a text string, based on the number of characters you specify, with a different text string. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 572

Syntax REPLACE(old_text,start_num,num_chars,new_text) Old_text is text in which you want to replace some characters. Start_num is the position of the character in old_text that you want to replace with new_text. Num_chars is the number of characters in old_text that you want REPLACE to replace with new_text. New_text is the text that will replace characters in old_text 1. Put datacom in cell A1. 2. Put is in cell A2. 3. On the cell B1, Put =replace(A1,4,3,A2) then press enter to see the result

Answer: datism Roman Function Function uses to converts an Arabic numeral to roman, as text. Syntax ROMAN(number,form) Number is the Arabic numeral you want converted. Form is a number specifying the type of roman numeral you want. 1. Put 150 in cell A1. 2. On the cell B1, Put =ROMAN(A1,4) then press enter to see the result Answer: CL Round Function Rounds a number to specified number of digits. a

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Syntax ROUND(number,num_digits) Number is the number you want to round. Num_digits specifies the number of digits to which you want to round number.

1. Put 1.523 in cell A1. 3. On the cell B1, Put =Round(A1,2) then press enter to see the result.

Answer: 1.52

Substitute Function Substitutes new_text for old_text in a text string. Use SUBSTITUTE when you want to replace specific text in a text string; use REPLACE when you want to replace any text that occurs in a specific location in a text string. Syntax SUBSTITUTE(text,old_text,new_text,instance_num) Text is the text or the reference to a cell containing text for which you want to substitute characters. Old_text is the text you want to replace. New_text is the text you want to replace old_text with. Instance_num specifies which occurrence of old_text you want to replace with new_text. If you specify instance_num, only that instance of old_text is replaced. Otherwise, every occurrence of old_text in text is changed to new_text.

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1. Put datacom in cell A1 2. Put Rosario in cell A2 3. On the cell B1, Put =Substitute(A1,d,A2) then press enter to see the result.

Answer: Rosarioatacom Sum Function Function use to add all the numbers in a range of cells. Syntax SUM(number1,number2, ...) Number1, number2, ... are 1 to 255 arguments for which you want the total value or sum. 1. Put 1 in cell A1 2. Put 2 in cell A2 3. On the cell B1, Put =sum(A1,A2) then press enter to see the result.

Answer: 3

Trim Function Function use to remove all spaces from text except for single spaces between words. Use TRIM on text that you have received from another application that may have irregular spacing. Syntax TRIM(text)

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Text is the text from which you want spaces removed. 1. Put Andres and anna in cell A1 2. On the cell B1, Put =trim(A1) then press enter to see the result.

Answer: Andres and anna

Upper Function Function use to convert text to uppercase. Syntax UPPER(text) Text is the text you want converted to uppercase. Text can be a reference or text string. 1. Put datacom imus in cell A1 2. On the cell B1, Put =upper(A1) then press enter to see the result.

Answer: DATACOM IMUS

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Name:________________________________________________SCORE:___________

Activity No. 5 Functions II. Give the Syntax of the following function 1. Average Function 2. Bin2dec Function 3. Bin2Hex Function 4. Bin2Oct Function 5. Code Function 6. Concatenate Function 7. Char Function 8. Count Function 9. Count blank Function 10. Count A Function 11. Dec2Bin Function 12. Exact Function 13. Dec2hex Function 14. Fixed Function 15. Dec2oct Function 16. Even Function 17. Hex2Bin Function 18. Hex2Dec Function 19. Large Function 20. Left Function 21. Len Function 22. Hex2Oct Function 23. Lower Function 24. Min Function 25. Mid Function 26. Mod Function 27. Odd Function 28. Oct2Bin Function 29. Oct2Dec Function 30. Product Function 31. Proper Function 32. Oct2Hex Function 33. Round Function 34. Quotient Function 35. Replace Function 36. Substitute Function 37. Roman Function 38. Sum Function 39. Trim Function 40. Upper Function Page 577

Datacom Institute of Computer Technology

Information Sheet #6 Advance Function If Function Function use to return one value if a condition you specify evaluates to TRUE and another value if it evaluates to FALSE. Use IF to conduct conditional tests on values and formulas. Syntax IF(logical_test,value_if_true,value_if_false) Logical_test is any value or expression that can be evaluated to TRUE or FALSE. Value_if_true is the value that is returned if logical_test is TRUE. Value_if_false is the value that is returned if logical_test is FALSE.

6. Put 75 in cell A1. 7. On cell B1, Put =IF(A1>=75,"PASSED","FAILED") then press enter to see the result

Answer: PASSED

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Nested if Nested if or also know as multiple if in ms excel. This syntax below demonstrates how to nest two IF functions. You can nest up to 7 IF functions. Syntax IF(logical_test1,value_if_true1, IF(logical_test2,value_if_true2,value_if_false) Logical_test is the value that you want to test. value_if_true is the value that is returned if condition evaluates to TRUE. value_if_false is the value that is return if condition evaluates to FALSE. 1. Put 1 in cell A1. 2. On cell B1, Put =IF(A1=1,"ONE",IF(A1=2,"TWO",IF(A1=3,"THREE","out of range"))) then press enter to see the result

Answer: ONE

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VLOOKUP Function Searches for a value in the first column of a table array and returns a value in the same row from another column in the table array. The V in VLOOKUP stands for vertical. Use VLOOKUP instead of HLOOKUP when your comparison values are located in a column to the left of the data that you want to find. Syntax VLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,col_index_num,range_lookup) Lookup_value The value to search in the first column of the table array. Lookup_value can be a value or a reference. If lookup_value is smaller than the smallest value in the first column of table_array, VLOOKUP returns the #N/A error value. Table_array Two or more columns of data. Use a reference to a range or a range name. The values in the first column of table_array are the values searched by lookup_value. These values can be text, numbers, or logical values. Uppercase and lowercase text are equivalent. Col_index_num The column number in table_array from which the matching value must be returned. A col_index_num of 1 returns the value in the first column in table_array; a col_index_num of 2 returns the value in the second column in table_array, and so on. If col_index_num is: Less than 1, VLOOKUP returns the #VALUE! error value. Greater than the number of columns in table_array, VLOOKUP returns the #REF! error value. Range_lookup A logical value that specifies whether you want VLOOKUP to find an exact match or an approximate match 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Put A in cell A1. Put B in cell A2. Put C in cell A3. Put D in cell A3. Put 100 in cell B1. Put 90 in cell B2 Put 80 in cell B3. Put 70 in cell B4. Put A in cell B7. On cell C7, Put =VLOOKUP(B7,A1:B4,2)then press enter to see the result

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Answer: 100 HLOOKUP Function Searches for a value in the top row of a table or an array of values, and then returns a value in the same column from a row you specify in the table or array. Use HLOOKUP when your comparison values are located in a row across the top of a table of data, and you want to look down a specified number of rows. Use VLOOKUP when your comparison values are located in a column to the left of the data you want to find. The H in HLOOKUP stands for "Horizontal." Syntax HLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,row_index_num,range_lookup) Lookup_value is the value to be found in the first row of the table. Lookup_value can be a value, a reference, or a text string. Table_array is a table of information in which data is looked up. Row_index_num is the row number in table_array from which the matching value will be returned. A row_index_num of 1 returns the first row value in table_array, a row_index_num of 2 returns the second row value in table_array, and so on. If row_index_num is less than 1, HLOOKUP returns the #VALUE! error value; if row_index_num is greater than the number of rows on table_array, HLOOKUP returns the #REF! error value. Range_lookup is a logical value that specifies whether you want HLOOKUP to find an exact match or an approximate match. If TRUE or omitted, an approximate match is returned. In other words, if an exact match is not found, the next largest value that is less than lookup_value is returned. If FALSE, HLOOKUP will find an exact match. If one is not found, the error value #N/A is returned.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Put A in cell A1. Put B in cell B1. Put C in cell C1. Put D in cell D1. Put 100 in cell A1. Put 90 in cell B2 Put 80 in cell C2. Put 70 in cell D2. Put A in cell B7. On cell C7, Put =HLOOKUP(B7,A1:D2,2)then press enter to see the result

Answer: 80

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Name:________________________________________________SCORE:___________

Activity No. 6 Functions

I.

Give the Syntax of the following function a. IF b. Nested IF or multiple IF c. Vlookup d. Hlookup

III.

Create the following output: 1. Using Vlookup

2. Using Hlookup

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3. Using multiple if. Single letter are the data coming from the user. Cell that is fill with color green contain formula.

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Information Sheet #7 Conditional Formatting You can use something called Conditional Formatting in your Excel spreadsheets. Conditional Formatting allows you to change the appearance of a cell, depending on certain conditions. What we'll do is to color the Overall Averages on our Student Exam spreadsheet, depending on the grade. Here's the spreadsheet we'll be working on.

Highlight the cells with Overall Grades, which should be cells B11 to I11

The Overall Averages range from 44 to 85. We'll color each grade, depending on a scale. A different color will apply to the following grades:

50 and below 51 to 60 61 to 70 71 to 80 81 and above

So five different ranges and also five different color for each. To set the Conditional Formatting in Excel, do the following:

With your Overall Averages highlighted, click on the Home menu at the top of Excel Locate the Styles group, and the Conditional Formatting button:

The Conditional Formatting menu gives you various options. The easiest one is the Color Scales option. Select one of these and Excel will color the cell backgrounds for you:

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That's not quite what we're looking for, though. We'd like to choose our own values. So click onMore Rules, from the Color Scales submenu. You'll see the following rather complex dialogue box:

The one we want is the second option, Format only cells that contain. This will allow us to set up our values. When you click this option, the dialogue box changes to this:

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The part we're interested in is the bottom part, under the heading Edit the Rule Description. It says Cell Value and Between, in the drop down boxes. These are the ones we want. We only need to type a value for the two boxes that are currently blank in the image above. We can then click the Format button to choose a color. So type 0 in the first box and 50 in the second one:

Then click the Format button. You'll get another dialogue box popping up. This is just the Format Cells one though. You've met this before. Click on the Fill tab and choose a color. Click OK and you should see something like this under Edit the Rule Description:

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The Preview is showing the color we picked. So we've said, "If the Cell Value is between 0 and 50 then color the cell Red". Click OK on this dialogue box to get back to Excel. You should find that one of the cells has turned red. To format the rest of the cells, click on Conditional Formatting on the Styles panel again. From the menu, click on Manage Rules:

You'll get yet another complex dialogue box popping up! This one:

Our first rule is already there - Cell Value Between. The only thing we're doing here is adding New Rules, similar to the one we've just set up. Click the New Rule button then. You'll see the exact Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 588

same dialogue boxes you used to set up the first rule. Set a new color for the next scores - 51 to 60. Choose a color, and keep clicking OK until you get back to the Rules Manager dialogue box. It should now look something like this one:

We now have to colors in our range. Do the rest of the scores, choosing a color for each. The scores are these, remember: 50 and below 51 to 60 61 to 70 71 to 80 81 and above When you've done them all, your dialogue box should have five colors:

The colors above are entirely arbitrary, and you don't have to select the same ones we did. The point is to have a different color for each range of scores. But click OK when you're done. Your Overall Averages will then look something like this:

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Formatting your spreadsheet in this way allows you to see at glance relevant information. In the spreadsheet above, it's obvious who's failing - just look for the red cells!

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Name:________________________________________________SCORE:___________

Activity No. 7 Conditional Formatting

I.

Create the output below.


1. Enter 10 names of sample student. 2. Enter grades that contain passing and failing grade.

3. Put remark on the remarks column using If Function

4. If the Remarks id FAILED the font color turn to red and if PASSED the font is still color black.

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Information Sheet #8 Inserting Chart Chart It is a graphical representation of data, in which "the data is represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or slices in a pie chart"

2. To start making your chart, create first table containing information you want to have a chart. Then highlight the data, and the viewing figures. If you have just finished the sorting section, this data should still be highlighted, and looks like this:

3. From the tabs on click on Insert

the Excel Ribbon,

4. Locate the Charts groupl.

5. For this first one, we'll create a Column Chart. So, in Excel 2007, click the down arrow on the Column item of the Chart Groupl. You'll see a list of available charts to choose from. Select the first one, the chart highlighted below (2D Column):

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But notice that the Excel Ribbon has changed. The design menu is selected, along with options for Chart Layouts:

Also on the Design Ribbon, you'll see options for Chart styles:

Sample Output

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Name:________________________________________________ SCORE:___________

Activity No. 8 Chart

Create the output below. 1. Using the data below. 2. Create the chart below

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Information Sheet #9 Setting Password A password is a secret word or string of characters that is used for user authentication to prove identity, or for access approval to gain access to a resource. This help anyone to secure the file. In MS Excel you can also set password. Here are the processes to set password in MS Excel 1. Click MS Office Button 2. Choose prepare

3. Choose Encrypt Document 4. Encrypt Document Window will appear

5. Type the password you want on the textbox. 6. Click ok button 7. Re-type the password you type on the step no.5 > make sure that you type the same password. 8. Confirm Password Window will appear

9. Click ok button 10. Save you Excel file

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DATACOM INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY


SECOND SEMESTER FIRST TRANSITION

COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL IN OFFICE SUITE II A. MICROSOFT ACCESS

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Information Sheet #1 Introduction to Microsoft Access 2007 What is Database?

A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated.
What is Microsoft Access? Microsoft Access is a software use for creating database that allow easy access and updating of records A database is a collection of information that's related. Access allows you to manage your information in one database file. Within Access there are four major areas: Tables, Queries, Forms and Reports Tables store your data in your database Queries ask questions about information stored in your tables Forms allow you to view data stored in your tables Reports allow you to print data based on queries/tables that you have created

Environment of MS Access 2007 The Access Screen The Access 2007 Screen is very different to that in previous versions. The menus have been replaced by the Access 2007 Ribbon; there is the MICROSOFT OFFICE BUTTON instead of the old file menu; and the old database window has been replaced by the Access 2007 NAVIGATION PANE. There is also a GETTING STARTED screen to create or open a database file when Access is launched. Two types of windows

LAUNCH WINDOW

ACCESS WINDOW

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The Access Ribbon

The access ribbon works somewhat differently to the old Access Menus. There is a row of ribbon tabs with headings such as HOME, CREATE, EXTERNAL DATA, and DATABASE TOOLS. Clicking on each tab presents you with its own individual ribbon with its own particular icons. Each icon on a ribbon is contained within a group of icons that perform similar tasks. So, for example, the Create tab has groups for TABLES, FORMS, REPORTS and OTHER The Microsoft Office Button

It is in the top left corner of the Access screen. It replaces the old Access file menu. Perform functions such as saving, opening, new file creation, and printing
etc, you need to click this button. The Quick Access Toolbar

To the right of MS Office button is the Quick Access Toolbar intended


to provide you with quick access to some of the more common commands used in Access 2007. There are three default icons on this toolbar - save, undo and redo. You can also customize this toolbar to add additional commands as required. Access Navigation Pane The Access NAVIGATION PANE replaces the old database window. It is here where you will see the icons for all the tables, forms, queries and reports that you create. When you want to open one of your database "objects", you just click on one of these icons, and the required object will open in the main Access window.

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Name:________________________________________________ Score:_______________ Activity No.1(MS ACCESS) Introduction to Microsoft Access 2007 I. Define the following: a. What is Database? _____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _________ b. What is Microsoft Access? ________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _________ c. Tables ________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ________ d. Queries ________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ________ e. Forms ________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ________ f. Reports ________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ________ Draw and label MS office Access 2007

II.

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Information Sheet #2 Creating Access 2007 Database The first step in creating an Access 2007 database is to create a blank database file. This is done from the Getting Started Screen when you launch Access. The file is saved onto one of your PCs folders (which you specify). The procedure for doing this is outlined below.

1. Launch Access To begin, launch Access by clicking on the desktop icon, or choose Access from the start menu. This brings up the GETTING STARTED WITH MICROSOFT OFFICE ACCESS screen.

2. Select blank database template.

Towards the top left of the screen you will see a "Blank Database" icon. Click this icon to bring up the Blank Database side bar on the right hand side of the screen. This is where you will enter details about the database file that you are about to create. 3. Enter Filename for your MS Access 2007 database

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Begin by entering the name that you want to call the database in the filename textbox.

4. Browse and select folder Next click the folder icon and browse for a folder to put your database. Once selected you should see the file path below the textbox.

5. Click Create. All you need to do now is click the "Create" command button below, and your database file saves to the location that you specified, and opens for you to work on. You are now ready to work on your newly created database file

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Information Sheet #3 Creating Table in Ms Access 2007 Tables Table is a set of data elements (values) that is organized using a model of vertical columns (which are identified by their name) and horizontal rows, A table is a set of columns and rows. Each column is called a field. Within a table, each field must be given a name and no two fields can have the same name. Each value in a field represents a single category of data. Each row in a table is called a record. How Access stores in tables Like all other databases, Access 2007 stores data in tables. They look a lot like the cells of a spreadsheet with columns and rows. Each horizontal column represents a table record, and each vertical column represents a table field. See the example below: ID Number 1 2 3 FirstName John Tracey Anne Surname Jones Smith McNeil Age 35 25 30

In the example Table above, there are four fields containing information about a particular person: ID number, first name, surname and age. Below the field headings there are 3 records containing information or data for each individual. When planning a database table, most database designers will decide which column headings or fields they are going to use. This is the basis of the table structure. The actual data is added later and is not a part of the design process

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Create Access Table 1. Open database file If you created a blank Access database in the previous lesson, you are now ready to create a new table. Begin by opening your existing database file if it is not already open. Do this by clicking on the Access desktop icon to bring up the getting started screen again. You should see the file name that you just created towards the top of the right hand side bar (If you cant see it, click the folder icon to browse for the file). Click on the file name to bring up your blank database If, at this stage, you get a security warning underneath the ribbon, click where it says options, select the "enable this content" radio button (in the pop-up window), and then click ok.

2. Create Access Table Select the CREATE tab on the Access ribbon. Next select the TABLE DESIGN icon from the TABLES group. This creates a new table

3. Create fields in DESIGN VIEW This brings up the TABLE DESIGN GRID where you enter each field name and its data type. The first field we are going to create is the ID field which is going to contain a unique reference number for each record. Enter the name "ID" into the first column of the first row in the grid. Because we want Access to automatically generate a unique reference number, select AUTONUMBER from the drop down list in the data type column. You can also enter a description for each field, but this is not essential. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 603

On the next row the field is going to be called FIRSTNAME and the data type is going to be TEXT. On the third row the field name is SURNAME with the data type again being TEXT. And finally, the last field name is AGE and the data type here is going to be NUMBER. Before you save the table you will need to choose the Primary Key, which in this case is ID. To do this, select the ID row by clicking on it, and then simply click the primary key symbol on the ribbon. The table design grid should now look like this:

You can now save the table by clicking the save icon on the top left of the screen above the Access Ribbon. To view your table select DATASHEET VIEW from the VIEWS group under the DESIGN TAB. This brings up the datasheet view of the table that you have just created. You should see your field headings running across the top of the table.

4. Data Entry in DATABASE VIEW Although entering data into the datasheet table is not a part of the design process, the table now exists as a database object, and you can test it by entering some information into the cells. Select the first cell in the FIRSTNAME column and enter the name JOHN. For SURNAME enter JONES, and for AGE enter 35. NB just ignore the column underneath the heading ADD NEW FIELD. We created all the fields we needed in design view. You have now entered the first record in the table - record 1 for John Jones aged 35. You can now press the return key and the record will save automatically. You are now ready to enter the second record on the next row TRACEY SMITH 25. Press return and then fill in the data for the last record we are going to do for now - ANNE McNEIL 30. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 604

You datasheet table should now look like this:

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Name:________________________________________________ Score:_______________

Activity No.2(MS ACCESS) Creating Access 2007 Database & Creating Table in Ms Access 2007

1. Steps on how to create blank database (5pts)

2. Steps on how to create table having the following fields: (10 pts) Id Name Age Gender Address Email_address 3. Steps on how to save table(5pts)

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Information Sheet #4 Working with Access Table Once you have an Access Table populated with data, you have the option to work with it right away. Indeed, some people may not go on to create forms, queries, and reports once they have created their first table. With a single table you can, for example, store, edit, filter, search, and calculate a set of database records. Now that you have created your first table and stored a number of records, we will take a look how you go about working with tables. We shall use your newly created table with some additional records to illustrate how to do this. This is the fully populated table we shall be working:

Edit Data Editing data in an Access table is a relatively simple task. Just click the cell containing the data you wish to change. Delete or type over the old information and enter new data as required. As you do so you will notice a pencil symbol appear on the far left of the table on the row you are editing. This indicates that you are in the process of editing a record and the changes have yet to be saved to the database table. This symbol will remain while you update any other field in the same row. Once you move out of the row, the changes will be saved automatically and the pencil will disappear. The thing to remember is that when you edit data in a field, the whole record will be saved once you have finished.

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A table record in the process of being edited. Notice the pencil symbol on the left of the table. The cell being edited is highlighted in orange. Once the new data has been entered and the row is moved out of, this record will be saved.

Access Filter The Access Filter is a way of reducing the number of records in a list which do not match a given criteria. For example, you might want to view all the records for people with the surname 'Smith'. In this case Smith is the criteria to match. All other records which have records that are not Smith will be filtered out of the list. There are a number of ways to use this feature. The way that I have found most effective is to use the Filter By Form method.

Filter by Form If you look at the Sort and Filter group on the Home tab of the Access Ribbon, you will see a large filter icon and three smaller icons entitled Selection, Advanced, and Toggle Filter. You need to click the Advanced icon and select Filter By Form from the drop down list. Access will then open up a blank datasheet with empty cells underneath your column headings. Click on the empty cell in the Surname column, and start entering the surname Smith. As you do so, Access suggests surnames from your list based on the letters that you have typed so far. So once you get to Sm..., Access completes the rest of the name for you. The next thing that you need to do is click the Toggle Filter icon on the Ribbon to apply the filter. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 608

Result: a new filtered list is displayed containing all three records from your original table with the surname SMITH.

Sort The Sort feature of Access 2007 allows you to reorder a list of data in your table. This can be done alphabetically or numerically, in ascending or descending order. It is a useful feature when you want to sort your records into, say, surname order, or maybe in age order, For Example To sort your records into surname order, click any cell in the surname column of your table. This tells Access that your records are going to be sorted by this particular field. Next, look for the AZ Icon in the Sort & Filter group of the Home Ribbon. To sort in ascending order, click the AZ Icon, or to sort in descending order, click the ZA Icon below. To remove the sort and get your original list back in its original order, click the Clear All Sorts Icon, which is the lowest Icon of the three.

Sorted into alphabetical order by the surname field.

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Search Data The new search feature in Access 2007 allows you to enter a search term into a small text box at the bottom of the screen. As you type each letter, the first segment of data matching your search term is highlighted in the table. If there are a number of records containing your search term, you can click the filter button adjacent to the search box to produce a filtered list matching your search criteria.

Access search result - highlighted segment of data matching text entered into the Access box.

Calculating Data The Totals feature of Access 2007 allows calculations to be performed directly on a database table. At its simplest, the totals feature can be used to count the number of records, or add a column of numbers in a table. It can also be used to calculate Average, Maximum/Minimum values, Standard Deviation and variance To use this feature, open your table and click the Totals icon which is located in the Records group of the Home Ribbon. This produces an extra row at the bottom of the table with the word Total in the left hand column. To perform a calculation on your table, select which column you want to process, and click the cell for that column on the new Total row. When the arrow tag appears, click it to produce a drop down list of functions. We are going to find out the average age in our table, so we shall select the Average function from this list. The result of our calculation is then displayed in that cell (Example: the Age column of the Total row). If we add an additional record to our table, the totals Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 610

row will recalculate the result automatically to take account of the new data. You then have the option to save the table with the new totals row and any calculation it is set to perform.

Access Totals - calculation of average age in list

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Name:________________________________________________ Score:_______________ Activity No.3 (MS ACCESS) Working with Access Table I. Discuss the following: 1. Edit Data __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ____________ 2. Access Filter __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ____________ 3. Filter by Form __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ____________ 4. Sort __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ____________ 5. Search Data __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ____________ 6. Calculating Data __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ____________

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Information Sheet #5 Creating Query in Ms Access 2007 Access Queries Process Data If you have been following the previous lessons in this tutorial, you will have created a table with five records. In this lesson we are going to create an Access 2007 QUERY, which will process the data below which you have entered into your table. ID Number 1 2 3 4 5 FirstName John Tracey Anne Joe Sue Surname Jones Smith McNeil Brown Moore Age 35 25 30 39 33

What we want Access to do is extract all the records in the above table where the persons age is greater than or equal to 35. Access Queries can do far more than this, of course, but this simple task should serve as a useful learning Exercises. 1. Open the Query Design grid The first stage is to select the CREATE TAB and then go to the OTHER group on the far right of the ribbon. Then click on the QUERY DESIGN ICON to bring up the query design Grid

2. Select Table for query The next stage is to select which table you are going to use in this query. When the query design grid opened, the SHOW TABLE pop up window should also have opened. If necessary you can open this window manually by clicking the SHOW TABLE icon in the QUERY SET UP group on the Access ribbon

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So far there is only one table in your database - TABLE1. This should be highlighted when the window opens, but if not, just click on it once. Next click ADD. When you close the pop-up window by clicking x,you should see a box labelled TABLE1 above the query design grid. 3. Select fields from table In the table1 box, you will see a list of its field names. We are going to use all the fields in this query, so select each one individually by double clicking on their names. You will now see the field names at the top of each column in the Query Design grid.

4. Enter query Criteria. As you may remember, the purpose of our query is to extract records where the persons name is greater than or equal to 35. To do this we enter the criteria into the appropriate cell of the query design grid. In this case you need to go to the AGE column of the CRITERIA row, and enter the formula >=35.

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5. Save and Run Query Click the save icon above the Access Ribbon. When prompted for the query name, just use the default QUERY1. To run your query, click the RUN icon in the RESULTS GROUP of the Access Ribbon. You should now be presented with a datasheet displaying your query results - JOHN JONES 35 and JOE BROWN 39.

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Name:________________________________________________ Score:_______________

Activity No.4 (MS ACCESS) Creating Query in Ms Access 2007 I. Create the following 1. Create the table having the following fieldname:

Id Name Age Gender Address Email_address


2. Create a query(Give the procedures on how to create query).

3. Allow the user to search for ID.

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Information Sheet #6 Creating Form in Ms Access 2007

Access FORMS are user friendly


In the previous lesson, you created an Access Table and entered three records. However, to get the most out of Access it makes sense to create a data entry FORM. By doing so you are making your database more user friendly. It is easier and quicker to enter data onto a form than it is into a table, not least because you have more control over the layout and labeling of your form. In this lesson we will learn how to create a FORM that uses your newly created table as the DATA SOURCE. Create Access Form There are a number of ways to create an Access form. In this lesson we are going to use the ACCESS FORM WIZARD. 1. Select form WIZARD Open your database if it is not already open. Click the CREATE tab on the ACCESS RIBBON and then select MORE FORMS from the forms group.

A drop down list of form types appears. You need to select FORM WIZARD from this list. 2. Select table and fields The Form wizard then opens as the pop up window below.

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On the first page of the form wizard we select which table we are going to use as the DATA SOURCE. Since there is only one table in this database so far, it should already be selected for us in the TABLES/QUERIES combo Box. Underneath there is a list of the four fields in your table. You could select each field individually by highlighting the field name and clicking the single arrow >. We can, however, select all four just by clicking the double arrow >>. Once they have been transferred into the right hand box they are selected. We can now click NEXT to go to page 2 of the form wizard. 3. Form Layout

This is where we choose the FORM LAYOUT. We are going to leave this on the default setting of COLUMNAR. Click NEXT again to move onto page three of the form Wizard. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 618

4. Form Styles

Here we select a style that from the list box. Preview a style by clicking on its name. This step just determines how the form looks aesthetically. Once you have selected a style to your taste, click NEXT Again. 5. Form Title

This is the last stage of the wizard. Here we are going to choose the name for our form - lets say FORM1. We are going to leave the radio button selected for OPEN THE FORM TO ENTER OR VIEW INFORMATION. All we need to do now is click FINISH and our form should like something like this.

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6. Navigate Records via Access Form As you can see, the form opens with the first record in your original table displayed. You can navigate through each record using the NAVIGATION BUTTON at the bottom left of the form window.

To move to the next record click the right arrow button on the navigation control. To move to the last record click the >| button on the navigation control. To move backwards through the recordset use the left arrow buttons. You could edit any record from the form, which will update the data in your table. For now, though, just try navigating through the three records without changing any data.

7. Create New Record via Access Form Now that you know how to move through the recordset, lets finish off by adding two more records. To do this click the star button on the right of the navigation control. This should bring up a blank record. Add JOE for firstname, BROWN for surname, and 39 for age. Click the star again to bring up a new blank record, and enter SUE MOORE 33. When you have finished click x on the form window to close.

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Name:________________________________________________ Score:_______________

Activity No.5 (MS ACCESS) Creating Form in Ms Access 2007

I. Create the following


1. Create the table having the following fieldname:

Id Name Age Gender Address Email_address 2. Create a query. 3. Creating Form in Ms Access (Give the procedures on how to create form).

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Information Sheet #7Creating Report in Ms Access 2007 Access Reports Present Data Access REPORTS are a way of displaying and printing information from your database. Developers often use Reports to display the results of a Query, which is what we are going to do next. Like other Access database objects, there a number of ways to create an Access REPORT. We are going use the REPORT WIZARD. Our task is to display the results of QUERY1 which we created in the previous lesson. 1. Open Report WIZARD Begin by selecting the CREATE TAB on the Access Ribbon. Then click REPORT WIZARD from the REPORTS group to open the pop up window.

2. Select Report Data Source and fields The first page of the Report Wizard is almost identical to that of the Form Wizard. On this page we will select QUERY1 as the DATA SOURCE for the Report. This is done by selecting the query from the list in the TABLES/QUERIES combo box. Then select all fields from QUERY1 by clicking the double arrow to the right of the text box labelled AVAILABLE FIELDS. The field names will now appear in the SELECTED FIELDS text box on the right. Click next to go to the second page of the Wizard

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3. Report Grouping Levels Page two of the wizard is where you can add grouping levels if required. So we could, for example, group each person in our report with others of the same age. We dont need to do this for this particular example, but it is certainly a useful feature that we might want to learn more about later. But for now, just click next. 4. Record Sort order. Page three of the wizard is where you determine what order the records are displayed in your report. So for example you might want to display records in ascending order of age. For this example, however, we are going to put your records into alphabetical order for SURNAME and FIRSTNAME. Begin by clicking the top drop down box and selecting SURNAME, and in the box 2 below select FIRSTNAME. This means that records are sorted alphabetically by surname, and if two surnames are the same, the FIRSTNAME is used to determine which record comes first etc. Click next.

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5. Report Layout This page of the Wizard is where you set the lay out for your report. There are various lay out options, but in our case we shall keep to the default setting of TABULAR Click next. 6. Styles For style, select Access 2007 from the list and click next

7.

Name of report Name your report REPORT1 and then click FINISH. Your access report will now be displayed on the screen, and should look something like this

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Name:________________________________________________ Score:_______________

Activity No.6 (MS ACCESS) Creating Report in Ms Access 2007

II.

Create the following 1. Create the table having the following fieldname:

Id Name Age Gender Address Email_address 2. Creating Query in Ms Access 3. Creating Form in Ms Access 4. Creating Report in Ms Access (Give the procedures on how to create report).

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DATACOM INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY


FIRST SEMESTER SECOND TRANSITION

COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL IN GRAPHIC DESIGN (ADOBE PHOTOSHOP)

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The Photoshop Environment Photoshop Toolbox


The Photoshop toolbox is the most important user interface with this complex program, and includes the primary tools to work with graphics. These include the tools that let you use type, and select, paint, draw, sample, edit, move, annotate, and view images. Other tools in the toolbox allow you to change foreground/background colors, go to Adobe Online by either clicking the feather Adobe logo at the top of the pallet or by going to File > Adobe Online.

Overview of the tools


To view the name of a tool button, hold your mouse pointer over the tool you want to see, and the name will appear as a tool tip. (See the image right.) Some tool buttons have multiple tools combined into one button. Tool buttons with multiple tools have a small triangle in the lower right hand corner o f the button. Right click and hold this button to view the alternate tools. Rectangular and Elliptical Marquee Tools (M) Make rectangular, Elliptical selections. Single Row and Single Column Marquee Tools The tools dont have Shortcut Keys Make Single Row and Single Column selection.
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Move Tool (V) moves selections, layers, and guides. Lasso Tool (L) make freehand, polygonal (straight-edged), and magnetic (snap-to) selections .
INFORMATION SHEET #1 INFORMATION SHEET #1

Magic Wand Tool (W) selects similarly colored areas. Crop Tool (C) trims images.
INFORMATION SHEET #1

Slice Tool (K) creates slices. (Slices are what allow you to actually split up a larger image in Photoshop so it loads faster on the internet.) Spot Healing Brush Tool (J) removes blemishes and other imperfections in your photos by sampling pixels from around the retouched area. Healing Brush Tool (J) repairs imperfections in a selected area of an image using a selected sample or pattern. Patch Tool (J) like the healing brush tool matches the texture, lighting, and shading of the sampled pixels to the source pixels. You can also use the patch tool to clone isolated areas of an image. Red Eye Tool (J) fixes red eyes with one click. Set options to adjust pupil size and darkening amount. Brush Tool (B) paints brush strokes. Pencil Tool (B) paints hard-edged strokes. Color Replacement Tool (B) replaces specific colors in your image. You can paint over a targeted color with a corrective color. Clone Stamp Tool (S) paints with a sample of an image. Pattern Stamp Tool (S) paints using part of an image as a pattern.
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History Brush Tool (Y) paints a copy of the selected State or snapshot into the current image window. Art History Brush Tool ( Y ) paints with stylized Strokes that simulate the look of different Paint styles, using a selected state or snapshot.

INFORMATION SHEET #1

Eraser Tool (E) erases pixels and restores parts of an image to a previously saved state. Background Eraser Tool (E) erases areas to transparency Magic Eraser Tool (E) erases solid-colored areas to Transparency with a single click.

Gradient Tool ( G ) create straight-line, radial, Angle, reflected, and diamond blends between colors. Paint Bucket Tool (G) fills similarly colored areas with the foreground color.

Blur Tool (R) blurs hard edges in an image. Sharpen Tool (R) sharpens soft edges in an image Smudge Tool (R) smudges data in an image.

Dodge Tool (O) lightens areas in an image. Burn tool (O) darkens areas in an image. Sponge Tool (O) changes the color saturation of an area.

Path Selection Tool (A) makes shape or segment selections showing anchor points, direction lines, and direction points .

Horizontal Type Tool / Vertical Type Tool (T) creates type of text on an image.
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Horizontal Type Mask Tool / Vertical Type Mask Tool (T) Selections in the shape of type.

INFORMATION SHEET #1

Pen Tool (P) let you draw smooth-edged paths. Shape Tools (U) makes customized shapes selected from a custom shape list.

Notes tool / Audio Annotation Tool (N) makes notes and voice annotations that can be attached to an image.

Eyedropper Tool (I) samples any color in an image and sets the foreground (drawing) color to it. Color Sampler Tool (I) samples colors in an image and records them for reference. Measure Tool measures distances, locations, and angles.

Hand Tool (H) moves an image within its window. Zoom Tool (Z) magnifies and reduces the view of an image.

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SELF CHECK #1

IDENTIFY THE FF. TOOLS:

1. Erases areas to transparency. 2. Removes blemishes and other imperfections i n yo u r p h o t o s b y sampling pixels from around the retouched area. 3. Makes notes and voice annotations that can be attached to an image. 4. Like the healing brush tool, matches the texture, lighting, and shading of the sampled pixels to the source pixels. You can also use the patch tool to clone isolated areas of an image. 5. Make rectangular, elliptical, single row, and single column selections. 6. Make freehand, polygonal (straight-edged), and magnetic (snap-to) selections. 7. Makes customized shapes selected from a custom shape list. 8. Creates slices. (Slices are what allow you to actually split up a larger image in Photoshop so it loads faster on the internet.) 9. Paints with stylized strokes that simulate the look of different paint styles, using a selected state or snapshot. 10. Removes blemishes and other imperfections i n yo u r p h o t o s b y s amp l in g p i x e l s f r o m around the retouched area.

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ANSWER KEY#1

1. The background eraser tool 2. The spot healing brush tool 3. The annotations tool 4. The patch tool 5. The marquee tools 6. The lasso tools 7. The custom shape tool 8. The slice tool 9. The art history brush tool 10. The spot healing brush tool

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INFORMATION SHEET #2

Using the tool options bar


Below Photoshops menu bar is the tool options bar:

The Options Bar is where you adjust settings for the currently active tool. The options bar is context-sensitive, meaning that it changes depending on which tool you have selected. Some settings in the options bar are common to several tools (such as painting modes and opacity), and some are specific to one tool (such as the Auto Erase setting for the pencil tool). You can move the options bar anywhere in the work area, or dock it at the top or bottom of the screen. If youd like to move the options bar, click on the small line on the far left of the toolbar and drag it to a new position. The options bar includes a palette well to the right, for storing other palettes, providing quick access to palettes such as Swatches and Actions that you reference briefly while using the application. The palette well is only available when using a screen resolution greater than 800 pixels x 600 pixels (a setting of at least 1024 x 768 is recommended). To display the tool options bar: Do one of the following: Choose Window > Options. Double-click a tool in the toolbox. To return a tool or all tools to the default settings: Right-click the tool icon on the options bar, then choose Reset Tool or Reset All Tools from the context menu.

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INFORMATION SHEET #1

Using palettes
Palettes help you monitor and modify images. By default, palettes appear stacked together in groups. Palettes groups can be separated by undocking a certain palette and rejoined by docking it into a group. Click and drag on the palette title to move a palette from one group to another.

Displaying palettes
You can display or hide palettes as you work. On the right in the Options Bar is the palette well. This is a space where you can keep palettes that you don't use as frequently or don't want occupying your workspace. It keeps them easily accessible, but hidden from view until you need them. In the default workspace, you should have title tabs for the Brushes, Tool Presets, and Layer Comps palettes in the palette well. You can drag other palettes to this area and they will remain hidden there until you click on the palette tab to reveal it. When you need access to one of these palettes, just click on the title tab and the full palette will expand below its tab.

To show or hide Palettes:


Do one of the following: To show or hide all open palettes, the options bar, and the toolbox, press Tab. To show or hide all palettes, press Shift +Tab. To show or hide one pallet: Choose Window > then the pallet to hide or show. A Check mark will appear beside palettes that are visible.

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INFORMATION SHEET #2

Correcting mistakes
Most operations can be undone if you make a mistake. Alternatively, you can restore all or part of an image to its last saved version. But available memory may limit your ability to use these options.

To undo the last operation:


Choose Edit > Undo. (For most operations you can also hit Ctrl +Z.) If an operation can't be undone, the command is dimmed and changes to Can't Undo .

To redo the last operation:


Choose Edit > Redo. To free memory used by the Undo command, the History palette, or the Clipboard: Choose Edit > Purge, and choose the item type or buffer you want to clear. If already Empty, the item type or buffer is dimmed. Important: The Purge command permanently clears from memory the operation stored by the command or buffer; it cannot be undone. For example, choosing Edit > Purge > Histories deletes all history states from the History palette. Use the Purge command when the amount of information held in memory is so large that Photoshop's performance is noticeably diminished.

To revert to the last saved version:


Choose File > Revert. Note: Revert is added as a history state in the History palette and can be undone. To restore part of an image to its previously saved version: Do one of the following: Use the history brush tool ( ) to paint with the selected state or snapshot on the History palette. Use the eraser tool ( ) with the Erase to History option selected. Select the area you want to restore, and choose Edit > Fill. For Use, choose History, and click OK. To restore the image with a snapshot of the initial state of the document, choose Note: History Options from the Palette menu and make sure that the Automatically Create First Snapshot option is on.

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INFORMATION SHEET #2

The History palette (F9)


You can use the History palette to revert to a previous state of an image, to delete an image's states, and to create a document from a state or snapshot.

A. Sets the source for the history brush B. Thumbnail of a snapshot C. History state D. History state slider

E. Create new document from current state button F. Create new snapshot button G. Trash button

To delete one or more states of the image


Do one of the following: Click the name of the state, and choose Delete from the History palette menu to delete that change and those that came after it. Drag the state to the Trash button ( ) to delete change and those that came after it.

Choose Clear History from the palette menu to delete the list of states from the History palette, without changing the image. This option doesn't reduce the amount of memory used by Photoshop. Hold down Alt (in Windows) or Option (in Mac OS) and choose Clear History from the palette menu to purge the list of states from the History palette without changing the image.

If you get a message that Photoshop is low on memory, purging states is useful, since the command deletes the states from the Undo buffer and frees up memory. This action cannot be undone. Choose Edit > Purge > Histories to purge the list of states from the History palette for all open documents.

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INFORMATION SHEET #2

Using context menus


In addition to the menus at the top of your screen, context-sensitive menus display commands relevant to the active tool, selection, Or palette. To display context menus: 1. Position the pointer over an image or palette item. 2. Click with the right mouse button (Windows) or hold down Control and press the mouse button (Mac OS).

The Color palette (F6)


The Color palette displays the color values for the current foreground and background colors. Using the sliders in the Color palette, you can edit the foreground and background colors according to several different color models. You can also choose a foreground or background color from the spectrum of colors displayed in the color bar

To display the Color palette:


Choose Window > Color, or click the Color palette tab.

To select the foreground or background color: From the Color palette menu, choose the color model you want to use for color readout values. To edit the foreground or background color, make sure that its color selection box is active or outlined. To make the foreground or background color selection box active, click the box. To specify a new color, do one of the following: 1. Drag the color sliders. 2. Drag through the color bar along the bottom. If you want to turn off the dynamically changing color sliders preview feature to improve performance, choose Edit > Preferences > General and deselect Dynamic Color Sliders. 3. Enter values next to the color sliders. 4. Click the color selection box, choose a color in the color picker, and click OK.
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INFORMATION SHEET #2

The Color Pick

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Working with Layers


Layers allow you to make changes to an image without altering your original image data. For example, you might store photographs or elements of photographs on separate layers, later to combine them into one composite image. Think of layers as sheets of acetate stacked one on top of the other. Where there is no image on a layer (that is, in places where the layer is transparent), you can see through to the layers below. A new image in Photoshop has a single layer. This layer is called the background layer and is analogous to the base layer of a painting. You cannot change the position of the background layer in the stacking order (it is always at the bottom of the stacking order); nor can you apply a blending mode or opacity to a background layer (unless you first convert it to a normal layer). You can draw, edit, paste, and reposition elements on one layer without disturbing the others. Until you combine, or merge, the layers, each layer remains independent of the others in the image. This means you can experiment freely with graphics, type, opacities, and blending modes. Photoshop supports normal layers and text layers. Additionally, Photoshop supports adjustment and fill layers. You can apply sophisticated effects to layers using masks, layer clipping paths, and layer styles. When you transfer a layered image between Photoshop and its partner program ImageReady, all layers, layer masks, layer clipping paths, layer styles, and adjustment layers are preserved. Although adjustment layers and fill layers can be applied and edited only in Photoshop, they can be viewed in ImageReady. Layer clipping paths can be created with either Photoshop or ImageReady, but Photoshop provides more support for editing them.

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INFORMATION SHEET #2

The Layers palette (F7)


You can use the Layers palette to create, hide, display, duplicate, merge, link, lock, and delete layers. The Layers palette lists all layers and layer sets in an image, starting with the topmost layer. A thumbnail of the layer's contents appears next to the layer name. The thumbnail is updated as you edit. You can make changes only to the active layer, and only one layer can be active at a time. When you move or transform the active layer, those changes also affect any layers linked to it. Additionally, you can fully or partially lock layers to protect their contents.

You can also use the Layers palette to apply layer masks and layer clipping paths to a layer. You can also apply layer styles to a layer and create adjustment layers or fill layers. You can use a clipping group to act as a mask for a group of layers or to specify a blending mode for a group of layers. A. Layer lock options (from left to right): Transparency, Image, Position, All B. Layer set C. Clipping group D. Text layer E. Base of clipping group F. Show/Hide Layer G. Currently editing this layer H. Link/Unlink this layer to the one currently selected I. Fully locked layer
J. Show/Hide layer style K. Effects bar L. Selected layer M. Partially locked layer N. New layer styles O. New layer mask P. New layer set Q. New adjustment or fill layer R. New layer S. Trash

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SELF CHECK #2

FILL IN THE BLANKS:

1. The ________ displays the color values for the current foreground and background colors. 2. ______ allow you to make changes to an image without altering your original image data. 3. The _________ use to revert to a previous state of an image, to delete an image's states, and to create a document from a state or snapshot. 4. To show or hide all open palettes, the options bar, and the toolbox, press ______. 5. To show or hide all palettes, press _________.

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ANSWER KEY #2

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Color palette Layers History palette Tab Shift + Tab

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ACTIVITY SHEET #1

Exercise: To create our little penguin:


Step 1: The Body Start a new document of size 400x400 pixels at a resolution of 72 pixels per inch. (Click File > New and type in these settings, then click OK.) Draw an ellipse using the Elliptical Marquee tool and fill it with black color using the Paint Bucket tool, (on the same button as the Gradient tool):

Create another layer (Layer > New > Layer, or Shift+Ctrl+N) and draw another ellipse as shown, then fill it with a smooth white gradient. To do this, right click on the Gradient tool (on the same button as the Paint Bucket Tool). Click and drag the Gradient tool bottom to top and experiment until you achieve the desired effect:

Step 2: The lower part of the body Create another layer and draw a new ellipse like this:

Using the Paint Bucket tool, and changing the Opacity on the Options Bar to 80%, fill in that new ellipse with white color:

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ACTIVITY SHEET #1

This step might take a few tries to get right: Now deselect the selected ellipse (Select > Deselect, or Ctrl + D) and draw another ellipse like this. Try to get it as close to the outline of your original black ellipse as possible.

Once you are happy with its position, select the inverse area of this. (Select>Inverse) and press the delete key on the keyboard to remove the background image data, and we have this:

Step 3: The Eyes Again create a new layer, and using the Elliptical Marquee tool and the Paint Bucket tool, draw one of the eyes, with a white ellipse and a smaller black ellipse.

Duplicate the layer (Layer>Duplicate Layer) and use the move tool to reposition this layer for its other eye. Or, alternatively, you can duplicate the layer and then flip it before you reposition the object (Edit>Transform>Flip Horizontal).

Step4:The Beak

Again create a new layer, and draw a rectangle beak with the Rectangle Marquee tool. Double click the gradient palette to get to the Gradient Editor Window, then click Orange, Yellow, and Orange from the presets (this is the 8th option in Photoshop CS).

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ACTIVITY SHEET #1

Now select the free transform (Edit > transform > perspective), experimenting to make the beak the shape you want: When youre finished, click any other tool and select Apply the transformation.

Try using drop shadow (Layer > Layer Style > Drop Shadow) to give a little depth.

Step 5: The Feet Create another layer and draw an ellipse like we did previously, filling it with a gradient foot color.

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ACTIVITY SHEET #1

Using the same process as for the eyes, duplicate the layer to make the other foot and finish the penguin.

Step 6: Putting it all together At this time your penguin is still a stack of layers so the last step will be to merge the layers into one image. From the Layers Pallet: Make sure that the layers and groups you want to merge are visible. (Do they have the little eye symbol next to them?) Select the layers and groups you want to merge. Now choose Layer > Merge Layers. (Ctrl + E)

The final effect.

ACTIVITY SHEET #2

In this Photoshop photo effects tutorial, we're going to learn how to easily add a realistic water reflection to any photo. It's a very easy effect to create and you can add it to any photo you like, although it tends to work best with images that don't already contain water in them. We'll be using a simple filter and a displacement map to create the water ripple effect, and a Hue/Saturation adjustment layer to give our water a little color.

Here's the photo that I'll be working with throughout this tutorial:

The original image.

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ACTIVITY SHEET #2

And here's what our image is going to look like after adding the water reflection :

The final result.

Step 1: Duplicate The Background Layer


With our image newly opened inside Photoshop, we can see in the Layers palette that we currently have one layer, the Background layer, which contains our image:

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ACTIVITY SHEET #2

The original image on the Background layer in the Layers palette. We need to duplicate the Background layer, and we can do that using the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+J (Win) / Command+J (Mac ). Now when I look in my Layers palette now, I can see that I now have two layers - my original Background layer on the bottom and a new layer, "Layer 1", above it which is my duplicate:

Press "Ctrl+J" (Win) / "Command+J" (Mac) to duplicate the Background layer.

Step 2: Add More Canvas Space To The Bottom Of The Document


We're going to add our water reflection below the image, so let's add some canvas space to the bottom of our document to make room for our reflection. To do that, go up to the Image menu at the top of the screen and choose Canvas Size. This will bring up Photoshop's "Canvas Size" dialog box. The easiest thing to do here is to add twice as much canvas space as what we currently have, but we only want it to appear at the bottom of the document, not above it or on either side, so we need to tell Photoshop exactly where we want this extra canvas space to go. First, enter 100 for the Height and set the measurement to percent, as circled in red below. Leave the Width option set to 0. Then make sure the Relative option is checked, which tells Photoshop to give us 100% more canvas space than what we already have. Below the "Relative" option is a 3x3 grid of squares. This is where we tell Photoshop where we want to place our additional canvas space. Click inside the square in the middle of the top row (again as circled below). This tells Photoshop not to place any of the extra canvas space above the document and instead to place all of it at the bottom:

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Add more canvas space using the "Canvas Size" dialog box. Click OK to exit out of the dialog box, and Photoshop will add the extra canvas space to the bottom of the image: The height of the document has now been doubled with the extra canvas space added to the bottom.

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Step 3: Flip The Top Layer Vertically


In order to create our reflection, we need to flip our image upside down, so let's do that. With the top layer selected in the Layers palette, go up to the Edit menu at the top of the screen, choose Transform, and then choose Flip Vertical. Photoshop will flip the image upside down in the document:

Go to Edit > Transform > Flip Vertical to flip the image on the top layer upside down.

Step 4: Drag The Flipped Image To The Bottom Of The Document


We need the flipped image to be at the bottom of the document, so grab your Move Tool from the Tools palette, or press V on your keyboard for the shortcut:

Select the Move Tool. Then, with the Move Tool selected, click inside the document and drag the flipped image down to the bottom until the top of it is lined up with the bottom of the original image above it. Hold down Shift as you drag to make sure you drag down in a straight line:

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Drag the flipped image down below the original.

Step 5: Add A New Blank Layer


Now that we have our flipped image in place, we can begin to create our water ripple effect. First, we need to add a new blank layer at the top of the Layers palette, so with "Layer 1" still selected, click on the New Layer icon at the bottom of the Layers palette:

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ACTIVITY SHEET #2 Add a new blank layer to the document. Step 6: Fill The New Layer With White We're going to fill our new blank layer with white. If white is not currently your Background color, press D on your keyboard, which will reset Photoshop's Foreground and Background colors, making black your Foreground color and white your Background color. Then use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Backspace (Win) / Command+Delete to fill the new layer with the Background color (white). Your document will be filled with solid white.

The entire image is now filled with white. Step 7: Apply The "Halftone Pattern" Filter To Create Black And White Horizontal Lines Go up to the Filter menu at the top of the screen, choose Sketch, and then choose Halftone Pattern. This brings up Photoshop's Filter Gallery (in Photoshop CS and higher) set to the "Halftone Pattern" filter options on the right, with a large preview of the effect on the left. We're going to use this filter to add a series of black and white horizontal lines to the image. These lines are going to become our water ripples . The more lines we have, the more ripples we'll have. First, we want to make sure we're creating lines and not dots or circles, so set the Pattern Type option to Lines. We control the number of lines by adjusting the Size option. Lower values give us more lines, since we're lowering the size of each line, and higher values give us fewer but thicker lines. I'm going to set my Size value to 7, which I think works best for my image. You may want to experiment with this value on your own. The Contrast option below it determines how sharp the edges of the lines are. Lower values give you softer lines, white higher values give you hard edge lines. Set this value all the way to 50 to give your lines sharp edges. We're going to soften them ourselves with the Gaussian Blur filter in a moment:
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Adjust the Halftone Pattern filter options to create a series of black and white lines through the image. Click OK when you're done to exit out of the dialog box, and Photoshop will fill the image from top to bottom with your black and white lines:

The image is now filled with black and white horizontal lines.

Step 8: Apply The "Gaussian Blur" Filter To The Lines


Before we can use our black and white lines as water ripples , we need to smooth them out and create nice, smooth transitions between them. To do that, go up to the Filter menu once again, choose Blur, and then choose Gaussian Blur, which brings up the "Gaussian Blur" dialog box. Keep an eye on your image and drag the slider at the bottom of the dialog box to increase the Radius value until the lines have a very soft edge to them. I'm using a small image for this tutorial, so for me, a Radius value of about 4 pixels works well. If you're using a larger, high resolution image, you'll need to set yours to a higher value:
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Use the Gaussian Blur filter to smooth out the edges of the lines. Click OK to exit out of the dialog box and apply the blur to the lines.

Step 9: Duplicate The Lines Layer As A New Document


We're going to create a brand new document out of our lines layer, which we'll then use as our displacement map for our water ripples . With the lines layer selected, go up to the Layer menu at the top of the screen and select Duplicate Layer, which brings up the "Duplicate Layer" dialog box. In the "Destination" options, click on the down-pointing arrow to the right of the Document option and set it to New, which will create a new Photoshop document out of our layer:

Set the "Document" option in the "Duplicate Layer" dialog box to "New". Click OK to exit out of the dialog box, and your layer will open up in a new document on the screen.
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Step 10: Save The New Document And Close Out Of It


This new document that we've created is going to become our displacement map, but before we can use it, we need to save it. We're also going to close out of it after we've saved it, since we won't need it open anymore, and the easiest way to accomplish both of those tasks is to simply close out of the document. When you try to close out of it, Photoshop will as you if you want to save the document before closing it. Click Yes:

Choose "Yes" when Photoshop asks if you want to save the document before closing it. Photoshop will bring up the Save As dialog box. You can name your new document anything you like. I'm going to name mine "water-ripples". Make sure you save it as a Photoshop .PSD file, since those are the only files that Photoshop can use as a displacement map. You'll probably want to save the document to your Desktop, since we'll need to find it again in a moment.

Step 11: Delete The Lines Layer


Now that we've used our black and white lines to create the file we'll be using as our displacement map, we can get rid of it. To do that, simply click on it and drag it down onto the Trash Bin icon at the bottom of the Layers palette:

Click and drag the lines layer ("Layer 2") onto the Trash Bin at the bottom of the Layers palette to delete it.
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Step 12: Merge The Two Layers Onto A New Layer


Before we can add use our displacement map, we need to merge our two image layers onto a new layer above them. To do that, with "Layer 1" selected, use the keyboard shortcut Shift+Ctrl+Alt+E (Win) / Shift+Command+Option+E. Nothing will appear to have happened in the document, but if we look in the Layers palette, we can see that both layers have been merged onto a new layer at the top:

Both layers are now merged onto a new layer, "Layer 2".

Step 13: Use The "Displace" Filter To Create The Water Ripples
We're ready to create our water ripples using the displacement map we just created. With the new merged layer selected in the Layers palette, go back up to the Filter menu at the top of the screen, choose Distort and then choose Displace . This brings up Photoshop's "Displace" filter dialog box. This is where we determine the strength of our ripple effect, and we do that with the Horizontal Scale option at the top. I'm going to set mine to a value of 4, which will give me a realistic ripple effect. You may want to experiment with this value with your own image. Setting it too high though will create too much of a horizontal distortion and you'll lose the realism. We don't need any vertical distortion to create our effect, so set the Vertical Scale option to 0. Also, make sure that Stretch To Fit and Repeat Edge Pixels are selected:

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Go to Filter > Distort > Displace to bring up the Displace dialog box. Click OK in the top right corner of the dialog box, and Photoshop will ask you which file you want to use as your displacement map. Choose the file that you just saved a moment ago, which I saved to my Desktop as "water-ripples.PSD", and then click Open. Photoshop will then apply the displacement map to the entire image, creating our water ripples :

The image after applying our displacement map with the "Displace" filter.
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Step 14: Hide The Ripples On Top With A Layer Mask


Of course, we have a slight problem at the moment. We've added our water ripple effect to the entire image, and we only wanted it in the bottom half. We can fix that easily though using a layer mask. First, Ctrl-click (Win) / Command-click directly on the thumbnail for "Layer 1" in the Layers palette to place a selection around the flipped image at the bottom of the document:

"Right-click" (Win) / "Control-click" (Mac) directly on Layer 1's thumbnail in the Layers palette to place a selection around the flipped image. You'll see a selection appear around the bottom half of the image in your document. Now, with the merged layer still selected, click on the Layer Mask icon at the bottom of the Layers palette:

Click on the "Layer Mask" icon to add a layer mask to the merged layer at the top of the Layers palette.

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Photoshop will add a layer mask to the merged layer, and because we had a selection around the bottom half of our document when we added the layer mask, only the bottom half of the merged layer remains visible. The top half becomes hidden from view, removing the unwanted water ripples from that part of the image:

The ripple effect is now hidden from the top half of the image after applying the layer mask. We're almost done. Let's finish things off by adding a hint of color to the water, which we'll do next.

Step 15: Apply The "Gaussian Blur" Filter To The Layer Mask
Before we add our finishing touch by colorizing the water , let's soften the edge of the layer mask a little so there isn't such a harsh dividing line between the image on top and the water below. We'll use the Gaussian Blur filter for that, and since we want to apply it to the layer mask, we'll need to first select the mask. We can do that by clicking on the layer mask thumbnail in the Layers palette:
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Adobe Photoshop Tutorials: Click on the layer mask thumbnail in the Layers palette to select the layer mask. You can tell that the layer mask is now selected by the white highlight box around its thumbnail. We're going to apply the Gaussian Blur filter to the mask, so go back up to the Filter menu, select Blur once again, and then select Gaussian Blur. When the dialog box appears, simply click OK to apply the same Radius value we used previously.

Step 16: Colorize The Water With A Hue/Saturation Adjustment Layer


Let's finish things off now by adding just a hint of blue to our water, and we'll use a Hue/Saturation adjustment layer for that. We want the adjustment layer to only affect the bottom half of the image where the water ripples are, so hold down your Alt (Win) / Option (Mac ) key, click on the New Adjustment Layer icon at the bottom of the Layers palette, then select Hue/Saturation from the list of adjustment layers:

Hold down "Alt" (Win) / "Option" (Mac), click on the "New Adjustment Layer" icon, then drag your mouse to "Hue/Saturation" to select it.
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By holding down "Alt/Option", this tells Photoshop to bring up the New Layer dialog box before adding the adjustment layer. Select the Use Previous Layer To Create Clipping Mask option by clicking inside the checkbox to the left of it:

Select the "Use Previous Layer To Create Clipping Mask" option in the "New Layer" dialog box. This option tells Photoshop that we want the adjustment layer to affect only the layer directly below it in the Layers palette, and since the layer below it is the layer containing our water ripples , only the water ripples will be colorized, which is what we want. Click OK to exit out of the dialog box. This will bring up the Hue/Saturation dialog box. We want to colorize our water, so the first thing we want to do here is select the Colorize option in the bottom right corner. Then select the color you want your water to be by dragging the Hue slider at the top. I'm going to drag my slider to the right to a value of about 218, which I think is a good color for my water :

Use the Hue/Saturation dialog box to colorize the water . Click OK to exit out of the dialog box , and you'll see that your water on the bottom has now been colorized, but the color is much too strong at the moment.
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Step 17: Lower The Opacity Of The Hue/Saturation Layer


To reduce the intensity of the color we just added to the water , all we need to do is go up to the Opacity option in the top right corner of the Layers palette and lower the opacity value. I'm going to lower mine all the way down to about 25%, which adds a much more realistic amount of color to the water :

Lower the opacity of the adjustment layer until the water has only a hint of color to it. Once you've lowered the opacity of the adjustment layer to reduce the color intensity of the water , you're done! Here once again is my original image for comparison:

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The original image once again. And here is my final "water reflection" result:

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The final effect.

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In this Photoshop Text Effects tutorial, we'll learn how to engulf text in an explosion of light and color. There's quite a few steps involved in this text effect, and we'll be using a couple of filters that are not used very often in everyday Photoshop work, but creating the text effect is quite simple and the end result is definitely worth the effort. Here's the text effect we're going for:

The final result.

Step 1: Open A New Photoshop Document


Open a new document in Photoshop by going up to the File menu and choosing New..., or by using the keyboard shortcut, Ctrl+N (Win) / Command+N. You can choose your own width and height for your document, but if you want to follow along, I chose the 640x480 size from the list of available presets to keep things simple. I've also left my Resolution value set to its default of 72 pixels/inch. Since I'm creating this text effect for the web, it makes no difference what I set the resolution value to, so the default value is fine:
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Create a new document in Photoshop. To follow along, use the "640x480" preset size.

Step 2: Add Your Text


With your new blank document open, grab the Type tool from the Tools palette or by pressing T on your keyboard. Make sure black is selected as your foreground color. If it isn't, just press D on your keyboard to reset it to black. Choose your font in the Options Bar at the top of the screen. Thick, heavy fonts work best for this effect. Then, go ahead and enter your text. I'm going to use "Impact", and I'll type the words "LIGHT BURST":

Choose a thick, heavy font, and with black as your foreground color, enter your text.

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Step 3: Resize Your Text With Free Transform


With your text layer selected in the Layers palette, use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+T (Win) / Command+T (Mac) to bring up the Free Transform box and handles around your text. Hold down Shift+Alt (Win) / Shift+Option (Mac) and drag out any of the corner handles to make your text larger and fill up more of the document area. Holding Shift constrains the text proportions, and holding Alt/Option resizes the text from the center:

Resize the text with Photoshop's "Free Transform" command. Make sure to still leave plenty of room around the text for our light burst effect. Press Enter (Win) / Return (Mac) when you're done to accept the transformation.

Step 4: Rasterize Your Text


We're going to be applying several filters to our text, but Photoshop doesn't allow us to do that without first rasterizing it, which simply means to convert it into pixels. So again with the text layer selected, go up to the Layer menu at the top of the screen, choose Rasterize, and then choose Type. This will convert our text into pixels. It will still look the same in the document window, but in the Layers palette, the Type layer will now be a regular layer:
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After rasterizing the text, the Type layer in the Layers palette becomes a normal layer.

Step 5: Add A Selection Around Your Text And Save It

Ctrl-click (Win) / Command-click directly on the thumbnail preview area of the text layer in the Layers palette to quickly load a selection around your text:

"Ctrl-click" (Win) / "Command-click" (Mac) directly on the text thumbnail in the Layers palette. Your text will now have a selection around it:
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The text is now selected. With the text selected, go up to the Select menu at the top of the screen and choose Save Selection. When the Save Selection dialog box appears, just click OK. There's no need to name it or make any changes to the options. Once you've saved your selection, press Ctrl+D (Win) / Command+D (Mac) to deselect your text. Switch over to your Channels palette for a moment (it's grouped in beside the Layers palette) and you'll see your selection saved as a new channel named "Alpha 1" at the very bottom. We'll be coming back here a bit later to load our selection again:

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The selection is now saved as a new channel, "Alpha 1", in Photoshop's Channels palette.

Step 6: Use "Fill" To Fill Your Text Layer With White And Set The Blend Mode To "Multiply"
Switch back to your Layers palette once again, and with the text layer selected, go up to the Edit menu at the top of the screen and choose Fill, or press Shift+F5 on your keyboard to quickly bring up Photoshop's Fill dialog box. When the dialog box appears, set the Contents to White and change the Blending Mode to Multiply:

Photoshop's "Fill" dialog box". Click OK when you're done. Nothing will seem to have happened in your document window, but if you look at your text layer's thumbnail in the Layers palette, you'll see that all of the empty space around the text has now been filled with white, while leaving the text black thanks to that "Multiply" mode.

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Step 7: Apply The Gaussian Blur Filter To The Text


Go up to the Filter menu at the top of the screen, choose Blur, and then choose Gaussian Blur. When the Gaussian Blur dialog box appears, enter a Radius value of about 4 pixels and click OK to apply a slight blurring to the text:

Apply the Gaussian Blur filter to the text. Here's the text after applying Gaussian Blur:

The text is now blurred slightly.

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Step 8: Apply The "Solarize" Filter To The Text


With the text layer still selected, go back up to the Filter menu and this time choose Stylize, and then choose Solarize. This will turn the document black, and your text will appear as a white stroke:

The image after applying the Solarize filter.

Step 9: Lighten The Text With Levels


The text is looking a little dark, so let's lighten it. Use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+L (Win) / Command+L (Mac ) to bring up Photoshop's Levels command, and drag the white point slider on the right in towards the left until you reach the right edge of the histogram:

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With the Levels dialog box open, grab the white point slider on the right and drag it to the right edge of the histogram to brighten the text. Click OK. The text will now appear much brighter:

The text is now much brighter after applying Levels.

Step 10: Make A Copy Of The Text Layer


We need to make a copy of the text layer at this point, so to do that, with the text layer selected, use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+J (Win) / Command+J (Mac), which will add a copy of the layer above it in the Layers palette:

The Layers palette now showing both the text layer and the copy above it.
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Make sure the copy of the text layer is selected because all of these next steps are to be done on the copy. We won't be touching the original again until near the end.

Step 11: Apply The "Polar Coordinates" Filter To The Text


Go back up to the Filter menu, and this time choose Distort, and then Polar Coordinates. We're going to send our text to the North Pole. Alright, no we're not. What we are going to do is make it look very strange. When the Polar Coordinates dialog box appears, select the Polar To Rectangular option at the very bottom and then click OK:

Photoshop's "Polar Coordinates" dialog box. Your text will now look very strange indeed:

The text after applying the "Polar Coordinates" filter.


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Step 12: Rotate The Canvas 90 Degrees Clockwise


Go up to the Image menu at the top of the screen, select Rotate Canvas, and then choose 90 CW to rotate the canvas 90 degrees clockwise:

Rotate the canvas 90 degrees clockwise.

Step 13: Invert The Image


Use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+I (Win) / Command+I (Mac ) to invert the image, so black becomes white and white becomes black:

Invert the image with "Ctrl+I" (Win) / "Command+I" (Mac).

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Step 14: Apply The "Wind" Filter Three Times


Go back up to the Filter menu once again, choose Stylize, and then choose Wind. When the Wind filter's dialog box appears, make sure Method is set to Wind and Direction is set to From the Right:

Photoshop's "Wind" filter.

Click OK to apply the Wind filter once. Then press the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+F (Win) / Command+F twice to apply the same filter two more times.

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Step 15: Invert The Image Again


Press Ctrl+I (Win) / Command+I (Mac) to invert the image once again:

Invert the image once again using "Ctrl+I" (Win) / "Command+I" (Mac).

Step 16: Apply The "Wind" Filter Three More Times


With the image inverted, press the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+F (Win) / Command+F (Mac)

three more times to apply the filter to the image three more times. Appply the "Wind" filter to the image three more times.

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Step 17: Brighten The Image Again With Levels


We need to brighten the image again using Levels, but this time, we'll let Photoshop do the work for us by using Auto Levels. To do that, press Shift+Ctrl+L (Win) / Shift+Command+L (Mac) to apply the Auto Levels command to the image, which will brighten it up:

Apply the "Auto Levels" command to brighten the image.

Step 18: Rotate The Canvas 90 Degrees Counterclockwise


Go back up to the Image menu at this point, choose Rotate Canvas once again, and this time choose 90 CCW to rotate the canvas back to the way it was originally:

Rotate the canvas 90 CCW.


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Step 19: Apply The "Polar Coordinates" Filter Again


Go back up to the Filter menu again, choose Distort, and then choose Polar Coordinates. This time choose the Rectangular to Polar option and click OK:

Apply "Polar Coordinates" again, this time choosing "Rectangular to Polar". Your image should now look something like this:

The image after applying the "Polar Coordinates" filter a second time.
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Step 20: Set The Layer Blend Mode To "Screen"


Go up to the blend mode options in the top left of the Layers palette and change the blend mode of the text copy layer from "Normal" to Screen by clicking on the downpointing arrow and selecting "Screen" from the list:

Change the blend mode of the text copy layer to Screen. This reveals the original text layer beneath it:

The original text layer is now visible as well.


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Step 21: Apply A Gradient Fill Layer To Add Color


Click on the New Fill Or Adjustment Layer icon at the bottom of the Layers palette:

Click the "New Fill Or Adjustment Layer icon. And select "Gradient" from the list:

Select a Gradient fill layer. When the Gradient Fill dialog box pops up, click inside the gradient preview area at the top:

Click inside the gradient preview area.


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This will bring up the Gradient Editor dialog box. Click on the gradient swatch in the top left, the black to white gradient first, and this will make sure that both colors on either side of the gradient have their opacity set to 100%:

Select the black to white gradient swatch in the top left to make sure both colors are set to 100% opacity first. Then set your gradient colors to whatever you like. I've set the color on the left to a reddish-orange, and the color on the right to a yellowish-orange:

Set your gradient colors. Exit out of the gradient dialog boxes once you've chosen your colors.

Step 22: Change The Blend Mode Of The Gradient Fill Layer To "Color"
With the Gradient fill layer selected, go back to the blend mode options in the top left of the Layers palette and change the layer's blend mode to Color:

Change the blend mode of the Gradient fill layer to "Color".


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The image is now colorized with the colors from the gradient:

The gradient colors are now applied to the image.

Step 23: Apply A Radial Blur To The Original Text Layer


We're done with the text copy layer at this point. We're going to finish off the last few steps by working on the original text layer, so click on it in the Layers palette to select it. Then go up to the Filter menu, choose Blur, and then choose Radial Blur:

Photoshop's "Radial Blur" dialog box. Set the Amount to about 65 pixels, the Blur Method to Zoom, and the Quality to Best, as circled above, and then click OK to apply the filter to the original text:

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The Radial Blur applied to the image.

Step 24: Load The Saved Text Selection


Only a couple of things left to do. First, switch over to your Channels palette again like we did earlier. We're going to reload that selection we saved. To do that, simply rightclick (Win) / Control-click anywhere on the Alpha 1 channel at the very bottom, which will load the selection back into the document window:

Right-click (Win) / Control-click (Mac) anywhere on the "Alpha 1" channel to load the saved text selection. Switch back to the Layers palette when you're done. The selection is now loaded in the image:

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The selection now loaded into the image. One thing left to do...

Step 25: Fill The Selection With Black


With the original text layer selected in the Layers palette and black still as your foreground color, press Alt+Backspace (Win) / Option-Delete (Mac) to fill the selection with black and finish the effect. Press Ctrl+D (Win) / Command+D (Mac) to remove the selection, and you're done! After all that, here's the final "light burst" text effect:

The final "Light Burst" effect. And there we have it!

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In this tutorial we will create a beautiful nature inspired text effect in Photoshop.

Tutorial Details Step 1 - Create a new file with 2000px width and 1100px height.

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Step 2 - Open the valley image mentioned above and paste it on our file.

Step 3 - Now select the Text Tool and add the text.

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Step 4 - Now change the text color to # 141414.

Step 5 - Select the Text Tool again and add the same text but this time with color # fff1e4

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Step 6 - Now select the Move Tool and move the second layer of text over the black text. So it can give us almost 3D look.

Step 7 - Now we will add some styles to our second text layer. We will start with drop shadow. So for this click on Layer> Layer Style> Drop shadow.
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Step 8 - We need to add some Inner Glow. So click on Layer> Layer style> Inner Glow.

Step 9 - Now click on Stroke and add a stroke with color # 779300

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Step 10 - Now we will create the reflection of the text. For this simply duplicate the text layer. Right click on the layer and select Duplicate Layer. Make sure you duplicate the black layer.

Step 11 - Press Command/ Ctrl + T then right click on it and select Flip Vertical.
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Step 12 - Now simply place it under the text and select Eraser Tool. Then with soft round brush erase the lower part of the text. And if you want you can reduce the opacity to 75%.

Step 13 - Now lets decorate our text. So open the sky image and reduce the opacity so we can get the outline of our text. Now select the pen tool and create a path along our first letter.
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Step 14 - Now right-click on the path and select Make selection. Then simply copy and paste the selection.

Step 15 - Now open the valley image and repeat the same process.
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Step 16 - Now open the tree image and roughly select the free and place it on our G and our G is ready.

Step 17 - Now open the Rock image and place it over our R. Select it using the pen tool.
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Step 18 - Copy the select area and paste it on our R.

Step 19 - Once again add the sky on pour O and then open the tree image and paste it on the letter. Remove the part covering the middle with Eraser Tool.
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ACTIVITY SHEET #4

Step 20 - Now open the stair image and select them. After that paste the stairs on the left side of our O.

Step 21 - If you want you can copy the top of the tree and paste it down on the stairs. You can adjust the color using Command/Ctrl + U.
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ACTIVITY SHEET #4

Step 22 - open the Water fall image and paste it on our W.

Step 23 - Now select the pen tool and make a selection.


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ACTIVITY SHEET #4

Simply adjust the brightness, for this click on Images> Adjustment> Brightness/ Contrast and we are done.

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ACTIVITY SHEET #5

Flaming Meteor Collision Effect in Photoshop

In this tutorial, you will learn how to create a fiery collision effect in outer space using Photoshop. We will learn how to create a flaming meteor collision photo manipulation.

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ACTIVITY SHEET #5

Tutorial Details Tutorial Assets


Star Brush Set Earth Image Blue Image Flame Image

Now we have everything we need we can start. Step 1:- Open your Photoshop and create a new file with 2000px Width and 2000px Height.

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ACTIVITY SHEET #5

Step 2:- Now for the background, select the Gradient Tool and click on Gradient editor. Then adjust the color stops. Keep the color #000000 on left and # 2a270f on right.

Step 3:- Now create a new layer, for this click on Layer> New> Layer. And use star brushes randomly on the background with different colors. Ive used # 505b63 and 443341.

Step 4:- Open the earth image then copy and paste the earth on our main file. And now well add some outer glow to our earth so for this click on Layer> Layer style> Outer Glow.

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ACTIVITY SHEET #5

Step 5:- Now once again create a new layer and select the soft round brush with foreground color #f16523. Use it on the upper right corner of our earth.

Now change the Blending mode of the layer to Color.


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ACTIVITY SHEET #5

Step 6:- Now open the flame image and paste it on the upper right corner as well. And this time change the blending mode to Overlay.

Step 7:-Select the Ellipse Tool and create a small circle, fill it with #ffffff. Now we need to add outer glow to our circle so click on Layer> Layer style> Outer Glow.
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ACTIVITY SHEET #5

Step 8:- Now open the Blue earth image and paste it on top of our circle.

Step 9:- Once again we need to use some of the star brushes. So select the star brush with foreground color #ffffff and use it to create the smoke.
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ACTIVITY SHEET #5

Step 10:- Create another new layer. Then select soft round brush and use on the upper right corner over the blue earth with color # f5901d and #ffffff.

Now change the blending mode to Color.


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ACTIVITY SHEET #5

Step 11:- Now copy and paste the flame all over our meteorite. And change the blending mode to Overlay.

Step 12:- Create a new layer, and then change the foreground color to # ef6422. Select the Soft Round brush and use it on the lower right side. And then change the blending mode to Color.

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ACTIVITY SHEET #5

Step 13:- Now copy white circle we have created above and paste it on the lower right corner. And reduce the opacity to 50%.

Step 14:- Now once again paste the flames on it and change the blending mode to Overlay.

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ACTIVITY SHEET #5

Step 15:- Create another layer and select a star brush and use it with fore ground color # ffffff. Then click on Layer> Layer Style> Outer Glow. And add outer glow to our start with color # ffa200.

Step 16:- Now select the Lasso Tool and select a few pieces of the earth. Then copy and paste them randomly. You can also add texture to some or a little bit of drop shadow.

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ACTIVITY SHEET #5

Step 17:- Now once again paste the flames over it and change the blending mode to Overlay.

And now our Fiery Cosmic Collision Effect photo manipulation is done. We hope you guys enjoyed it and learned how to create a powerful visual impact with this tutorial!

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ACTIVITY SHEET #6

Selecting Hair from a picture A. Selecting hair from a white background picture.

Step 1: Select a picture that you want to edit using adobe photoshop. Step 2: Click Channel on the Layer Palette.

Step 3: Were going to create a mask its either black or white by clicking through the channels and choosing which one has the most contrast like the picture shown below. (Recommended channel: Blue).

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Step 4: Duplicating the selected channel. Click the Image menu then click calculation. Make sure that the source 1: should be the blue channel and source 2: should also be the blue channel, Blending mode should be Overlay, result should be new channel.

The result should have a new channel which is Alpha 1. Step 5: Increasing the contrast. Press Ctrl L to go to levels.

The goal is to increase the dark part of the image. To do that, move black controller to the right side until you achieve the picture shown below.

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Step 6: Press B to go to brush. Right then choose a circular solid edge brush.

Step 7: Select the black color in your foreground color. Paint the image all black using the brush tool.

Step 8: Change the foreground color into white Step 9: Invert the color of the channel then paint the background of the image into white. by pressing Ctrl I

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Step 10: Click and select the original channel to go back to the original picture

then click the layer panel. Hold the alt key then double click the thumbnail of the background layer to make it an ordinary layer.

Step 11: Click the Select menu then click Load selection. The channel should be Alpha 1. The image now should have a selection around it as shown on the picture below.

Step 12: Press Ctrl C to Copy the image then press Ctrl V to Paste the image to a new layer. Step 13: Click the channel panel then click the Alpha 1 channel. Hold Ctrl then click the thumbnail of the of the Alpha 1 channel.

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Step 14: Click select menu, click modify, and then click contract. The value of contract by should be 1.

Step 15: Click select menu, click modify, and then click feather. The value of the feather should be .2

Step 16: Press Ctrl shift I to inverse the selection of the image or go to Select menu then click inverse. Use the brush tool then paint the selected area with the color black on your foreground color.

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Step 17: Press Ctrl shift I to inverse the selection of the image or go to Select menu then click inverse. then select and highlight the original channels.

Step 18: Click the layer panel to go back to the original image. Pres Ctrl C to Copy the image then press Ctrl V to paste it into a new layer.

Step 19: Click the layer 0 then press Ctrl Shift N to have a new layer. Click the foreground color then choose the color red. Pres Alt Delete to apply the color on foreground to your new layer.

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Step 20: Click the burn tool on the toolbox and apply it on the edge of the image especially on the edge of the hair.

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ACTIVITY SHEET #7

Creating Animated Pictures For this animated picture we will be using a basketball. We will make it move using animation in photoshop.

Step1. In creating an animated picture click the Window menu then click Animation.

After you click animation you will see the animation panel at the bottom portion of photoshop.

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Step2. To make it move from left to right, you must click duplicate selected frame.

You will notice that at the start of the animation the only available tool is duplicate selected frame

After you click the duplicate selected frame you will see an additional frame at the panel.

Step3. Using the move tool move the ball image from left to right.

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You will notice that when you move the basketball from left to right the first frame won't be affected. All of the tools on the frame panel are now accessible. You can test your animation by clicking Plays animation.

Step4. To add effects on your animation click Tweens animation frames.

Choose "Previous Frame" in Tween With:, the number of frames in Frames to add: is up to you . click "All Layers" in Layers, Click all the option in the parameter then click ok.

NOTE: The higher the number of frames in your Frames to add the slower your animation becomes.

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OPTIONAL: You can add frame delay on each frame to manipulate the timing in your animation. To do that click Select frame delay time.

You can choose from list seconds or if you want to customize the number of seconds click "other" to type the number of delay seconds you want.

Step5. Repeat step 2 to 4 until you finish your animation but change the direc

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DATACOM INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY


SECOND SEMESTER SECOND TRANSITION

COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT

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Course Syllabus Chapter

1 Basic Skill in Mathematics


Place Value Writing Hindu- Arabic Numerals in Words Rounding Off Numbers Rules in Rounding Off Numbers Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Exercises

2 Fractions
What is Fraction? Kinds of fraction Changing Improper to Mixed Number Changing Mixed to Improper Fraction Reducing Fraction to Lowest Terms Addition of Fraction Subtraction of Fraction Multiplication of Fraction Division of Fraction Exercises

3 Decimals
Addition of Decimals Subtraction of Decimals Multiplication of Decimals Division of Decimals Exercises

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4 Conversion Techniques
Changing Percent to Decimal Changing Decimal to Percent Changing Fraction to Percent Changing Percent to Fraction Exercises

5 Percentages: Ratio and Proportions


Finding Percentage Finding Base Finding Rate Ratio and Proportion Exercises

6 Commissions and Interest


What is Commissions? Formula of Commission Finding Commissions, Sales & Rate of Commissions What is Interest? Formula of Interest Finding Interest, Principal, Rate & Time Exercises

7Bank Reconciliation
Information Sheet Bank Reconciliation Process Sample of Bank Reconciliation Exercises

8 Taxes and Payroll


Employees Pay The Overtime Pay The Holiday Pay Deduction from Gross Pay Withholding Tax Net Income

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INFORMATION SHEET 1.1 CHAPTER I

Basic Skills in Mathematics

Place Value
A. Whole Number Example: 1 5 4 8 6 3 2 0 7 9 Billions Hundred Millions Ten Millions Millions Hundred Thousands Ten Thousands Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones

B. Decimal Number Example: 0 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 Zero Decimal Point Tenths Hundredths Thousandths Ten Thousandths Hundred Thousandths Millionths

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C. Monetary Unit (Philippine Peso) Example: P 2 1 7 9 . 4 5 2 Philippine Peso Sign Thousand Pesos Hundred Pesos Ten Pesos One Peso/s Decimal Point Ten-Centavo Centavo Tenth of a Centavo

Writing Hindu-Arabic Numerals in Words


Examples: 1. Thirty pesos and fifty centavos = P30.50 2. Twenty-nine thousand and eight tenths = 29, 000.8 3. Seventy six hundredth of a centavo = P0.0076 4. Two million, eight thousand, ten = 2, 008, 010 5. Six hundred five thousand, eight nine = 605, 089 6. Twelve million, sixty = 12, 000, 060 7. Eighty five and thirty nine hundredth of a centavo = P0.8539 8. Sixty two thousand one hundred and 40/100 pesos = P62,100.40 9. Nine hundred sixty five and 18/100 pesos = P965.18 10. Five hundred and seventy eight ten-thousandths = 500.0078

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Self Check 1.1 PLACE VALUE


Name:_______________________________________ Room:____________________ Time:__________
A. Write the following Hindu Arabic numerals in words. 1. 6.504 2. 1, 206, 718 3. 42, 009 4. 612, 791 5. 34, 282, 802 6. 839, 010 7. 312, 006, 200 8. 0.76 9. .00185 10. 415.0009 11. 0.352 12. 0.008125 13. 68.2 14. 3, 628.215 15. 8.040 B. Write the following in figures: 1. Forty pesos and thirty centavos. 2. Twenty five tenth of a centavo. 3. Thirty million, six hundred. 4. Eighty six thousand and five tenths. 5. Twelve pesos, seventy six and two tenth of a centavo. 6. One thousand five hundred ninety. 7. Sixteen thousand seven hundred and forty five pesos. 8. Thirty five hundredth of a centavo. 9. Twenty six thousand and fifteen ten-thousandths. 10. Forty eight thousand twenty nine and thirty two centavos.

Date:__________ Score:_________

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INFORMATION SHEET 1.2 ROUNDING OFF NUMBERS


Rules in Rounding Off Numbers: 1. If the digit to be dropped is more than 5, add 1 to the significant digit. Example: Round Off to the nearest hundreds. Dropping Digit = 8 1,286 Answer: 1,300 Significant Digit = 2 2. If the digit to be dropped is less than 5, leave the significant digit unchanged. Example: Round Off to the nearest Thousandths Dropping Digit = 4 0.2234 Answer: 0.223 Significant Digit = 3

3. If the digit to be dropped is 5: a. Add 1 to the significant digit, if it is an ODD number. Example: Round Off to the nearest Tens Dropping Digit = 5 P 1,256,235 Answer: P 1,256,240 Significant Digit = 3 b. Leave the significant digit, if it is an EVEN number. Example: Round Off to the nearest Hundredths Dropping Digit = 5 0.125 Answer: P 0.12 Significant Digit = 2 c. Add 1 to the significant digit, if there is a digit (except 0) after 5. Example: Round Off to the nearest Thousand Pesos Dropping Digit = 5 P 2,243,512 Answer: P 2,244,000 Significant Digit = 3

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Self Check 1.2 Rounding Off Numbers


Name:_______________________________________ Room:____________________ Time:__________ Date:__________ Score:_________

Round-Off the following numbers. 1. 4, 127 to the nearest tens. 2. 35, 719 to the nearest ten thousands. 3. 781,406 to the nearest thousands. 4. 162, 385 to the nearest hundred thousands. 5. 1, 685, 205 to the nearest tens. 6. 0.45 to the nearest tenths. 7. 2.038 to the nearest hundredths. 8. 0.005395 to the nearest millionths. 9. 0.513625 to the nearest ten thousandths. 10. 0.7456 to the nearest thousandths. 11. P 175.565 to the nearest centavo. 12. P 4, 826 to the nearest hundred Pesos. 13. P 8.45624 to the nearest hundredth of a centavo. 14. P 237, 486, 209 to the nearest million pesos. 15. P 25.3018 to the nearest tenth of a centavo.

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INFORMATION SHEET 1.3 BASIC OPERATION

Addition
A. like Signs: To add like signed numbers, add the absolute values and copy their common sign. Examples: 2+4=6 4 + 10 = 14 -3 + (-5) = -8 -9 + (-11) = -20 B. Unlike Signs: To add unlike signed numbers, subtract the absolute values and copy the sign of the higher values. Examples: -13 + 4 = -9 7 + (-5) = 2

19 + (-16) = 3 -20 + 12 = -8

Principles of Addition The principles of addition are (1) commutative or order principle, (2) identity or zero principle, and (3) associative or grouping principle. Commutative affect the sum. Examples: 35 +87 122 or Order Principle. Changing the order of the addends does not

87 +35 122

96 +83 179

83 +96 179

Identity or Zero Principle. The sum of any number added to zero is equal to that number or when zero is added to a number, the sum is equal to that number. Examples: 28 0 77 0 +0 + 28 + 0 + 77 28 28 77 77 Associative or Grouping Principle. Changing the grouping of the addends does not affect the sum. It is easy to group 3 or more addends by 10s. Examples: 1. 39 2. 43 50 39 -2 3- 43 -2 3- 50
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2- 95 32 259

32 5- 95 259

In Example 1, in the ones column, 9 + 3 = 12. For every 10, dash (-) is written and the remainder is added to the next addend, i.e., 2 + 5 + 2 = 9. In the tens columns, the dash is added to the first tens column, i.e., 1 dash or 1 + 3 + 5 + 4 = 13. Dash is placed in 4 and remainder 3 is added to the next addend or 3 + 9 = 12. Dash (-) is placed in 9, then remainder 2 is added to 3 or 2 + 3 = 5. The number of dashes is placed in the sum or hundreds place. There are 2 dashes in the tens column; hence, it is place in the hundreds place of the sum to make the sum 259. In Example 2, the data are similar with Example 1, but the order of addends is changed, yet the sum, 259, is the same.

Subtraction
a. Like Signs: To subtract like signed numbers, change the sign of the subtrahend then proceed to addition. Examples: (-12) (+10) = -12 (+18) (+7) = 11 (+8) (+12) = -4 (-42) (+10) = -52 b. Unlike Signs: To subtract unlike signed numbers, change the sign of the subtrahend then proceed to addition. Examples: (-10) (+8) = -18 (+9) (-7) = 16 (-18) (+17) = -35 (+3) (-1) = 4

Multiplication
To multiply signed numbers, multiply the absolute values then affix with (+) positive sign for like signs then (-) negative sign for unlike signs. Examples: 7 x 8 = 56 (-9) x (-2) = 18 (-4) x 3 = 12 8 x (-5) = 40

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Division
To divide signed numbers, divide the absolute values then affix with (+) positive sign for like signs then (-) negative sign for unlike signs. Examples: 12 3 = 4 (-16) (-8) = 2 (-10) 2 = -5 25 (-5) = -5

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Self Check 1.3 BASIC OPERATION


Name:_______________________________________ Room:____________________ Time:__________
A. Add the following using associative principle: 1. 12 + 46 + 12 + 13 + 14 = 2. 32 + 58 + 48 + 25 + 12 = 3. 12 + 15 + 54 + 87 + 30 = 4. 84 + 32 + 54 + 14 + 32 = 5. 11 + 25 + 16 + 84 + 12 = 6. 10 + 25 + 26 + 65 + 12 = 7. 45 + 46 + 47 + 48 + 49 = 8. 15 + 15 + 14 + 12 + 21 = 9. 10 + 12 + 15 + 17 + 13 = 10. 8 + 12 + 17 + 12 + 23 = B. Subtract the following: 1. -12 11 = 2. 10 (-10) = 3. -1 (1) = 4. 23 17 = 5. -17 (12) = 6. -30 (-13) = 7. 50 29 = 8. 0 (-1) = 9. 19 (-86) = 10. -12 (-7) = C. Multiply the following: 1. 12 x 12 = 2. -7 x 5 = 3. 10 x (-8) = 4. -4 x (-6) = 5. -15 x 10 = 6. 18 x 6 = 7. -17 x 5 = 8. -4 x (-12) = 9. 10 x 9 = 10. -11 x (-13) =

Date:__________ Score:_________

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D. Divide the following: 1. 16 4 = 2. -10 2 = 3. 20 (-4) = 4. -25 (-5) = 5. 18 9 = 6. 48 (-16) = 7. -14 (-2) = 8. 144 12 = 9. -81 9 = 10. 1000 25 =

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INFORMATION SHEET 2.1 Chapter 2 Fraction


A fraction consists of numerator and denominator separated by a bar either horizontal () or slanted (/) representing part of a whole. Numerator tells the number of parts to be used. It is written above the horizontal bar. Denominator determines the number of equal parts into which the whole is divided. It is written below the horizontal bar. The kinds of fraction are: (1) Proper Fraction, (2) Improper Fraction, and (3) Mixed Number. Proper Fraction the numerator is lesser than (<) the denominator or fractions lesser than one. Examples:

Improper Fractions the numerator is equal (=) to or greater than (>) the denominator or fractions equal to or greater than one. Examples:

Mixed Numbers consists of whole number with fraction. Examples:

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Conversion involving fractions: Changing Improper fractions to Mixed Numbers


Rule: To change improper fraction to mixed fraction, divide the denominator by the numerator and write the remainder as a fraction.

Examples:

=8 ;

=6

or

Changing Mixed Numbers to Improper Fractions


Rule: In changing mixed fraction to improper fraction, multiply the denominator by the whole number, then add the numerator and copy the same denominator. Examples:

9 =

1 =

Reducing Fractions to Lowest Terms


Rule: Divide the numerator and denominator of the given fraction by their Greatest Common factor (GCF). Examples:

GCF = 3;

= GCF = 5

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Self Check 2.1 FRACTION


Name:_______________________________________ Room:____________________ Time:__________
A. Change the following improper fractions to mixed numbers:

Date:__________ Score:_________

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
B. Change the following mixed numbers to improper fractions:

1. 3 2. 7 3. 12 4. 7 5. 42 6. 65 7. 9 8. 42 9. 27 10. 18
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INFORMATION SHEET 2.2 OPERATION WITH FRACTION

Addition
a. Like Fraction Rule: To add like fraction, add the numerators then copy the common denominator. Examples:

b. Unlike Fraction Rule: To add unlike fraction, first find LCD (Least Common Denominator) of the given fraction, then divide the LCD by the denominator of each fraction then multiply the result by its numerator, then apply (a). Examples:

or

Subtraction
a. Like Fraction Rule: To subtract like fraction, subtract the numerators then copy the common denominator. Examples:

b. Unlike Fraction Rule: To subtract unlike fraction, first find the LCD (Least Common Denominator) of the given fraction, then divide the LCD by the denominator of each fraction then multiply to its numerator, then apply (a). Examples:

=
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Datacom Institute of Computer Technology

Multiplication
Rule: a. Multiply the numerators and denominators of the given fractions to get the numerator and denominator of the product. Then simplify the result. Examples:

or

b. Another method is by cancellations. That is a numerator may be cancelled with any denominators in the given fractions dividing each by their GCF. Then apply (a). Examples:

x Division

Rule: Multiply the dividend by the reciprocal, or multiplicative inverse, of the divisor. Examples:

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Self Check 2.2 OPERATION WITH FRACTION


Name:_______________________________________ Room:____________________ Time:__________
A. Find the sum of the following: Simplify the result.

Date:__________ Score:_________

1. 3 2. 3. 8 4. 5 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. + +

+ + +2 + + + + +

= = +3 + = = = + 128 + = = + = + + = =

B. Find the difference of the following: Simplify the result. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

57 46 -

= = = = =
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Datacom Institute of Computer Technology

7. 8. 9. 10.

68

- 15 - 21 = =

= =

C. Find the product of the following: Simplify the result. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

x x x x x x x x x x

= = = = = = = = = =

D. Find the quotient of the following: Simplify the result. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

= = = 14 2 4 =
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= =

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7. 8. 9. 10.

= 4 2 6 = = =

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INFORMATION SHEET 3 Chapter 3 Decimals

Addition of Decimals
Examples: 0.65 0.348 0.726 0.9 0.0058 2.6298 16.3 51.09 6.324 0.008 204.450 278.172

Subtraction of Decimals
Examples: 0.9 0.342 0.558 205.06 39.927 165.133

Multiplication of Decimals
Examples: X 71.5 3.9 6345 2145 278.85 x 6.012 0.18 48096 6012 1.08216

Division of Decimals
Examples: Divide 3.8 by 0.02 190 2 380 -2 18 - 18 0 - 0 0 Divide 0.64 by 0.4 1.6 4 6.4 -4 24 - 24 0

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Self Check 3 DECIMALS


Name:_______________________________________ Room:____________________ Time:__________
A. Arrange vertically and add. 2.6; 3.04; 18.456; 61.3; 7.4902; 18.33 0.18; 1.36; 12.042; 16.7; 3.0276; 15.69 0.53; 11.342; 1.7041; 826.315; 13.0864; 14.89 2.86; 0.735; 4.5982; 354.345; 2.7183; 43.2 782.481; 36.721; 46.980; 386.29; 3.67; 3.2 875.89; 453.12; 465.8; 342.39; 2.345 2.00985; 34.001; 0.0857; 32.57; 3.6118 43.1; 135.615; 248.22; 65.871; 345.99 3.823; 15.625; 165.2; 4.7984; 145.813 4.65; 3.7128; 12.815; 0.00875; 0.0642 B. Arrange and subtract the following: 1. 7.8 3.86 2. 0.912 0.605 3. 3.2 0.04 4. 6.12 0.3748 5. 7.2 0.389 6. 13.8 2.92 7. 10.1 3.656 8. 0.89 0.00715 9. 0.43 0.036 10. 55.1 0.999 C. Arrange and find the product of the following: 1. 15 x 0.003 2. 158 x 0.4 3. 0.24 x 0.6 4. 0.782 x 0.5 5. 0.0075 x 0.08 6. 4.3 x 0.033 7. 2.65 x 0.05 8. 3.8 x 0.01 9. 0.08 x 0.03 10. 0.0056 x 0.12

Date:__________ Score:_________

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D. Find the quotient of the following: 1. 6 0.3 2. 24 0.08 3. 0.32 0.004 4. 0.084 0.4 5. 0.45 5 6. 6.6 0.003 7. 0.64 0.8 8. 0.086 0.02 9. 0.93 0.0003 10. 25.5 5

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INFORMATION SHEET 4 Chapter 4 CONVERSION TECHNIQUES

Changing Decimal to Percent


Rule: To change decimal to percent, multiply the decimal number by 100 which is equivalent to moving the decimal point two places to the right, and then affix the percent sign. Examples: 0.16 = 16 = 16% 0.125 = 12.5 = 12.5% 0.04 = 4 = 4% 0.005 = 0.5 = 0.5%

Changing Percent to Decimal


Rule: To change percent to decimal, divide the given number by 100, which is equivalent to moving the decimal point two places to the left, and then drop the percent sign. Examples: 14% = 0.14 15.5% = 0.155 3% = 0.03 4.5% = 0.45

Changing Fractions to Percent


Rule: To change fraction to percent, change the fraction first to its decimal equivalent. Then move the decimal point two places to the right and affix the percent sign. Examples:

= 5 8 = 0.625 = 62.5% = 1 8 = 0.125 = 12.5% 0.5%

= 4 5 = 0.8 = 80% = 1 200 = 0.005 =

Changing Percent to Fraction


Rule: To change percent to fraction, drop the percent sign first, then write the percent as a decimal; change the decimal to a fraction and change to simplest form. Examples:

20% = 0.20 = 75% = 0.75 =

or =

180% =

= =1

13% = 0.13 =
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Self Check 4 CONVERSION TECHNIQUES


Name:_______________________________________ Room:____________________ Time:__________
A. Change each of the following decimals to percent: 1. 0.15 2. 0.26 3. 2.45 4. 0.6 5. 0.92 6. 4.375 7. 0.05 8. 6.38 9. 0.006 10. 72.86 11. 0.125 12. 0.3678 13. 8.674 14. 0.38 15. 0.896 B. Change each of the following percent to decimal: 1. 6% 2. 13% 3. 29% 4. 4.6% 5. 5.8% 6. 0.79% 7. 36.05% 8. 0.09% 9. 120% 10. 0.395% 11. 4.575% 12. 13.5% 13. 16.75% 14. 18.5% 15. 9%

Date:__________ Score:_________

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C. Change each of the following to percent:

1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
D. Change each of the following to fraction: 1. 4% 2. 35% 3. 8% 4. 212% 5. 30% 6. 475% 7. 50% 8. 60% 9. 4.5% 10. 0.15% 11. 12 % 12. 62 % 13. 6 % 14. 35 % 15. 212%

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INFORMATION SHEET 5.1 Chapter 5 PERCENTAGE, BASE & RATE

Definition of Terms: 1. Percent is an expression indicating the number of parts taken from a hundred. Literally, per cent means by, or, on the hundred. Instead of saying, hundredths we often use the term percent. For example 4/100 or 0.04 may be written as 4%. 2. Ratio is a relationship between two numbers or like quantities. It may be expressed in the form of fraction. The ratio 36:27 of the number of girls to that of boys (read as 36 is to 27), may be written as 4:3 or in the simplest form 4/3. 3. Proportion is an expression of two equivalent ratios: Hence 3:4 = 9:12 is a proportion. In the example, 3 and 12, or the first and fourth terms are called means. Therefore, if a sentence is a proportion, the product of the extremes is equal to the product of the means.

Finding Percentage
Given the Base and the Rate, to find the Percentage use the formula:

P=BxR
Where: P = Percentage B = Base R = Rate Examples: 1. Find 15% of P 300. B = P 300 R = 15% = 0.15 P =? 2. 70% of P 300 is what number? B = P 300 R = 70% = 0.7 P =?

Solution: P=BxR = (P 300) (0.15) = P 45.00

Solution: P=BxR = (P 300) (0.7) = P 210.00

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Given the Rate and Percentage, to find the Base use the formula:

Finding Base
B=P/R
Where: P = Percentage B = Base R = Rate Examples: 1. 8 is 2 % of what number? P=8 R = 0.025 B =?

Solution: B=P/R = 8 / 0.025 = 320

2. 2.5% of what number equals 75. P = 75 Solution: R = 0.025 B=P/R B =? = 75 / 0.025 = 3,000

Finding Rate
Given the Base and Percentage, to find the Rate use the formula:

R=P/B
Where: P = Percentage B = Base R = Rate Examples: 1. P140 is what % of P 208? P = P 140 B = P 280 R =? 2. P 600 is what % of P 4, 000. P = P 600 B = P 4, 000 R=?

Solution: R=P/B = 140 / 280 = 0.5 x 100 = 50% Solution: R=P/B = P 600 / P 4, 000 = 0.15 x 100 = 15%

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Self Check 5.1 PERCENTAGE, BASE & RATE


Name:_______________________________________ Room:____________________ Time:__________
A. Solve for the percentage in each of the following: 1. How much I 6% of P 150? 2. Find 33 1/3% of 39? 3. Get % of P 7,200? 4. What amount is 32% of P 850? 5. What amount is 18% of P 184? 6. 30% of P 20.50 is what amount? 7. What amount is 40% of P 360? 8. 12% of P 40.60 is what amount? 9. How much is 16% of P45.90? 10. 5 % of P 150 is what amount? B. Solve for the rate in the following: 1. 10 is what part of 80? 2. What part of 30 is 5? 3. 90 is what % of P 350? 4. What % of P 20 is P 25? 5. P 56 is what % of P 160? 6. 2.3 is what % of 3.45? 7. What part of P 8.50 is P6? 8. P 75 is what % of P 375? 9. What part of 180 is 140? 10. 46 is what % of 32? C. Solve for the base of each in the following: 1. 3 is 8% of what number? 2. 14 % of what number is 8? 3. 26 centavos is 6 2/3 % of what amount? 4. 22 is 40% of what amount? 5. P 8.10 is 16% of what amount? 6. 1/5 % of what amount is P 650? 7. P 64.75 is 10% of what amount? 8. of what number is 200? 9. P 134 is 150% of what amount? 10. 36 is of what number?

Date:__________ Score:_________

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INFORMATION SHEET 5.2 RATIO & PROPORTION


A ratio is the relation between two quantities. It consists of two numbers, the antecedent which is the first number mentioned and the consequent, the second number. Just like a fraction, a ratio is written in fractional form like 2/3 or in this form, 2:3. Reduce ratios to their lowest terms in the same manner that fractions are reduced. Examples: 1. What is the ratio of 16 ft. to 6 ft.? Answer: 16 ft / 6 ft = 8 / 3 or 8: 3 2. What is the ratio of 10 yard to 2 yard? Answer: 10 yard / 2 yard = 5 / 1 or 5:1 3. What is the ratio of 2 lb. to 4 oz.? Answer: 2 lb. / 4 oz. = 32 oz. / 4 oz. = 8 / 1 or 8:1 Note: If the units are different, apply conversion. A proportion is a statement that two ratios are equal. The ratios 3 / 4 and 9/12 are two equal ratios and therefore, constitute a proportion. A proportion is written as: 3 / 4 = 9 / 12 or 3:4 :: 9:12. Rule of Proportion: The product of the mean equals the product of the extremes: In 3:4 :: 9:12, the means are 4 and 9 while 3 and 12 are called extremes. The double :: is read equals. Examples: Finding an unknown term in a proportion: 1. Assuming the second term I unknown, the proportion may be written as 6:N = 12:14. Using the rule, the product of the means equals the product of the extremes. Solution: 6: N = 12:14 12 x N = 6 x 14 12N = 84 N = 84 12 N=7 Therefore: 6:7 :: 12:14

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2. A motorist drove 140 miles in 5 hours. At the same rate of speed, how far can he drive in 7 hours? The ratio of the miles equals the ratio of the hours. Solution: Equal Ratios = N / 140 miles = 7 hours / 5 hours Cross Product = 5 x N = 140 x 7 N = 980 5 N = 196 miles therefore: 196:140 :: 7:5

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Self Check 5.2 RATIO & PROPORTION


Name:_______________________________________ Room:____________________ Time:__________
A. Find the missing number in the following: 1. 4 : 6 = 6 : N 2. 4 : N = 10 : 15 3. N : 4 = 25 : 20 4. 8 : 10 = N : 15 5. 8 : N = 40 : 45 6. N : 30 = 28 : 42 7. 48 : N = 16 : 15 8. 20 : 4 = N : 2 9. 24 : 4 = N : 3 10. 6 : N = 8 : 20 B. Solve the following problems. 1. A man received P 1, 500 for working 6 days. At the same rate how much will he receive after working in 10 days? 2. If an automobile consumes 5 liters of gasoline for 14 kilometers, how far can it go on 20 liters? 3. If 2/3 of a cake will serve 10 people, how many will the whole cake serve? 4. At a class excursion there were 36 students who joined the affair. This was 1/6 of the class. How many were in the class? 5. It takes 20 days for a painter to paint 4 portraits. How long will it take the same painter to finish 20 portraits at a similar rate? 6. If 1/3 kilo beef costs P 86.50, how much would 3 2/5 kilos costs? 7. If a flagpole 14 meters high casts a shadow 10 meters long, how tall is a tree which casts a shadow 22 meters long? 8. If 10 workers can finish 50 ready to wear dresses in a week, how many workers are needed to finish 150 ready to wear dresses? 9. Lucio plans to reduce a poster 18 wide x 14high t0 a height of 10. How wide will the poster be? 10. If 4 painters can paint a house in 15 days, how long can 8 painters finish the same size under same condition?

Date:__________ Score:_________

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INFORMATION SHEET 6.1 Chapter 6 COMMISSION


Commission or brokerage is the amount of money paid to an agent for buying or selling goods. Formula: Commission = Rate of Commission x Sales Formulas Involving Commission Problems 1. Finding Commission Commission = Rate of Commission x Sales Examples: A salesman sold a lot for P 600, 000. His commission was 5%. How much did he receive? Solution: Commission = Rate of Commission x Sales = (0.05) (P 600, 000) = P 30, 000 2. Finding Rate of Commission Rate of Commission = Commission / Sales Examples: Peter received a commission of P 500 for selling a stereo-component worth P 20, 000. What was his Rate of Commission? Solution: Rate of Commission = Commission / Sales = (P 500) / (P 20, 000) = 0.025 = 2.5% 3. Finding Sales Sales = Commission / Rate of Commission Examples: Dondon received P 2, 500 for selling a second hand Lancer which is 5% of the purchase price of the car. At what price was the car sold? Solution: Sales = Commission / Rate of Commission = (P 2, 500) (0.05) = P 50, 000

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Self Check 6.1 COMMISSION


Name:_______________________________________ Room:____________________ Time:__________
Solve the following and show your solution. 1. Atty. Macapagal collected P 12, 750 for Miss Pena. After deducting commission, the principal totaled P 9, 845.00. What was the attorneys rate of commission? 2. An agent received P 850.00 a commission for selling several pieces of umbrellas. If this represented 7 % of the sales, what was the amount of sales made by the agent? 3. A real estate agent sold for Mrs. Robles a house and lot in San Juan for P270, 000.00. If his commission is 5% how much would be given to him? 4. A newsboy receives P0.75 for each Weekly Womens Magazine that he sells. What is the amount of his commission, if he sells 130 copies? 5. Atty. Gomez received P4, 750.00 for a collection made by his office. If his commission is 18% of the amount collected, how much was the collection? 6. An agency collected 75% of a P20, 000.00 accounts for a client. If they charge a commission of 18% for their services rendered how much would they receive? 7. Marlon Monte collected the rental in an office for the month of December. Out of 10 clients, 8 paid P6, 000.00 each and 2 paid P7, 800.00 each. If Mr. Monte charged 5% for his services, find his earnings? 8. Mr. Gonzales sold through a real estate, a house and a lot for P700, 000.00. The agent charged 7 % on the sale price for his services. How much was his commission? 9. An agent received a commission of P400.00 for selling a refrigerator worth P13, 500.00. What was his rate of commission? 10. A medical representative sold milk amounting to P23, 400.00. If he earned P1, 600.00 on commission basis, what rate of commission was given him?

Date:__________ Score:_________

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11. Mrs. Manalo sold a house and lot for P826, 000.00 and was given a commission of 5%. If Mrs. Manalo spent P4, 750.00 for advertisement in a newspaper, how much did she receive as commission? 12. Atty. Ponce collected P8, 500.00 for Mrs. Gallamos. After deducting commission, the principal totaled P7, 900.00. What was the attorneys rate of commission? 13. M. Harry gave an agency an account amounting to P100, 000.00 to collect. The agency collected 10% of the account and charged 20% for collection. How much did Harry receive? 14. James, a high school student, sells a magazine in his spare time and receives a straight commission of 5 on each magazine that he sells. During the first week in April, he sells 120 magazines. What is the amount of his commission? 15. Joanna, a sales clerk, receives a salary of P1, 300.00 a week and a commission of 4% on all sales. Last week her sales were P4, 650.00. What were her total earnings for the week? 16. A salesgirl receives a weekly salary of P1, 450.00 plus 3/5 % commission on all sales. During the first week of December her sales were P12, 320.00. What were her total earnings for the week? 17. A sales clerk is paid P1, 275.00 a week and a 2% commission on all sales. If his sales for one week amount to P25, 800.00, what is his total income for the week? 18. A salesman is paid a salary of P4, 500.00 a month and 2 % commissions on all sales. If his sales for the month of February amounted to P9, 500.00, what was his total income for the month? 19. An agent sold furniture for P12, 500.00. If he was given a 6% commission, how much did he earn? 20. Miss X sold a piece of jewelry worth P35, 200.00. She was given a 7% commission. How much did she receive?

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INFORMATION SHEET 6.2 INTEREST


Interest is usually referred to as the sum paid for the use of ones money. Person in need of cash or financial credit can avail themselves of loans from banks or individuals with an agreement to pay a certain amount for the use of the borrowed amount for a given time. Interest is computed on an agreed rate of interest and the formula used is:

I = Prt
Where: I = Interest P = Principal or Face value r = rate of interest t = time (number of years, months or days) Ordinary and Exact Interest Ordinary interest is interest computed for a given number of days, divided by 360, which is the actual or exact number of days in a year. Exact interest is interest computed for a given number of days, divided by 365, which is the actual or exact number of days in a year. In computing both the ordinary and exact interests, the formula is I = Prt where the time varies depending on which one is being calculated: Io = Pr (no. days / 360) Ie = Pr (no. days / 365) Final amount or Future amount is the sum of the principal and the interest as computed. It is also called the maturity value. The formula is:

F=P+I
Where: F = Final amount or Future amount P = Principal or Face value I = Interest Examples: 1. Find the interest and the final amount of P 2, 100 for 3 years at 5%. Given: P = P 2, 100 r = 5% = 0.05
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t = 3 years Solution: I = Prt = (P 2, 100) (0.05) (3) = P 315 F=P+I = P 2, 100 + P 315 = P 2, 415 2. How much interest is due on P 1, 500 at 6% for 10 months? Given: P = P 1, 500 r = 6% = 0.06 t = 10 months = 10 / 12 Solution: I = Prt = (P 1, 500) (0.06) (10 / 12) = P 75 3. Solve for the ordinary interest on P 1, 480 for 110 days at 5%? Given: P = P 1, 480 r = 5% = 0.05 t = 110 days = 110 / 360 Solution: Io = Prt = (P 1, 480) (0.05) (110 / 360) = P 22.61 4. Find the exact interest on P 1, 200 fro 90 days at 4%? Given: P = P 1, 200 r = 4% = 0.04 t = 90 days = 90 / 365 Solution: Ie = Prt = (P 1, 200) (0.04) (90 / 365) = P 11.85 Rate of Interest: To solve for the rate of interest, if principal, time and interest are given in the problem:

r = I / Pt
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Examples: 1. The interest on a loan of P 2, 500 is P 60. If the loan is to be paid after 180 days, what is the rate of interest charged? Given: P = P 2, 500 I = P 60 t = 180 days / 360 days = 0.5 Solution: r = I / Pt = P 60 / (P 2,500) (0.5) = 0.048 = 4.8% 2. What is the rate of interest charged on a loan P 3, 400 if the interest paid is at the end of 8 months? Given: P = P 3, 400 I = P 150 t = 8 months / 12 months = 0.666 or 0.67 Solution: r = I / Pt = P 150 / (P 3, 400) (0.67) = 0.06584 = 6.58% Finding the time: To solve for time, if principal, interest and rate are given, the formula is:

P 150

t = I / Pr
Examples: 1. The interest on a loan of P 1, 800 is P 20. If the rate of interest is 5%, when is the loan due? Given: P = P 1, 800 I = P 20 r = 5% = 0.05 Solution: t = I / Pr = P 20 / (P 1, 800) (0.05) = 0.22 years or 0.22 x 12 = 2.64 months *Multiply quotient by 12 if answer is desired to be expressed in months and multiply by 365 if answer is desired to be expressed in days. t = 0.22 years x 12 = 2.64 months t = 0.22 years x 365 = 80.3 days

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Self Check 6.2 INTEREST


Name:_______________________________________ Room:____________________ Time:__________ Date:__________ Score:_________

A. Solve the following problems: Show your solution. 1. How much interest will be charged on a loan of P8, 500.00 for 180 days at an interest rate of 4%? 2. How much will it cost Pepe to borrow P10, 000.00 for 3 months at an interest rate of 8%? 3. How much interest will be charged if Eddie borrows P15, 000.00 for 310 days at interest rate of 9%? 4. If Mely borrows P12, 000.00 for 10 months at 12%, how much interest would she have to pay? 5. If P5, 000.00 is invested at 8% simple interest for 5 years, what is the final amount? 6. Find the interest earned by Mr. Lopez if he deposited P25, 000.00 in a bank which credits saving at 3% simple interest for 1 year. 7. Which one will earn more interest, P6, 000.00 invested at 3% for 100 days of P6, 000.00 at 4% for 270 days? 8. Mr. Cruz P20, 000.00. Half of it was invested at 5% simple interest and the other half at 4% simple interest for 8 years and months. Solve for the final amount after 8 years and 10 months. 9. At what rate of interest should P6, 000.00 be invested to earn P250.00 after 5 months? 10. By paying the bank at once, Lourdes can save P80. How much would she gain by borrowing the P8, 000.00 for 60 days at 16% to pay the bill? 11. Susan borrowed money from her cousin. He agreed to pay interest on the loan according to the number of months she used money. If she received the money on August 14, 1994, and paid the loan December 14, 1995, for how many days must she pay interest? 12. Mary, who operates a gift shop, purchased merchandise from a supplier on credit. She agreed to pay interest on the amount of the purchase for the exact number of days during the money was owned. If Mary, made the purchase on November 1, 19095, and paid the amount on February 19, 1996, for how many months must she pay interest? 13. At what rate of interest should P2, 500.00 be invested to earn P100.00 in 6 months? 14. Solve for the final amount if P3, 500.00 is invested at 5% simple interest for 10 months?
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15. Find the total interest earned by P8, 500.00 if it is interest at 4 1/2 % simple interest for 20 months? 16. In 10 months period, P2, 000.00 earned P50.00. find the rate of interest 17. Find the exact interest at 5% and the amount on P10, 800.00 from March 1 to November 1, 1996. 18. Bert borrowed P8, 000.00 from a business partner agreeing to pay interest for the number of days during which he owned the principal. If the date of the loan was July 22 and the date of payment was on February 4 of the following year, for how many days will Bert pay interest on the loan? 19. Jane borrowed P12, 000.00 from a credit corporation with the agreement to pay 12% interest for the actual number of days during which the loan was outstanding. The money was borrowed April, 1996 and the full amount including the interest was paid on August 14, 1997. a. For how many days will Jane pay Interest? b. What is the amount of the interest paid? c. What is the total amount due on the credit corporation? 20. The ABC Company loaned Isabel P15, 000.00 for the down payment of a new car. Isabel agreed to pay 12% for the interest for the number of the days she owned the money. The date of the loan was December 11 and it was paid on August 14 of the next year. a. For how many days will the company charged Isabel? 21. Using exact time, what is the exact interest on P65, 000 from My 28, 2005 to August 16, 2006 at 3 %? 22. How long (days) will it take P305, 000 to earn P325 at 4%? 23. Accumulate P98, 000 at 6 % for 1 year, 3 months. 24. If P70, 000 is borrowed on July 10, 2006 at 7% on what day will a payment of P71, 640 repay the debt and interest? 25. What principal invested on September 10, 2005 will amount to P36, 800 on June 19, 2006 if his annual rate is 7 % and the exact time is used?

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INFORMATION SHEET 7 Chapter 7 BANK RECONCILLIATION

One of the most common cash control procedures, and one which you may already be performing on your own checking account, is the bank reconciliation. The reconciliation is needed to identify errors, irregularities, and adjustments for the Cash account. Bank Reconciliation Process Step 1. Adjusting the Balance per Bank The first step is to adjust the balance on the bank statement to the true, adjusted, or corrected balance. The items necessary for this step are listed in the following schedule: Step 1. Balance per Bank Statement on Aug. 31, 2009 Adjustments: Add: Deposits in transit Deduct: Outstanding checks Add or Deduct: Bank errors Adjusted/Corrected Balance per Bank

Deposits in transit are amounts already received and recorded by the company, but are not yet recorded by the bank. For example, a retail store deposits its cash receipts of August 31 into the bank's night depository at 10:00 p.m. on August 31. The bank will process this deposit on the morning of September 1. As of August 31 (the bank statement date) this is a deposit in transit. Because deposits in transit are already included in the company's Cash account, there is no need to adjust the company's records. However, deposits in transit are not yet on the bank statement. Therefore, they need to be listed on the bank reconciliation as an increase to the balance per bank in order to report the true amount of cash. Outstanding checks are checks that have been written and recorded in the company's Cash account, but have not yet cleared the bank account. Checks written during the last few days of the month plus a few older checks are likely to be among the outstanding checks.

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Because all checks that have been written are immediately recorded in the company's Cash account, there is no need to adjust the company's records for the outstanding checks. However, the outstanding checks have not yet reached the bank and the bank statement. Therefore, outstanding checks are listed on the bank reconciliation as a decrease in the balance per bank.

Bank errors are mistakes made by the bank. Bank errors could include the bank recording an incorrect amount, entering an amount that does not belong on a company's bank statement, or omitting an amount from a company's bank statement. The company should notify the bank of its errors. Depending on the error, the correction could increase or decrease the balance shown on the bank statement. (Since the company did not make the error, the company's records are not changed.) Step 2. Adjusting the Balance per Books The second step of the bank reconciliation is to adjust the balance in the company's Cash account so that it is the true, adjusted, or corrected balance. Examples of the items involved are shown in the following schedule: Step 2. Balance per Books on Aug. 31, 2009 Adjustments: Deduct: Bank service charges Deduct: NSF checks & fees Deduct: Check printing charges Add: Interest earned Add: Notes Receivable collected by bank Add or Deduct: Errors in company's Cash account Adjusted/Corrected Balance per Books

Bank service charges are fees deducted from the bank statement for the bank's processing of the checking account activity (accepting deposits, posting checks, mailing the bank statement, etc.) Other types of bank service charges include the fee charged when a company overdraws its checking account and the bank fee for processing a stop payment order on a company's check. The bank might deduct these charges or fees on the bank statement without notifying the company. When that occurs the company usually learns of the amounts only after receiving its bank statement. Because the bank service charges have already been deducted on the bank statement, there is no adjustment to the balance per bank. However, the service charges will have to be entered as an adjustment to the company's books. The company's Cash account will need to be decreased by the amount of the service charges.

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An NSF check is a check that was not honored by the bank of the person or company writing the check because that account did not have a sufficient balance. As a result, the check is returned without being honored or paid. (NSF is the acronym for not sufficient funds. Often the bank describes the returned check as a return item. Others refer to the NSF check as a "rubber check" because the check "bounced" back from the bank on which it was written.) When the NSF check comes back to the bank in which it was deposited, the bank will decrease the checking account of the company that had deposited the check. The amount charged will be the amount of the check plus a bank fee. Because the NSF check and the related bank fee have already been deducted on the bank statement, there is no need to adjust the balance per the bank. However, if the company has not yet decreased its Cash account balance for the returned check and the bank fee, the company must decrease the balance per books in order to reconcile. Check printing charges occur when a company arranges for its bank to handle the reordering of its checks. The cost of the printed checks will automatically be deducted from the company's checking account. Because the check printing charges have already been deducted on the bank statement, there is no adjustment to the balance per bank. However, the check printing charges need to be an adjustment on the company's books. They will be a deduction to the company's Cash account. Interest earned will appear on the bank statement when a bank gives a company interest on its account balances. The amount is added to the checking account balance and is automatically on the bank statement. Hence there is no need to adjust the balance per the bank statement. However, the amount of interest earned will increase the balance in the company's Cash account on its books. Notes Receivable are assets of a company. When notes come due, the company might ask its bank to collect the notes receivable. For this service the bank will charge a fee. The bank will increase the company's checking account for the amount it collected (principal and interest) and will decrease the account by the collection fee it charges. Since these amounts are already on the bank statement, the company must be certain that the amounts appear on the company's books in its Cash account. Errors in the company's Cash account result from the company entering an incorrect amount, entering a transaction that does not belong in the account, or omitting a transaction that should be in the account. Since the company made these errors, the correction of the error will be either an increase or a decrease to the balance in the Cash account on the company's books. Step 3. Comparing the Adjusted Balances After adjusting the balance per bank (Step 1) and after adjusting the balance per books (Step 2), the two adjusted amounts should be equal. If they are not equal, you must
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repeat the process until the balances are identical. The balances should be the true, correct amount of cash as of the date of the bank reconciliation. Sample of Bank Reconciliation In this part we will provide you with a sample bank reconciliation including the required journal entries. We will assume that a company has the following items: Item 1. The bank statement for August 2009 shows an ending balance of P 3,490. Item 2. On August 31 the bank statement shows charges of P 35 for the service charge for maintaining the checking account. Item 3. On August 28 the bank statement shows a return item of P 100 plus a related bank fee of P 10. The return item is a customer's check that was returned because of insufficient funds. The check was also marked "do not redeposit. Item 4. The bank statement shows a charge of P 80 for check printing on August 20. Item 5. The bank statement shows that P 8 was added to the checking account on August 31 for interest earned by the company during the month of August. Item 6. The bank statement shows that a note receivable of P 1,000 was collected by the bank on August 29 and was deposited into the company's account. On the same day, the bank withdrew P 40 from the company's account as a fee for collecting the note receivable. Item 7. The company's Cash account at the end of August shows a balance of P 967. Item 8. During the month of August the company wrote checks totaling more than P 50,000. As of August 31 P 3,021 of the checks written in August had not yet cleared the bank and P 200 of checks written in June had not yet cleared the bank. Item 9. The P 1,450 of cash received by the company on August 31 was recorded on the company's books as of August 31. However, the P 1,450 of cash receipts was deposited at the bank on the morning of September 1. Item 10. On August 29 the company's Cash account shows cash sales of P 145. The bank statement shows the amount deposited was actually P 154. The company reviewed the transactions and found that P 154 was the correct amount.

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Answer Step 1. Balance per Bank Statement on Aug. 31, 2009 Adjustments: Deposits in transit Outstanding checks Bank errors Adjusted/Corrected Balance per Bank Step 2. Balance per Books on Aug. 31, 2009 Adjustments: Bank service charges NSF checks & fees Check printing charges Interest earned Note Receivable collected by bank Errors in company's Cash account Adjusted/Corrected Balance per Books P 0 + 0 P P 3,490 Item #1 1,450 Item #9 3,221 Item #8 1,719 967 Item #7 Item #2 Item #3 Item #4 Item #5 Item #6 Item #10

35 110 80 + 8 + 960 + 9 P 1,719

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Self Check 7 BANK RECONCILLIATION


Name:_______________________________________ Room:____________________ Time:__________ Date:__________ Score:_________

Prepare the bank reconciliation: Problem 1. Gamecock Company's cash account has a year end balance of $30,530. Outstanding checks as of year end totaled $2,050. Deposits in transit totaled $5,340 at year end. An NSF check of $500 is included in the year end cash balance on the books. The bank has deducted this amount on the bank statement. The bank incorrectly recorded a deposit as $270 that was correctly recorded by the Gamecock Company as $720. The Gamecock Company incorrectly recorded a check disbursement on their books for $350 that correctly cleared the bank for $325. The amount was originally posted to Adverting Expense. The bank statement also shows a service charge of $35 on the account. The bank collected on note on behalf of the Gamecock Company that included $3,000 in principal and $200 in interest. This is included on the bank statement but is not yet on the books of the Gamecock Company. The balance per the bank statement is $29,480.

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INFORMATION SHEET 8 Chapter 8 PAYROLL & TAXES

Employees Pay
In calculating the employees pay, the following earnings should be distinguished from one another: 1. Salary Pay 2. Wage Pay 3. Commissions 4. Bonuses Salary is a fixed amount of compensation for service rendered covering a fixed period of time, usually a month. Salary usually refers to the pay of managerial and administrative employees. These employees do not earn any overtime pay. For example, if Mr. Eduardo Quezon is hired as the manager of BDO Bank, Imus Branch with an annual gross salary of P480, 000, then his monthly salary would be P40, 000, (P480,000 / 12). Wage is a fixed amount of compensation for service rendered covering a fixed period of time, usually hours, or a fixed amount of work, usually by piece. For example, if an employee is hired for P50 per hour and works 40 hours a week, his weekly gross earnings will be P2, 000, (P50 x 40). If an employee is hired for P100 for every piece of work and finished five (5) pieces a day, then his wage for a day is P500, (P100 x5). Commission is usually a wage given to a salesperson based on the amount of his sales. This amount is usually added to the basic salary. For example, if a salesperson is hired based on a commission for 20% of sales and he sold P100, 000, his wage in the form of commission will be P20, 000, (P100, 000 x 20%). Bonus is generally used to stimulate employees to work more efficiently and effectively. This compensation can apply to all of the above methods of calculating gross pay and are added to the salary, wage, or commission. A manager may receive a bonus based on his departments exceeding the normal productivity. An employee for a wage may earn a bonus for exceeding a set number of tasks within a set period of time. A salesperson who sells more than the average amount of goods or services may receive an additional percentage as bonus.
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For example, if a canteen manager-employee earns a basic salary of P15, 000 per month plus a bonus of 1% based on the net income of the canteen, and the canteens net income is P500, 000 for the month, the gross pay is computed as follows: Monthly Basic Salary P15, 000 Add: Bonus (P500, 000 x 1%) P 5, 000 Gross Pay P20, 000

The Overtime Pay


In general, any employee who is required to work beyond eight (8) hours on ordinary working days shall be paid an additional compensation for the overtime work in an amount equivalent to his regular wage plus at least twenty-five percent (25%) thereof Sec. 8, Rule 1, Book III, The Labor Code of the Philippines. For example, if an employee is hired for P50 per hour and he works for regular eight (8) hours plus six hours overtime, the computation of the days gross pay would be: Basic (P50 x 8) P400 Add: Overtime Basic (P50 x 6) P300 Overtime Premium (P50 x 6 x 25%) P 75 P375 Days Gross Pay P775

The Holiday Pay


Any employee who is permitted or suffered to work on any regular holiday, not exceeding eight (8) hours, shall be paid at least two hundred percent (200%) of his regular daily wage. If the holiday work falls on the scheduled rest day of the employee, he shall be entitled to an additional premium pay at least 30% of his regular holiday rate of 200% based on his regular wage rate. For example, if an employee is hired for P50 per hour and he works for regular eight (8) hours during his rest day also falls during a regular holiday, the computation of the days gross pay would be: Regular holiday-rest day rate (P50 x 8 x 200% x 130%) P1, 040 Days Gross Pay P1, 040

Deduction from Gross Pay


A deduction from gross pay refers to the amount of money withheld from the employees pay. Generally, the payment of employees earnings is subject to deductions which are: 1. Withholding Income Tax 2. SSS or GSIS Premium
Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 769

3. Phil Health Premium 4. Additional deductions: Vales amount deducted from gross pay due to salary / wage advances made by an employee. Union Dues amount deducted from gross pay when the place of business has a union to represent the employees. The deduction may be based on the agreement between the union and the management to deduct the union dues from the employees pay. Pension Fund some employers provide a retirement / pension fund, and the employees contribute additional funds if they wish. Charitable Contributions many employers allow charitable contribution to be made through payroll deductions. Credit Unions / Cooperatives if the business has a credit union, either savings or loan repayment can be made through payroll deductions. 1. SSS contribution computation would be: Basic Monthly Salary x 10.4% (Volunteer) Basic Monthly Salary x 7.07% (Employer Share) Basic Monthly Salary x 3.33% (Employee Share) 2. Phil Health contribution computation would be: Basic Monthly Salary x 2.5% x 0.5 (Employer and Employee) 3. Pag-Ibig contribution computation would be: Basic Monthly Salary x 0.02 (Employer and Employee) Examples: 1. If you are an employee of a Computer Shop located in Silang, Cavite. How much will be your Hourly Rate? Compute and deduct your Total Monthly Contribution in SSS, Phil Health & Pag-Ibig? How much will be your Net Income? Given: Silang = P165.00 / day (minimum rate) Monthly Salary (Daily Gross x 28) = P165.00 x 28 = P4, 620.00 Annual Gross (Monthly Salary x 12) = P4, 620.00 x 12 = P55, 440.00 Solution: Hourly Rate (Annual Gross / 2, 087) (P55, 440.00 / 2, 087) = P26.56 Total Monthly Contribution: SSS = P4, 620.00 x 3.33% = P153.85 Phil Health = P4, 620.00 x 2.5% x 0.5 = P 57.75 Pag-Ibig = P4, 620.00 x 0.02 = P 92.40 T.M.C. = P304.00 Net Income = Basic Monthly Salary T.M.C
Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 770

= P4, 620.00 P304.00 = P4, 316.00 Formula for Income Tax Taxable Income = [Gross (Basic) Monthly Income + Overtime Pay + Holiday pay + Night Pay] [Allowances + SSS + Phil Health + Pag-Ibig] Formula for Withholding Tax Withholding Tax = {[(Taxable Income) (Bracket or Exemption)] x (% over) + (Base Tax)} Examples: (Assuming) Taxable Income = P8, 558.00

Status: Single (Monthly no.: 4)

Solution: Withholding Tax = P8, 558.00 6667 x 0.15 + 208.33 = P 491.98

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COMPUTER PRGOGRAMMING (SECOND YEAR)

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DATACOM INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY


FIRST SEMESTER FIRST TRANSITION

COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL IN INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET

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The Internet

The internet, sometimes called simply The Net, is a world wide system of computer network. A network of networks in which users at any one computer can, if they have permission get information from any other computer (and sometimes talk directly to users at other computers).

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HISTORY OF THE INTERNET The Advance Research Project Agency Network (ARPANET) was the first wide area packet switching network, the "Eve" network of what has evolved into the Internet we know and love today.

The ARPANET was originally created by the IPTO (Information Processing Techniques Office) Lawrence Roberts--- a program manager and office director, Ivan Sutherland--American computer scientist and Internet pioneer, Bob Taylor--- founder and later manager of Xerox PARC's Computer Science Laboratory, Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider--- most important figures in computer science and general computing history under the sponsorship of Defense Advance Research Project Agency (DARPA).

1960 The early internet was used by computer experts, engineers, scientists and librarians. The ARPANET included just four computers, University of Utah and three in California. 1970 ARPANET added three computers in Massachusetts. 1971 ARPANET added more computers (in California, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois to make a total of 15 computers. 1972 ARPANET expanded to more parts of the USA so 2,000 people were using ARPANET. Electronic mail was added to Arpanet. 1973 Email become so popular that 75% of all ARPANET. ARPANET became inter national. 1983 Military divided the ARPANET into two networks, MILNETS for military personnel only and smaller ARPANET for civilian use (at universities).

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Internet Protocol (IP) To let those MILNETS and 2,000,000communicate with each other, an inter network communication method was invented called the internet protocol. IP came in several versions, the most popular being the TCP (transmission Control Protocol).

1983 The internet included about 600 hosts (computer that had permanent addresses and could supply data to other computers.

YEAR 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990

INTERNET HOSTS 600 1,000 2,000 6,000 30,000 80,000 200,000 400,000

YEAR 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

INTERNET HOSTS 700,000 1,000,000 2,000,000 5,000,000 10,000,000 20,000,000 30,000,000 40,000,000

1986 National Science Foundation (NSF) wanted to let researches share 5 super computers by using ARPANET, but NSF quickly change its mind and decided to create its own network called NSFNET. 1990 ARPANET shutdown permanently. The ARPA which created ARPANET lived or but under its own new name: the Defense Advance Research Project Agency (DARPA) 1993 Development of graphical Browser Mosaic by Marc Andreessen and his team at the National Center for super computing Application (NCSA) gave the protocol its big boost. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 776

Late 1994 - Marc Andreessen left NCSA and formed a company called NETSCAPE communication Corp which invented an improved web browser (called Netscape Navigator) and sold it cheaply Mosaic and Netscape made the web become much more popular.

Beginning 1994 There are 600 Websites. Late 1995 Microsoft declared war and developed its Microsoft Internet explorer. June 1998 - Windows 98

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Self- Check #1

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1.) It is sometimes called simply The Net, is a world wide system of computer network? 2.) By the year 1970, how many computers were added in Massachusetts? 3.) It was originally created by the IPTO under the sponsorship of Defense Advance Research Project Agency (DARPA). 4.) By the year 1972, How many people were using ARPANET in USA 5.) Who uses the early internet? 6.) When ARPANET was divided into two networks, what do you call the network for military personnel only and smaller? 7.) What is the meaning of NSF? 8.) Who developed graphical Browser Mosaic? 9.) What was the company which invented an improved web browser (called Netscape Navigator) and sold it cheaply Mosaic and Netscape made the web become much more popular? 10.) How many websites, In the Beginning of 1994?

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LEARNING GUIDE
LO 2: Internet Offers LO 3: How to send information through internet?

Learning Steps Read information Sheet # 1 Data Process Answer Self Check # 1

Resource Information Sheet #1 Self Check # 1 Self Check Answer Model # 1

Compare answer of self check # 1 to Self Check Model Answer # 1

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NETWORK A network is a series of points or nodes interconnected by communication paths. Networks can interconnect with other networks and contains sub networks. It is a collection of computers that are connected to share information. Basic Network Types 1) Peer-to-peer Networks Nearly all Operating Systems come with the ability to act as some kind of a server to share resources. You can setup different computers to allow others to use its peripherals such as printers or CDROM drives, and other computers to allow others to read or write to its hard disk allowing sharing of files, while other computers may allow access to its Internet connection. When you allow workstation computers to become servers and share things in this manner, it is called a Peer-to-peer network. Peer-to-peer networks can be implemented with very little investment costs, but in order for the network to work properly, the users must be very experienced with computers, and strict guidelines must be implemented and followed in order for the data to remain secure and archived properly. In my experience, peer-to-peer networks tend to become more of a headache instead of a help after about 6 computers, especially if your company has a moderate employee turnover. 2) Client-Server Networks The Client-Server network model usually consists of one or more server computers that provide services and information to a number of workstation computers. These services can consist of many different roles, including: file services, web services, email services, domain name lookup services, document version system services, Internet sharing services, etc. A great example of the Client-Server network model is actually the World Wide Internet. On the Internet clients, or computer with web browsers, access web sites that are hosted on servers. This model differs from the Peer-to-peer network model in that the servers usually do not dually act as a workstation, and the workstations usually do not act as servers, and if they do

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act as a server, they should be configured to allow the central servers to provide access restrictions on the shares they provide the network. The Client-Server network model provides important services to the network safely and securely, it also allows the convenience of allowing the users to work on their own workstation machine. However, this network model can be very expensive, not only because the software can be expensive, but you also must provide adequate hardware for both the servers and the individual workstation machines, which can become very expensive with revolving hardware updates. If you have the funds to implement this type of network, the return on the investment is great, and you will have the knowledge that your network is well secured and archived.

3) Application-Server Networks The final network type is the Application Server based Networks, sometimes called Terminal Server based. The idea behind this type of network is that you basically have one highend server or mainframe, and all the network clients are "dumb terminals", meaning that none of the processing is actually done on the terminals, instead the only job the terminals have is to provide input and show the display on the monitor. Most people equate application servers to the very old text-only terminals with no pointing devices. Today application servers are very modern, and most people running on a "dumb terminal" will think they are working on a modern standalone computer.

Even though not every software package will allow you to run it off of an Application Server, the price benefits can be astounding when this type of network is implemented. If you need to provide public access to computers, or have separate departments that only need to use word processing, spreadsheets, and email, an Application Server could literally save you tens of thousands of dollars, even on a smaller network of 10-20 computers.

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Self- Check #2

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1.) Give at least two types of networks? 2.) It is a collection of computers that are connected to share information? 3.) It is a type of network that is sometimes called Terminal Server based? 4.) It is a type of network that allows the users for convenience to work on their own workstation machine? 5.) It is a type of network that can be implemented with very little investment costs, but in order for the network to work properly?

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Internet offers E-Mail Exchanging electronic mail is the most popular feature on the internet.
Information - The internet gives you access to information on any subject imaginable. Programs Thousands of programs are available in the internet. Ex.: word processors, games and much more. Entertainment Hundreds of simple games are available for free on the internet. Discussion Groups You can join on the internet to meet people around the world with similar interests. Online Shopping You can order goods and services on the internet without ever leaving your desk.

Who Uses the Internet? People of all ages and backgrounds use the internet. Children - The internet helps the children to improve their reading and communication skills. People at home Many people use the internet at home to access information about the local community. Students Many students can access internet directly from school. Researchers Information displayed on the WWW allows the researchers from different parts of the world to work together. People at Work People can also use the internet to learn new business skills, such as sales or marketing.

Who pays for the internet? There are no distance charges when you send or received information on the internet. The internet is made up of thousands of networks that belong to business, government agencies, colleges and universities around the world. These organizations pay to set up and maintain their own parts of the internet. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 783

Who offers free information? Governments-Governments offer information such as federal budgets and NASA reports to educate the public. Colleges and Universities-Colleges and Universities make information such as journals and software available to the public. Companies-Companies offer free information to promote a good reputation and interest you in their products. Individuals-For example, one individual offers dozens of television theme song that you can access and listen to for free on the internet.

Who runs the internet? The Domain Name System The Domain Name System (DNS) was and continues to be a major element of the Internet architecture, which contributes to its scalability. It also contributes to controversy over trademarks and general rules for the creation and use of domain names, creation of new toplevel domains and the like. At the same time, other resolution schemes exist as well. One of the authors (Kahn) has been involved in the development of a different kind of standard identification and resolution scheme that, for example, is being used as the base technology by book publishers to identify books on the Internet by adapting various identification schemes for use in the Internet environment. For example, International Standard Book Numbers (ISBNs) can be used as part of the identifiers. The identifiers then resolve to state information about the referenced books, such as location information (e.g. multiple sites) on the Internet that is used to access the books or to order them. These developments are taking place in parallel with the more traditional means of managing Internet resources. They offer an alternative to the existing Domain Name System with enhanced functionality.

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The Internet Standards Process

Internet standards were once the output of research activity sponsored by DARPA. The principal investigators on the internet research effort essentially determined what technical features of the TCP/IP protocols would become common. The initial work in this area started with the joint effort of the two authors, continued in Cerf's group at Stanford, and soon thereafter was joined by engineers and scientists at BBN and University College London. This informal arrangement has changed with time and details can be found elsewhere. At present, the standards effort for Internet is carried out primarily under the auspices of the Internet Society (ISOC). The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) operates under the leadership of its Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG), which is populated by appointees approved by the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) which is itself now part of the Internet Society.

Managing the Internet The management of the Domain Name System offers a kind of microcosm of issues now frequently associated with overall management of the Internet's operation and evolution. Someone had to take responsibility for overseeing the system's general operation. In particular, top-level domain names had to be selected, along with persons or organizations to manage each of them. Rules for the allocation of Internet addresses had to be established. DARPA had previously asked the late Jon Postel of the USC Information Sciences Institute to take on numerous functions related to administration of names, addresses and protocol related matters. With time, Postel assumed further responsibilities in this general area on his own, and DARPA, which was supporting the effort, gave its tacit approval. This activity was generally referred to as the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). In time, Postel became the arbitrator of all controversial matters concerning names and addresses until his untimely death in October 1998.

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Self- Check #3

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1.) What are the internet offers? 2.) Who offers free information? 3.) The principal investigators on the internet research effort essentially determined what technical features of the TCP/IP protocols would become common? 4.) It was and continues to be a major element of the Internet architecture, which contributes to its scalability? 5.) What is the meaning of IETF?

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How to send information through internet?


Packets When you send information through the internet, the information is broken down into smaller pieces calls packets. Each packet travels independently through the internet and may take a different type to arrive at the intended destination. When information arrives at its destination, the packets are reassembled.

Transmission Control Protocol / internet Protocol (TCP/IP) It is a language of computers on the internet use to communicate with each other. TCP/IP divides information you send into packets and send the packets across the internet. When information arrives at the intended destination, TCP/IP ensures that all the packets arrive safely. Router A router is a specialized device that regulates traffic on the internet and picks the most efficient route for each packet. A packet may pass through many routers before reaching its intended destination. Download and upload information When you received information from another computer on the internet, you are downloading the information. When you are sending information to another computer on the internet, you are uploading the information. Backbone The backbone of the internet is a set of high-speed data lines that connect major networks all over the world.

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Self- Check #4

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1.) What do you call when you received information from another computer on the internet? 2.) What do you call when you are sending information to another computer on the internet? 3.) It is a specialized device that regulates traffic on the internet and picks the most efficient route for each packet. 4.) What is TCP/IP? 5.) When you send information through the internet, what do you call the information that is broken down into smaller pieces?

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Draw the Flow of Information transferring through the internet

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LEARNING GUIDE
LO 4: Future of the internet LO 5: MODEMS

Learning Steps Read information Sheet # 1 Data Process Answer Self Check # 1

Resource Information Sheet #1 Self Check # 1 Self Check Answer Model # 1

Compare answer of self check # 1 to Self Check Model Answer # 1

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FUTURE OF THE INTERNET The internet is growing and changing at an ordinary rate. In the future, there will be new ways to access the internet and different types of information available.

High speed access - Most people who access the internet from home use a modem. Modems are very slow way to transfer information. Eventually, most people will gave much faster access to the internet.

Internet through television - Companies are currently developing a computer that will allow people to use their televisions to access information on the internet. People will be able to use this computer to access internet without having to buy expensive computers and monitors.

Users-There are approximately 57 million people on the internet. By the year 2000, there could be 400 million people on the internet.

Virtual reality-Virtual reality is a computer generated, three dimensions world. Virtual reality software allows you to enter a virtual reality world and interact with images. In the future, many resources on the internet will see virtual reality. You will be able to walk through shopping malls even visit other planet without ever leaving on your phone.

Video Email -

Instead of typing email message to your friends and colleagues, you will

eventually be able to record a video and send it to then over the internet. When your friends and colleagues check their email will be able to view the video you sent.

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Self- Check #5

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1. What is high speed access? 2. What do you mean by virtual reality? 3. Explain video e-mail. 4. What is the possible future of the internet?

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Connect to the internet

Connecting

computer

to

internet

may

seem

complicated, but it is often a very simple procedure that can be completed in less than 30 minutes.

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Connect to the internet

Computer - You can connect to the internet using any type of computer such as IBMcompatible or MACINTOCH. The computer must have specific equipments, such as modem to connect to the internet. Some computers come with the necessary equipment built in. You need special software to the internet. This software allows your computer to communicate with a company that will provide you with access to the internet. Most companies that connect you to the internet offer the software free of charge.

Software - You need special software to use the internet. This software allows your computer to communicate with a company that will provide you with access to the internet. Most companies that connect you to the internet offer the software free of charge.

Technical support -

Setting up a connection to the internet can sometimes be

confusing. Make sure the company you use to connect to the internet has technical support equipment. Find out if you can connect to technical support department in the evening and on weekends as well as during business hours. Local or national access - You can use a local company or national company to connect to the internet local companies may offer special services such as in home training odd access to local organizations national companies may change you more but are usually more reliable than local company. Shell access - Shell access let you connect your computer to computer of a company that provides access to the internet. You need a special program such as PROCOMM or hyper terminal to use shell access.

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MODEMS A modem is a device hat lets your computer communicate through telephone lines. Modems provide an easy way to access information on the internet. Types of Modems A terminal modem is a special circuit board inside a computer. An external modem is a small box that uses a cable to connect to the back of the computer. Internal modems are less expensive than external modems but are more difficult to set up. Phone lines A modem plugs into a phone line. You can use the same phone line for telephone and modem calls. When you use a modem to access the internet you will or not able to use the phone lines for telephone calls. If you are given to spend a lot of times using the internet, install the second phone line just for the modem. Speed Modems transfer information of/at different speed. Faster modems transfer and display web pages more quickly so buy the faster modem that you can afford. A modem that with a speed of at least 28,000 bps. (28.8 kb/s) is recommended. Compression A modem can compress or squeeze information being sent to another modem, this speed-up the transfer of information. When information reaches each intended destination, the receiving modems decompress the information to use compression both the sending and receiving modems must use the same type of compression. Error control Modems can provide error control to ensure that information sent between modem is accurate. If modem detects error in the information being sent by another modem, it asks the modem to resend the information.

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MODEMS ALTERNATIVES High speed access Modem alternative provides a high speed connection to the internet. This allows the information to transfer from the internet to you computer much faster than a regular modem. Equipment Alternative modem often requires special device or additional computers to connect to the internet. Many people who use their home computers to connect to the internet requires speed connections so companies are now working to make modem alternatives as easy set up and used a regular modems. ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network) A high speed digital phone line offers by telephone companies in most urban areas. ISDN transfer information between the Internet Service Provider (ISP) and your home up to four times faster. Cable Modems A cable modems lets you connect to the internet with the same cable that attaches to television set. Cable modems will be offered by many cable companies on the future. Cable modems transfer information between the cable company and you home more than 200 times faster than a regular modem.

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Modem Alternatives ADSL - A symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a high-speed digital phone time

that will be offered by local telephone companies in future. ADSL can send information to your home more than 200 times faster than a modem. ADSL returns information back to the internet Provider (ISP) at a much slower speed.

56 Kb/s Modems - A 56 Kb/s modem is a newer type of modem that uses standard telephone lines to connect your computer to the internet. A 56 Kb/s modem can send information to your home almost twice as fast a regular modem. Information transfers back to the internet Service Provider (ISP) at a slightly slower speed.

Direct Connection -

A direct connection allows you to connect your computer

directly to the internet and provides access to the internet 24 hours a day. T1 and T3 are two most popular speeds of direct connection lines.

T1 lines transfer information between the internet Service Provider (ISP) and your home more than 50 times faster than a modem. T3 lines transfer information approximately 1,500 times faster than a modem.

Direct-Broadcast Satellite - The satellite companies that transmit information such as HBO and Showtime to your television set also offer access to the internet. Satellites send information to your home about 14 times faster than a modem. You need a standard 33.6 Kb/s modem to send information back to the Internet Service Provider (ISP).

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INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER An internet service provider is a company that gives you access to the internet for a fee.

Cost - Using the internet service provider can be one of the least expensive methods of connecting to the internet. Many service providers charge only pennies for each hour you use the service. Some ISPs allow you to pay a flat fee for unlimited access to the internet. Some service providers also charge a fee foe setting up your connection to the internet.

Trial period -

Some internet service providers allow potential customers to use their

service free of charge for a limited time. This allows you to fully evaluate the ISP before paying for the service.

Software - Most internet service providers offer software that lets you access information on the internet. This software usually includes a program that lets you exchange e-mail and a program that lets you browse through information.

Full internet Access - Most internet service providers allow you to access all features of the internet. Other methods of connecting to the internet may allow you to access only specific internet features, such as e-mail.

Restriction - An internet service provider has control over some of the information available on the internet. Some service provider block access to information they feel might be offensive or illegal. You should find out if the service provider has any restrictions on information available to you.

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Connect to the internet at work Restriction Most companies connected to the internet do not offer access to all the features available on the internet. Companies may allow employees to use the internet only to exchange e-mail or they may restrict what type of information employees are allowed to view. Check with your computer system administrator at work to find out which areas of the internet you can access.

Connect from home Many companies allow employees to access the company computer system from home. If the company computer system is connected to the internet, employees may also be able to use the internet from home. Internet connection terms

TCP/IP To exchange files and information on the internet, each computer on the internet much be able to speak the same language. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is the language used by computers to transfer information through the internet.

SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) allows you to use a modem to connect your home computer to the internet. When you use SLIP to connect to the internet, your computer becomes part of the internet.

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PPP Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) allows you to use a modem or other device, such s a highspeed cable modem, to connect your home computer to the internet. PPP also has security features that make it difficult for other people to view the information transferring between two computers.

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Self- Check #1

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1. What are the modem alternatives? 2. What is trial period? 3. What is PPP? 4. What is SLIP? 5. What is TCP/IP?] 6. What is a cable modem? 7. What is ISDN? 8. Define 56 Kb/s Modems.

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LEARNING GUIDE
LO 6: Types of information on the internet LO 7: Web broadcasting

Learning Steps Read information Sheet # 1 Data Process Answer Self Check # 1

Resource Information Sheet #1 Self Check # 1 Self Check Answer Model # 1

Compare answer of self check # 1 to Self Check Model Answer # 1

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Types of information on the internet

You can find information presented in many different ways on the internet.

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Types of information Text - There are many files on the internet that display only text. HTML-It is a language need to display information on the internet. Sounds -There are many sound files available on the internet such as speeches, music and promotional materials for companies. You need a sound card and speakers for your computer before you listen to sound files from the internet. Video - Video clips are also becoming more widely available. Most computers can play video clips from the internet.

DATABASE ON THE INTERNET It is a large collection of information. Many companies and organization on the internet allow people to access the information stores in their database.

Types of information Database on the internet offer many different types of information. You can find databases containing information such as jokes and pictures. You can also find database of very useful information, such as software updates and registered patents. Directories - It is a list of information such as zip codes or electronic mail addresses. Many phone books available in directories on the internet. Catalogs - Many companies that sell or advertise products make their products catalog available on the internet. Costs - You must pay a fee to access the information in many databases will let you access a small amount of information in database free of charge this allow you to try out the database before paying to access the information.

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EDUCATION ON THE INTERNET There are many resources on the internet that can help you learn about new subjects. You can even take university courses and other classes over the internet. Product support Many companies use the internet to provide product support for their customers. You can often get product manuals and specifications over the internet. Many companies provide this type of information free of charge. This means that customers do not have to use older methods, such as the telephone or regular mail, to get product support. Reference tools There are many types of reference tools now available on the internet. You can find dictionaries for many different languages, encyclopedias, books of famous quotations and much more. Most reference tools on the internet are available free of charge. Step-by-Step instruction The World Wide Web consists of many documents that can be joined together in a specific order. This makes the web very useful for instructional guides. Each step can be displayed as a single document. You can move through the steps one at a time, at your own pace. You can also print out each document and use the pages for reference later. Schools Many schools and universities offer courses you can complete using the internet. You can send projects and essays to the instructor by electronic mail. The school or university will often make lecture notes and diagrams for the course available on the internet. Live instruction It is currently quite easy to transfer sound and video over the internet. Students will soon be able to use their computers at home to view and participate in classes taking place at a school or university. This will be very useful for students who are live far away from the school.

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WEB BROADCASTING The web broadcasting makes it easy to get information that interests you from the internet. Instead of searching for information, you can use a web broadcaster to automatically collect the information and deliver it to your computer.

How it works? Web broadcasting uses the same type of technology to transfer information to your computer as television stations use to transmit programs to your television. Web broadcasting is often referred to as push technology because information is being pushed from the broadcaster to your computer.

Agents An agent is a software program used by a web broadcaster to collect information and then display the information on the screen. An agent allows you to specify the type of information you want to view and then transfers the information from the web broadcaster to you computer.

Access You must be connected to the internet before you can receive information from a web broadcaster. The company or organization you work for may have a connection to the internet, but some companies restrict employees from accessing web broadcast information services.

Channels Web broadcasters arrange related information into groups, called channels. A web broadcaster may group Foot Ball, Baseball and Basket Ball information into a sports channel. You can subscribe to the sport channel to receive all the latest scores, team rosters, and player interviews. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 806

News feeds A newsfeed is a collection of news information. Each News feed focuses on one category of news information such as, financial report, weather conditions, or current events. Most Web Broadcasters allow users to access information provided by news feeds. Some of the most popular newsfeeds are provided by the Associated Press and Reuters.

THE POINTCAST NETWORK The point cast network is one of the most popular Web broadcasting networks available on the internet. More than 1 million people use the point cast network.

Cost You can use the point cast network free of charge. The point cast network sells 30 second animated commercials to generate income to pay for the service. When you click on an advertisement, the advertisers website will appear on your screen.

Updates The point cast network transfers the latest news and information to your computer. You can have the point cast network send updated information to your computer automatically or only when you ask for an update. You must be connected to the internet to receive updates form the point cast network.

Stock market information The point cast network provides information on stocks markets located across North America. You can customize the point cast network to display the stock prices of only the companies that interest you. The stock market information supplied by the Point cast network is approximately 15 old when it reaches your computer.

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News The point cast network allows you to access many news papers and magazine articles .Some articles display pictures and photographs.

Many well known publications supply articles to the point cast network, such as The New York Times, The Boston Globe and Time Magazine.

Screen saver The point cast network has a smart screen feature that lets you use the point cast network as your screen saver. Anytime your computer is idle, The Point Cast Network will automatically begin displaying the latest Headlines and other information you select.

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Self- Check #2

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1. How does web broadcasting work? 2. What is a point cast network? 3. What is channel in web broadcasting? 4. Define stock market information. 5. What do you mean by agents?

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LEARNING GUIDE
LO 8: The World Wide Web

Learning Steps Read information Sheet # 1 Data Process Answer Self Check # 1

Resource Information Sheet #1 Self Check # 1 Self Check Answer Model # 1

Compare answer of self check # 1 to Self Check Model Answer # 1

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The World Wide Web

The World Wide Web is part of the internet. The web consists of a huge collection of documents stored on computers around the world.

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Web browser

Web browsers are used by everyone who works on a computer. It's an application to access the Internet and the contents that are stored on your computer. To know about the different types of web browsers, read on...

A web browser is an interface that helps a computer user gain access to all the content that is on the Internet and the hard disk of the computer. It can view images, text documents, audio and video files, games, etc. More than one web browser can also be installed on a single computer. The user can navigate through files, folders and websites with the help of a browser. When the browser is used for browsing web pages, the pages may contain certain links which can be opened in a new browser. Multiple tabs and windows of the same browser can also be opened.

Web browsers are an old concept in computers. As time passed, browsers with advanced functionality were developed and updated. The primary and secondary features and facilities offered by web browsers include download, bookmarks, and password management. They also offer functions like spell checking, search engine toolbars, tabbed browsing, advertisement filtering, HTML access keys and pop-up blocking.

HTML Support Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML) is a computer language used to create Web Pages. There are several versions of HTML. Each new version allows you more feature such as multimedia, on Web Pages. If your Web browser does not support the latest version, you will not be able to use the newest features. Version 3.2 is the latest version of HTML.

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Beta Versions Beta Version of a Web browser is an early version of the program that is not quite ready for sale. Many companies let people to use and test the Beta Versions of their Web browser before releasing the official versions. Beta Versions of a Web browser sometimes contains errors.

Bookmarks Most Web Browser has a feature called Bookmarks or Favorites. This feature lets you store the addresses of Web pages you frequently visit. Bookmarks save you from having to remember and constantly re-type your favorite Web page addresses.

History List When you are browsing through pages on the WWW, it can be difficult to keep track of the locations of pages you have visited. Most Web browsers include a history list that allows you to quickly return to any Web page you have visited.

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Self- Check #3

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1. What is beta version? 2. What is book mark? 3. What is HTML? 4. What is web browser? 5. Define World Wide Web.

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Web browsers

Web browsers are a program that lets you view and explore information on the World Wide Web.

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Internet Explorer

This is the most widely-used web browser by people around the world. It was developed by Microsoft in 1994 and released in 1995 as a supportive package to Microsoft Windows line of operating systems. It is presently known as Windows Internet Explorer, was formerly called Microsoft Internet Explorer (MSIE), and more is commonly known as IE. People have a misconception that browsing the Internet is possible only through Internet Explorer. They are unaware of various web browsers that are available. This simply proves that Internet Explorer is used by the majority.

According to statistics, its usage share from 1999 to 2003-04 was around 95%. Since then, there has been a lot of competition in the market, with many software companies coming up with web browsers that challenge IE in their features and usage. Microsoft occasionally releases updates to their previous versions of IE, which have some enhanced capabilities. The latest version is Internet Explorer 8 which is a free update. The 'favicon', which is the favorites icon was introduced first in IE, and was later adopted by many other web browsers. Initially, IE did not support tabbed browsing, but today, it can be used even in the older versions, by installing toolbars.

Mozilla Firefox

It is owned by Mozilla Corporation and was the result of experimentation. This browser has gone through many name changes due to name clashes with other products. 'Mozilla Firefox' was officially announced in February 2004. It was earlier named Phoenix, Firebird, and eventually Firefox. It is the second-most famous browser after Internet Explorer, as there were around 100 million downloads within a year of its release. Until November 2008, 700 million downloads were recorded. Since the release of Firefox, the sale of Internet Explorer has gone down drastically. It has around 22% of the market share at present. It has undergone many updates and version changes that were made to improve usability to the universal users. It can be used on most operating systems, but was found to be more prone to vulnerabilities. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 816

However, the problems were fixed in the newer versions. As it is open source software, its source code is available, thus allowing everyone to access the code. It supports tabbed browsing that allows the user to open multiple sites in a single window. Session storage is also an important feature of Firefox, which allows the user to regain access to the open tabs after he has closed the browser window. Apart from these, there are many user-friendly features that Firefox offers.

Safari This is a web browser from Apple Inc., which is compatible with Mac OS X operating system, Microsoft Windows, and i-Phone OS. Safari was released by Apple in January 2003 as a public beta. As of March 2009, the market share of Safari has gone up to 8.23%. The Safari 4 beta release claims to have many features like Voiceover Screen Reader that reads aloud everything that takes place on the screen, with text and web links. It also has features like CSS Canvas, Live Connect, XML 1.0, and JavaScript support, and Cover Flow. 'Grammar Checking' is an interesting built-in feature, which performs a grammar check on the typed text and gives suggestions to correct your sentence if wrong. If you need to fill an online form with your personal information, AutoFill is a feature that automatically does that for you, with the help of information that is stored in your address book or Outlook. Safari supports all the functions that are available in other web browsers.

Opera This web browser was developed by Opera Software in 1996. It is a well-known browser that is mainly used in Internet-activated mobile phones, PDAs, and smart phones. Opera Mini and Opera Mobile are the browsers used in PDAs and smart phones. It is compatible with many operating systems such as Solaris, Linux, Mac OS X, and Microsoft Windows. Though it is not a renowned computer web browser, it is popular as a web browser in mobile devices. It is also compatible with Symbian and Windows Mobile operating systems for smart phones and PDAs. Opera 9.64 which is the latest version provides an e-mail client known as the Opera Mail. The company claims that Opera is the fastest browser in the world. It also has some common functions like zoom and fit-to-width, content blocking, tabs and sessions download manager with Bit Torrent, and mouse gestures. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 817

Google Chrome

This web browser was developed by Google. Its beta and commercial versions were released in September 2008 for Microsoft Windows. It has soon become the fourth-most widely used web browser with a market share of 1.23%. The browser versions for Mac OS X are under development. The browser options are very similar to that of Safari, the settings locations are similar to Internet Explorer 7, and the window design is based on Windows Vista.

Netscape Navigator/Netscape

It was developed by Netscape Communications Corporation and was most popular in the 1990s. Exceptional features were provided at the time of its release, which helped it rise to fame with a market share of more than 50% in the 1990s. It was compatible with almost every operating system. Since 2002, it has almost disappeared from the market due to strong competition from rivals like Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, etc. It had undergone many version changes to maintain its stake in the market, none of which were very successful.

Although there are many web browsers available and many more are likely to arrive in future, only those which are exciting and user friendly will be able to survive market competition and hold on to a substantial market share.

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Self- Check #4

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1.) Its an application to access the Internet and the contents that are stored on your computer? 2.) Give at least 5 types of Web browsers. 3.) A Web Browser that is originally developed by Microsoft Corp.? 4.) Its a web browser developed by Google. 5.) What web browser released in January 2003 by apple corp.?

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SECURITY ON THE WEB


Many web pages require you to enter confidential information about yourself to use the services they offer or buy their products. There are secure pages on the web that will protect confidential information sent over the internet.

Secure web pages Secure web pages work with web browsers that support security features to create an almost unbreakable security system. When you connect to a secure web page, other people on the internet cannot view the information you transfer. Visit secure web pages When a reader visits a secure web page, the web browser will usually display a solid key or a lock at the bottom, corner of the screen. This indicates that the web page is secure. Credit cards Many people feel it is unsafe to transmit credit card numbers over the internet. In fact, sending credit card number over a secure connection can be safer than giving the number to an unknown person over the phone or by fax. Companies Some people work at home and use the internet to computers at office. Secure web pages allow employees to access confidential information that companies would not make available over connections that are not secure. Banking Many banks allow you to access your banking information over the web. You can pay bills, transfer money between accounts and even apply for a loan. Banking is one of the most confidential types of information. Banks use secure web pages to keep this information secret.

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Self- Check #5

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1. What is security on web? 2. What do you mean by banking? 3. Give 5 examples of web browsers. 4. What is MSIE? 5. It is a web browser from Apple Inc.

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LEARNING GUIDE
LO 9: Introduction to electronic mail

Learning Steps Read information Sheet # 1 Data Process Answer Self Check # 1

Resource Information Sheet #1 Self Check # 1 Self Check Answer Model # 1

Compare answer of self check # 1 to Self Check Model Answer # 1

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Introduction to electronic mail ou can exchange electronic mail (e-mail) with people around the world
ing list addresses Each mailing list has two addresses. Make sure you send your messages to the appropriate address. The mailing list address receives messages intended for the entire mailing list. This is the address you use to send messages you want all the people on the list to receive. Do not send subscription or unsubscription requests to the mailing list address. Administrative address The administrative address receives messages dealing with administrative issues. This is the address you use to subscribe to or unsubscribe from a mailing list. Welcome message When you subscribe to a mailing list, you will receive a welcome message to confirm that your e-mail address has been added to the list. This message will also explain any rules the mailing list has about sending messages to the list. Check for messages After you subscribe to a mailing list; make sure you check your mailbox frequently. You can receive dozens of message in a short period of time. Digests If you receive a lot of messages from a mailing list, find out if the list is available as a digest. A digest groups individual messages together and send them to you as one message. Vacations When you go on vacation make sure you temporarily unsubscribe from all your mailing lists. This will prevent your mailbox from overflowing with messages. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 823

Manually maintained lists A person manages a manually maintained mailing list. A manually maintained list usually contains the word REQUEST in its e-mail address. (Example: hang-gliding-

request@list.utah.edu).

Join a list When you want to join a manually maintain list, make sure you find out what information the administrator needs and include the information in your message.

Automated list A computer program manages an automated mailing list. There are three popular programs that manage automated list-listprocc, listserv and majordomo. An automated list typically contains the name of program that manages the list in its email address (example:listserv@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu).

Join a list When you want to join an automated list, make sure you find out what information the program needs and include the information in your message. If a program does not understand your message, it may not respond to your request.

Read message Read messages in a mailing list for a week before sending a message. This is a good way to learn how people in a mailing list communicate and prevents you from submitting inappropriate information or information already discussed.

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Writing style Hundreds of people may read a message you send to a mailing list. Before sending a message, make sure you carefully reread the message. Make sure your message is clear, concise and contains no spelling or grammar errors. Also make sure your message will not be misinterpreted. For example, not all readers will realize a statement is meant to be sarcastic.

Subject The subject of a message is the first item people read. Make sure the subject clearly identifies the contents of the message. For example, the subject is Read this now or for your information is not very informative.

Reply to message You can reply to a message of answer a question, express an opinion or supply additional information. Reply to a message only when you have something important to say. A reply such as I agree is not very useful.

Quoting When you reply to a message, make sure you include some of the original message. This is called quoting. Quoting helps readers identify which message you are replying to. To save readers time, make sure you delete all parts of the original message that do not directly relate to your reply.

Private replies If your reply would not be of interest to others in a mailing list or if you want to send a private response, send a message to the author

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Self- Check #6

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1. What is mailing list addresses? 2. What is quoting? 3. Define private reply. 4. What is automated list? 5. What is administrative address?

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E-MAIL PROGRAMS An e-mail program lets you send, receive and manage your e-mail messages. Popular e-mail programs include Eudora Light and Netscape Mail.

E-mail program feature Filters Some e-mail programs can automatically sort your e-mail messages into folder for you. This is called filtering.

Spell Checking Most e-mail programs now come with a spell checking feature. Before you send a message, the spell checker compares every word in the message to words in its dictionary

E-mail addresses You can send a message to anyone around the world if you know the persons e-mail address. An e-mail address defines the location of an individuals Mailbox on the Internet.

Parts of an E-mail Address An e-mail address consist of two parts separated by the @ (at) symbol. An e-mail address cannot contain spaces. The username is the name of the persons account. This can be a name or a nickname. The domain name is the location of the persons account on the Internet.

Organization or Country The last few characters in an e-mail address usually indicate the type of organization or country to which the person belongs. Bounced Messages A bounced message is a message that returns to you because it cannot reach its destination. A message usually bounces because of typing mistakes in the e-mail address.

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Create a message

writing Style Make sure every message you send is clear, concise and contains no spelling or grammar errors. Also make sure the message will not be misinterpreted. For example, the reader may not realize a statement is meant to be sarcastic.

Abbreviations - Abbreviations are commonly used in messages to save time typing. Shouting - A message written in capital letters is annoying and hard to read this is called shouting

Flame - A flame is an angry or insulting message directed at one person. A flame war is an argument that continues for a while.

Signature - You can have an e-mail program add information about yourself to the end of every message you send. This prevents you from having to type the same information over and over again.

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Self- Check #7

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1. What are the writing Styles? 2. It is a message that returns to you because it cannot reach its destination. A message usually bounces because of typing mistakes in the e-mail address. 3. A message written in capital letters is annoying and hard to read 4. You can have an e-mail program add information about yourself to the end of every message you send. This prevents you from having to type the same information over and over again 5. Are commonly used in messages to save time typing.

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LEARNING GUIDE
LO10: Introduction to mailing list

Learning Steps Read information Sheet # 1 Data Process Answer Self Check # 1

Resource Information Sheet #1 Self Check # 1 Self Check Answer Model # 1

Compare answer of self check # 1 to Self Check Model Answer # 1

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Parts of a message From: Address of the person sending the message


To: Address of the person receiving the message.

Subject: Identifies the contents of the message. Make sure your subject is informative. Do not use subjects such as For your information or Read this now

Cc: Stands for carbon copy. A carbon copy is an exact copy of a message. You can send a carbon copy of a message to a person who is not directly involved but would be interested in the message

Bcc: Stands for blind carbon copy. This lets you send the same message to a several people without knowing that others have also received the same message. Attach a file to a message You can attach a document, picture sound, video or program to a message you are sending compress attached files When you want to attach a large file to an e-mail message, you can save time money by compressing the file. Compressing a file shrinks the file to a smaller size. This allows the file to transfer more quickly over the Internet.

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Sending message You can send a message to exchange ideas or request information. If you want to practice sending message, send a message to yourself. When you send a message, do not assume the person will read message right away. Some people do not regularly check their messages.

Compose Offline You can write e-mail messages when you are not connected to the internet (offline). When you finish writing all your messages, you can connect and send all the messages at once. If you have to pay for the time you spend online, composing messages offline will save you money.

Use the Address Book An e-mail program provides an address book where you can store the addresses of people you can frequently send messages to. An address book saves you from having to type the same addresses over and over again. Email features Receive messages: Your ISP stores messages you receive in a mailbox for you. When you check for new messages, you are checking your mailbox on the access providers computer. Check for new messages on a regular basis. If your mailbox gets too full, your access provider may delete some of your messages. Automatically check for messages: Most e-mail programs automatically check for new e-mail messages.

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Reply to a message: You can reply to a message to answer a question, express an opinion or supply additional information.

Quoting: Including a part of the original message to a reply, To save the reader time, delete all parts of the original message that do not directly relate to your reply.

Forward a message: After reading a message, you can add comments and then send the message to a friend or colleague.

Print a message: You can print a message to produce a paper copy.

Children and e-mail: Adult supervision: Constant adult supervision is the best way to ensure that children are not communicating with strangers by e-mail. Check every e-mail message your children send or receive to make sure they are not communicating with people you are not aware of.

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Set guidelines: Before letting your children use e-mail, discuss which types of information are acceptable and which types of information to be wary of. Children should tell a parent or other adult if they do not feel comfortable about any e-mail they receive. Limit e-mail messages: Many schools now allow students to use computers at school to send and receive e-mail messages. You can restrict your children to exchanging e-mail with their friends and other children they have met at school. Personal information: Children should never reveal personal information about themselves, such as which school they attend or where they live.

Family web pages: Many families have their own pages on the World Wide Web. Many of these pages allow readers to send e-mail messages to members of the family. You should not display your phone number, address, or any pictures of your children on your family web pages.

Send anonymous e-mail: You can send an e-mail to anyone without revealing your identity. You can use one of the following services to send e-mail ANONYMOUSLY: http://www.csberkeley.edu/~raph/n.a.n.html, http://remailer.nl.com/~remailer Reasons for anonymous e-mail: You can send anonymous massage to individuals, mailing lists, and newsgroups on the internet. This is very useful because many newsgroups and mailing lists are for support groups whose members want to remain unknown.

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Send anonymous e-mail: When you use an anonymous mailing service, a computer called anonymous remailer removes your name and e-mail address from the message and replaces the information with an identification number. People can reply to your messages by sending the reply to the anonymous remailer. The remailer then forwards the reply to your computer.

Finger e-mail addresses: Finger is a program that lets you learn more about a person on the internet. You can also use a finger program to find out who is currently using a computer connected to the internet. You can use finger on the World Wide Web: http://www.populus.net/cgibin/HyperFinge

Information: When you finger a persons e-mail address, you can display a variety of information about the person. You can often view the persons real name and telephone number or a message written by the person.

Find e-mail addresses with four11: Four11 has over 6 million e-mail addresses in their database. If you do not know the email address of someone you want to send a message to, you can search for the address in four11.

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E-mail listings: You can search the Four11 database by entering s few details about the person you want to find, such as first name, last name and geographical location. The more information you enter, the better results of the search will be. Sleeper searches: If you cannot find the person you are looking for, you can have Four11 perform a Sleeper Search. Four11 will continue checking the e-mail address at regular intervals and will notify you when the person is found. This feature is very useful if the person you are looking for has not yet joined the internet but will join in the future.

Other four 11 listings Telephone listings: You can use Four11 to search for the telephone number of anyone in the U.S. You can enter a name and any part of the address for the person you want to find. Four11 will display the persons telephone number and e-mail address if it is available. Government listings: Four11 includes a directory of U.S. government officials. The directory includes information on federal and state governments as well as various committees. You can use the directory to find out how to contact the government officials for your area. Internet phone listings: Four11 contains a directory of people who use their computers as void or video phones to communicate over the internet. If you want to communicate with another person using an Internet phone, you must both use the same type of Internet phone software. You can search Four11 to find people using the same type of software that you use.

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E-mail security: Pretty good privacy (pgp) is a security program you can use to ensure that no one else can read e-mail messages you send and receive. When you use pgp to make an e-mail confidential, only the person you send the message to can read the message.

PGP keys: PGP uses two codes, called keys, to keep tour messages confidential. The two keys work together to make sure you are the only person who can read confidential messages you receive. If you want a friend or colleague to send you a confidential message, you must give them your Public Key to encode the message for you. You can give people your Public Key by e -mail or over the telephone. When you receive a confidential message, you use your Private Key to decode the message. You must always keep your Private Key secret.

PGP versions: PGP is the most secure privacy program available on the internet. There are currently two versions of pgp available. This is because the PGP code is so difficult to crack that the U.S government declared the program a weapon. The most secure version can only be used in the U.S. and Canada. The other version of the program can be used in the rest of the world.

PGP helper programs: Some e-mail programs have built in features that make the programs easier to use with PGP. You can also find many helper programs on the Internet that make PGP easier to use. PGP helper programs are available for most computer OSes including Windows, Macintosh and UNIX. You can find PGP helper program at the following web site:

http://www.primenet.com/~shaupgpwins.htm

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Introduction to mailing list A mailing list is a discussion group that uses e-mail to communicate. There are a thousand of mailing lists that cover a wide variety of topics, from aromatherapy to ZZTop. New mail list are created every week.

How mailing lists work? When a mailing list receives a message, a copy of the message goes to everyone on the mailing list. Most mailing lists let you send and receive messages. Some mailing lists only let you receive messages.

Cost You can join most mailing lists free of charge. Mailing lists that charge people to join are usually used for distributing newsletters and electronic news such as stock market figures.

Start a mailing list You can easily start your own mailing list. If only a few people will be using the list, you can run the list with a regular e-mail program on your own computer. Most internet access providers have programs dedicated to running large mailing lists for their customers. Running your own mailing list can be very time consuming.

Get information Before you join a mailing list; try to get as much information as possible about the list. Most mailing lists have their own rules and regulations. Mailing lists often provide an e-mail address where you can send a message to request information about the list. Just as you would subscribe to a newspaper or magazine, you can subscribe to a mailing list that interests you.

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MAILING LIST RESTRICTIONS Restricted mailing lists Some mailing lists restrict the number of people allowed to join the list. If you want to join one of these lists, you may have to wait for someone else to leave the list. Other mailing lists require that you meet certain qualifications to join the list about surgery may be restricted to medical doctors.

Moderated mailing list Some mailing lists are moderated. A volunteer reads each message sent to a moderated list and decides if the message is appropriate for the list if the message is appropriate, the volunteer sends the message in every person on the mailing list. A moderated mailing list keeps discussions on topic and removes messages containing ideas already discussed. In an immoderate mailing list, all messages are automatically sent to everyone on the list. Mailing list etiquette refers to the proper way to behave when sending messages to a mailing list.

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Self- Check #8

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1. Parts of a message 2. Address of the person receiving the message. 3. Identifies the contents of the message. 4. Address of the person sending the message 5. It stands for carbon copy. 6. It stands for blind carbon copy. 7. Constant adult supervision is the best way to ensure that children are not communicating with strangers by e-mail. 8. Children should tell a parent or other adult if they do not feel comfortable about any e-mail they receive. 9. You can restrict your children to exchanging e-mail with their friends and other children they have met at school. 10. What is PGP?

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LEARNING GUIDE
LO 11: IRC etiquette

Learning Steps Read information Sheet # 1 Data Process Answer Self Check # 1

Resource Information Sheet #1 Self Check # 1 Self Check Answer Model # 1

Compare answer of self check # 1 to Self Check Model Answer # 1

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IRC ETIQUETTE Just like a cocktail party, there is a proper way to behave when chatting with people on IRC. Ignoring IRC etiquette could get you disconnected or permanently banned from the IRC server.

RESPECT language People from many different countries use IRC. This means many channels might be used by people who do not speak same language as you. When you join a channel, respect the language being used in the channel. If you want to discuss a topic in your own language, start a new channel for people who speak the same language as you.

Automatic greetings Many software programs allow you to automatically say hello to anyone new who joins the channel you are in. These automatic greetings are not appreciated by users of IRC. Only greet people if you know them or wish to start chatting w/ them.

Complaining to IRC administrators Each IRC channel has a channel operator who can BAN people from the channel for any reason. If you have been banned from a channel, do not complain to the system administrators of the IRC server. These IRC administrators are responsible for maintaining the servers and do not have time to settle disputes between IRC users.

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Flooding Sending a lot of text to a channel at once is called FLOODING. Many IRC programs have built-in controls to restrict the amount of information you can send at once. If you flood a channel, you may be disconnected or permanently banned from the IRC server.

Cloning You can easily start several IRC programs on your computer and connect to IRC using different nicknames. This is known as CLONING. Since cloning is often used to cause mischief, many IRC servers can now find out if you are connected using different nicknames. Cloning may cause you to ban from using the IRC server in the future.

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Self- Check #1

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1.) Sending a lot of text to a channel at once. 2.) Many software programs allow you to automatically say hello to anyone new who joins the channel you are in. 3.) You can easily start several IRC programs on your computer and connect to IRC using different nicknames. 4.) These are responsible for maintaining the servers and do not have time to settle disputes between IRC users. 5.) What is IRC?

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LEARNING GUIDE
LO 12: Web-based chat

Learning Steps Read information Sheet # 1 Data Process Answer Self Check # 1

Resource Information Sheet #1 Self Check # 1 Self Check Answer Model # 1

Compare answer of self check # 1 to Self Check Model Answer # 1

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Web-based chat
All the chat networks on the World Wide Web require only that you have a browser to participate. Some chat Web sites use newer FEATURES such as JAVA. If you have trouble participating in a Web-Based chat site, make sure you have latest version of your Web browser.
Chat website Web-chat broadcasting system Web chat claims to be the largest Web-Based chat network on the Internet. Web Chat often offers chat rooms hosted by experts such as personal finance counselors and travel consultants. I chat I-chat is very similar to Internet Relay Chat. When you enter text, anyone in the same chat room, or group, will see text you entered. I-chat is much easier to set up and use than Internet Relay Chat.

Worlds chat Worlds Chat allows you to walk around and talk to other people in the 3-Dimensional world represented by objects, such as penguins and chess pieces, known as avatars.

Video chat Video chat lets you see the person you are talking to, even if the other person is on the other side of the world. You can also talk to several people at once. You need a special program to communicate using video chat on the internet.

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Equipment Before you can use video chat, you must have a video camera for your computer. You can buy an inexpensive video camera that attaches to the top of your monitor. You can also use a regular video camera if you have a special expansion card for your computer.

Image quality If you are using a modem to transfer video images, the quality of the images may be poor. Some video chat programs can help increase the quality of video images. Make sure you try out a video chat program before purchasing to see the quality of the images.

Voice chat Voice chat over the Internet lets you hear the voices of friends, family, and colleagues around the world w/o paying any long-distance telephone charges. You need an Internet phone program to talk over the internet.

Equipment You need specific equipment to talk over the Internet. You computer must have a sound card w/ speakers and a microphone attached. A half-duplex sound card lets only one person talk at a time. A full-duplex sound card lets two people talk at once, just as you would talk on the telephone. Full-duplex sound cards are the best type of sound card for voice chat. Contact other people If you want to communicate w/ other person using voice chat, you must both use the same type of Internet phone software. You can usually find directories that use your Internet phone program at the Website where you got the program. You can browse through the directory to find people you want to chat with.

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Self- Check #2

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.)

It allows you to walk around and talk to other people in the 3-Dimensional world represented by objects, such as penguins and chess pieces, known as avatars. Internet lets you see the person you are talking to, even if the other person is on the other side of the world. You can buy an inexpensive video camera that attaches to the top of your monitor. Make sure you try out a video chat program before purchasing to see the quality of the images. Internet lets you hear the voices of friends, family, and colleagues around the world w/o paying any long-distance telephone charges.

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LEARNING GUIDE
LO 13: Introduction to multi-player games

Learning Steps Read information Sheet # 1 Data Process Answer Self Check # 1

Resource Information Sheet #1 Self Check # 1 Self Check Answer Model # 1

Compare answer of self check # 1 to Self Check Model Answer # 1

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Introduction to multi-player games

It is a game that lets you use a computer to play more opponents. Multi-player games are becoming one of the most popular uses of the Internet

Types There are many types of multi-player games on the internet. One of the simplest types is Play by E-Mail (PBEM) games, where players simply e-mail their moves to other player. Arcade- style games are also very popular. You can play fast-paced action or adventures games against players on the other side of the world

Flexible There are hundreds of multi-player games you can play over the Internet. Everyone can find games that suit their interest. You can find games that require several hours a day or just a few minutes each week. You can choose from simple card games to complex games requiring science and math skills.

Challenging Even though, you can play most games against a computer. Many games are better when you play them against other people. Most computers react the same way each time you play a game. When you play a game against a person, the game will be different every time.

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Interactive Playing multi-player games on the Internet allows you to interact and communicate with people from all over the world. Some games even have their own associations where players can meet each other face to face.

Competitive Playing games on the internet can be very competitive. Almost every game played on the Internet has a site on the World Wide Web that displays a list of winners. Some games even have tournaments for the top players of the game.

Play by e-mail games Play by E-Mail games are a convenient and simple way to participate in multi-player games. To play an e-mail game, you need an e- mail account set up on your computer. Types of games There are several types of e-mail games. To play the simplest type, such as chess or checkers, you exchange move with opponents by e-mail. In more complex types of games, all the players e-mail their moves to one computer. The computer processes all the moves and controls the flow of the game.

Benefits E-mail games allow each player to play at a convenient time, so you do not have to constantly be at you computer to play. You can also easily find an opponent whose skill level matches your skill level. Playing people with similar skill levels usually makes games more fun.

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Popular e-mail games Global Diplomacy It is a strategy game where you attempt to conquer the world. Each player controls region of the world. You must negotiate and make pacts with other players to win the games http://www.islandnet.com

Food Chain This mathematics-based game allows you to design your own species of animal or plants and then release in into a jungle. Depending on how well you designed the species, it will either evolve or become extinct. http://www.pbm.com

Electronic Knock out In this game, you are the manager of a group of boxers. You control the characteristics of each boxer in your group. Each weak you submit your boxers controlled by other players.

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Self- Check #3

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1.) Playing games on the internet can be very _________. Some games even have tournaments for the top players of the game. 2.) It is a strategy game where you attempt to conquer the world. Each player controls region of the world. 3.) A convenient and simple way to participate in multi-player games. To play these games, you need an e- mail account set up on your computer. 4.) It is a game that lets you use a computer to play more opponents. 5.) You can play most games against a computer. Many games are better when you play them against other people. When you play a game against a person, the game will be different every time.

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1.) Traditional Multi-Player Games Some of the first games to the played on the internet were traditional board and card games, such as backgammon and bridge

Player Most traditional multi-player games are board or card games. When you play these types of games on the internet, you can quickly find opponents and start a game. You can play these games with friends and family members, even if they are located on the other side of the world

Board games Many people find it difficult to play board games, when the board is displayed on a computer monitor. To avoid this problem, you can set the game board in the front of your computer. You can then move the game pieces on the board according to what appears on your computer screen.

Backgammon There are many places on the internet where you can play backgammon. The WWW BACKGAMMON PAGE has information about backgammon and provides links to help you play with other people on the internet. The WWW BAKGAMMON PAGE is located at: http://w.w.w.gamesdomain.com

Bridge Bridge is one of the most popular card games in the world. You can use the internet to learn and practice card games in the world. You can use the internet to learn and practice the

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game. When you are ready to play against a real person, you are easily finding opponents on the internet. http://www.bridgeplayer

Chess It is one of the oldest games in the world. When you play chess on the internet, you can easily find an opponent whose skill level matches your skill level. The internet Chess Club hosts over 15,000 chess matches each day. http://w.w.w.hydra.com

Multi-User Dungeons Multi-user Dungeons (MUDs) are one of the oldest and the most popular forms of multiuser games on the internet. MUDs allow you to interact with other people in the variety of different worlds.

Virtual Worlds MUDs take place in the virtual worlds. When you play a MUD, you assume the identity of a character living in the virtual world. You type your commands to make your character perform actions like running or taking. You also type commands to make changes to the world, such as creating or destroying building.

MUSHs, MOO, and MUCKS MUSHs, MOOs, and MUCKs are types of MUDs. The name of each type refers to the type of software that runs the MUD. Each use their own commands to MUD also has its own set rules. Some types let you fight Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 855

London by Gaslight The game is set in London, England at the turn of the century, during the time on Jack the Ripper, Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. http://w.w.w.ultranet

Masquerade This game is for fans of vampires, wore wolves and things that go bump in the night http://w.w.w.iquest.net.com

Venus MUSH This game is set in the year 2041, when all the inhabitants of Earth have relocated to the planet Venus and are governed by an alien race. http://mama.indstate.edu/user/bones/venus/venus.html

Aurora MUSH It is a pleasant place to visit with a very social theme. Players are encouraged to interact with other characters. http://galaxy.neca.com

Commercial Software Games Often when you buy a commercial software game, you can only play the game against the computer. Many games now let you play against other people on the internet.

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Get Software You can buy commercial software games at many computer stores. There are also available in the internet. If you are playing with other people, each person must have their own copy of the page.

Connecting Connecting to other people on the internet to play commercial software is often very simple. Commercial software games are usually played on one computer on the internet. To play the game, you must simply connect to this computer

Quake Is one of the most popular commercial software games? In this 3- dimensional game, you walk around computer-generated worlds looking for your enemies. Up to 16 people can participate in the games. http://w.w.w.idsoftware.com

Command and Conquer Command and conquer is military strategy game you can play with up to three other people at a time http://www.wesrwood.com

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Big Red Racing Big Beg Racing lets you race against up to five different people at time. You can choose strange vehicles to race in, such as a snow plow or boat. http://www.worldserver.pipex.com/bigred/racing/index.html

Network Games Many games are designed to be played on a network. You can also play these games with other people on the internet.

Networks Unlike many games that let you play only against your computer, games are now designed to let several people complete against each other on network. A network is a group of computers connected together to share information and equipment. The equipment needed to set up a network is relatively inexpensive, so many players and their friends set up small networks at home

Kail It is a program that let you play network games against other people on the internet? Kail makes the game think you are playing on the network. http://www.kail.com

MechWarrior 2 You can control a fully armed and mo9bile robot and try to knock out your opponents before they get you. MechWarrior 2 is a very popular game and can be played by up to four people. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 858

Diablo Dungeons and dragon type role-playing game. Your quest is to find the fiends Diablo, who is responsible for destroying your village.

Duke Nukem 3D You see the world through the eyes of your character in the game. You fight against monster or against other people playing on the internet.

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Self- Check #4

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1.) Is military strategy game you can play with up to three other people at a time. 2.) The game is set in London, England at the turn of the century, during the time on Jack the Ripper, Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. 3.) You can then move the game pieces on the board according to what appears on your computer screen. 4.) Many games are designed to be played on a network. You can also play these games with other people on the internet. 5.) It is one of the oldest games in the world. When you play chess on the internet, you can easily find an opponent whose skill level matches your skill level.

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LEARNING GUIDE
LO 14: Intranet

Learning Steps Read information Sheet # 1 Data Process Answer Self Check # 1

Resource Information Sheet #1 Self Check # 1 Self Check Answer Model # 1

Compare answer of self check # 1 to Self Check Model Answer # 1

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INTRANET SOFTWARE

To set up an intranet, a company must have intranet software. There are many types of intranet software available.

Intranet suites Most intranet software is available as collection of several different applications sold together in one package, called suite. Intranet suites usually consist of e-mail, web publishing, database and security applications. When installing an intranet suite, you can decide which applications you want to use and install only those applications

Networks Intranet software is designed to be used by people connected to a company network. Most companies can turn a network into an intranet simply by adding a computer, called server, to the network. Companies often add one server for each intranet applications they want to use.

Netscape suite spot The company that created the Navigator Web Browser also offers intranet software, called Suite spot. Suite spot is a collection of software that provides several intranet features.

Novell intranet ware Novell is well known for its Netware networking software and no also offers intranet software, called intranet ware. Intranet ware offers many basic intranet features, but the main advantage of the suite is its compatibility with Novell networking software. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 862

Microsoft back office Microsoft now offers a set of intranet software, called Back office .Back office also includes an application called FrontPage that helps you easily organize and manage a large web site.

Intranet applications On an intranet, you can use the same type applications that most organizations and companies use to perform tasks on a regular network.

HTML Conversions Features To view the information in a document, you must often use the same application that created the document. To avoid this problem on an intranet, many applications now include a feature that makes it easy to convert a document to HTML.

Project management Project management software helps you schedule meetings and keep track of resources used by people working on a project. By using the intranet to display project management information, every person involved in a project can instantly obtain information about the project.

Word processors Many word processors now help you easily convert documents into HTML. You can compose a document in a word processor and then quickly convert the document into a webpage. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 863

Spreadsheets Converting information from spreadsheet programs into an intranet Web page allows you to distribute many types of useful information.

Database Many companies use complex database programs to organize and store large collection of information.

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Self- Check #5

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1.) It helps you easily convert documents into HTML. 2.) Many companies use complex database programs to organize and store large collection of information. 3.) It usually consist of e-mail, web publishing, database and security applications. 4.) Converting information from spreadsheet programs into an intranet Web page allows you to distribute many types of useful information. 5.) It also includes an application called FrontPage that helps you easily organize and manage a large web site. 6.) It is well known for its Netware networking software and no also offers intranet software, called intranet ware.

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Intranet security Many companies that have intranet are also connected to the internet. You must take e precautions when connecting any computer or network to the internet.

Firewall A firewall is software or a computer that restricts the information that passes between a private internet and the internet. Many companies use a firewall to prevent unauthorized individuals from accessing the internet.

Access restrictions Some companies restrict people on the internet from accessing certain parts of the internet, such as chat or FTP sites. If a company restricts access to the web site, employees will be able to view information on the internet web sites, but they will not be able to view any site on the World Wide Web. Password Some internet services, such as newsgroups, require you to enter a login name and a password to view information.

Crackers Crackers are people who like to test their skills by breaking into computer system. Crackers usually do not try to break into intranets connected to the internet. Viruses A virus is a program that disrupts the normal operation of a computer. A virus can cause a variety of problems, such as the appearance of annoying messages on the screen or the disruption of information on the hard drive.

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Self- Check #6

Name : ____________________________ Time : _____________________________

Session : _______________ Room : ________________

1.) These are people who like to test their skills by breaking into computer system. Crackers usually do not try to break into intranets connected to the internet. 2.) Some internet services, such as newsgroups, require you to enter this together with a login name to view information. 3.) It is software or a computer that restricts the information that passes between a private internet and the internet. 4.) Many companies that have intranet are also connected to the internet. You must take e precautions when connecting any computer or network to the internet. 5.) A program that disrupts the normal operation of a computer. A virus can cause a variety of problems, such as the appearance of annoying messages on the screen or the disruption of information on the hard drive.

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LEARNING GUIDE
LO 15: Cabling

Learning Steps Read information Sheet # 1 Data Process Answer Self Check # 1

Resource Information Sheet #1 Self Check # 1 Self Check Answer Model # 1

Compare answer of self check # 1 to Self Check Model Answer # 1

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Cabling

1. WHITE-GREEN 2. GREEN 3. WHITE-ORANGE 4. BLUE 5. WHITE-BLUE 6. ORANGE 7. WHITE-BROWN 8. BROWN

WHITE-GREEN WHITE-ORANGE GREEN ORANGE WHITE-ORANGE WHITE-GREEN BLUE BLUE WHITE-BLUE WHITE-BLUE ORANGE GREEN WHITE-BROWN WHITE-BROWN BROWN BROWN

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Things needed
Materials Registered jack 45 (RJ45) unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables Crimping tool Cable cutter 9 Volt battery computer units Network cable tester Tools Equipment

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Key to correction
Answers to the selected exercises

Quiz No.1 1.) Internet 2.) Three computers 3.) ARPANET 4.) 2,000 people 5.) computer experts, engineers, scientists and librarian 6.) MILNETS 7.) National Science Foundation 8.) Marc Andreessen 9.) NETSCAPE communication Corp 10.) 100 Websites

Quiz No.2 1.) Peer-to-peer Networks, Client-Server Networks, Application-Server Networks 2.) Network 3.) Application-Server Networks 4.) Client-Server network 5.) Peer to peer

Quiz No.3

1.) E-MAIL, Information, Programs, Entertainment, Discussion Groups, Online


Shopping

2.) Governments, Colleges and Universities, Companies, Individuals


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3.) The Internet Standards Process 4.) The Domain Name System 5.) Internet Engineering Task Force

Quiz No.4 1.) Downloading the information 2.) Uploading information 3.) Router 4.) Transmission Control Protocol / internet Protocol 5.) Packets

Quiz No.5 1.) Most people will gave much faster access to the internet. 2.) Instead of typing email message to your friends and colleagues, you will eventually be able to record a video and send it to then over the internet. 3.) You will be able to walk through shopping malls even visit other planet without ever leaving on your phone 4.) Shell access let you connect your computer to computer of a company that provides access to the internet 5.) Users

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****************************************************************************** Quiz No. 1 1.) Its device that lets your computer communicate through telephone lines. 2.) Internal and external modem 3.) Integrated Service Digital Network 4.) Modems alternatives 5.) Error control Quiz No. 2 1.) Web broadcasting uses the same type of technology to transfer information to your computer as television stations use to transmit programs to your television. 2.) The point cast network is one of the most popular Web broadcasting networks available on the internet. 3.) Web broadcasters arrange related information into groups, called channels. 4.) The point cast network provides information on stocks markets located across North America. You can customize the point cast network to display the stock prices of only the companies that interest you. 5.) An agent is a software program used by a web broadcaster to collect information and then display the information on the screen. An agent allows you to specify the type of information you want to view and then transfers the information from the web broadcaster to you computer. Quiz No. 3 1.) Beta Version of a Web browser is an early version of the program that is not quite ready for sale. 2.) Bookmarks save you from having to remember and constantly re-type your favorite Web page addresses. 3.) It is a language need to display information on the internet. Hypertext Mark-up Language 4.) Web browsers are used by everyone who works on a computer. It's an application to access the Internet and the contents that are stored on your computer.

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5.) The World Wide Web consists of many documents that can be joined together in a specific order.

Quiz No.4 1.) Web Browser 2.) Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Netscape navigator, opera, Google chrome etc. 3.) Internet explorer 4.) Google chrome 5.) Safari Quiz No.5 1.) Protect confidential information sent over the internet. 2.) Banking is one of the most confidential types of information. 3.) Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Netscape navigator, opera, Google chrome etc. 4.) Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.) Safari

Quiz No.6 1.) The mailing list address receives messages intended for the entire mailing list. 2.) Quoting helps readers identify which message you are replying to. 3.) To send a private response, send a message to the author 4.) An automated list typically contains the name of program that manages the list in its email address 5.) This is the address you use to subscribe to or unsubscribe from a mailing list.

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Quiz No.7 1.) Abbreviations, Shouting, Flame, Signature 2.) Bounced Messages 3.) Shouting 4.) Signature 5.) Abbreviations Exercise 8

1.) From, To, Subject, Bcc 2.) To 3.) Subject 4.) From 5.) Cc 6.) Bcc 7.) Adult supervision 8.) Set guidelines 9.) Limit e-mail messages 10.)
Pretty good privacy

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******************************************************************************

Quiz No.1 1.) Flooding 2.) Automatic greetings 3.) CLONING 4.) IRC administrators 5.) Internet Relay Chat

Quiz No.2 1.) Worlds chat 2.) Video chat 3.) Equipment 4.) Image quality 5.) Voice chat

Quiz No.3 1.) Competitive 2.) Global Diplomacy 3.) Play by e-mail games 4.) multi-player games 5.) Challenging

Quiz No.4 1.) Command and Conquer 2.) London by Gaslight Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 876

3.) Board games 4.) Network Games 5.) Chess

Quiz No.5 1.) Word processors 2.) Database 3.) Intranet suites 4.) Spreadsheets 5.) Microsoft back office 6.) Novell intranet ware

Quiz No.6 1.) Crackers 2.) Password 3.) Firewall 4.) Intranet security 5.) Viruses

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DATACOM INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY


FIRST SEMESTER FIRST TRANSITION

COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL IN DATASTRUCTURE IN C PROGRAMMING

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History Dennis Ritchie designed and implemented the first C compiler on a PDP-11 (a prehistoric machine by today's standards, yet one which had enormous influence on modern scientific computation). The C language was based on two (now defunct) languages: BCPL, written by Martin Richards, and B, written by Ken Thompson in 1970 for the first UNIX system on a PDP7. The original ``official'' C language was the ``K & R'' C, the nickname coming from the names of the two authors of the original ``The C Programming Language''. In 1988, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) adopted a ``new and improved'' version of C, known today as ``ANSI C''. This is the version described in the current edition of ``The C Programming Language -- ANSI C''. The ANSI version contains many revisions to the syntax and the internal workings of the language, the major ones being improved calling syntax for procedures and standardization of most (but, unfortunately, not quite all!) system libraries.

What is C programming language? The C programming language is a popular and widely used programming language for creating computer programs. Programmers around the world embrace C because it gives maximum control and efficiency to the programmer. C is what is called a compiled language. This means that once you write your C program, you must run it through a C compiler to turn your program into an executable that the computer can run (execute) . A COMPILER turns the program that you write into an executable that your computer can actually understand and run. Preprocessor Directives The C preprocessor provides several tools that are not available in other highlevel languages. The programmer can use these tools to make his program more efficient in all respect. The C preprocessor provides four separate facilities that you can use as you see fit: Inclusion of header files. These are files of declarations that can be substituted into your program. Macro expansion. You can define macros, which are abbreviations for arbitrary fragments of C code, and then the C preprocessor will replace the macros with their definitions throughout the program. Conditional compilation. Using special preprocessing directives, you can include or exclude parts of the program according to various conditions. Line control. If you use a program to combine or rearrange source files into an intermediate file which is then compiled, you can use line control to inform the compiler of where each source line originally came from.

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PREPROCESSOR DIRECTIVES IN C LANGUAGE


Preprocessing directives are top lines in our program that start with '#'. The '#' is

followed by the directive name.


#include Files The #include directive tells the preprocessor to treat the contents of a specified file as if those contents had appeared in the source program at the point where the directive appears. The .h indicates that it is a header file. #include<stdio.h> STDIO.H stands for standard input output. #include<conio.h> CONIO.H stands for Console input output. Functions of conio.h can be
used to clear screen, change color of text and background.

clrscr(); This is used for clearing the output screen of c when you run the program. getch(); getch is used to hold the screen in simple language, if u don't write this the screen will just flash and go away. delline(); This function deletes the line containing the cursor and move all lines below it one line up. getche(); function prompts the user to press a character and that character is printed on screen. gotoxy (); function places cursor at a desired location on screen i.e. we can change cursor position using gotoxy function. kbhit(); function is used to determine if a key has been pressed or not. If a key has been pressed then it returns a non zero value otherwise returns zero. textcolor( <color>); function is used to change the color of drawing text in c programs. textbackground(<color>);function is used to change of current background color in text mode. See available colors.

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#include<math.h> MATH.H is an include file that has a library for mathematical functions. #include<time.h> This header file contains definitions of functions to manipulate date and time information. #define Files The #define directive is used to define a symbol to the preprocessor and assign it a value. The symbol is meaningful to the preprocessor only in the lines of code following the definition. It is used for declaring a variable that has a constant value. Example: #define num1 10 (it defines that variable num1 has a value of 10.) OPERATORS
Operators are

elements in a program that are usually used to manipulate data in the

program. Arithmetic Operators

+ * / %
Relational Operators

Addition (sum) Subtraction( difference) Multiplication( product) Division( quotient) Modulo (remainder)

< > <= >= != ==

Less Than Greater Than Less than or Equal to Greater than or Equal to Not equal Equal to

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Logical Operators

|| && !
Assignment Operators

OR AND NOT

= += -= *= /= %=

Equal Addition Equal Subtraction Equal Multiplication Equal Division Equal Modulo Equal

DATA TYPES and VARIABLES Data type is used to determine what type of value a variable or a constant can contain throughout the program. Mainly data types are categorized into 3 categories: Fundamental Data Types Fundamental data types are further categorized into 3 types.
DATATYPES Integer ( int , %d) RANGE (in bytes) 2 0 to 65535 DESCRIPTION Integer data type is used to store numeric values without any decimal point. Float data type is used to store numeric values with decimal point.
Char (Character) data type is used to store single character, within single quotes

Float ( float, %f)

4 3.4*10-34 to 3.4*10-34

Character (char, %c/%s)

1 -128 to 127

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Derived Data Types Data types that are derived from fundamental data types are called derived data types. Derived data types don't create a new data type; instead, they add some functionality to the basic data types. User Defined Data Types User defined data type is used to create new data types. The new data types formed are fundamental data types. Variables Variables are known as temporary storage of data. It holds the data that the program manipulates. The following are rules in declaring variables: 1. Variable names are made up of letters and numbers, but make sure letter first before number, example num1, num2 and not 1num or 2num. 2. In creating a variable, use underscore instead of space. 3. Do not use any kind of special characters as variables except underscore. 4. Avoid using words, which has special functions in the compiler. Like else, main, if, etc. 5. Use meaningful variables. 6. Variables are declared at the top area after the function main.

Syntax of declaring variables: Preprocessor directives1 Preprocessor directives2 main() { <Data type1> < variable1>, <variable2>,< variable3>; <Data type2> <variable3>,<variable4>...; }

INPUT AND OUTPUT STREAM In any programming language input means to feed some data into program and output means to display some data on screen, printer or in any file. printf() is the keyword use to output data and statement.

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Source Code: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { printf(HELLOWORLD); getch(); }

OUTPUT: HELLO WORLD

scanf() is the keyword use to input data.

Source Code: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { int age; printf(Enter Age: ); scanf(%d,&age); getch(): }

OUTPUT: Enter Age: 15

Program Escape Sequence Character combinations consisting of a backslash (\) followed by a letter or by a combination of digits is called "escape sequences." These are typically used to specify actions such as carriage returns and tab movements on terminals and printers. The following are some list of escape sequence. /a /n /t // / /v /? /b It is use for alert. It is use for new line. It is use for tab when the compiler executes the program code. It is use when the programmer wants to display the /. It is use when the programmer wants to display the . It is use for vertical tab It is use when the programmer wants to display the ? It is use for backspace.

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Sample Program 1: Using Escape Sequence

Source Code: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { printf("WELCOME to \n C Programming Language "); printf("\n \t Good Day!"); getch(); } Sample Program 2: Using Operators

OUTPUT: WELCOME to C Programming Language Good Day!

Source Code:

OUTPUT: Enter First Number: 24 Enter Second Number: 2 The Sum is: 26.00 The Difference is: 22.00 The Product is: 48.00 The Quotient is: 12.00

#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { float num1,num2,sum,diff,quo,pro; clrscr(); printf("Enter First Number: "); scanf("%f",&num1); printf("Enter Second Number: "); scanf("%f",&num2); sum=num1+num2; printf("\nThe Sum is: %.2f",sum); diff=num1-num2; printf("\nThe Difference is: %.2f",diff); pro=num1*num2; printf("\nThe Product is: %.2f",pro); quo=num1/num2; printf("\nThe Quotient is: %.2f",quo); getch(); }
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ARRAYS Array is a collection of same elements under the same variable identifier referenced by index number. Arrays are widely used within programming for different purposes such as sorting, searching and etc. Arrays allow you to store a group of data of a single type. Arrays are efficient and useful for performing operations.
Two types of array:

Static Array has their sizes declared from the start and the size cannot be changed after declaration.

Sample Program:

Source Code: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { char name[5]; clrscr(); printf("Enter 6 Character Name: "); scanf("%s",&name); printf("\n\nGood day %s",name); printf("\nIts nice to meet you!!!"); getch(); }

OUTPUT: Enter 6 Character Name: Markus Good Day Markus Its nice to meet you!!!

Simulation: The array of the identifier name is 5, but it can hold until 6 digit character, because the count of an array is start from 0 until the index number that is being declared.

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Dynamic Array that allow you to dynamically change their size at runtime, but they require more advanced techniques such as pointers and memory allocation. Sample Program:

Source Code: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { int num[2]; clrscr(); printf("Enter First Number: "); scanf("%d",&num[0]);

OUTPUT:

Enter First Number: 23 Enter Second Number: 27 The Sum is: 50

Simulation: printf("Enter Second Number: "); scanf("%d",&num[1]); num[2]=num[0]+num[1]; printf("\nThe Sum is: %d",num[2]); The array of the identifier num is 2, therefore it has a 2 identifier that stored on It the num [0], num [1] and num [2].

getch(); }

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Controlled Structures
A program is usually not limited to a linear sequence of instructions. During its process it may bifurcate, repeat code or take decisions. For that purpose, C provides control structures that serve to specify what has to be done by our program, when and under which circumstances. Conditional Statements Conditional statements control the sequence of statement execution, depending on the value of a integer expression IF Condition It takes an expression in parenthesis and a statement or block of statements. If the expression is true then the statement or block of statements gets executed otherwise these statements are skipped. Syntax: If (Conditional Expression) { Statement; } Sample Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { float x; clrscr(); printf("Enter your Favorite Number: "); scanf("%f",&x); if (x==23) { printf("\n\nIT IS MY FAVORITE NUMBER TOO!"); } getch(); }

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OUTPUT 1: Enter Your Favorite Number: 23 IT IS MY FAVORITE NUMBER TOO!!

OUTPUT 1: Enter Your Favorite Number: 23

Simulation: On the output 1, if the user inputs a number 23, the program will fall down inside the if condition. But if the user inputs any number the program will not fall down inside the if condition, instead the program will execute the code after the conditional statement.

IF ELSE, If given condition is TRUE, expr_set1 will get executed. If given condition is FALSE (not TRUE), expr_set2 will get executed.

Syntax: If (<Condition>) { Statement1; Statemen2t; } Else { Statement3; Statement4; }

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Sample Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { float x,y; clrscr(); printf("Enter number for the value of X: "); scanf("%f",&x); printf(Enter number for the value of Y: ); scanf(%f,&y);

if (x>y) { printf("\n\nx is Greater than Y"); } Else { printf(\n\nX is Less than Y); } getch(); }

OUTPUT 1: Enter number for the value of x: 5 Enter number for the value of y: 10 X is Less than Y OUTPUT 2: Enter number for the value of x: 21 Enter number for the value of y: 3 X is Greater than Y.

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LADDERIZED IF ELSE IF can have a multiple conditions unlike the simple if else who is having only 1 condition and 1 default else.

Syntax: If( <Condition1>) { Statement1; } Else if(<condition2>) { Statement2; } Else if(<Condition3>) { Staement3; } Else if (<condition4>) { Statement4; } Else if (<condition5>) { Statement5; } . . Else if (<Condition N>) { Statement N; } Else { Statement Else; }

Sample Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { char color; clrscr(); printf(COLOR LIST); printf("\n\nR RED"); printf("\nB BLUE"); printf("\nV VIOLET"); printf("\nG GREEN"); printf("\nY YELLOW"); printf("\n\nEnter A Letter: "); scanf("%s",&color); if(color=='R') { printf("\nColor RED"); } else if(color=='B') { printf("\n Color BLUE"); } else if(color=='V') { printf("\n Color VIOLET"); } else if(color=='G') { printf("\n Color GREEN"); } else if(color=='Y') { printf("\n Color YELLOW"); } else { printf("\nOUT OF RANGE"); } getch(); }
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Datacom Institute of Computer Technology

OUTPUT: COLOR LIST R B V G Y RED BLUE VIOLET GREEN YELLOW

Enter A Letter: R Color RED

Simulation: On the sample program above, it has of color and its code. On the program when you choose or select a letter on the list and enter ir on the program, the program will display its color name. But when you enter a letter that is not on list, the program will display the statement OUT OF RANGE.

NESTED IF CONDITION when an IF statement has another IF statement as one of its possible processing branches, these IF statements are said to be nested. When the program has to test a variable for more than two values, EVALUATE is the better choice. Syntax: IF condition-p { IF condition-q { statement-1 { ELSE { statement-2 { statement-3 }

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ELSE { statement-4 }

Sample Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { char ans; int year; clrscr(); printf("\nQuestion: "); printf("\n\nAre you a Datacomians [Y/N]?: "); scanf("%s",&ans); if(ans=='Y') { printf("\nWhat year are you now [1/2]?: "); scanf("%d",&year); if(year==1) { printf("\nWELCOME TO DATACOM FRESHMEN!"); } else { printf("\nCONGRATULATION GRADUATINGS!"); } } else { printf("\n\nTHANK YOU!"); } getch(); }

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OUTPUT: Question: Are you a Datacomians [Y/N]?: Y What Year are you now [1/2]?: 1 WELCOME TO DATACOM FRESHMEN!

Simulation: The sample program is using a NESTED IF conditional statement. On the first question if the students answer is yes meaning the pogram will ask another question which is What year are you now. And if the student answer is 1 the program will display he statement WELCOME TO DATACOM FRESHMEN! And if their answer is 2 the program will display the statement CONGRATULATION GRADUATINGS!. But if the students answer on the first question is N, the program will display the Thank You statement then it will end.

SWITCH STATEMENT The switch and case statements help control complex conditional and branching operations. The switch statement transfers control to a statement within its body. Syntax: switch (<expression) { Case <condtion1>: Statement; break; Case <condition2>: Statement; break; . . . Default: Statement; break; }

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Sample Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { int course; clrscr(); printf("\nDATACOMIAN STUDENTS"); printf("\n[1] Computer Programming"); printf("\n[2] Computer Technician"); printf("\n[3] Computer Secretarial"); printf("\n\nEnter Course Code: "); scanf("%d",&course); switch(course) { case 1: printf("\nWELCOME PROGRAMMERS!"); break; case 2: printf("\nWELCOME TECHNICIANS!"); break; case 3: printf("\nWELCOME SECRETARIALS!"); break; default: printf("\nCOURSE NOT VALID!"); break; } getch(); }

OUTPUT: DATACOMIAN STUDENT [1] Computer Programming [2] Computer Technician [3] Computer Secretarial Enter Course Code: 1 WELCOME PROGRAMMERS!

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LOOPING STATEMENT Most real programs contain some construct that loops within the program, performing repetitive actions on a stream of data or a region of memory. Parts of a looping statement: o Initialization o Condition o Incrimination/ Decrementation Kinds of Looping Statement: o While Loop o Do While Loop o Goto Loop o For Loop WHILE LOOP the while loop can be used if you dont know how many times a loop must run. Syntax: While (<condition>) { Statement; Incre/Decre; }

Sample Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { int x,y=1; clrscr(); printf("Enter a Number: "); scanf("%d",&x); while (y<=x) { printf("\n%d",y); y=y+1; } getch(); }
Datacom Institute of Computer Technology

OUTPUT: Enter a Number: 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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DO WHILE LOOP the do while loop is almost the same as the while loop. The do while loop has the following form: Syntax: do { Statement; Incre/Decre; }while(<condition>)

Sample Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { int x,y=1; clrscr(); printf("Enter a Number: "); scanf("%d",&x); do { printf("\n%d",y); y=y+1; }while (y<=x); getch(); }

OUTPUT: Enter a Number: 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

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GOTO LOOP The goto statement is a jump statement which jumps from one point to another point within a function. The goto statement is marked by label statement. Syntax: <label name>: If (<Condition>) { Statement; Statement; Incre/Decre; Goto <Label Statement>; }

Sample Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { int x,y=1; printf("Enter a Number: "); scanf("%d",&x); loop1: if (y<=x) { printf("\n%d",y); y=y+1; goto loop1; } getch(); }

OUTPUT: Enter a Number: 5 1 2 3 4 5

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FOR LOOP the for loop is the first of the three shell looping constructs. This loop allows for specification of a list of values. A list of commands is executed for each value in the list. Syntax: For(<initialixation>;<condition>;<incri/decre>) { Statement; }

Sample Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { int x,y=1; clrscr(); printf("Enter a Number: "); scanf("%d",&x); for(y=1;y<=x;y=y+1) { printf("\n%d",y); } getch(); }

OUTPUT: Enter a Number: 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

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STRINGS
Arrays of Character and String A character string is a sequence of characters which is to be considered as a single data item. The characters of a string are displayed enclosed within double quotes. A string may include letters, digits, symbols and control characters. Strings are used in application programs to store and process text data. Examples: Input Error 123456 $890.99

STRING FUNCTIONS
*Copy strcpy() copy the contents of str2 to str1.

Syntax : strcpy(str1,str2); Example : char str1[8],str2[8]; strcpy(str1,hello); strcpy(str2,there); strcpy(str1,str2); printf(%s,str2) Output : there

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*Concatenate strcat() concatenate the value of str2 to str1 returns str1 contents of str2 is unchaged.

Syntax : strcat(str1,str2);

Example : char str1[15],str2[8]; strcpy(str1,Hello); strcpy(str2,Folks); strcat(str1,there); strcat(str1,str2); printf(%s %s,str2,str1);

Output : Folks! HellothereFolks

*Compares strcmp() compare the two strings until unequal characteristics are found or until the end of a string is reached. It returns an integer to indicate the results of the compare to str1 to str2.

Syntax : strcmp(str1,str2);

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Example : char s[10]; printf(Enter Password :); gets(s); if (strcmp(s,datacom)==0) { printf(WELCOME); } else { printf(INTRUDER!!); }

Output1: Enter Password : Datacom WELCOME

Output2: Enter Password : dc INTRUDER!!

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STREAM
Stream is a series of bytes associated with a file.

Types of Streams: Text Stream is a sequence of characters that does not have a one-to-one relationship between the characters that are written or read and those on the external device. Binary Stream is a sequence of bytes that have a one-to-one correspondence to those found on the external device. The number of bytes written or read will be the same as the number found on the external device.

File
A collection of data stored in the memory. Files reside in the secondary memory. o Text File o Binary File

Steps in Processing a File o Declarer a file pointer that will be associated to a specific file. Open the file. o Read/Write from/to a file. o Close the file.

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File Handling Concepts o Establish a stream between the file and the program. o Perform the needed read/write operation to the file. o Close the file to detach the program from the file.

The ANSI C file system is composed of several interrelated functions. The most common are shown below:

fopen() - establishes a stream between a program and a file. It is used to open files. fgets() - used to input data from files.

fprintf() - used to output a data to a file. feof() fclose() - to check for end of file marker during input operation. - to close a file or detach a file from the program.

File Pointer o Is a pointer to information that defines various things about the file, including its name, status, and current position. o It identifies a specific disk file and is used by the stream associated with it to tell each of the buffered I/O operations where to perform operations. Is pointer variable of type FILE, which is defined in stdio.h

Syntax : FILE *fileVariable;

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Opening Files fopen() function opens a stream for use, links a file with that stream, and then returns a FILE pointer to that stream. Most often, the file is a disk file.

Syntax : InternalFileName = fopen(ExtrernalFileName, OpenMode);

Where InternalFileName is a variable which represents the file in the program. ExternalFileName is the actual name of the file that is being opened. OpenMode is the mode pointing to a string containing the desired status.

The Legal Values of Open Mode

r a

Open a text file for reading Append to a text file

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If you wish to open a file for writing with the name of DC.TXT Write : fp = fopen(C:\\DC.TXT , w); Where : fp is a variable of type FILE Note : DC.TXT is not case sensitive and can be written in uppercase or lowercase letters.

However, it is best written in this manner if ( (fp = fopen(C:\\DC.TXT, w)) == NULL ) { puts(Cannot open FILE!); exit(0); }

This method detects any error in opening file, such as a write-protect or full disk, before attempting to write it. NULL is a macro defined in stdio.h.

Writing Data to Text Files

fprintf() writes formatted output to a stream. The same as the printf() command but instead of writing the output to the screen, the output is written to a file.

SYNTAX : fprintf(InternalFileName, FormatControlString, WriteList);


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Example : fprintf(fp, Name : %s\n, name1);

fgets() - gets a string from a stream. Syntax : fgets(StringVariable, CharacterCount, InternalFileName);

Example: Assume that the of the content of the file DC.txt is Datacom Institute of Computer Technology

fgets(p , 3 , fp); printf(%s, p);

OUPUT : Dat <--- on the screen

feof() checks for end-of-file status during output. Syntax : feof(InternalFileName);

fclose() to close a file or detach a file from the program.

Syntax: fclose(InternalFileName);

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SAMPLE PROGRAMS
Sample Program 1: FILE WRITE (FW)

Source Code: #include <stdio.h> #include <conio.h> main() { FILE *fw = fopen("C:\\list.txt","a"); char userID[100], userName[100], userRole[100]; printf("\n Enter New UserID : "); scanf("%s", &userID);

printf("\n Enter New UserName : "); scanf("%s", &userName); printf("\n Enter New UserRole : "); scanf("%s", &userRole); fprintf(fw, "\n%s|%s|%s" ,userID, userName, userRole);

printf("\n Record Saved!!"); getch(); clrscr(); } OUTPUT: Enter New UserID: 3 Enter New UserName: Kevinrey Enter New UserRole: Admin Record Saved!!

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DATACOM INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY


FIRST SEMESTER FIRST TRANSITION

DESKTOP PUBLISHING

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What is Desktop Publishing?

When documents and images are printed, they are "published." Before computers became commonplace, the publishing process required large printing presses that copies and duplicates pages. In order to print images and words on the same page, the text and graphics would have to be printed separately, cut out, placed on a single sheet, taped in place, then copied and printed. Fortunately, computers with graphical user interfaces have enabled desktop publishing, which allows this process to be done electronically. Desktop publishing is the use of the computer and software to create visual displays of ideas and information. It is the process for delivering visual communication through visual aids like hand-outs, tarpaulin, printouts, calling cards, videos and other media. It is for a specific purpose such as: giving ideas, message, and promotions. You may use structural or visual designs according to its use. For example you are creating a brochure for your items; you must choose the design which is appropriate to your targets and know the correct way of doing this and mostly it must be fit to your purpose. It is the combination of computer and WYSIWYG page layout software to create publication documents on a computer for either large scale publishing or a small scale local manipulation peripheral output and distribution. The term Desktop Publishing is commonly used to state the
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page layout skills. However, the skills and software are often used to create graphics for point of sale, displays, promotional items trade, exhibits, retail package designs and outdoor signs. Every time you use a computer to create a printable document, it can be considered desktop publishing. However, the term is most commonly used to refer to professional computer-based publishing. Desktop publishers use programs like Adobe InDesign and QuarkXpress to create page layouts for documents they want to print. These desktop publishing programs can be used to create books, magazines, newspapers, flyers, pamphlets, and many other kinds of printed documents. Publishers may also use programs like Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator to create printable images. Even word processing programs like Microsoft Word can be used for basic desktop publishing purposes. Complete desktop publishing involves the combination of typesetting (choosing fonts and the text layout), graphic design, page layout (how it all fits on the page), and printing the document. However, as mentioned before, desktop publishing can also be as simple as typing and printing a school paper. In order to desktop publish: all you need is a computer, monitor, printer, and software that can create a printable document. While that might cost more than a pen and paper, it certainly is cheaper than a printing press!

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Basic Phases in Desktop Publishing

1. Design - The creative process of combining the following for effective visual communication. It includes combining units, shapes, colors, spaces, text arts and text types for effective visual communication by means of planning or creating drafts.

2. Set-up - The process of preparing the software to be used for creating the publication. This also involves setting the paper size, margins and the major settings of your working space. Example of software: Microsoft Office Publisher Microsoft Office Word Adobe Photoshop Adobe PageMaker

3. Text - The process of preparing all the written parts of the documents. This is where you are going to insert the text or written parts of your visual aid. This includes setting the font: size, face, format and alignment. Text input may come from other word processing files; in this case this stage includes the setting of the place where you are going to have it inserted. Selection of paragraph formatting Lay-out of the text

4. Image - The process of preparing of pictures and other graphical elements of a document. This involves manipulation and setting, application of colors and adjusting the hue and contrast for the visual elements.

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5. File Preparation - This is the pre-press stage; this involves the application of the design, set-up and image into the document itself or simply inserting all the included parts into the paper or into the working space.

6. Printing/Uploading - This stage involves handing in the soft copy of the document to a professional printer to have a document printed out. For this stage, you are going to have your hard copy if it is for hand-out, poster or compilation, and upload or publish on web page if it is in video or other media type.

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Activity No. 1

Name : _________________________ _________________ Date : _________________________ _________________

Score :

Course

1. What is Desktop Publishing? (10 points) ________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ________________________________

2. Explain the 6 Basic Phases in Desktop Publishing (5 points each) a. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

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c. ____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ d. _____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ e. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _ ______________________________________________________ f. _____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

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Graphic Design

Graphic Design is a key component of desktop publishing. It may be thought of as a problem solving process which involves answering the questions of what to communicate in the content of your design.

Elements of Graphic Design 1. Line - Defined as continues mark in a surface. It comes in several weighs or points, which determine its thickness. Line can connect separate and organized elements, as well as guide the eye in following design.

2. Shape - The enclosed space defined by lines. Shapes add visual weight to a design and help divide a design into areas as well. Shapes can be geometric or organic; like lines, they can also imply a mood or convey symbolic meaning.

3. Space - The area around and within objects. Space is manipulated using close proximity to create associations or relationships between objects and to give emphasis to objects as well.

4. Color - The reflection of light bounced back by an object. Color has the properties of hue: the color itself; intensity: the degree of lightness of a hue:; value: the relative lightness and darkness of a hue. Any color comes in tints, which are variations produced by adding white to a color. Color categories include primary (red, blue and yellow), secondary (the results of mixing two primary colors,) and tertiary (the results of mixing primary colors with an adjacent secondary color). Colors can be classified as warm (red, orange and yellow) or cool (blue, green and violet). Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 916

5. Texture - The feel of a surface, or the illusion of simulation of it, which may come from the use of the other elements, as well as printing on specialty paper with textured surface. Some common paper texture types include cast-coated or coated (high gloss surface), laid (a texture similar to grainy feel of handmade paper), linen (a smooth weave and soft finish), and matte finish (soft texture.)

6. Type - The letterform of text or words. Text in itself creates a shape which can evoke emotions in your reader. On the other hand, the typeface or font, which is the style of the letterforms, can create associations in readers mind in the same way that lines do.

Guidelines in Using the Elements of Design Always work from the design theme, style, or concept. Having a guide for overall concept on any design project makes the task of choosing how to use elements easier. Do not make the elements compete with each other for the attention of your audience, unless you have a good reason to make one element dominant over the others. Do not contradict the meaning of your design with one odd element suggesting another meaning.

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Activity No. 2

Name : _________________________ _________________ Date : _________________________ _________________

Score :

Course

1. What is Graphic Design? (10 points) ________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

2. Explain the Elements of Graphic Design (5 points each)

b. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

c. ____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________


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d. _____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ e. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _ ______________________________________________________ f. _____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

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Software that are Commonly Used in Desktop Publishing - Design

There is a lot of applicable software in desktop publishing but whats better is to use the software that we can do complex editing: inserting and manipulation of images, graphics and texts or generally, its contents. Example of software: Adobe Photoshop CS Series Macromedia Microsoft Paint Microsoft Office Publisher

Some of the features that we can do using the software listed above are: Insert objects (images and graphics) Resize objects Crop objects Move objects Change colors of objects Insert shapes Insert text Insert lines Insert curves Draw using pen and brush MS Office Publisher excluded Cartoonize MS Office Publisher excluded

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Software that are Commonly Used in Desktop Publishing - Design

Microsoft Paint Microsoft Paint (commonly known as MS Paint) is a drawing tool you can use to create simple or elaborate drawings. These drawings can be either black-and-white or color, and can be saved as bitmap files. You can print your drawing, use it for your desktop background, or paste it into another document. It is an application for creating graphics and it can do editing but it doesnt have

groupings of actions done for better editing and it has limited abilities.

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Software that are Commonly Used in Desktop Publishing - Design

Adobe Photoshop Adobe Photoshop is a graphics editing program developed and published by Adobe Systems. It is an application for editing image and designing that has a lot of functions and abilities.

Screenshot of Adobe Photoshop

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Microsoft Paint Common Tools Free-Form Select Select Eraser/ Color Eraser Fill With color Pick Color Magnifier Pencil Brush Airbrush Text Line Curve Rectangle Polygon Ellipse Rounded Rectangle

Adobe Photoshop Common Tools Marquee Move Lasso Magic Wand Crop Slice Healing Brush Brush Clone Stamp History Brush Eraser Gradient Blur Dodge Type Pen Shape Note Eyedropper

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Image Manipulation

Difference Between Image and Graphics 1. Images - Typically are like photograph, which are captured by cameras, sensors, etc. It reflects the real-world scene.

Image Dimensions Two dimensional Images Drawings, Paintings Three dimensional Images Sculptures

2. Graphics Graphics are visual presentations on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, computer screen etc. Most graphics are artificial.

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Image File Compression

There are two types of image file compression algorithms: lossless and lossy compression. Lossless and lossy compression are terms that describe whether or not, in the compression of a file, all original data can be recovered when the file is uncompressed. With lossless compression, every single bit of data that was originally in the file remains after the file is uncompressed. All of the information is completely restored. The JPEG image file, commonly used for photographs and other complex still images on the Web, is an image that has lossy compression.

1. Lossy Compression - A lossy compression scheme is one where a file is compressed by removing some of the information contained in the file to make it smaller. For instance, JPEG picture compression removes some picture information resulting in a lower quality image, but much smaller file size.

2. Lossless Compression - A lossless compression scheme is one where the original file before and after remains completely unchanged. To keep with the example, TIFF would be the corresponding lossless compression scheme to JPEG.

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Activity No. 3

Name : _________________________ _________________ Date : _________________________ _________________

Score :

Course

1. Explain the difference between Image and Graphics (10 points)


__________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

2. Explain the difference between the Lossy and Lossless Compresion (10 points)
________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

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Image File Formats

Computer displays are made up from grids of small rectangular cells called pixels; the term comes from "picture elements". The picture is built up from these cells. The smaller and closer the cells are together, the better the quality of the image, but a larger file is required to store the increased pixel count.

1. Vector Graphics - A vector graphic is composed of paths, or lines, that are either straight or curved. The data file for a vector image contains the points where the paths start and end, how much the paths curve, and the colors that either border or fill the paths. Because vector graphics are not made of pixels, the images can be scaled to be very large without losing quality.
After Magnification

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2. Raster Graphics - These are information rendered as pixels. Raster graphics are highly dependent on their original resolution. The image quality lessens when the image is resampled to a lower resolution. A raster graphic, such as a GIF or JPEG, is an array of pixels of various colors, which together form an image. Raster graphics, on the other hand, become blocky (pixelated) since each pixel increases in size as the image is made larger. This is why logos and other designs are typically created in vector format - the quality will look the same on a business card as it will on a billboard. After Magnification

The difference between vector and raster graphics is that raster graphics are composed of pixels, while vector graphics are composed of paths.

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The Metafile Format Metafile is an image file format originally designed for Microsoft Windows in the 1990s. Windows Metafiles are intended to be portable between applications and may contain both vector graphics and bitmap components, such as Windows Clip art files..

Types of Raster Graphics

1. JPEG/JFIF Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is a compression method. JPEG-compressed images are usually stored in the JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF) file format. JPEG compression is (in most cases) lossy compression. The JPEG/JFIF filename extension in DOS is JPG.

2. TIFF Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) is a flexible format that normally saves 8 bits or 16 bits per color (red, green, blue) for 24-bit and 48-bit totals, respectively, usually using either the TIFF or TIF filename extension. TIFF's flexibility is both blessing and curse, because no single reader reads every type of TIFF file.

3. EXIF

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Exchangeable Image File Format (EXIF) is a file standard similar to the JFIF format with TIFF extensions; it is incorporated in the JPEG-writing software used in most cameras. Its purpose is to record and to standardize the exchange of images with image metadata between digital cameras and editing and viewing software. The metadata are recorded for individual images and include such things as camera settings, time and date, shutter speed, exposure, image size, compression, name of camera, color information, etc. When images are viewed or edited by image editing software, all of this image information can be displayed.

4. Raw
Raw refers to a family of raw image formats that options are available on some digital cameras. These formats usually use a lossless or nearly-lossless compression, and produce file sizes much smaller than the TIFF formats of full-size processed images from the same cameras.

5. GIF Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) is limited to an 8-bit palette, or 256 colors. This makes the GIF format suitable for storing graphics with relatively few colors such as simple diagrams, shapes, logos and cartoon style images. The GIF format supports animation and is still widely used to provide image animation effects. It also uses a lossless compression that is more effective when large areas have a single color, and ineffective for detailed images or dithered images.

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6. PNG Portable Network Graphics (PNG) file format was created as the free, opensource successor to the GIF. The PNG file format supports true color (16 million colors) while the GIF supports only 256 colors. The PNG file excels when the image has large, uniformly colored areas. The lossless PNG format is best suited for editing pictures, and the lossy formats, like JPG, are best for the final distribution of photographic images because JPG files are smaller than PNG files.

7. BMP Windows Bitmap (BMP) file format handles graphics files within the Microsoft Windows operating system. Typically, BMP files are uncompressed, hence they are large. The advantage is their simplicity and wide acceptance in Windows programs.

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Activity No. 4

Name : _________________________ _________________ Date : _________________________ _________________

Score :

Course

1. Explain the differences between the three Image File Formats (20 points)

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________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ___________ _____________________________________________________________ ___________ _____________________________________________________________ ___________ _____________________________________________________________ ___________ _____________________________________________________________ ___________

2. Give the meaning of the following acronyms: (5 points each) a. JPEG ___________________________________________________ _

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b. TIFF ___________________________________________________ _ c. EXIFF ___________________________________________________ _ d. GIF -

___________________________________________________ _ e. PNG ___________________________________________________ _ f. BMP ___________________________________________________ _

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Five Aspects of Visual Communication

1. Design - The design must be appropriate to the target, the artwork must be related to your topic and must convey a clear message.

2. Purpose - The design and message must be good enough for the purpose. It is either to inform, put emotion and deliver ideas.

3. Written Part - The written part will be the way of complimenting the idea involved in the graphic or image present, it will serve as the explanation.

4. Title - The main representation of your whole project/ visual itself. It will be the first words that your readers or viewers will look at and judge if they are going to continue viewing or not so it must be presentable and readable.

5. Snapshots - These are pictures or examples of visual which they will be encountering through reading or viewing your work.

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Aspects of Visual Communication

Font Color Complement Table Background Color Black Blue Brown Font Color All Colors Green, Red, Violet Yellow, Orange, White Gold Gray Green Orange Pink Red Silver Black, Red Brown Black, Gold, Yellow Blue, Pink, Red Red, Blue, Black Red, Blue, Green Blue, Gray, Black, Pink Black, Red, Blue, Green Violet White Yellow Black, Light Colors All Colors Orange, Green, Black Violet White Yellow Pink, Sky Blue Gray, Black Orange, Red Gold Gray Green Orange Pink Red Silver Red, Maroon, Gray Orange, Yellow, Gray Black Black, Gray Black, Brown Light Green, Sky Blue Black Blue Brown Font Color Gray Sky Blue, Green Black, Gray, Peach Shadow

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Activity No. 5

Name : _________________________ _________________ Date : _________________________ _________________

Score :

Course

Explain the Aspects of Visual Communication (5 points each)

a. _________________

________________________________________

____________________________________ ____

____________________________________ ____ b. _________________ -

________________________________________

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____________________________________ ____

____________________________________ ____ c. _________________ -

________________________________________

____________________________________ ____

____________________________________ ____ d. _________________ -

________________________________________

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____________________________________ ____

____________________________________ ____ e. _________________ -

________________________________________

____________________________________ ____

____________________________________ ____

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Guidelines to Effective Visual Communication

1. Directness - Makes the message straightforward. As far as reports and presentations go, their aim is to communicate. Unlike art forms which are necessarily creative and symbolic, they must be clear and direct.

2. Efficiency - Strive for efficiency in communicating an idea. There is a great danger that the point of information might be lost in jumbled text effects, picture and colors.

3. Contextualization - Introduce the reader to the context through visuals. For example, serious information should be given a formal, elegant treatment which should be evident from the visual arrangement of elements.

4. Organization - Follow a structure whose logical sequence boosts understanding. Introduction Body Conclusion is an example of a structure for a report of presentation.

5. Relevancy - Use only relevant content. The guide for determining whether a picture or a text effect will be useful is how meaningful the overall result becomes upon adding it.
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6. Underscoring - Create sub-elements under the main point and use them to enhance the emphasis on a particular idea.

7. Maximizing - Incorporate graphics and data together with the text for the greatest impact. While reports are meant to be obvious and exact, they should not be boring.

Activity No. 6

Name : _________________________ _________________ Date : _________________________ _________________

Score :

Course

Explain the importance of each of the Guidelines to Effective Visual Communication (5 points each) ________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________
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_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________

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Writing Reports

Title Page This is the first thing a reader would see. The title page should have a strong impact on the viewer by effectively giving the basic information and helping establish the theme of the report.

Example of a Title Page

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Creating Reports

Content Page - Header and Footer Two of the most critical things to be considered in creating a report are the header and the footer. The uniformed contents of a report compliment its formality. Consistency in the format of headers and footers is a must to achieve a more presentable printed report.

Example Header

Example Footer Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 944

The aim of desktop publishing project such as report is to communicate well. An organized design helps to convey meaning effectively.

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Creating Logos

Tips in Creating a Logo 1. Keep It Simple - These are probably the best words of advice, and it ties into almost all of our upcoming tips. A complicated logo will not only make your logo difficult to reproduce and maintain, but you will also fail to engage your audience.

2. Engage Your Audience - The logo design should above everything entertain and engage your audience. Your logo should not be so literal that the message is spelt out for them. They should be given the opportunity to discover the meaning and intention of your logo themselves. If people are able to discover the trick of your logo within a reasonable amount of time, this will help to create a memorable and entertaining experience between you and your audience.

3. Adaptability (Be ready for change.) - Your logo should be flexible enough to adapt to every business situation. If a logo is too literal or specific, you may have a hard time using it when catering to different markets. Generally speaking, the best thing for small business start-ups is to have an icon and logo-type designed at the same time. Often times, companies will use only the icon on its products and packaging materials.

4. Relevance (Keep your products and services in mind.) - A memorable logo is great, but it should also get your customers to start thinking about the products or services that you offer. You should ensure that the logo relates to your business in some shape or form. Yes, the monkey can sell just about anything from cigarettes to cell phones, but there's a limit! Isn't there? 5. Choose Your Color Wisely - Colors can play a very important role in logo design as they can draw out different feelings and emotions from us. Interpretations of color may vary depending on age, gender, and cultural demographics, so your choices of color should Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 946

be carefully considered depending on your target market. Try to keep your selection of colors down to two or three. Too many colors will increase your cost of production and make it more difficult to reproduce. Additional color tips: Formal Suggested colors are gray, black, white, silver and gold. Kids Use light colors. Advertisements It must best describe your product.

Color Meaning Table Color Black Blue Brown Green Orange Pink Red White Yellow Formality Cool, Childish Hardship, Willingness Kind, Simple Hunger, Interesting Professional Girl Business Hate, Strong, Love Clean, Purified, Holy, Good Fight, Consistent Meaning

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Shape Meaning Table Shape Dotted Stripes Circle Square Polygons Curves Curves with Points Meaning Money, Lucky Organized Lucky, Fortunate Formal, In Good Way Lots of Stages, Competitive Soft Flow, Easy Flow Hurry, Fast, In No Time

6. Uniqueness - You want to be sure that your company is easily identified among your industry and competitors. Be sure to carefully research your industry and target market before embarking on a logo design. You need to know and understand the common styles of your industry, but you also need to make sure that you don't infringe on anyone else's trademarked logo.

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Activity No. 7

Name : _________________________ _________________ Date : _________________________ _________________

Score :

Course

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Create a logo for the following (10 points each) 1. Yourself

2. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology

3. Computer Secretary

4. Computer Programmer

5. Computer Technician

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Creating Business Cards

A business card is an entrepreneurs best friend, his or her most valuable marketing tool and an essential element to becoming unforgettable.

Tips in Creating a Business Card Within the first 10 seconds, your potential client is building up a lasting opinion about you. It sounds harsh but its a fact that people often do judge a book by its cover, and you only get one shot to make a great first impression. Fortunately there are a few tricks you can pull off, such as diverting their attention from the fact that you forgot to iron your shirt by pushing a unique and beautifully designed business card under their nose. Below is a list of essential tips to keep in mind when designing the perfect business card.

1. Size and Color The most common card size is 84mm * 55mm / 3.5in * 2in, so the best document size to work on is 1039 * 697 pixels. Its a good idea to work in CMYK color mode as opposed to RGB. CMYK stands for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black (Black is known as Key), and is used in color printing.

2. The Bleed Area Unless your design background color is white, you need to prepare the Bleed area for your card design. Preparing the bleed involves highlighting an area surrounding the document, usually 3 mm thick with the same color as the background color of your card design. This prevents any ugly border strips from turning up on the edge of the cards.

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Safe Area Make sure any text or sensitive information is contained in the box, otherwise, it could get cut off.

Trim This is where we aim to cut your cards.

Bleed Area We cut the bleed area off your cards to avoid white strips on the edge. Make sure any images or colors fill this area.

Na-ah! Aha!

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3. Avoid Using Borders In fact, its best to try to avoid using borders on your business card designs at all. They may look good, but when the cards are cut, you will most likely have some lop-sided edges. All printers have a margin of error for cutting your cards, which can be as much as a few millimeters, so expect some variance in the area where the blade falls.

What you see on screen:

What you may receive:

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Notice how the borders disappear when the blades do not cut at the right places? A few millimeters can make all the difference to your card design.

4. Ensure Your Text is Readable This is a pretty vital element in business card design. You wouldnt want your clients to have to strain their eyes to read your e-mail or website address. Make sure your text is at least 8 pt, in a clear readable bold font. Texts that are smaller than 8 pt may look fine on your monitor but may be printed as a fuzzy, smudged-out line. You could also try to emphasize your name or important contact information by making it slightly bigger or bolder than the rest of your information.

5. Include Important Information Make sure you include all the information on the back of your card that you think the client would find useful. Your name - Put the name your contacts know you by. What you do - Remember to include what you do or what defines your job scope. Include the organization you are currently attached to if you wish. Contact information - Phone number, e-mail, work address, social media profiles etc.

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Activity No. 8

Name : _________________________ _________________ Date : _________________________ _________________

Score :

Course

Create your own calling card that includes the following information: 1. Logo

2. Name 3. Address 4. E-mail address 5. Contact Number/s

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Creating Greeting Cards

A greeting card is a sheet with printed design to commemorate an event or special occasion, usually including a pre-printed greeting on the inside flap. The graphic on a greeting card is typically symbolic to the event or occasion. Beautiful handmade cards can be created with the minimal amount of equipment or expertise. One of the keys to making a great handmade card is to keep it personal. Regardless of how technically good a card is - it is the ones with the little extra personal touch that will always be remembered!

Tips in Creating a Greeting Card 1. Keep it Simple! It is so tempting to adorn a card with lots of flourishes - however when making a handmade card, often less is more. A very elegant card can be achieved by placing a small image onto a card blank and adding a simple message. Adding lots of extra add-ons will detract from the design of the card.

2. Add a Border A simple border will really finish a handmade card. If you are attaching a cut image to a card, adding a frame will disguise any cut edges.

3. Pick a Great Greeting A very simple image and a thoughtful greeting will create a lovely card. Greetings are a great way to make a card special. The same card can be used and personalized for different recipients by changing the sentiment or adding a few special words.

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Two Easy Steps in Creating a Hand-Made Greeting Card 1. Fold the paper/canvas into four parts.

2. Insert the Contents. Front Cover Back Cover

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Activity No. 9

Name : _________________________ _________________ Date : _________________________ _________________

Score :

Course

Create a greeting card for a Special Occasion (Birthday, Christmas, Opening of a New Establishment, etc.)

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Advertisement

Creating an advertisement for a product or a service seems to be a difficult task for many. They can sit in front of a desk with papers and pen on it and not a word written. We all love to see advertisements. Have you ever noticed that some ads are more successful than the other? Yes, there are advertisements that people remember by heart. Some are liked for their punch lines and other for the display features, content etc. Every manufacturer looks forward to create an impressive advertisement for his product in order to sell it better to its clients and get awesome response. However, only some are successful in it. Here are some sure shot ways to make an impressive ad:

1. Begin the ad creation by analyzing your product and consumer. Each ad has to be made specifically for those who are interested in buying the product or using the service, namely the consumer, or the target audience.

2. Understand WHO will buy or use your product. Search for as much information about them as possible. If your product is already in the market, you can obtain this information by conducting consumer surveys, talking to the sales people, or observing consumer behavior at various stores. If the product has not as yet launched, use best guess strategy or existing market information. Thus you will be able to define who your buyer or user is - this is your target audience, or the consumer. If you are selling a pencil, your target audience may be kids, students, women, men or teachers. Are they the users, buyers or influencers? In the case of pencils users may be students, buyers are parents and influencers are friends. 3. Find out WHAT is so special about your product, the unique selling proposition. Datacom Institute of Computer Technology Page 961

Make sure you find only one convincing reason otherwise you will confuse your reader. This is also sometimes referred to as the brand positioning. Look for something that current competitors do not offer or do not overtly claim to offer.

Identify a relevant unique product benefit. It should be something that the consumer needs or likes, and not that's unique for the sake of it. An example of something unique to your product but not relevant is a colorful garbage bag. Finding the one most relevant reason is more challenging than it sounds. Make a list of your product benefits and then rank them in the order of importance to your consumer (not to you). Concentrate on the top most benefits. Is there an unmet desire or need, any frustration in the mind of your consumer that will create a market for your particular product? Assess the need gap that exists for the product or service. The product claim you make should be credible and trustworthy - don't make incredulous claims that your product can not deliver. Take for example the pencils. Do they need to be sharpened or be lead replaced? Are they easy to grip? Should they be smooth and stylish, and come in many attractive colors? So on.

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4. Understand WHY will they buy or HOW will they use your product. The advertisement must clearly convey the idea that responds to the need of the consumer - his purpose.

5. Decide HOW to effectively convey the product message. Use the information that you have collected to form a "Creative Brief" for your creative team. Normally the product benefit is highlighted in the ad by using catchy headlines and attention grabbing visuals. For the tone and style of the ad, you need to keep your target audience in mind. It should get their attention, be easy to understand, informative, correct in tone and manner and above all, entertaining. Engage the consumer to make your ad stand out in clutter (a term used to describe plethora of ad messages that an average consumer is exposed to) and be different from competitors. Words such as "Free", "Extra", "Best", "New" or "Now" are the traditional favorites. For an instant response, action words such as Call Now, Hurry or Rush work well. Do not forget to include all the information that is required but at the same time dont overload. Keep it simple and short.

6. Think of WHEN will they buy, how will they shop for it. This will help you decide how, when and where to advertise, what media is best for you; choices may be local newspaper, web, pamphlets and many others.

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7. Admire your advertisement. It might be a great ad, but you are not sure that it will sell what you are wanting it to sell, until you have tested it amongst your target audience. Put the ad out and have a questionnaire ready to find out if you have reached the audience you set out to.

Additional Tips Always write down everything. When you do that, you can be sure everything is logical and not contradictory. It also serves as a template for checking. When in doubt, trust your gut, even professionals do it. Check, recheck and check again is the gospel law of advertising. Follow the rules, but after that, break them, great ads were created by breaking rules.

Warning! There's no such thing as a perfect ad, no matter how much you try there's always a better way. Ads cost a lot of money. A good ad takes your dollar a long way. It is worth paying a professional copy writer for a great advertisement. The steps above are basic steps, but ad making can be quite complex, a Do It Yourself (DIY) ad should be attempted at your own risk.

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Activity No. 10

Name : _________________________ _________________ Date : _________________________ _________________

Score :

Course

Form a group of 5-8 members and present an advertisement for the following topics: (choose 1) 1. Accessories 2. Clothes 3. Food 4. Insurance 5. Restaurant 6. School 7. Services (Carpentry, Massage, etc.)

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Creating Flyers / Leaflet

You don't need to spend a lot of money to make flyers that get attention. A flyer is an inexpensive and highly effective way to grab attention in a very busy marketplace. How do you make your flyer stand out in the crowd? Here are some tips that professional designers use to make flyers "pop.

Tips in Creating a Flyer 1. Write a snappy headline or title. Make it memorable, unusual or provocative using a few carefully chosen powerful words. Popular titles contain one or more of these words: Easy, The Secrets to, Finally, Insider, How to, Free Bonuses, Now You Can, Discover and Proven.

2. Use colorful or striking graphics. One large image will have more impact than many smaller images. A stunning photo or illustration grabs attention, creates a mood, and supports your story.

3. Focus on the benefits of your product or service. Your prospects will ask the question, "What's in it for me?" Write from their perspective using the words "you" and "your." Avoid using the following words: we, us, our and I.

4. Organize your page with boxes, borders and areas of contrasting colors. You don't need to fill your flyer with wall-to-wall text and graphics. Incorporate some white space to make certain elements stand out and to make the flyer easy to read.

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5. Don't get too complicated. Be aware of printing margins. I suggest you create your layout with 1/2" margins on all sides, or add 1/8" for bleeds on items that print off the edge of the page.

6. Don't forget to proofread. Have someone else proofread your work. Check your contact information. Dial the phone numbers on the flyer to make sure they are correct, and type in the URL of your website to make sure it is correct, too.

7. If you are on a tight budget, try this. Select bright-colored or unique paper, and print with black ink. Use shades of grey to provide tones and contrasting background areas.

Example of a Leaflet Datacom Institute of Computer Technology

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Activity No. 11

Name : _________________________ _________________ Date : _________________________ _________________

Score :

Course

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Create a leaflet for your product or service of choice.

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Writing Newsletters

Newsletter is an example of a publication that talks about specific topic of interest to a particular audience, such as fans of a sports team or a band. It is meant primarily to inform and update its readers of developments on that topic.

Three Types of Newsletters 1. Promotional Newsletters This type of newsletter is frequently used by businesses to promote a product or service. It is also known as a marketing newsletter. A promotional or marketing newsletter is typically sent to current or prospective customers free of charge. Not strictly a sales pitch, the promotional newsletter does strive to turn prospects into customers and customers into repeat customers.

2. Relationship Newsletters Examples of this type of newsletter are club newsletters, employee newsletters, church newsletters, and alumni newsletters. They focus on the shared interests of the target audience, building or reinforcing a relationship. Typically distributed at no charge, some organizations may send newsletters only to paid members as a perk for paying dues.

3. Expert Newsletters Usually subscription-based, these newsletters generally focus on a specific topic and the recipient is someone who has specifically requested the information in the newsletter and is willing to pay for the information. While you always want to put your best work into your newsletter, when people are paying for it, it's even more important to have good content and good design.

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Tips in Writing a Newsletter 1. Who is my audience? Once you've answered that question, you can then consider the most important issue in writing a newsletter: What does your audience want to know? If you write your newsletter with your audience in mind, you will avoid a major pitfall: filling the newsletter with stories of importance only to you or your department. You might find that interesting, but your audience will not.

2. It's a newsletter. Being NEWS as the keyword, don't rehash past events. Give your audience news they can use. Include items people can mark on their calendars - events they can look forward to. However, remember that an article in a newsletter is no substitute for an invitation to an event.

3. Make it interesting. Well-written newsletters allow readers to grasp information quickly, without the time commitment of a magazine. Instead of writing one long story, consider breaking it into a main story that has one or two short, easily digestible sidebars.

4. Keep it short and to the point. Use bullets, short sentences, and short paragraphs. That means you can't offer great detail, but you can give people an overview. If the topic is complex, suggest a reading list or invite readers to check your website for more information.

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Example of a Newsletter

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Parts of a Newsletter Nameplate


The banner on the front of a newsletter that identifies the publication is its nameplate. It usually contains the name of the newsletter, possibly graphics or a logo, and perhaps a subtitle, motto, and publication information including Volume and Issue or Date.

Table of Contents
Usually appearing on the front page, the table of contents briefly lists articles and special sections of the newsletter and the page number for those items.

Headline
After the nameplate, the headline identifying each article in a newsletter is the most prominent text element.

Body
The body of the newsletter is the bulk of the text excluding the headlines and decorative text elements. It's the articles that make up the newsletter content.

Bylines
The byline is a short phrase or paragraph that indicates the name of the author of an article in a newsletter. The byline commonly appears between the headline and start of the article, prefaced by the word "By" although it could also appear at the end of the article.

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Running Head
More familiarly known as a header, a running headline is repeating text - often the title of the publication - that appears, usually at the top, of each page or every other page in a newsletter design. The page number is sometimes incorporated with the running headline.

Page Number
Page numbers can appear at the top, bottom, or sides of pages.

Photos/Illustrations
A newsletter design layout may contain drawings, photographs, charts, graphs, or clip art.

Continuation Lines
see below from page 1 etc.

Masthead
The masthead is that section of a newsletter layout - typically found on the second page - that lists the name of the publisher and other pertinent data. It may include staff names, contributors, subscription information, logo, addresses, etc.

Pull-Quotes
Used to attract attention, especially in long articles, a pull-quote is a small selection of text "pulled out and quoted" in a larger typeface.

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Creating Tarpaulins, Posters and Banners

Poster is an effective way of communication. Posters are printed advertising messages that are posted for display on advertising structure. They can be useful part of your marketing strategy. Business posters are one of the best marketing tools to promote your business, products and services. It provides a pleasing presentation of your product and services. A business poster is informative and draws attention of target audience. It plays an important role in communicating to a large group of audience and improves your company exposure. Posters are eye catchy, and leave a strong impression on customers. Posters have high visibility as they are decorated with different colors, text and images. A good poster always attracts immediate attention and promotes a convincing offer that motivates action. Business posters give a unique identity to your company. It builds your business image and creates awareness of your brand and business.

Tips in Creating an Effective Business Poster 1. Create a theme of your poster. Select your theme according to your target audience. Make sure your theme should meet your business objectives. Select a suitable color scheme that should compliment your business logo. Choose light background color for your poster, as it gives better readability to your customers.

2. Keep a proper size of your poster. A poster is neither too large nor too small. Determine your poster size according to the content and images of your poster. Plan out where you want to put the logo, content and images to avoid distraction. Arrange all the things according to the size of poster. 3. Give an accurate heading, which defines the purpose of your poster.

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Add content near or beneath the images. Put clear fonts which are easy to read from long distance. Choose right size and color for the fonts to grab the attention of your customers. Your poster background color and text color should go together.

4. Your poster should represent a visual map with your words and images. It should attract the readers to follow the pattern of your posters story. Add your business name, phone numbers, email address and mailing address at the bottom of your poster.

5. Ensure your poster has only one purpose and one message to promote. Dont add too many images and text because it can make your poster design look busy. Use sufficient white space to avoid clutter. Balanced white space keeps your poster design clean and more organized, and allow readers to focus their attention on the important detail of your poster.

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Examples of Posters:

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Activity No. 12

Name : _________________________ _________________ Date : _________________________ _________________

Score :

Course

Create a poster/banner for your product or service of choice.

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DATACOM INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY


FIRST SEMESTER SECOND TRANSITION

COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL IN JAVA PROGRAMMING

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INTRODUCTION
This competency- base learning materials is designed for you to develop your knowledge and skills in creating a program using Java Programming Language in accordance with industry standards. CBLM is well planned to make the material effective and efficient for you not to miss a necessary underpinning knowledge.

MODULE DESCRIPTOR: This module defines the competency required in creating programs using Java Programming Language.

LEARNING OUTCOMES:

At the end of the module, the candidate /trainee is expected to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define Java Programming and know its history. Give the syntax of Java Programming. Use Java Compiler to create a program. Create Input Output Program. Create Programs using Control Structures

PREREQUISITE KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS: Candidate / trainee must possess the following qualifications, must be: Able to communicate both oral and written Physically mentally fit. With good moral character Can perform basic mathematical and logical computations. Analytical and logical thinking.

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Table of Contents

I.

Introduction to Java Programming a) Java Programming 3 b) Language Syntax and Grammars 6 c) Data Types and Operators . 14 d) Declaring Variables & Input/Output Programs . 18

II.

Java Control Structures a) if Structure 28 b) if else Structure .. 29 c) if else if Structure .. 31 d) switch Structure . 33

III.

Java Looping a) while Structure .. 39 b) do while Structure 41 c) for Structure . 42 d) break/continue Statement .. 44

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LEARNING GUIDE Learning Outcome 1: JAVA PROGRAMMING Learning Steps Resource Read and Analyze Information CBLM in Java Programming Sheet 1.1 on Java Programming Computer Answer Self Check 1.1 Self Check 1.1 Compare answer of Self Check # Model Answer 1.1 1.1 to Self Check Model Answer Self Check 1.2 # 1.1 Model Answer 1.2 Read and Analyze Information Activity Sheet 1.1 Sheet 1.2 Self Check 1.3 Answer Self Check 1.2 Model Answer 1.3 Compare answer of Self Check # Activity Sheet 1.2 1.2 to Self Check Model Answer # 1.2 Perform Activity Sheet 1.1 Read and Analyze Information Sheet 1.3 Answer Self Check 1.3 Compare answer of Self Check # 1.3 to Self Check Model Answer # 1.3 Read and Analyze Information Sheet 1.3 Perform Activity Sheet 1.2

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INFORMATION SHEET 1.1


JAVA PROGRAMMING What is Java Programming? Java is a high-level programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. Developed by James Gosling in 1991. Object-Oriented Portable and Platform-Independent Multithreaded Garbage Collected Pentium 166 MHz or faster processor At least 48MB of RAM At least 64MB of RAM - Graphics based application Java Development Kit 6 (JDK) JCreator 4.5 - www.jcreator.com Other Java Editors
Notepad Microsoft J++ Borland JBuilder IBM Visual Age for Java Sun Java Forte

Java Features

Java Programming System Requirements

Java Development Environment

Applets and Applications Application Applet stand-alone program that does not need a browser to run.

special applications designed to run within the context of a Web


browser.
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Self Check 1.1 Java Programming Name:_______________________________________ Room:____________________ Time:__________ Date:__________ Score:_________

What is Java Programming? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Java Features Java Programming System Requirements Java Development Environment Applets and Applications Application ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Applet _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

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Model Answer 1.1 Java Programming


What is Java Programming? Java is a high-level programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. Developed by James Gosling in 1991. Java Features Object-Oriented Portable and Platform-Independent Multithreaded Garbage Collected

Java Programming System Requirements Pentium 166 MHz or faster processor At least 48MB of RAM At least 64MB of RAM - Graphics based application

Java Development Environment Java Development Kit 6 (JDK) JCreator 4.5 - www.jcreator.com Other Java Editors
o o o o Notepad Microsoft J++ Borland JBuilder IBM Visual Age for Java

o Sun Java Forte Applets and Applications Application - stand-alone program that does not need a browser to run. Applet - special applications designed to run within the context of a Web

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INFORMATION SHEET 1.2


LANGUAGE SYNTAX AND GRAMMARS Java Program A minimum Java program has the following format: Syntax:

Java Sample Program

Output:

Coding Guidelines Java program files must Have same name as the class. End with extension .java

Use comments for documentation and readability White spaces are ignored Indent for readability
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Statements A statement is one or more lines of code terminated by a semicolon.

Output:

Comments A comment is an optional statement used to describe what a program or a line of program is doing.

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Identifier Identifiers used to label variables, methods, classes, etc. Case-sensitive May contain letters, digits, underscore and dollar sign ($) Identifiers cannot start with a number. Keywords cannot be used as identifier VALID Student pie_Master pieMaster pie4 pie2pie dollar$man $dollarman pieMethod 4pie pie-pie pie,pie pie/cake void 4pie pie-pie pie,pie INVALID

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