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FUTURE CONTINUOUS Future continuous, form

The future continuous is made up of two elements: the simple future of the verb 'to be' + the present participle (base+ing)

Subject You Affirmati e I will be asking

simple future, 'to be' will be

base+ing watching

Ne!ati e She won't be leaving Interro!ati e ill the! be retiring" Interro!ati e ne!ati e on't we be sta!ing" #$ample: to stay, future continuous

Affirmati e I will be sta!ing "ou will be sta!ing #e, s$e, it will be sta!ing %e will be sta!ing "ou will be sta!ing T$e& will be sta!ing

Ne!ati e I won't be sta!ing You won't be sta!ing %e won't be sta!ing e won't be sta!ing You won't be sta!ing The! won't be sta!ing

Interro!ati e ill I be sta!ing" ill !ou be sta!ing" ill she be sta!ing" ill we be sta!ing" ill !ou be sta!ing" ill the! be sta!ing"

Future continuous, function


The future continuous refers to an unfinished action or event that will be in progress at a time later than now& It is used: a& to pro'ect ourselves into the future and see something happening: This time ne$t week I will be sun-bathing in (ali& b& to refer to actions)events that will happen in the normal course of events: I'll be seeing Jim at the conference ne$t week&

c& in the interrogative form* especiall! with '!ou'* to distinguish between a simple re+uest for information and an invitation: Will you be coming to the part! tonight" (, re+uest for information) ill !ou come to the part!" (, invitation) d& to predict or guess about someone's actions or feelings* now or in the future: You'll be feeling tired after that long walk* I e$pect& -ore e$amples: a& events in progress in the future: hen !ou are in .ustralia will you be staying with friends" This time ne$t week you will be working in !our new 'ob& .t four thirt! on Tuesda! afternoon I will be signing the contract& b& events)actions in normal course of events: I'll be going into town this afternoon* is there an!thing !ou want from the shops" Will you be using the car tomorrow" / 0o* !ou can take it& I'll be seeing 1ane this evening / I'll give her the message& c& asking for information: Will you be bringing !our friend to the pub tonight" Will Jim be coming with us" d& predicting or guessing: You'll be feeling thirst! after working in the sun& He'll be coming to the meeting* I e$pect& You'll be missing the sunshine now !ou're back in #ngland&

FUTURE FOR'S
Intro(uction There are a number of different wa!s of referring to the future in #nglish& It is important to remember that we are e$pressing more than simpl! the time of the action or event& 2bviousl!* an! 'future' tense will alwa!s refer to a time 'later than now'* but it ma! also e$press our attitu(e to the future event& .ll of the following ideas can be e$pressed using different tenses: a& Simple prediction b& .rrangements c& 3lans and intentions d& Time/tabled events e& 3rediction based on present evidence f& illingness g& .n action in progress in the future h& .n action or event that is a matter of routine i& 2bligation '& .n action or event that will take place immediatel! or ver! soon

k& 3ro'ecting ourselves into the future and looking back at a completed action& The e$ample sentences below correspond to the ideas above: a& There will be snow in man! areas tomorrow& b& I'm meeting 1im at the airport& c& We're going to spend the summer abroad& d& The plane takes off at 4 a&m& e& I think it's going to rain5 f& We'll give !ou a lift to the cinema& g& This time ne$t week I'll be sun-bathing& h& You'll be seeing 1ohn in the office tomorrow* won't !ou" i& You are to travel directl! to 6ondon& '& The train is about to leave& k& . month from now he will have finished all his e$ams& It is clear from these e$amples that several tenses are used to e$press the future& The sections that follow show the form and function of each of these tenses&

Simple future, form


The 'simple' future is composed of two parts: will / shall + the infinitive without 'to' Subject %e )ill will infiniti e )it$out to leave&&&

Affirmati e I I Ne!ati e The! The! Interro!ati e ill Interro!ati e ne!ati e on't she take" she ask" will not won't see see will shall go go

Contractions* I will You will %e*she* will I'll you'll he'll* she'll e will You will The! will we'll you'll they'll

02T#* The form 'it will' is not normall! shortened& #$ample: to see, simple future

Affirmati e I'll see +I will)shall see "ou'll see #e, s$e, it will see %e'll see +%e will)shall see "ou will see T$e&'ll see

Ne!ati e I won't see) I shan't see You won't see %e won't see e won't see) e shan't see You won't see The! won't see

Interro!ati e ill I see") Shall I see" ill !ou see" ill she see" ill we see") Shall we see" ill !ou see" ill the! see"

702T#* shall is slightl! dated but can be used instead of will with I we!

Simple future, function


The simple future refers to a time later than now* and e$presses facts or certaint!& In this case there is no 'attitude'& The simple future is used: a& to predict a future event: It will rain tomorrow& b& (with I we) to e$press a spontaneous decision: I'll pay for the tickets b! credit card& c& to e$press willingness: I'll do the washing/up& He'll carry !our bag for !ou&

d& (in the negative form) to e$press unwillingness: The bab! won't eat his soup& I won't leave until I've seen the manager5 e& (with I in the interrogative form) to make an offer: "hall I open the window" f& (with we in the interrogative form) to make a suggestion: "hall we go to the cinema tonight" g& (with I in the interrogative form) to ask for advice or instructions: shall I tell the boss about this mone!" h& (with you) to give orders: You will do e$actl! as I sa!& i& (with you) to give an invitation: Will you come to the dance with me" Will you marry me" 02T#: In modern #nglish will is preferred to shall, "hall is mainl! used with I and we to make an offer or suggestion (see e$amples (e) and (f) above* or to ask for advice (e$ample (g) above)& ith the other persons (you, he, she, they) shall is onl! used in literar! or poetic situations* e&g& 8With rings on her fingers and bells on her toes, "he shall have music wherever she goes." hat

FUTURE -ERFECT Future perfect, form


The future perfect is composed of two elements: the simple future of the verb to have (will have) + the past participle of the main verb:

Subject %e Affirmati e I will have left Ne!ati e The! won't have gone Interro!ati e ill we have seen" Interro!ati e ne!ati e on't he have arrived"

)ill $a e will have

past participle finished

#$ample: to arrive, future perfect

Affirmati e I'll have arrived "ou'll have arrived #e'll have arrived %e'll have arrived "ou'll have arrived T$e&'ll have arrived

Ne!ati e I won't have arrived You won't have arrived She won't have arrived e won't have arrived You won't have arrived The! won't have arrived

Interro!ati e ill I have arrived" ill !ou have arrived" ill it have arrived" ill we have arrived" ill !ou have arrived" ill the! have arrived"

Future perfect, function


The future perfect refers to a completed action in the future& hen we use this tense we are pro'ecting ourselves forward into the future and looking back at an action that will be completed some time later than now& It is often used with a time e$pression using by + a point in future time& #$amples: a& I'll have been here for si$ months on 1une 94rd& b& (! the time !ou read this I'll have left& c& You will have finished !our work b! this time ne$t week&

FUTURE -ERFECT CONTINUOUS Future perfect continuous, form


This form is composed of two elements: the future perfect of the verb to be (will have been) + the present participle of the main verb (base+ing): Subject e )ill $a e been will have been base+in! living

Affirmati e I Ne!ati e I Interro!ati e won't have been working will have been working

ill Interro!ati e ne!ati e on't

I have been

working"

I have been

working"

#$ample: to live, :uture 3erfect continuous

Affirmati e I'll have been living "ou'll have been living #e'll have been living %e'll have been living "ou'll have been living T$e&'ll have been living

Ne!ati e I won't have been living You won't have been living %e won't have been living e won't have been living You won't have been living The! won't have been living

Interro!ati e ill I have been living" ill !ou have been living" ill she have been living" ill we have been living" ill !ou have been living" ill the! have been living"

Future perfect continuous, function


6ike the future perfect simple* this form is used to pro'ect ourselves forward in time and to look back& It refers to events or actions in a time between now and some future time* that ma! be unfinished& #$amples: a& I will have been waiting here for three hours b! si$ o'clock& b& (! 9;;< I will have been living here for si$teen !ears& c& (! the time I finish this course* I will have been learning #nglish for twent! !ears& d& 0e$t !ear I will have been working here for four !ears&

FUTURE %IT# .OIN. TO


/, Future )it$ .oin! to 0 form This form is composed of three elements: the appropriate form of the verb 'to be' + going to + the infinitive of the main verb:

Subject She

'to be' is

!oin! to going to

infiniti e leave

1, Future )it$ .oin! to 0 function The use of 'going to' to refer to future events suggests a ver! strong association with the present& The time is not important / it is later than now* but the attitude is that the event depends on a present situation, that we know about& So it is used: a) to refer to our plans and intentions: We're going to move to London ne t year. (, the plan is in our minds now&) b) to make predictions based on present evidence: Loo! at those clouds " it's going to #our with rain$ (, It's clear from what I can see now&) Note* In ever!da! speech* 'going to' is often shortened to 'gonna'* especiall! in .merican #nglish& -ore e$amples: -lans an( intentions* a& Is #reddy going to buy a new car soon" b& $re John and %am going to visit -ilan when the! are in Ital!" c& I think 0igel and -ar! are going to have a part! ne$t week& -re(ictions base( on present e i(ence* a& &here's going to be a terrible accident5 b& He's going to be a brilliant politician& c& I'm going to have terrible indigestion& 02T#: It is unusual to sa! 'I'm going to go to&&&' Instead* we use 'going to' ' a place or event% #$amples: e are going to the beach tomorrow& She is going to the ballet tonight& $re you going to the party tomorrow night?

-ERFECT CON2ITIONA3, CONTINUOUS


/, -erfect con(itional, continuous 0 Form
This tense is composed of two elements: the perfect condtional of the verb 'to be' (would have been) + the present participle (base+ing). Subject I e Affirmati e I would have been stud!ing& )oul( $a e been would have been would have been base+in! sitting swimming

Ne!ati e You Interro!ati e ould Interro!ati e ne!ati e ouldn't it have been working" we have been travelling" wouldn't have been living&

#$amples: to work, -ast continuous con(itional

Affirmati e I would have been working "ou would have been working #e would have been working %e would have been working "ou would have been working T$e& would have been working Interro!ati e ould I have been working" ould !ou have been working" ould he have been working" ould we have been working" ould !ou have been working" ould the! have been working"

Ne!ati e I wouldn't have been working You wouldn't have been working& S$e wouldn't have been working e wouldn't have been working You wouldn't have been working The! wouldn't have been working Interro!ati e ne!ati e ouldn't I have been working" ouldn't !ou have been working" ouldn't she have been working" ouldn't we have been working" ouldn't !ou have been working" ouldn't the! have been working"

1, Function
This tense can be used in T!pe 4 conditional sentences& It refers to the

unfulfille( result of the action in the if/clause* and e$presses this result as an unfinis$e( or continuous action& .gain* there is alwa!s an unspoken 8but&&8 phrase: If the weather had been better (but it wasn't)* I'd have been sitting in the garden when he arrived (but I wasn't and so I didn't see him)& If she hadn't got a 'ob in 6ondon (but she did)* she would have been working in 3aris (but she wasn't)&

#$amples: If I'd had a ball I would have been playing football& If I'd had an! mone! I'd have been drinking with m! friends in the pub that night& If I had known it was dangerous I wouldn't have been climbing that cliff& She wouldn't have been wearing a seat/belt if her father hadn't told her to&

T"-E 1 CON2ITIONA3 SENTENCES


/, Form
In a &y#e ' conditional sentence* the tense in the 'if' clause is the simple past* and the tense in the main clause is the present con(itional:

'IF' C3AUSE If + simple past If it rained If !ou went to bed earlier

'AIN C3AUSE -resent con(itional !ou would get wet !ou wouldn't be so tired&

-resent con(itional, form


The present conditional of an! verb is composed of two parts / the modal au$iliar! would + the infinitive of the main verb (without 'to'&) Subject She )oul( would infiniti e )it$out to learn

Affirmati e I Ne!ati e would go

I Interro!ati e ould Interro!ati e ne!ati e ouldn't

wouldn't

ask

she

come"

the!

accept"

%oul(* Contractions of )oul(


In spoken #nglish* )oul( is contracted to '(!

I'd !ou'd he'd* she'd

e'd !ou'd the!'d

The negative contraction , wouldn't& #$ample: to accept, -resent con(itional

Affirmati e I would accept "ou would accept #e would accept %e would accept "ou would accept T$e& would accept

Ne!ati e I wouldn't accept You wouldn't accept S$e wouldn't accept e wouldn't accept You wouldn't accept The! wouldn't accept

Interro!ati e ould I accept" ould !ou accept" ould he accept" ould we accept" ould !ou accept" ould the! accept"

1, Function

In these sentences* the time is no) or an& time* and the situation is unreal& The! are not based on fact* and the! refer to an unli4el& or $&pot$etical con(ition and its probable result! The use of the past tense after 'if' indicates unrealit&! e can nearl! alwa!s add a phrase starting with 8but8* that e$presses the real situation: (f the weather wasn't so bad, we would go to the #ar! (...but it is bad* so we can't go) (f ( was the )ueen of *ngland, ( would give everyone +,--. (..&but I'm not* so I won't)

#$amples of use: /, To make a statement about something that is not real at present* but is possible: ( would visit her if ( had time. (. ( haven't got time but ( might have some time) 1, To make a statement about a situation that is not real now and never could be real: (f ( were you, I'd give up smo!ing (but ( could never be you) #$amples: a& If I was a plant* I would love the rain& b& If !ou reall! loved me* !ou would buy me a diamond ring& c& If I knew where she lived* I would go and see her& d& You wouldn't need to read this if !ou understood #nglish grammar& e& Would he go to the concert if I gave him a ticket" f& The! wouldn't invite her if the! didn't like her g& e would be able to bu! a larger house if we had more mone! 02T#* It is correct* and ver! common* to sa! 8If I )ere8 instead of 8If I )as8&

'IF' SENTENCES AN2 T#E 'UNREA3' -AST


In this section !ou will find information on sentences containing the word 'if'* the use of conditional tenses* and the 'unreal past'* that is* when we use a past tense but we are not actuall! referring to past time&

IF AN2 T#E CON2ITIONA3


There are four main t!pes of 'if' sentences in #nglish: <& T$e '5ero' con(itional* where the tense in bot$ parts of the sentence is the simple present*

'IF' C3AUSE If + simple present If !ou heat ice If it rains

'AIN C3AUSE simple present it melts& !ou get wet

In these sentences* the time is no) or al)a&s and the situation is real an( possible& The! are often used to refer to general truths&

9& T$e T&pe / con(itional* where the tense in the 'if clause is the simple present* and the tense in the main clause is the simple future

'IF' C3AUSE If + simple present If it rains If !ou don't hurr!

'AIN C3AUSE Simple future !ou will get wet we will miss the train&

In these sentences* the time is the present or future and the situation is real& The! refer to a possible con(ition and its probable result& 4& T$e T&pe 1 con(itional* where the tense in the 'if' clause is the simple past* and the tense in the main clause is the present con(itional:

'IF' C3AUSE If + simple past If it rained If !ou went to bed earlier

'AIN C3AUSE -resent con(itional !ou would get wet !ou wouldn't be so tired&

In these sentences* the time is no) or an& time* and the situation is unreal& The! are not based on fact* and the! refer to an unli4el& or $&pot$etical con(ition and its probable result! =& T$e T&pe 6 con(itional* where the tense in the 'if' clause is the past perfect* and the tense in the main clause is the perfect con(itional:

'IF' C3AUSE If + past perfect If it had rained If !ou had worked harder

'AIN C3AUSE -erfect con(itional !ou would have got wet !ou would have passed the e$am&

In these sentences* the time is past* and the situation is contrar& to realit&& The facts the! are based on are the opposite of what is e$pressed* and the! refer to an unreal past con(ition and its probable past result& . further t!pe if 'if' sentence e$ists* where T!pe 9 and T!pe 4 are mi$ed& The tense in the 'if' clause is the past perfect* and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional:

'IF' C3AUSE

'AIN C3AUSE

If + past perfect If I had worked harder at school If we had looked at the map

-resent con(itional I would have a better 'ob now& we wouldn't be lost&

In these sentences* the time is past in the 'if' clause* and present in the main clause& The! refer to an unreal past con(ition and its probable result in the present!

UN3ESS
>nless means the same as if&&&not& 6ike if* it is followed b! a present tense* a past tense or a past perfect (ne er b! 'would')& It is used instead of if + not in conditional sentences of all t!pes: T&pe /* 7Unless + present8 a, You'll be sick unless !ou stop eating& (, You will be sick if !ou don't stop eating) b, I won't pa! unless !ou provide the goods immediatel!& (, If !ou don't provide them I won't pa!) c, You'll never understand #nglish unless !ou study this grammar carefull!& (, You'll never understand if !ou don't stud!&&&) T&pe 1* 7Unless + past8 a, >nless he was ver! ill* he would be at work& b, I wouldn't eat that food unless I was reall! hungr!& c, She would be here b! now unless she was stuck in the traffic& T&pe 6* 7Unless + past perfect8 a, The elephant wouldn't have seen the mouse unless she'd had perfect e!esight& b, I wouldn't have phoned him unless you'd suggested it& c, The! would have shot her unless she'd given them the mone!&

'I9E2 CON2ITIONA3 SENTENCES


It is possible for the two parts of a conditional sentence to refer to different times* and the resulting sentence is a 8mi$ed conditional8 sentence& There are two t!pes of mi$ed conditional sentence:

A, -resent result of past con(ition*


/, Form The tense in the 'if' clause is the past perfect* and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional:

'IF' C3AUSE If + past perfect If I had worked harder at school If we had looked at the map

'AIN C3AUSE -resent con(itional I would have a better 'ob now& we wouldn't be lost&

1, Function In these sentences* the time is past in the 'if' clause* and present in the main clause& The! refer to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present! The! e$press a situation which is contrary to reality both in the past and in the present: '(f ( had wor!ed harder at school' is contrar! to past fact / I didn't work hard at school* and '( would have a better /ob now' is contrar! to present fact / I haven't got a good 'ob& (f we had loo!ed at the ma# (we didn't)* we wouldn't be lost (we are lost)& #$amples: I would be a millionaire now if I had taken that 'ob& If you'd caught that plane you'd be dead now& If you hadn't spent all !our mone! on ?@s* !ou wouldn't be broke&

:, -ast result of present or continuin! con(ition,


/, Form The tense in the If-clause is the simple past* and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional: 'IF' C3AUSE If + simple past If I wasn't afraid of spiders If we didn't trust him 'AIN C3AUSE -erfect con(itional I would have picked it up& we would have sacked him months ago&

1, Function In these sentences the time in the If-clause is now or always* and the time in the main clause is before now& The! refer to an unreal present situation and its probable (but unreal) past result: '(f ( wasn't afraid of s#iders' is contrar! to present realit! / I am afraid of spiders* and '( would have #ic!ed it u#' is contrar! to past realit! / I (i(n't pick it up& '(f we didn't trust him' is contrar! to present realit! / we (o trust him* and 'we would have sac!ed him' is contrar! to past realit! / we $a en't sacked him& #$amples:

a& If she wasn't afraid of fl!ing she wouldn't have travelled b! boat& b& I'd have been able to translate the letter if m! Italian was better& c& If I was a good cook* I'd have invited them to lunch& d& If the elephant wasn't in love with the mouse* she'd have trodden on him b! now& T"-E 6 CON2ITIONA3 SENTENCES

/, Form
In a T!pe 4 conditional sentence* the tense in the 'if' clause is the past perfect* and the tense in the main clause is the perfect con(itional:

'IF' C3AUSE If + past perfect If it had rained If !ou had worked harder

'AIN C3AUSE -erfect con(itional !ou would have got wet !ou would have passed the e$am&

-erfect con(itional 0 form


The perfect conditional of an! verb is composed of two elements: would + the perfect infinitive of the main verb (,have + #ast #artici#le)% Subject %e The! Affirmati e I Ne!ati e She Interro!ati e ould Interro!ati e ne!ati e ouldn't he have been&&&" !ou have left&&&" wouldn't have given&&& would have believed &&& )oul( would would perfect infiniti e have gone&&& have sta!ed&&&

#$ample: to go, 3ast conditional

Affirmati e

Ne!ati e

Interro!ati e

I would have gone "ou would have gone #e would have gone %e would have gone "ou would have gone T$e& would have gone

I wouldn't have gone You wouldn't have gone S$e wouldn't have gone e wouldn't have gone You wouldn't have gone The! wouldn't have gone

ould I have gone" ould !ou have gone" ould it have gone" ould we have gone" ould !ou have gone" ould the! have gone"

In these sentences* the time is past* and the situation is contrary to reality& The facts the! are based on are the opposite of what is e$pressed& T!pe 4 conditional sentences* are trul! hypothetical or unreal* because it is now too late for the condition or its result to e$ist& There is alwa!s an unspoken 8but..." phrase: If I had worked harder I would have passed the e$am (but I didn't work hard* and I didn't pass the e$am)& If I'd known !ou were coming I'd have baked a cake (but I didn't know* and I haven't baked a cake)&

NOTE* (oth would and had can be contracted to 'd* which can be confusing& Aemember that !ou NE;ER use would in the I#-clause* so in the e$ample above* 8If I'd known8 must be "If I had known", and "I'd have baked8 must be "I would have baked&&8 #$amples: a& If I'd known !ou were in hospital* I would have visited !ou& b& I would have bought !ou a present if I'd known it was !our birthda!& c& If they'd had a better goalkeeper the! wouldn't have lost the game& d& If !ou had told me !ou were on the Internet* I'd have sent !ou an e/mail& e& Would you have bought an elephant if you'd known how much the! eat"

UNREA3 -AST
The past tense is sometimes used in #nglish to refer to an 'unreal' situation& So* although the tense is the past* we are usuall! talking about the present* e&g& in a T!pe 9 conditional sentence: (f an ele#hant and a mouse fell in love, they would have many #roblems. .lthough fell is in the past tense* we are talking about a h!pothetical situation that might e$ist now or at an! time* but we are not referring to the past& e call this use the unreal past, 2ther situations where this occurs are: after other words and e$pressions like 'if' (su##osing, if only, what if)0

after the verb 'to wish'0 after the e$pression 'I'd rather!!'

E<pressions li4e 'if'


The following e$pressions can be used to introduce h!pothetical situations: / supposing, if only, what if& The! are followed b! a past tense to indicate that the condition the! introduce is unreal: Supposing an elephant and a mouse fell in love" (, but we know this is unlikel! or impossible) hat if we painted the room purple" (, that would be ver! surprising) If onl! I had more mone!& (, but I haven't)& These e$pressions can also introduce h!pothetical situations in the past and then the! are followed b! the past perfect! #$amples: If onl! I hadn't kissed the frog (, I did and it was a mistake because he turned into a horrible prince* but I can't change it now&) hat if the elephant had trodden on the mouse" (She didn't* but we can imagine the result5) Supposing I had given that man m! mone!5 (I didn't* so I've still got m! mone! now&)

T$e erb to wish


The verb to wish is followed b! an 'unreal' past tense when we want to talk about situations in the present that we are not happ! about but cannot change: I wish I had more mone! (,but I haven't) She wishes she was beautiful (, but she's not) e wish we could come to !our part! (but we can't) hen we want to talk about situations in the past that we are not happ! about or actions that we regret* we use the verb to wish followed b! the past perfect: I wish I hadn't said that (, but I did) %e wishes he hadn't bought the car (, but he did bu! it&) I wish I had taken that 'ob in 0ew York (, but I didn't* so I'm stuck in (ristol)

NOTE: hen we want to talk about situations we are not happ! about and where we want someone else to change them* we use to wish followed b! would ' infinitive( I wish he would stop smoking& (, I don't like it* I want $im to change it) I wish !ou would go awa!& (, I don't want !ou here* I want &ou to take some action) I wish !ou wouldn't s)uee*e the toothpaste from the middle5 (, I want !ou to change !our habits&)

I'd rather and it's time!!!

These two e$pressions are also followed b! an unreal past& The verb is in the past tense* but the situation is in the present& hen we want to talk about a course of action we would prefer someone else to take* we use I'd rather ' past tense: I'd rather !ou went %e'd rather !ou called the police I'd rather !ou didn't hunt elephants& 02T#: the stress can be important in these sentences* to show what our preference is: ('d rather you went , not me* ('d rather you went . don't sta! 1e'd rather you called the #olice , he doesn't want to 1e'd rather you called the police , not the ambulance service Similarl!* when we want to sa! that now is a suitable moment to do something* either for ourselves or for someone else* we use it's time ' past tense: It's (high) time I went& It's time !ou paid that bill& @on't !-RESENT

CONTINUOUS CON2ITIONA3

In ty#e ' conditional sentences* the continuous form of the present conditional ma! be used: (f ( were a millionaire, ( wouldn't be doing this /ob$

/, -resent continuous con(itional 0 form,


This form is composed of two elements: the present conditional of the verb 'to be' (would be) + the present participle of the main verb (base+ in!)& Subject %e The! Affirmati e e Ne!ati e You Interro!ati e ould Interro!ati e ne!ati e !ou be sharing" wouldn't be working would be coming )oul( be would be would be base+in! going living

ouldn't

the! be

pla!ing"

#$ample: to live, -resent continuous con(itional,

Affirmati e I would be living "ou would be living #e would be living %e would be living "ou would be living T$e& would be living

Ne!ati e I wouldn't be living You wouldn't be living S$e wouldn't be living e wouldn't be living You wouldn't be living The! wouldn't be living

Interro!ati e ould I be living" ould !ou be living" ould he be living" ould we be living" ould !ou be living" ould the! be living"

1, -resent continuous con(itional 0 function


This form is common in T!pe 9 conditional sentences& It e$presses an unfinished or continuin! action or situation* which is the probable result of an unreal con(ition: I would be working in Ital! if I spoke Italian& (but I don't speak Italian* so I am not working in Ital!& She would be living with 1ack if she wasn't living with her parents& (but she is living with her parents so she's not living with 1ack)&

-ore e$amples: I wouldn't be eating this if I wasn't e$tremel! hungr!& If I had an e$am tomorrow* I'd be revising now& You wouldn't be smiling if !ou knew the truth&

02T#: This form is also found in: mi$ed conditional sentences (See section on -i$ed ?onditional Sentences)B in indirect speech: 2he said "('ll be wor!ing in the garden." 2he said she would be working in the garden. (See section on Indirect Speech) ou think it's time !ou had a haircut"

TENSES
Intro(uction
It is important to understand the meaning and use of tenses in #nglish& The form ma! be like that of a tense in !our own language* but the meaning ma! be different* so be er& careful=

Summar! of Cerb Tenses -resent tenses Simple present 3resent continuous -ast tenses Simple past 3ast continuous -erfect tenses 3resent 3erfect 3resent perfect continuous 3ast perfect 3ast perfect continuous :uture perfect :uture perfect continuous Future tenses Simple future :uture continuous Con(itional tenses 3resent conditional 3resent continuous conditional 3erfect conditional 3erfect continuous conditional

TENSES
OT#ER %A"S OF TA3>IN. A:OUT T#E FUTURE /, IS TO + INFINITI;E Form*
This form is composed of two elements: the appropriate form of the verb to be + to (am to, are to, is to), and the infinitive of the main verb without 'to'& &

Subject e

to be to are to

infiniti e )it$out to leave

Affirmati e She Ne!ati e You Interro!ati e .m I to the! to .ren't travel" travel" Interro!ati e ne!ati e are not (aren't) to travel is to travel

Function*
This form refers to an obligation to do something at a time later than now& It is similar to 'must'* but there is a suggestion that something has been arranged or organised for us& It is not normall! used in spoken #nglish* but might be found in sp! stories* e&g& 8You are to leave this room at once* and !ou are to travel b! train to 6ondon& In 6ondon !ou are to pick up !our ticket from -r Smith* and !ou are to fly to !our destination alone& hen !ou arrive* !ou are to meet our agent* -r D* who will give !ou further information& You are to destroy this message now&8

1, :E + A:OUT TO + INFINITI;E Form:


This form is composed of three elements : the appropriate form of the verb to be* present tense* + 'about to' + the infinitive of the main verb without 'to': Subject be about to infiniti e )it$out to I She am is about to about to leave arrive

Function:
This form refers to a time immediately after the moment of speaking* and emphasises that the event or action will happen ver! soon: #$amples: a& She is about to leave& b& You are about to see something ver! unusual& c& I am about to go to a meeting / can I talk to !ou later" It is often used with the word '/ust'* which emphasises the immediac! of the action: e are +ust about to go to sleep& Sall! is +ust about to take an e$am& This form can also be used in the simple past tense to refer to an action that was imminent* but was interrupted& In such cases it is often followed b! a 'when - clause'( She was about to leave when he arrived& I was +ust about to telephone her when she walked into the house&

TENSES

-AST CONTINUOUS /, -ast continuous 0 form&


The past continuous of an! verb is composed of two parts : the past tense of the verb to be (was/were)* and the base of the main verb +ing. Subject )as?)ere The! were base0in! watching

Affirmati e She Ne!ati e She Interro!ati e as Interro!ati e ne!ati e asn't she reading" she reading" wasn't reading was reading

#$ample: to play, past continuous

Affirmati e I was pla!ing "ou were pla!ing #e, s$e, it was pla!ing %e were pla!ing "ou were pla!ing T$e& were pla!ing

Ne!ati e I was not pla!ing You were not pla!ing She wasn't pla!ing e weren't pla!ing You weren't pla!ing The! weren't pla!ing

Interro!ati e as I pla!ing" ere !ou pla!ing" as she pla!ing" ere we pla!ing" ere !ou pla!ing" ere the! pla!ing"

1, -ast continuous, function


The past continuous describes actions or events in a time before now* which began in the past and was still going on at the time of speaking& In other words* it e$presses an unfinished or incomplete action in the past& It is used:

often* to describe the background in a stor! written in the past tense* e&g& 8The sun was shining and the birds were singing as the elephant came out of the 'ungle& The other animals were rela,ing in the shade of the trees* but the elephant moved ver! +uickl!& She was looking for her bab!* and she didn't notice the hunter who was watching her through his binoculars& hen the shot rang out* she was running towards the river&&&8 to describe an unfinished action that was interrupted b! another event or action: 8I was having a beautiful dream when the alarm clock rang&8 to e$press a change of mind: e&g& 8I was going to spend the da! at the beach but I've decided to go on an e$cursion instead&8 with 'wonder'* to make a ver! polite re+uest: e&g& 8I was wondering if !ou could bab!/sit for me tonight&8

-ore e$amples: a& The! were waiting for the bus when the accident happened& b& ?aroline was skiing when she broke her leg& c& hen we arrived he was having a bath& d& hen the fire started I was watching television& Note: with verbs not normall! used in the continuous form* the simple past is used& See list in 3resent continuous

TENSES
-AST -ERFECT -ast perfect, form
The 3ast 3erfect tense in #nglish is composed of two parts: the past tense of the verb to have (had) + the past participle of the main verb& Subject e $a( past participle had decided&&&

Affirmati e She Ne!ati e e Interro!ati e hadn't asked& had given&

%ad Interro!ati e ne!ati e %adn't

the! !ou

arrived" finished"

#$ample: to decide, -ast perfect

Affirmati e I had decided "ou had decided #e, s$e, it had decided %e had decided "ou had decided T$e& had decided

Ne!ati e I hadn't decided You hadn't decided %e hadn't decided e hadn't decided You hadn't decided The! hadn't decided

Interro!ati e %ad I decided" %ad !ou decided" %ad she decided" %ad we decided" %ad !ou decided" %ad the! decided"

-ast perfect, function


The past perfect refers to a time earlier than before now& It is used to make it clear that one event happened before another in the past& It does not matter which event is mentioned first / the tense makes it clear which one happened first& In these e$amples* #vent . is the first or earliest event* #vent ( is the second or latest event:

a,

1ohn had gone out

when I arrived in the office&

E ent A

E ent :

b,

I had saved m! document

before the computer crashed&

E ent A c, hen the! arrived E ent : %e was ver! tired E ent :

E ent : we had already started cooking E ent A because he hadn't slept well& E ent A

(,

-ast perfect + +ust 'Just' is used with the past perfect to refer to an event that was onl! a short time earlier than before now* e&g&

a& The train had +ust left when I arrived at the station& b& She had +ust left the room when the police arrived& c& I had +ust put the washing out when it started to rain&

TENSES
-AST -ERFECT CONTINUOUS -ast perfect continuous, form
The past perfect continuous is composed of two elements / the past perfect of the verb to be (.had been) + the present participle (base+ing)& #$amples: Subject I $a( been had been erb0in! walking

Affirmati e She Ne!ati e e Interro!ati e %ad !ou Interro!ati e ne!ati e %adn't the! been living been eating hadn't been sleeping had been tr!ing

#$ample: to buy, past perfect continuous

Affirmati e I had been bu!ing "ou had been bu!ing #e,s$e,it had been bu!ing %e had been bu!ing "ou had been bu!ing

Ne!ati e I hadn't been bu!ing You hadn't been bu!ing %e hadn't been bu!ing e hadn't been bu!ing You hadn't been bu!ing

Interro!ati e %ad I been bu!ing" %ad !ou been bu!ing %ad she been bu!ing" %ad we been bu!ing" %ad !ou been bu!ing

T$e& had been bu!ing

The! hadn't been bu!ing

%ad the! been bu!ing

-ast perfect continuous, function


The past perfect continuous corresponds to the present perfect continuous* but with reference to a time earlier than 'before now'& .gain* we are more interested in the process! #$amples: a& Had you been waiting long before the ta$i arrived" b& We had been trying to open the door for five minutes when 1ane found her ke!& c& It had been raining hard for several hours and the streets were ver! wet& d& %er friends had been thinking of calling the police when she walked in& This form is also used in reporte( speec$& It is the e+uivalent of the past continuous and the present perfect continuous in direct speech: 1ane said 8I have been gardening all afternoon&8 gardening all afternoon& 1ane said she had been

hen the police +uestioned him* 1ohn said 8I was working late in the office that night&8 hen the police +uestioned him* 1ohn told them he had been working late in the office that night&

TENSES
-RESENT CONTINUOUS /, -resent continuous, form
The present continuous of an! verb is composed of two parts / the #resent tense of the verb to be + the #resent #artici#le of the main verb. (The form of the present participle is: base+ing, e.g. tal!ing, #laying, moving, smiling)

Affirmati e

Subject

+ to be

+ base+ing

she

is

talking

Ne!ati e

Subject

+ to be ' not

+ base+ing

she

is not (isn't)

talking

Interro!ati e

to be

' sub+ect

+ base+ing

is

she

talking"

#$ample: to go, present continuous

Affirmati e

Ne!ati e

Interro!ati e

I am going

I am not going

.m I going"

"ou are going

You aren't going&

.re !ou going"

#e, s$e, it is going

%e* she* it isn't going

Is he* she* it going"

%e are going

e aren't going

.re we going"

"ou are going

You aren't going

.re !ou going"

T$e& are going

The! aren't going

.re the! going"

Note: alternative negative contractions: ('m not going, you're not going, he's not going etc.

1, -resent continuous, function


.s with all tenses in #nglish* the speaker's attitude is as important as the time of the action or event& hen someone uses the present continuous* the! are thinking about something that is unfinished or incomplete& The present continuous is used: to describe an action that is going on at this moment e&g& You are using the (nternet& You are studying *nglish grammar. to describe an action that is going on during this period of time or a trend* e&g& $re you still working for the same com#any3 4ore and more #eo#le are becoming vegetarian.

to describe an action or event in the future* which has alread! been planned or prepared (See also ' a!s of e$pressing the future) e&g& We're going on holiday tomorrow& I'm meeting my boyfriend tonight& $re they visiting !ou ne$t winter" to describe a temporar! event or situation* e&g& 1e usually #lays the drums, but he's playing bass guitar tonight& &he weather forecast was good, but it's raining at the moment. with 'alwa!s* forever* constantl!'* to describe and emphasise a continuing series of repeated actions* e&g& 1arry and 2ally are always arguing$ You're forever complaining about your mother"in"law$ :E CAREFU3= Some verbs are not used in the continuous form / see below&

6, ;erbs t$at are not normall& use( in t$e continuous form


The verbs in the list below are normall! used in the simple form* because the! refer to states* rather than actions or processes: 6ist of common verbs normall! used in simple form:
Senses ? -erception feel+* hear* see+, smell* taste Opinion assume* believe* consider* doubt* feel (, think)* find (, consider)* suppose* think + 'ental states forget* imagine* know* mean* notice* recognise* remember* understand Emotions ? (esires env!* fear* dislike* hate* hope* like* love* mind* prefer* regret* want* wish 'easurement contain* cost* hold* measure* weigh Ot$ers look (,resemble)* seem* be (in most cases), have (when it means to #ossess) +

0otes: <& '3erception' verbs (see* hear* feel* taste* smell) are often used with 'can'% e&g& ( can see... 9& + These verbs may be used in the continuous form but with a different meaning* compare: a& &his coat feels nice and warm. (. your #erce#tion of the coat's 5ualities) b& John's feeling much better now (. his health is im#roving) a& 2he has three dogs and a cat. (.#ossession) b& "he's having su##er. (. 2he's eating)

a& ( can see 6nthony in the garden (. #erce#tion) b& I'm seeing 6nthony later (. We are #lanning to meet) #$amples: I wish I was in Ereece now& She wants to see him now& I don't understand wh! he is shouting& I feel we are making a mistake& This glass holds half a litre&

TENSES
-RESENT CONTINUOUS FOR FUTURE E;ENTS
/, -resent continuous for t$e future, form See notes on form in section on 3resent ?ontinuous&

Subject She

+ to be is

+ base/ing meeting

1, Future* -resent continuous for t$e future, function The present continuous is used to talk about arrangements for events at a time later than now& There is a suggestion that more than one person is aware of the event* and that some preparation has alread! happened& e&g& a& ('m meeting 7im at the air#ort . and both 1im and I have discussed this& b& ( am leaving tomorrow. . and I've alread! bought m! train ticket& c& We're having a staff meeting ne t 4onday . and all members of staff have been told about it& -ore e$amples: a& Is she seeing him tomorrow" b& He isn't working ne$t week& c& &hey aren't leaving until the end of ne$t !ear& d& We are staying with friends when we get to (oston& Note* in e$ample (a)* seeing is used in a continuous form because it means meeting. :E CAREFU3= The simple present is used when a future event is part of a programme or time/table& 0otice the difference between: a& We're having a staff meeting ne t 4onday.

b& We have a staff meeting ne t 4onday.(. we have a meeting ever! -onda!* it's on the time/table&)

TENSES
-RESENT -ERFECT /, -resent perfect 0 form
The present perfect of an! verb is composed of two elements : the appropriate form of the au$iliar! verb to have (present tense)* plus the past participle of the main verb& The past participle of a regular verb is base+e(* e&g& #layed, arrived, loo!ed& :or irregular verbs* see the Table of irre!ular erbs in the section called ';erbs'&

Affirmati e Sub'ect 2he Ne!ati e Sub'ect 2he Interro!ati e to have 1as Interro!ati e ne!ati e to have + not 1asn't sub'ect she past participle visited...3 sub'ect she past participle visited..3 to have + not hasn't past participle visited to have has past participle visited

#$ample: to wal!, present perfect

Affirmati e
I have walked "ou have walked

Ne!ati e
I haven't walked You haven't walked

Interro!ati e
%ave I walked" %ave !ou walked"

#e, s$e, it has walked %e have walked "ou have walked T$e& have walked

%e* she* it hasn't walked e haven't walked You haven't walked The! haven't walked

%as he*she*it walked %ave we walked" %ave !ou walked" %ave the! walked"

1, -resent perfect, function


The 3resent 3erfect is used to indicate a link between the present and the past& The time of the action is before no) but not specifie(* and we are often more interested in the result than in the action itself& :E CAREFU3= There ma! be a verb tense in !our language with a similar form* but the meaning is probabl! 02T the same& The present perfect is used to describe: <&.n action or situation that started in the past and continues in the present& #$ample: ( have lived in 8ristol since ,9:; (, and I still do&) 9& .n action performed during a period that has not !et finished& #$ample: She has been to the cinema twice this week (, and the week isn't over !et&) 4& . repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now& #$ample: e have visited 3ortugal several times& =& .n action that was completed in the er& recent past* (e$pressed b! 'just')& #$ample: I have +ust finished m! work& F& .n action when the time is not important& #$ample: %e has read ' ar and 3eace'. (the result of his reading is important) Note* hen we want to give or ask details about when, where, who* we use the simple past, #$ample: %e read ' ar and 3eace' last week. #$amples: /, Actions starte( in t$e past an( continuin! in t$e present, a& The! haven't lived here for !ears& b& She has worked in the bank for five !ears& c& e have had the same car for ten !ears& d& Have you played the piano since !ou were a child" 1, %$en t$e time perio( referre( to $as not finis$e(, a& I have worked hard this week& b& It has rained a lot this year& c& e haven't seen her today& 6, Actions repeate( in an unspecifie( perio( bet)een t$e past an( no), a& The! have seen that film si$ times&

b& It has happened several times alread!& c& She has visited them fre+uentl!& d& e have eaten at that restaurant man! times& @, Actions complete( in t$e er& recent past 7++ust8& a& Have you +ust finished work" b& I have +ust eaten& c& e have +ust seen her& d. Has he +ust left" A, %$en t$e precise time of t$e action is not important or not 4no)n, a& Someone has eaten my sou#5 b& Have you seen 'Eone with the ind'" c& "he's studied 1apanese* Aussian and #nglish&

TENSES
-RESENT -ERFECT + ever, never, already, yet
The adverbs ever and never e$press the idea of an unidentified time before now e&g& 1ave you ever visited 8erlin3 'E er' is used a& in Buestions, e&g& 1ave you ever been to *ngland3 1as she ever met the <rime 4inister3 b& in ne!ati e Buestions e&g& 1aven't they ever been to *uro#e3 1aven't you ever eaten =hinese food3 c& an( in ne!ati e statements usin! t$e pattern nothing!!!!!!!ever, nobody!!!!!!!ever e&g& -obody has ever said that to me before. -othing li!e this has ever ha##ened to us. d& '.ver' is also use( )it$ '&he first time!!!! e&g& (t's the first time (that) ('ve ever eaten snails. &his is the first time ('ve ever been to *ngland. '-ever' means at no time before now* and is the same as not ..... ever: ( have never visited 8erlin :E CAREFU3= You must not use never and not together: ( haven't never been to (taly. I have ne er been to Ital!& -osition: '.ver' and 'never' are alwa!s placed before t$e main erb 7past participle8&

$lready and yet( $lready refers to an action that has happened at an unspecified time before now& It suggests that there is no need for repetition* e&g& a& ('ve already drun! three coffees this morning& (and !ou're offering me another one5) b& >on't write to 7ohn, ('ve already done it. It is also used in +uestions: a& 1ave you already written to 7ohn3 b& 1as she finished her homewor! already3 -osition* already can be placed before the main verb (past participle) or at the end of the sentence: a& ( have already been to &o!yo. b. ( have been to &o!yo already. yet is used in negative statements and +uestions* to mean (not) in the #eriod of time between before now and now, (not) u# to and including the #resent. e&g& a& %ave !ou met 1ud! yet/ b& I haven't visited the Tate Ealler! yet& c& %as he arrived yet/ d& The! haven't eaten yet& -osition* Yet is usuall! placed at the end of the sentence&

TENSES
-RESENT -ERFECT OR SI'-3E -ASTC
.lwa!s use the present perfect when the time is not important* or not specified& .lwa!s use the simple past when details about the time or place are specified or asked for& Compare*

-resent perfect I have lived in 6!on& The! have eaten Thai food& Have you seen '2thello'"& e have been to Ireland&

Simple past I lived in 6!on in ,9:9. The! ate Thai food last night& here did you see '2thello'" hen did you go to Ireland"

There is also a difference of attitu(e that is often more important than the time factor&

"What did you do at school today3" is a +uestion about acti ities* and considers the school da! as finis$e(& "What have you done at school today3" is a +uestion about results / 8show me8* and regards the time of speaking as a continuation of the school da!&

TENSES
-RESENT -ERFECT + for, since
>sing the present perfect* we can define a period of time before now b! considering its (uration, with for ' a perio( of time, or b! considering its startin! point* with since ' a point in time! #or + a perio( of time* for si$ !ears* for a week* for a month* for hours* for two hours& I have worked here for five !ears& "ince + a point in time* since this morning* since last week* since !esterda!* since I was a child* since ednesda!* since 9 o'clock& I have worked here since <GG;& -ore e$amples: present perfect )it$ for: a& She has lived here for twent! !ears& b& e have taught at this school for a long time& c& .lice has been married for three months& d& The! have been at the hotel for a week& present perfect )it$ since( a& She has lived here since <GH;& b& e have taught at this school since <GIF& c& .lice has been married since -arch 9nd& d& The! have been at the hotel since last Tuesda!& Note* <& #or and since can both be used with the past perfect& 9& "ince can onl! be used with perfect tenses* for can also be used with the simple past&

TENSES
-RESENT -ERFECT CONTINUOUS

-resent perfect continuous, form


The present perfect continuous is made up of two elements: (a) the present perfect of the verb 'to be' (have)has been)* and (b) the present participle of the main verb (base+ing)& $as?$a e been Subject has been She swimming base+in!

Affirmati e She has been ) She's been Ne!ati e She hasn't been Interro!ati e %as she been Interro!ati e ne!ati e %asn't she been #$ample: to live, present perfect continuous running" running" running running

Affirmati e I have been living "ou have been living #e, s$e, it has been living %e have been living "ou have been living T$e& have been living

Ne!ati e I haven't been living You haven't been living %e hasn't been living e haven't been living You haven't been living The! haven't been living

Interro!ati e %ave I been living" %ave !ou been living" %as she been living" %ave we been living" %ave !ou been living" %ave the! been living"

-resent perfect continuous, function


The present perfect continuous refers to an unspecifie( time between 'before now' and 'now'& The speaker is thinking about something that started but perhaps did not finish in that period of time& %e)she is interested in the process as )ell as t$e result, and this process ma! still be going on* or ma! have 'ust finished& #$amples: /, Actions t$at starte( in t$e past an( continue in t$e present, a& She has been waiting for !ou all da! (,and she's still waiting now)& b& I've been working on this report since eight o'clock this morning (,and I still haven't finished it)& c& &hey have been travelling since last 2ctober (,and the!'re not home !et)& 1, Actions t$at $a e just finis$e(, but )e are intereste( in t$e results* a& "he has been cooking since last night (,and the food on the table looks delicious)& b& It's been raining (, and the streets are still wet)& c. "omeone's been eating m! chips (, half of them have gone)& 0ote:

;erbs )it$out continuous forms


ith verbs not normall! used in the continuous form* use the present perfect simple& See list of these verbs under '3resent ?ontinuous': I've wanted to visit ?hina for !ears& "he's known Aobert since she was a child& I've hated that music since I first heard it& I've heard a lot about !ou recentl!& We've understood ever!thing we've heard this morning&

TENSES
SI'-3E -AST
:E CAREFU3= The simple past in #nglish ma! look like a tense in !our own language* but the meaning ma! be different&

/, Simple past, form


Re!ular erbs: base'ed e&g& wal!ed, showed, watched, #layed, smiled, sto##ed

Irre!ular erbs: see list in verbs Simple past, be, have, do*
;erb Subject :e #a e 2o

was

had

did

"ou

were

had

did

#e, s$e, it

was

had

did

%e

were

had

did

"ou

were

had

did

T$e&

were

had

did

Affirmati e a& I was in 1apan last !ear b& She had a headache !esterda!& c& e did our homework last night& Ne!ati e an( interro!ati e 0ote: :or the negative and interrogative simple past form of "do" as an ordinar! verb* use the au$iliar! "do", e&g& e didn't do our homework last night& The negative of "have" in the simple past is usuall! formed using the au$iliar! "do"* but sometimes b! simpl! adding not or the contraction "n't"& The interrogative form of "have" in the simple past normall! uses the au$iliar! "do". The! weren't in Aio last summer& e hadn't an! mone!& e didn't have time to visit the #iffel Tower& e didn't do our e$ercises this morning& Were they in Iceland last 1anuar!" 0id you have a bic!cle when !ou were a bo!" 0id you do much climbing in SwitJerland"

Simple past, re!ular erbs Affirmati e Subject erb + e(

I Ne!ati e Subject The! Interro!ati e 2i( @id Interro!ati e ne!ati e 2i( not

washed

(i( not didn't

infiniti e )it$out to visit &&&

subject she

infiniti e )it$out to arrive&&&"

subject

infiniti e )it$out to like&&"

@idn't !ou #$ample: to walk, simple past!


Affirmati e I walked "ou walked #e,s$e,it walked %e walked "ou walked T$e& walked Ne!ati e I didn't walk You didn't walk %e didn't walk e didn't walk You didn't walk The! didn't walk

Interro!ati e @id I walk" @id !ou walk" @id he walk" @id we walk" @id !ou walk" @id the! walk"

Note* :or the negative and interrogative form of all verbs in the simple past* alwa!s use the au$iliar! 'did'', #$amples: Simple past, irre!ular erbs to go a& %e went to a club last night& b& 0id he go to the cinema last night" c& %e didn't go to bed earl! last night& to give d& e gave her a doll for her birthda!& e& &hey didn't give 1ohn their new address& f& 0id 1arry give !ou m! passport" to come g& -! parents came to visit me last 1ul!&

h& We didn't come because it was raining& i& 0id he come to !our part! last week"

1, Simple past, function


The simple past is used to talk about a completed action in a time before now& @uration is not important& The time of the action can be in the recent past or the distant past& 1ohn ?abot sailed to .merica in <=GH& -! father died last !ear& %e lived in :i'i in <GKI& e crossed the ?hannel !esterda!& You alwa!s use the simple past when !ou sa! when something happened* so it is associated with certain past time e$pressions #$amples: freBuenc&: often, sometimes, always0 a (efinite point in time: last wee!, when ( was a child, yesterday, si wee!s ago. an in(efinite point in time: the other day, ages ago, a long time ago etc. Note* the word ago is a useful wa! of e$pressing the distance into the past& It is placed after the period of time e&g& a wee! ago, three years ago, a minute ago& #$amples: a& ?esterday* I arrived in Eeneva& b& She finished her work at seven o'cloc!& c& e saw a good film last wee!& d& I went to the theatre last night& e& She played the piano when she was a child& f& %e sent me a letter si months ago. g& 3eter left five minutes ago&

TENSES
SI'-3E -RESENT
(See also Cerbs /'Aegular verbs in the simple present')

Simple present, t$ir( person sin!ular


0ote: $e, s$e, it* in the third person singular the verb al)a&s en(s in 0s: he wants, she needs, he gives, she thin!s! 0egative and +uestion forms use @2#S (,the third person of the au$iliar!'@2') + the infinitive of the verb& 1e wants. 0oes he want3 1e does not want. Cerbs ending in 0& : the third person changes the 0& to 0ies: fly flies, cry cries

E<ception: if there is a vowel before the /&: #lay #lays, #ray #rays .dd 0es to verbs ending in:0ss, 0<, 0s$, 0c$: he #asses, she catches, he fi es, it #ushes

See also Cerbs /'Aegular verbs in the simple present'* and '(e* do L have'

#$amples: /, T$ir( person sin!ular )it$ s or 0es a& He goes to school ever! morning& b& "he understands #nglish& c& It mi,es the sand and the water& d& He tries ver! hard& e& "he en+oys pla!ing the piano& 1, Simple present, form #$ample: to think, present simple
Affirmati e Interro!ati e Ne!ati e

I think

@o I think "

I do not think&

"ou think

@o !ou think"

You don't think&

$e, s$e, it thinks

@oes he* she* it think"

%e* she* it doesn't think&

)e think

@o we think"

e don't think&

&ou think

@o !ou think"

You don't think&

The simple present is used: to e$press habits* general truths* repeated actions or unchanging situations* emotions and wishes: ( smo!e (habit)0 ( wor! in London (unchanging situation)0 London is a large city (general truth) to give instructions or directions: You walk for two hundred metres, then you turn left. to e$press fi$ed arrangements* present or future: ?our e am starts at -9.-to e$press future time* after some con'unctions: after, when, before, as soon as, until: 1e'll give it to you when you come ne t 2aturday.

:E CAREFU3= The simple present is not use( to e<press actions $appenin! no)& See 3resent ?ontinuous&

#$amples: For $abits %e drinks tea at breakfast& She onl! eats fish& The! watch television regularl!& For repeate( actions or e ents e catch the bus ever! morning& It rains ever! afternoon in the hot season& The! drive to -onaco ever! summer& For !eneral trut$s ater free*es at Jero degrees& The #arth revolves around the Sun& %er mother is 3eruvian& For instructions or (irections 2pen the packet and pour the contents into hot water& You take the 0o&I bus to atne! and then the 0o&<; to (edford& For fi<e( arran!ements %is mother arrives tomorrow& 2ur holida! starts on the 9Ith -arch %it$ future constructions She'll see !ou before she leaves& e'll give it to her when she arrives&

TENSES
SI'-3E -RESENT FOR FUTURE E;ENTS
/, Form / see Simple 3resent section& 1, Simple present for future e ents 0 function The simple present is used to make statements about events at a time later than now* when the statements are based on present facts* and when these facts are something fi$ed like a time-table, schedule, calendar& #$amples: a& The plane arrives at <H&;; tomorrow& b& She has a !oga class tomorrow morning& c& The restaurant opens at <G&4; tonight& d& 0e$t Thursda! at <=&;; there is an #nglish e$am& 0ote the difference between: a& The plane leaves in ten minutes (, statement of fact) b& The plane's going to leave in ten minutes (, prediction based on present situation* meaning 8&&&and if !ou don't hurr! up !ou're go TENSES

SU''AR" OF ;ER: TENSES

-resent tenses Simple present: 2he wants a drin!& 3resent continuous: &hey are walking home& -ast tenses Simple past: <eter lived in =hina in ,9@A. 3ast continuous: ( was reading when she arrived. -erfect tenses 3resent 3erfect: ( have lived here since ,9:B. 3resent perfect continuous: ( have been living here for years. 3ast perfect: We had been to see her several times before she visited us. 3ast perfect continuous: 1e had been watching her for some time when she turned and smiled. :uture perfect: We will have arrived in the 2tates by the time you get this letter. :uture perfect continuous: 8y the end of your course, you will have been studying for five years. Future tenses Simple future: &hey will go to (taly ne t wee!. :uture continuous: ( will be travelling by train& Con(itional tenses 3resent conditional: (f he had the money he would go 3resent continuous conditional: 1e would be getting up now if he was in 6ustralia. 3erfect conditional: 2he would have visited me if she had had time. 3erfect continuous conditional: ( would have been playing tennis if ( hadn't bro!en my arm. ing to miss it58)

T"-E / CON2ITIONA3
/, Form
In a &y#e , conditional sentence* the tense in the 'if clause is the simple present* and the tense in the main clause is the simple future

'IF' C3AUSE 7CON2ITION8 If + simple present If it rains If !ou don't hurr!

'AIN C3AUSE 7RESU3T8 Simple future !ou will get wet we will miss the train&

1, Function
In these sentences* the time is the present or future and the situation is real& The! refer to a possible con(ition and its probable result& The! are based on facts* and the! are used to make statements about the real world* and about particular situations& e often use such sentences to give warnings:

(f you don't leave, ('ll call the #olice. (f you don't dro# the gun, ('ll shoot$

#$amples: If !ou drop that glass* it will break& 0obod! will notice if !ou make a mistake& If I have time* I'll finish that letter& hat will you do if !ou miss the plane" 02T#: e can use modals to e$press the degree of certaint! of the result: (f you drop that glass, it might break. ( may finish that letter if ( have time.

T#E 'DERO' CON2ITIONA3


/, Form
In 'Jero' conditional sentences* the tense in bot$ parts of the sentence is the simple present*

'IF' C3AUSE 7CON2ITION8 If + simple present If !ou heat ice If it rains

'AIN C3AUSE 7RESU3T8 simple present it melts& !ou get wet

NOTE: The order of the clauses is not fi$ed / the 'if' clause can be first or second: (ce melts if you heat it. ?ou get wet if it rains.

1, Function
In these sentences* the time is now or always and the situation is real and possible& The! are used to make statements about the real world* and often refer to general truths* such as scientific facts& #$amples: a& If !ou free*e water* it becomes a solid& b& 3lants die if the! don't get enough water& c& If m! husband has a cold* I usuall! catch it& d& If public transport is efficient* people stop using their cars& e& If !ou mi, red and blue* !ou get purple& This structure is often used to give instructions* using the imperative in the main clause: If (ill phones* tell him to meet me at the cinema& $sk 3ete if you're not sure what to do&