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CULT -Committee on Culture and EducationFACTS: 1.With 46% of the o ulation!

monolin"ual Euro ean# are no$ in the minorit%. 1&% of Euro ean# are 'ilin"ual! ()% are trilin"ual and 1*% # ea+ four or more lan"ua"e#. htt :,,$$$.lan"ua"eonthemo-e.com,lan"ua"e-learnin"-"ender-identit%,multilin"ual-euro e (. .n 1&)/! the then Euro ean Economic Communit% a##ed a 0e"ulation namin" 1utch! French! 2erman and .talian a# it# official lan"ua"e#! the#e 'ein" the lan"ua"e# of the fir#t #i3 countrie# to 4oin the or"ani#ation.Since then! a# more countrie# ha-e 'ecome art of the EU! the num'er of official lan"ua"e# ha# increa#ed. There are fe$er official lan"ua"e# than mem'er countrie# 'ecau#e #ome - e.". 1utch! French! 2erman! 2ree+ - are $idel% # o+en in more than one countr%. htt :,,$$$.eco#e.or","r/ arent#5file#,multilin"uali#m5in5eu.htm 6. Euro e i# -er% oor on lin"ui#tic di-er#it%. .f $e di#count recent immi"rant# and count onl% the autochthonou# lan"ua"e#! $e ha-e onl% #ome 6% of the $orld7# # o+en lan"ua"e#. 8orth! Central and South America ha-e around 1!*** autochthonou# # o+en lan"ua"e#! 1)%. Africa ha# around 6*%! A#ia a 'it o-er 6*% and the 9acific #ome$hat under (*% . htt :,,$$$.coe.int,t,d"4,lin"ui#tic,Source,S+utna''-:an"a#E8. df 4. Accordin" to the EU0;<;SA.C #tud% that $a# ordered '% the Euro ean Commi##ion the critical limit for the #ur-i-al of a lan"ua"e lie# at 6** *** # ea+er#. htt :,,$$$.rml(future.eu,80,rdonl%re#,/&F)/)6&-=6CF-446(->6)E 1**A/A>6CC44,*,.nfoFa+ten<ehr# rachi"+eitE8. df ). There are at lea#t 6* lan"ua"e# that are # o+en in the Euro ean Union ?EU@ 'ut there are onl% (4 official EU lan"ua"e#. htt :,,lan"ua"e-di-er#it%.eu,en, roduct#,lehrmaterial,fl%er, 6. For maintainin" the olic% of multilin"uali#m! the EUA# in#titution# # end a'out one 'illion Euro# a %ear on tran#latin" te3t# and inter retin" # o+en communication. htt :,,lin+.# rin"er.com,cha ter,1*.1**=%(F&=/-6-64(-6664&-/5( =. A ro3imatel% &)% of le"i#lation?The EU 9olic% on .n#titutional <ultilin"uali#m @ado ted in the co-deci#ion rocedure i# drafted in En"li#h .Thi# include# draft-amendment# of the 9arliament . Furthermore! le"i#lation i# normall% not onl% drafted in En"li#h! 'ut "enerall% al#o de'ated! #crutiniBed and re-i#ed in thi# lan"ua"e.The dan"er of re arin" ne$ le"i#lation in a #in"le lan"ua"e i# that tho#e $ho # ea+ thi# lan"ua"e a# their mother ton"ue ha-e an ad-anta"e o-er tho#e for $hom it i# a forei"n lan"ua"e im erfectl% ma#tered. htt :,,$$$.lan"ua"eandla$.de,-olume-1,666/ 9o#ition 9a er C

A'#tract Lan"ua"e# ha-e 'een e3i#tin"! and e-ol-in" to"ether $ith the de-elo ment and chan"e# in human #ociet%. Lan"ua"e i# o'-iou#l% an indi# en#a'le tool of human 'ein"#. 8ot onl% i# it a mean# of communicatin" thou"ht# and feelin"#! accumulatin" e3 erience! and +no$led"e 'ut it

frame# friend#hi #! cultural tie#! and economic relation#hi # of communitie#! nation#! or e-en human 'ein"# a# $ell. 9er#onal o#ition The im ortance of re#er-in" each eo le7# lan"ua"e i# -ital!in m% 'oo+.. #tron"l% 'elie-e that $e are tied to each other '% the lan"ua"e $e # ea+ and furthermore!$e ac+no$led"e it a# a art of $ho $e are!of our identit%..# no den% that!# ea+in" the #ame lan"ua"e "i-e# u# a o$erful #en#e of 'elon"in". 9ro'lem# World$ide!#e-eral #cholar# redict that u to &*% of the $orldA# lan"ua"e# ma% $ell 'e re laced '% dominant lan"ua"e# '% the end of the (1#t centur%! $hich $ould reduce the re#ent num'er of almo#t =!*** lan"ua"e# to le## than =**. .n the Euro ean Union there are a ro3imati-el% 6* different lan"ua"e# 'ut there are onl% (4 official EU lan"ua"e# $hich!in m% o inion i# di#criminatin" and can lead 'ut to lo##e# of cultural herita"e if not 'ein" reco"niBed in time. <oreo-er!it #eem# that the En"li#h lan"ua"e #eem# to # read 'ecau#e it i# the lan"ua"e of #ucce##! the main lan"ua"e of 'oo+#! ne$# a er! air ort# and air-traffic control! international 'u#ine## and academic conference#! #cience technolo"%! # ort! international com etition#! o mu#ic and ad-erti#in"!not mentionin" the .nternet7# influence. Solution# The acti-e #u ort for the lan"ua"e# and for culture# related to lan"ua"e# i# e#ta'li#hed throu"h different le"al in#trument# that are alread% lar"el% acce ted '% EU mem'er #tate#. A $orth notin" initia-e i# the one of the Euro ean Commi##ion $hich led to a Communication re ared in artner#hi $ith <em'er State# meetin" for the fir#t time to e3amine lan"ua"erelated i##ue# in Euro e. Thi# led to an in-itation to the Commi##ion in the Council Conclu#ion# of (( <a% (**/ on <ultilin"uali#m to dra$ u ro o#al# '% the for a com rehen#i-e olic% frame$or+ on multilin"uali#m.The main ur o#e for thi# meetin" $a# to rai#e a$arene## of the -alue and o ortunitie# of the EU7# lin"ui#tic di-er#it%. There ha-e al#o 'een ro4ect# in the field of education!#uch a# EU0;SCD;;L!$hich 'rin"# to"ether children from -ariou# re"ional and minorit% lan"ua"e# ?0<L@communitie# for #ummer cam #. .t# main effect i# to reinforce! o-er the lon"-term! feelin"# of #elf-confidence amon" 0<L childrenE thi# i# achie-ed at a co#t of a ro3imatel% 6** euro# er child. .n the com'ined domain# of admini#tration and economic and #ocial life! the roduction of t$o 0<L dictionarie# for # eciali#t u#e ?in articular le"al and admini#trati-e@ ha-e 'een e3amined. Such form# of #u ort facilitate the u#e of 0<L# in acti-itie# $here their re#ence i# #trate"icall% im ortant. .n m% o inion!the # ecific contri'ution of #uch dictionarie# i# almo#t im o##i'le to a##e##. Conclu#ion . 'elie-e that the EU ha# to #eriou#l% con#ider the im ortance of lan"ua"e di-er#it% and to realiBe it# otential for a #u#taina'le de-elo ment 'ut al#o to con#ider the -alue of each uniFue culture $hich i# 'ound to die if the lan"ua"e 'ecome# e3tinct.

Sum Up: Committee on Culture and Education (CULT) GWith re# ect for di-er#it% a# a foundin" rinci le of the EU: to $hat e3tend #hould minorit% lan"ua"e# 'e reco"ni#ed '% the <em'er State# and ho$ can the EU la% #u orti-e role# for thi# intere#t "rou H G

Follo$in" the credo of GUnited in 1i-er#it%I the EU i# re arin" to increa#e it# num'er of official lan"ua"e# to t$ent%-three and con#eFuentl% increa#e tran#lation co#t# further! to an e#timated 1!) 'illion. Thi# due to the re#ent addition of Croatia to the EU and there$ith the addition of Croatian to EU7# lan"ua"e#. All lan"ua"e# # o+en $ithin the EU are not ho$e-er added to the lan"ua"e# # o+en $ithin the EU in#titution#. Thi# ho$e-er onl% a lie# to the official lan"ua"e# of mem'er #tate#. What lan"ua"e# an% "i-en mem'er #tate ac+no$led"e# a# official i# decided '% the indi-idual countrie#. That i# $h% there are lan"ua"e minoritie# that ha-en7t 'een reco"ni#ed e-en thou"h the% con#titute a much hi"her ercentile of the o ulation than #ome official lan"ua"e# of other countrie#. With man% re"ional and minorit% lan"ua"e# in Euro e found on U8ESC;7# li#t of endan"ered lan"ua"e# it i# clear that unle## action i# ta+en to re#er-e the#e lan"ua"e# the% ma% $ell "o e3tinct. When a lan"ua"e "oe# e3tinct it i# not onl% the lan"ua"e that $e loo#e. We al#o loo#e 'oth +no$led"e and a uniFue iece of cultural herita"e. 9uttin" that a#ide! $e al#o need to con#ider the im lication# of #im l% 'ein" art of a lan"ua"e minorit%. Since there are #o man% different lan"ua"e minoritie# in Euro e. Some minorit% lan"ua"e 'ein" uniFue for the re"ion and other# 'ein" the ma4orit% lan"ua"e of another countr%. There i# not one common #ituation in $hich all minorit% lan"ua"e# are. Some minoritie# ha-e 'een reco"ni#ed a# official lan"ua"e# and are $ell inte"rated into the #ociet% $herea# other# do not ha-e acce## to education and u'lic #er-ice# in their o$n lan"ua"e nor do the% ha-e much other u#e for it in their e-er%da% li-e#. A# an attem t to com'at the roce## of decrea#in" num'er# of minorit% lan"ua"e # ea+er# and in order to #afe"uard their ri"ht# the Council of Euro e i##ued the Euro ean Charter for 0e"ional or <inorit% Lan"ua"e#. The charter ha# ho$e-er not %et 'een ratified or e-en #i"ned '% all mem'er #tate#. The Charter $a# receded '% the Frame$or+ Con-ention for the 9rotection of 8ational <inoritie# $hich entered into force in 1&&/ alread% and $a# al#o drafted '% the Council of Euro e. There are man% rea#on# for the re#i#tance to$ard# e3tendin" minorit% lan"ua"e "rou # further ri"ht# $ithin a countr%. Some countrie# $ant to re#er-e their o$n cultural herita"e or the% fear that thi# mi"ht onl% lead to further i#olation of the minoritie# in#tead of inte"ration. .n #ome ca#e# it i# le## a'out the fact that it i# a minorit% lan"ua"e and more a'out the hi#tor% 'et$een the countr% and minorit% "rou 7# countr% of ori"in! a# 'e the ca#e $ith #ome former So-iet Union #tate#. ;f cour#e not e-er%one a"ree# that minorit% lan"ua"e# are #omethin" that #hould 'e re#er-ed. The mem'er# of #ome lan"ua"e minoritie# ha-e #ho$n re#ilience and ride in their lin"ui#tic herita"e $herea# other#E erha # affected '% the dominatin" lan"ua"e u#er# of the re"ion or '% the 'ad ro# ect# for the u#efulne## the% #ee in their o$n lan"ua"eE are rone to #elf critici#m and often choo#e to u#e another lan"ua"e in their e-er%da% life. Sometime# a##in" thi# on to their children a# $ell. Since teachin" the lan"ua"e to the ne3t "eneration of minorit% lan"ua"e # ea+er# i# the 'a#i# of a lan"ua"e7# #ur-i-al it i# crucial that the eo le $ho # ea+ minorit% lan"ua"e# a## it on. Should the mem'er #tate# 'e encoura"ed to ma+e more lan"ua"e# official #tate lan"ua"e# or i# there a 'etter $a% of en#urin" the future of the#e lan"ua"e#H FRAMEWORK CONVENTION FOR THE ROTECTION OF NATIONAL MINORITIE!" #$$%

The Frame$or+ Con-ention for the 9rotection of 8ational <inoritie# of 1&&) entered into force on 1 Fe'ruar% 1&&/. Althou"h not the onl% in#trument to 'e de-elo ed $ithin the Council of Euro e rele-ant to the rotection of national minoritie#! the Frame$or+ Con-ention for the 9rotection of 8ational <inoritie# i# certainl% the mo#t com rehen#i-e document in thi# area. .ndeed! it i# the fir#t e-er le"all% 'indin" multilateral in#trument de-oted to the rotection of national minoritie# in "eneral. The Frame$or+ Con-ention #et# out rinci le# to 'e re# ected a# $ell a# "oal# to 'e achie-ed '% the Contractin" 9artie#! in order to en#ure the rotection of er#on# 'elon"in" to national minoritie#! $hil#t full% re# ectin" the rinci le# of territorial inte"rit% and olitical inde endence of State#. The rinci le# contained in the Frame$or+ Con-ention ha-e to 'e im lemented throu"h national le"i#lation and a ro riate "o-ernmental olicie#. .t i# al#o en-i#a"ed that the#e ro-i#ion# can 'e im lemented throu"h 'ilateral and multilateral treatie#. The main o erati-e art of the Frame$or+ Con-ention i# #ection ..! containin" # ecific rinci le# on a $ide ran"e of i##ue#! inter alia : - non-di#criminationE - romotion of effecti-e eFualit%E - romotion of the condition# re"ardin" the re#er-ation and de-elo ment of the culture and re#er-ation of reli"ion! lan"ua"e and tradition#E - freedom# of a##em'l%! a##ociation! e3 re##ion! thou"ht! con#cience and reli"ionE - acce## to and u#e of mediaE - lin"ui#tic freedom#: - u#e of the minorit% lan"ua"e in ri-ate and in u'lic a# $ell a# it# u#e 'efore admini#trati-e authoritie#E - u#e of one7# o$n nameE - di# la% of information of a ri-ate natureE - to o"ra hical name# in the minorit% lan"ua"eE - education: - learnin" of and in#truction in the minorit% lan"ua"eE - freedom to #et u educational in#titution#E - tran#frontier contact#E - international and tran#frontier co-o erationE - artici ation in economic! cultural and #ocial lifeE - artici ation in u'lic lifeE - rohi'ition of forced a##imilation. The monitorin" mechani#m of the Frame$or+ Con-ention i# 'a#ed on Article# (4 - (6 of the Frame$or+ Con-ention for the 9rotection of 8ational <inoritie# and on the Committee of <ini#ter#7 0e#olution ?&=@ 1* a# $ell a# other rele-ant deci#ion#. The e-aluation of the adeFuac% of the im lementation of the Frame$or+ Con-ention '% the 9artie# i# to 'e carried out '% the Committee of <ini#ter#! $hich i# a##i#ted '% the Ad-i#or% Committee. The Ad-i#or% Committee i# com o#ed of 1/ inde endent and im artial e3 ert# a ointed '% the Committee of <ini#ter#. The State# 9artie# are reFuired to #u'mit a re ort containin" full information on le"i#lati-e and other mea#ure# ta+en to "i-e effect to the rinci le# of the Frame$or+ Con-ention $ithin one %ear of the entr% into force. The#e #tate re ort# are made u'lic and e3amined '% the Ad-i#or%

Committee! $hich i# to re are an ; inion on the mea#ure# ta+en '% each re ortin" State. Da-in" recei-ed the ; inion of the Ad-i#or% Committee and the comment from the re# ecti-e State! the Committee of <ini#ter# i# called on to ado t conclu#ion# and! $here a ro riate! recommendation# in re# ect of the State 9art% concerned. A# a rule! the o inion# of the Ad-i#or% Committee #hall 'e made u'lic at the #ame time a# the conclu#ion# and recommendation# of the Committee of <ini#ter# to"ether $ith an% comment# the Contractin" 9art% ma% ha-e #u'mitted in re# ect of the o inion deli-ered '% the Ad-i#or% Committee. State# ma% ma+e the o inion# of the Ad-i#or% Committee and the comment# of the State# concerned u'lic at an earlier date. With re# ect to -ariou# $or+in" method# de#i"ned o-er the fir#t %ear# of it# o eration! erha # the mo#t im ortant #te $a# the introduction of countr%--i#it# '% the rele-ant $or+in" "rou # of the Ad-i#or% Committee a# a cu#tomar% element of the monitorin" rocedure. The Ad-i#or% Committee i# lea#ed to note that mo#t of the countrie# concerned $elcome the ; inion# of the Ad-i#or% Committee and ro-ide con#tructi-e comment# on them! in man% ca#e# indicatin" that the ; inion ha# alread% rom ted increa#ed action to addre## # ecific #hortcomin"# in the im lementation of the Frame$or+ Con-ention. The ; inion# a ear to ha-e #timulated fre#h round# of interde artmental di#cu##ion# $ithin "o-ernment# and in #ome ca#e# the% ha-e rom ted an immediate dialo"ue $ith national minoritie# on the i##ue# rai#ed. .n all re#olution# ado ted #o far on the im lementation of the Frame$or+ Con-ention the Committee of <ini#ter# ha# a#+ed the countr% concerned to Gcontinue the dialo"ue in ro"re##I $ith the Ad-i#or% Committee and to +ee the Ad-i#or% Committee re"ularl% informed of the mea#ure# ta+en in re# on#e to the conclu#ion# and recommendation# of the Committee of <ini#ter#. .n articular! a num'er of State 9artie# ha-e ta+en the initiati-e to or"ani#e! in co-o eration $ith the Council of Euro e! #o-called Gfollo$-u #eminar#I! 'rin"in" to"ether "o-ernmental re re#entati-e#! e3 ert# from the national admini#tration! re re#entati-e# from the ci-il #ociet%! a# $ell a# mem'er# of the Ad-i#or% Committee! to di#cu## the im lementation of the fir#t re#ult# of the monitorin" of the Frame$or+ Con-ention in the countr% concerned. .n order to mar+ the )th anni-er#ar% of it# entr% into force! the Council of Euro e or"ani#ed a conference in Stra#'our" on 6* and 61 ;cto'er (**6! $hich 'rou"ht to"ether a lar"e num'er of re re#entati-e# of "o-ernment#! ci-il #ociet%! minoritie# a# $ell a# eminent e3 ert# in the field of minoritie#. The #econd c%cle of monitorin" under the Frame$or+ Con-ention for the 9rotection of 8ational <inoritie# acti-el% commenced $ith the #u'mi##ion of the #econd State 0e ort# in re# ect of Liechten#tein on () <arch (**4 and Croatia on 16 A ril (**4. The fir#t o inion# ado ted on *1 ;cto'er (**4 '% the Ad-i#or% Committee under the #econd c%cle of monitorin" concerned Croatia and Liechten#tein. Co&o'eration acti(itie) concernin* t+e 'rotection o, 'er)on) -elon*in* to national minorite) (includin* t+e )ta-ilit. 'act)

A ran"e of acti-itie# ertainin" to the rotection of national minoritie# are 'ein" im lemented in the frame$or+ of the Council of Euro e co-o eration and a##i#tance ro"ramme#: the Secretariat or"ani#e# information meetin"# to "i-e detailed information on the Frame$or+ Con-ention for the 9rotection of 8ational <inoritie# ?and other Council of Euro e le"al in#trument#@ and encoura"e the roce## of it# #i"nature and ratification or! for tho#e State# alread% art%! to di#cu## in more detail dome#tic de-elo ment# and im lementation of the Frame$or+ Con-ention. The#e meetin"# are directed to arliamentarian#! "o-ernment official# and re re#entati-e# of national minoritie#. Le"i#lati-e e3 erti#e in #e-eral mem'er and a licant #tate# on Fue#tion# relatin" to the rotection of national minoritie# are al#o carried out '% Council of Euro e e3 ert#. Finall%! $ith a -ie$ to increa#e the effecti-ene## of the #u er-i#or% mechani#m of the Frame$or+ Con-ention! trainin" #eminar# on the draftin" of #tate re ort# are al#o or"ani#ed. .##ue# of articular im ortance for national minoritie# are al#o di#cu##ed in an inter"o-ernmental meetin" 'rin"in" to"ether re re#entati-e# of "o-ernment office# for national minoritie# or er#on# re# on#i'le for minorit% i##ue# $ithin the "o-ernmental #tructure. <o#t recentl%! the focu# of the#e meetin"# ha# 'een increa#in"l% lin+ed to the di#cu##ion of the im lementation of the Frame$or+ Con-ention for the 9rotection of 8ational <inoritie#! o enin" a # ace for dialo"ue amon" all tho#e in-ol-ed in thi# roce##. >uildin" on the a##i#tance and co-o eration acti-itie# a# $ell a# the Joint 9ro"ramme# $ith the Euro ean Commi##ion! three ro4ect# $ere im lemented under the Sta'ilit% 9act for SouthEa#tern Euro e concernin" national minoritie# and $ere concluded at the end of (**6. The#e ro4ect# included a non-di#crimination re-ie$ aimed at identif%in" di#criminator% ro-i#ion# in the le"i#lation! olicie# and ractice# of the countrie# of the re"ion and recommendin" action to 'rin" le"i#lation and ractice into line $ith Euro ean #tandard#. There $a# al#o a ro4ect concernin" acce tance and im lementation of e3i#tin" #tandard#. Thi# ro4ect $a# "eared to$ard# encoura"in" the countrie# in the re"ion to #i"n and ratif% all rele-ant international #tandard# and al#o en#ure# that the#e #tandard# are full% im lemented in ractice at national le-el and local le-el. Finall% there $a# a ro4ect concernin" 'ilateral co-o eration a"reement# aimed at reinforcin" and de-elo in" 'ilateral co-o eration in the field of minoritie# in a $a% that i# con#i#tent and co-ordinated $ith e3i#tin" multilateral #tandard#! and in articular tho#e of the Frame$or+ Con-ention for the 9rotection of 8ational <inoritie#. Introduction to Amon" the fundamental aim# of the Council of Euro e toda% are the rotection and romotion of the $ealth and di-er#it% of Euro eA# cultural herita"e. 0e"ional or minorit% lan"ua"e# are -er% much art of thi# herita"e. Since 1&&(! Council of Euro eA# <em'er State# ha-e 'een a'le to confirm their commitment to the rotection of thi# herita"e '% ratif%in" the Euro ean Charter for 0e"ional or <inorit% Lan"ua"e#. The Charter! dra$n u on the 'a#i# of a te3t ut for$ard '% the Standin" Conference of Local and 0e"ional Authoritie# of Euro e! $a# ado ted a# a con-ention on () June 1&&( '% the Committee of <ini#ter# of the Council of Euro e! and $a# o ened for #i"nature in Stra#'our" on ) 8o-em'er 1&&(. .t entered into force on 1 <arch 1&&/. At re#ent! the Charter ha# 'een ratified '% t$ent%-fi-e #tate# ?Armenia! Au#tria! >o#nia and to

DerBe"o-ina! Croatia! C% ru#! CBech 0e u'lic! 1enmar+! Finland! 2erman%! Dun"ar%! Liechten#tein! Lu3em'our"! <ontene"ro! 8etherland#! 8or$a%! 9oland! 0omania! Ser'ia! Slo-a+ia! Slo-enia! S ain! S$eden! S$itBerland! U+raine and the United :in"dom@. Another ei"ht #tate# ha-e #i"ned it! #ome of $hich are e3 ected to ratif% #oon. W+at i) t+e 'ur'o)e o, t+e c+arter / The Charter i# a con-ention de#i"ned on the one hand to rotect and romote re"ional and minorit% lan"ua"e# a# a threatened a# ect of Euro eA# cultural herita"e and on the other hand to ena'le # ea+er# of a re"ional or minorit% lan"ua"e to u#e it in ri-ate and u'lic life. .t# o-erridin" ur o#e i# cultural. .t co-er# re"ional and minorit% lan"ua"e#! non-territorial lan"ua"e# and le## $idel% u#ed official lan"ua"e#. Fir#t and foremo#t! the Charter #et# out the main o'4ecti-e# and rinci le# that #tate# underta+e to a l% to all re"ional or minorit% lan"ua"e# e3i#tin" $ithin their national territor%. Secondl%! the Charter contain# a #erie# of concrete mea#ure# de#i"ned to facilitate and encoura"e the u#e of # ecific re"ional or minorit% lan"ua"e# in u'lic life. Within it# #co e are the lan"ua"e# traditionall% u#ed $ithin a #tateA# territor%! 'ut it doe# not co-er tho#e connected $ith recent mi"rator% mo-ement# or dialect# of the official lan"ua"e. .t i# intended to en#ure! a# far a# i# rea#ona'l% o##i'le! that re"ional or minorit% lan"ua"e# are u#ed in education and in the media! to ermit and encoura"e their u#e in le"al and admini#trati-e conte3t#! in economic and #ocial life! for cultural acti-itie# and in tran#frontier e3chan"e#. The Charter i# 'a#ed on an a roach that full% re# ect# national #o-erei"nt% and territorial inte"rit%. .t doe# not concei-e the relation#hi 'et$een official lan"ua"e# and re"ional or minorit% lan"ua"e# in term# of com etition or anta"oni#m. 1e-elo ment of the latter mu#t not o'#truct +no$led"e and romotion of the former. A deli'erate deci#ion $a# ta+en to ado t an intercultural and multilin"ual a roach in the Charter! $ith each cate"or% of lan"ua"e ta+in" it# ri"htful lace. .n each #tate the cultural and #ocial realit% mu#t 'e ta+en into account. 0e,inition) to

The Charter doe# not e#ta'li#h a li#t of Euro ean lan"ua"e# corre# ondin" to the conce t of re"ional or minorit% lan"ua"e#! 'ut define# ?in Article 1@ the term# u#ed. A# defined '% the Charter! Gre"ional or minorit% lan"ua"e#I are lan"ua"e# traditionall% u#ed $ithin a "i-en territor% of a #tate '% national# of that #tate $ho form a "rou numericall% #maller than the re#t of the #tateA# o ulationE the% are different from the official lan"ua"e?#@ of that #tate! and the% include neither dialect# of the official lan"ua"e?#@ of the #tate nor the lan"ua"e# of mi"rant#. The e3 re##ion Gterritor% in $hich the re"ional or minorit% lan"ua"e i# u#edI mean# the "eo"ra hical area in $hich the #aid lan"ua"e i# the mode of e3 re##ion of a num'er of eo le 4u#tif%in" the ado tion of rotecti-e and romotional mea#ure# a# ro-ided for in the Charter. The e3 re##ion Gnon-territorial lan"ua"e#I mean# lan"ua"e# u#ed '% national# of the #tate $hich differ from the lan"ua"e?#@ u#ed '% the re#t of the #tateA# o ulation 'ut $hich! althou"h traditionall% u#ed $ithin the #tateA# territor%! cannot 'e identified $ith a articular area thereof.

W+at commitment) do )tate) enter into /

to

The demo"ra hic #ituation of the lan"ua"e# co-ered '% the Charter differ# treatl% and the% e3i#t in a -er% $ide ran"e of ?#ocial! olitical and economic@ conte3t#. Accordin"l%! the #%#tem of underta+in"# ado ted for the Charter ma+e# it o##i'le to ada t the #co e of the rotection afforded to #uit the articular #ituation of each lan"ua"e! and al#o to ta+e account of the co#t# of a lication. The Charter i# di-ided into t$o main art#! a "eneral one containin" the rinci le# a lica'le to all the 9artie# and all re"ional or minorit% lan"ua"e# ?9art ..@! and a #econd art $hich la%# do$n # ecific ractical commitment# $hich ma% -ar% accordin" to the #tate and the lan"ua"e ?9art ...@. Ei*+t ,undamental 'rinci'le) a''lica-le to all lan*ua*e) ( art II" Article 1) 9art .. #et# out the main rinci le# and o'4ecti-e# u on $hich State# mu#t 'a#e their olicie#! le"i#lation and ractice! and $hich are re"arded a# ro-idin" the nece##ar% frame$or+ for the re#er-ation of the lan"ua"e# concerned. The ei"ht fundamental rinci le# and o'4ecti-e# are a# follo$#:

0eco"nition of re"ional or minorit% lan"ua"e# a# an e3 re##ion of cultural $ealth. 0e# ect for the "eo"ra hical area of each re"ional or minorit% lan"ua"e. The need for re#olute action to romote #uch lan"ua"e#. The facilitation and,or encoura"ement of the u#e of #uch lan"ua"e#! in # eech and $ritin"! in u'lic and ri-ate life. The ro-i#ion of a ro riate form# and mean# for the teachin" and #tud% of #uch lan"ua"e# at all a ro riate #ta"e#. The romotion of rele-ant tran#national e3chan"e#. The rohi'ition of all form# of un4u#tified di#tinction! e3clu#ion! re#triction or reference relatin" to the u#e of a re"ional or minorit% lan"ua"e and intended to di#coura"e or endan"er it# maintenance or de-elo ment. The romotion '% #tate# of mutual under#tandin" 'et$een all the countr%A# lin"ui#tic "rou #.

A c+oice o, )i2t.&ei*+t concrete underta3in*) in )e(en area) o, 'u-lic li,e ( art III" Article) 4 to #5) 9art ... la%# do$n detailed rule# in a num'er of field#! #ome of $hich de-elo the 'a#ic rinci le# affirmed in 9art ... State# underta+e to a l% tho#e ro-i#ion# of 9art ... to $hich the% ha-e #u'#cri'ed. Fir#tl% the% ha-e to # ecif% the lan"ua"e# to $hich the% a"ree to thi# art 'ein" a lied! and then the% ha-e to #elect at lea#t thirt%-fi-e underta+in"# in re# ect of each lan"ua"e. A lar"e num'er of ro-i#ion# con#i#t of #e-eral o tion#! of -ar%in" de"ree# of #trin"enc%! one of $hich ha# to 'e cho#en Gaccordin" to the #ituation of each lan"ua"eI. The artie# are encoura"ed #u'#eFuentl% to add to their commitment#! a# their le"al #ituation de-elo # or a# their financial circum#tance# allo$ ?article 6.(@. The area# of u'lic life! each corre# ondin" to an article of 9art ...! from $hich the#e # ecific underta+in"# mu#t 'e cho#en are the follo$in": Education Judicial authoritie#

Admini#trati-e authoritie# and u'lic #er-ice# <edia Cultural acti-itie# and facilitie# Economic and #ocial life Tran#frontier e3chan"e#

Fact) 6 Fi*ure) 0e,inition minorit. lan*ua*e A# defined '% the Euro ean Charter for 0e"ional or <inorit% Lan"ua"e# ?EC0<L@! Gre"ional or minorit% lan"ua"e#I are lan"ua"e# traditionall% u#ed $ithin a "i-en territor% of a #tate '% national# of that #tate $ho form a "rou numericall% #maller than the re#t of the #tateA# o ulationE the% are different from the official lan"ua"e?#@ of that #tate! and the% include neither dialect# of the official lan"ua"e?#@ of the #tate nor the lan"ua"e# of mi"rant#. Euro'ean C+arter ,or Re*ional or Minorit. Lan*ua*e) The Euro ean Charter for 0e"ional or <inorit% Lan"ua"e# ?EC0<L@ i# an international treat% de#i"ned on the one hand to rotect and romote re"ional and minorit% lan"ua"e# a# a threatened a# ect of Euro eA# cultural herita"e and on the other hand to ena'le # ea+er# of a re"ional or minorit% lan"ua"e to u#e it in ri-ate and u'lic life. The charter i# #u er-i#ed '% the Council of Euro e and ado ted '% man% EU <em'er State#. T.'e) o, minorit. lan*ua*e) di)tin*ui)+ed -. t+e t+ree Mercator centre)7

UniFue lan"ua"e# in one #tate! e.". Wel#h in the U:! 2alician in S ain and We#t Fri#ian in The 8etherland#.

UniFue lan"ua"e# # read o-er more #tate# e.". >a#Fue in S ain and France and Catalan in S ain! France and .tal%.

Tran#-frontier lan"ua"e# that are 'oth minorit% and ma4orit% de endin" on the #tate! e.". Dun"arian in Slo-a+ia and 2erman in 1enmar+! .tal%! >el"ium and France.

8ational lan"ua"e# at #tate le-el! 'ut non-official $or+in" lan"ua"e# of the EU! e.". Lu3em'our"ian in Lu3em'our" and .ri#h in .reland.

8on-territorial lan"ua"e#! e.". 0oma and Jiddi#h.

Num-er o, minorit. lan*ua*e) in Euro'e Ta+in" the official definition of the lan"ua"e charter into account! there are a ro3imatel% 6* minorit% lan"ua"e# in Euro e. There are ho$e-er man% more! for e3am le the 2erman minoritie# $hich are $idel% # read around Euro e. Num-er o, minorit. lan*ua*e )'ea3er) in Euro'e A ro3imatel% )) million eo le in Euro e # ea+ a minorit% lan"ua"e ?rou"h e#timate@. Countrie) in Euro'e 8+ere minorit. lan*ua*e) are )'o3en 0e"ional or minorit% lan"ua"e# are # o+en in all Euro ean countrie#! e3ce t for .celand. .n recent %ear#! the name of Ded-i" <alina ha# often a eared in the column# of the Slo-a+

re##. .n (**6! thi# #tudent in the Slo-a+ to$n of DornK <Lto $a# attac+ed '% t$o #+inhead# for # ea+in" Dun"arian in a u'lic lace. Dun"arian i# a minorit% lan"ua"e! # o+en '% a'out &% of Slo-a+ia7# o ulation. >ut it $a# after her relea#e from ho# ital that her tri'ulation# reall% #tarted. 8one of the authoritie# $ould 'elie-e her #tor%. She 'e"an lon" le"al roceedin"# a"ain#t her a""re##or#! 'ut came u a"ain#t #tron" re#i#tance from the Slo-a+ "o-ernment $hich did all it could to #tifle the ca#e. Then the Slo-a+! Dun"arian-lan"ua"e ne$# a er j Sz 'e"an it# in-e#ti"ation. Than+# to the determination of it# 4ournali#t#! it $a# a'le to force the authoritie# to li#ten to rea#on. At the end of <a%! the a er $a# a$arded the <ida# 9riBe for Journali#m in <inorit% 9rotection and Cultural 1i-er#it% in Euro e due to it# co-era"e of thi# ca#e. >ut Slo-a+ia i# not the onl% countr% in $hich a foul $ind 'lo$# on lin"ui#tic minoritie#. The% are al#o in the hot #eat in man% other Ea#t Euro ean countrie# and local minorit% ne$# a er# are not lac+in" in material. Lithuania i# thu# attem tin" to re##ure it# lar"e 9oli#h minorit% into a##imilation. 9oli#h name# are tran#lated into Lithuanian! teachin" in 9oli#h i# $anin" and minorit% ne$# a er# are ha-in" trou'le findin" financial 'ac+in". >ut all i# not doom and "loom for Euro e7# minorit% media. <a+in" the a er# a-aila'le on the .nternet no$ allo$# #mall lin"ui#tic "rou # acro## the "lo'e to 'e in contact. An intere#tin" #tor% come# from 2ermanA# #mall Sor' minorit% Ma We#tern Sla-ic eo le of Central Euro e # ea+in" a lan"ua"e clo#el% related to 9oli#h and CBechN. There are onl% )*!*** # ea+er# of Sor'ian! mo#t of $hom li-e in the 'order re"ion 'et$een 2erman% and the CBech 0e u'lic. The onl% Sor'ian dail% Serbske Nowiny! ha# 4u#t launched a di"ital -er#ion and! in thi# $a%! can 'e #een '% a lar"e num'er of Sor' e3 atriate# throu"hout the

$orld. The ne$# a er al#o offer# a #ummar% of it# content in 2erman! the countr%7# ma4orit% lan"ua"e. The editorial line of mo#t of the minorit% a er# in Euro e! #uch a# that of the Hufvudstadsbladet MS$edi#h-lan"ua"e Finni#h dail%N! i# to 'e a to offer Fualit% 4ournali#m a'out the lan"ua"e it#elf. ealin" $ithout i"norin" 'urnin" i##ue#. The main aim i# to ro-ide $ell-$ritten! Fualit% 4ournali#m! and! a clo#e #econd!

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