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Introduction In this unit you will learn about the different types of salads.

You will also learn to:


select ingredients for salads prepare salads choose sauces and dressings present salads.

Salads Salads are a combination of generally cold ingredients. Most salads will be based on vegetables, especially leafy green vegetables but they may include fruits, meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, cheeses etc.

Salads may be served from breakfast through to supper. On a menu, salads often appear:

at the beginning as an appetiser with the main course as a vegetable accompaniment as the main course itself.

Basic features of a good salad

All ingredients must be fresh and of good quality.


The salad must look appetising. A salad should be simple. Do not make it too elaborate or over garnish. The ingredients should be chosen to compliment the rest of the meal. Named salads should have the correct ingredients,

garnishes and dressing. As there is no end to the varieties of salads that can be produced, new salads can be created with what suitable good quality ingredients you have available. The four elements of a salad Base Usually leafy salad greens, but the serving dish, bowl or platter could also be part of the base. The main ingredients of the salad itself

Body

Dressing

Usually a liquid mixture to enhance the flavour of the main ingredients, to improve the mouth feel of the salad. Generally contains oil. Ingredients that enhance and compliment the main ingredients in colour texture and flavour.

Garnish

Mixed and Simple salads Salads are classified in two main categories: Simple and Mixed.

Simple Salads Simple Salads consists of one type of ingredient served with a dressing. For example:

Fresh asparagus served with acidulated cream. Mignonette lettuce served with walnut oil and sherry vinegar. Tomato salad with a vinaigrette dressing.

Mixed Salads Mixed Salads consist of more than one main ingredient combined with a suitable dressing. For example:

Waldorf salad Caesar salad Greek salad.

Categories within mixed salads include:

Compound salads are mixed salad dressed with mayonnaise or a similar dressing.

Composed salads are salads in which the ingredients are arranged rather than mixed. The dressing is often added over the salad or served as an accompaniment. Often in busy establishments, individual serve salads are composed in bowls or on plates then covered before service and dressed as they are called away for service.

Warm salads are salads where the body and the dressing are served warm. Warm could mean anything from luke-warm to piping-hot.

Salad preparation Washing and drying All fresh fruit and vegetable salad ingredients should be washed, trimmed, and dried before use. Salad greens can be dried in a salad spinner or with clean, dry tea towels. All mise en place should be assembled and kept covered in a cool room until you are ready to put the salad together.

Cutting The cut and the size of ingredients should relate to the manner in which they will be eaten:

fingers fork chopsticks.

Cutting of ingredients must be precise (except for larger leafed salad greens where they may be torn rather than cut); all items should be identifiable and neat. It is always a good idea to toss cut ingredients including fruits such as apples with lemon juice to prevent browning.

Colour and texture There should be contrasts in colour and texture to add interest to a salad. Crisp salad greens with creamy avocado provide a textural contrast; crisp salad greens with fresh, crisp red capsicum contrasts the colour of the ingredients. In mixed salads always use a range of colours and textures and never add too much of one ingredient.

Flavour A balance of flavours in a salad is essential. Ingredients should compliment each other. Blander ingredients may be contrasted with a sharper or more flavoursome dressing, whilst ingredients with more pronounced flavours might require a milder dressing. A poorly chosen or badly flavoured dressing will ruin a salad. Salad Dressings Salad dressings are used:

for flavour as a lubricant to bind ingredients.

Dressings should not overpower the salad but should enhance, contrast or compliment it. There should be enough dressing to coat the whole salad but not too much to drown it. There are many dressings and the two most basic are Vinaigrette and Mayonnaise on which most dressings are based.

Vinaigrette Vinaigrette is a mixture of oil, vinegar, salt and pepper. Opinions about the ratio of oil to vinegar vary from 7:1 to 2:1. Clearly there is generally more oil than vinegar but some lighter style dressings use still less oil or eliminate it entirely. Vinaigrette should be briefly beaten to combine the ingredients and served straight away. There are a range of derivatives from vinaigrette dressing which can be created by adding ingredients such as:

mustard herbs cheese capers gherkins.

Vinaigrette is best used on salads especially greens.

Mayonnaise Mayonnaise is a rich creamy and smooth blend of vinegar, oil, salt and pepper with egg yolks and often mustard. All ingredients must all be at room temperature. There are a number of derivatives made from mayonnaise. Some of these include:

Mayonnaise based dressings are best used on cold foods.

PREPARE SANDWICHES INFORMATION SHEET FOOD PREPARATION

At the end of the lesson learners should be able to: Define sandwiches Identify different types of bases for sandwiches State different types ingredients used for filling Identify different types of equipment used for sandwiches State different preparation techniques used in sandwiches making Demonstrate how to prepare and present and store sandwiches

Sandwich: A sandwich is made up of one or more slices of bread with nutritious filling between them.

NB: sandwich is a favourite and convenient lunch time food; it is quickly made and served.

Types of bread Bagel-Jewish bread which is best served warm. Baguette- This is also referred to as French sticks Brioche- This bread is rich, light and slightly sweet Ciabatta- basic Italian dough flavored with olive oil. This bread has a light texture and may be plain in flavor Cottage loaf- Crusty white loaf Croissants- Made of enriched laminate dough, and is best served warm Pitta Bread- An unleavened bread available in whole meal or white, in oval rounds and mini shapes Pugliese- Popular close texture bread made with olive oil Pumpernickled- Heavy, close texture black rye bread, with distinctive flavor Quarter loaf- This is a double size sandwich loaf Rye Bread- This bread is made with sunflower seeds or dark or light rye White Bread- - available in a lot of different varieties and is available pre packed and pre sliced

Bread Storage The bread should be as fresh as possible. If not, it stales quickly. Also, day old bread loses much of its freshness. Keep your bread tightly wrapped and in moisture-proof wrapping. This stops it from drying and guards against picking up odors. You should not wrap French bread and other hard-crust breads. Wrapping causes the crust to soften. They stale rapidly and it is best to use them the day they are baked. You want to store bread at room temperature and away from ovens or hot equipment. Do not refrigerate. Refrigerated bread becomes stale faster. If you must keep bread more than a day, it may be frozen. Without unwrapping, thaw frozen bread. For toasting, you may use day-old bread without loss of quality. 1. Types of sandwiches (Hot and Cold) Sandwiches can be served hot or cold, close or open-face, depending on the way in which the ingredients are assembled and presented.

Hot Sandwiches Hot closed sandwiches include those which the filling ingredients are served hot, such as a hamburger or hot dog, and those where the entire sandwich is heated for service, such as grilled cheese.

Cold Sandwiches Cold sandwiches are simple sandwiches that are eaten cold. They are made with raw ingredients that are not intended to be cooked such as vegetables and cheese, or with meat, poultry, fish and shellfish that is precooked and then chilled before use as a filling. Cold sandwiches may be cold or open face.

There are four types of cold Sandwiches

1. Open Sandwiches Open sandwiches make use of only one kind of bread with the filling on top. The slices of white bread can be cut into squares, triangles or rounds. Butter is spread lightly on top and pieces of cheese or meat fillings are placed on top. Open sandwiches are similar to canaps. They make use of biscuits, cookies or toasts instead of using breads. 2. Regular Sandwiches Regular sandwich is made up of two slices of bread, preferably day-old bread, toasted if desired, and on which butter can be readily spread. Its crusts may or may not be removed, depending upon your preference. Butter, mayonnaise or a prepared sandwich spread may be used as lining to prevent the bread from absorbing moisture from the filling. Besides preventing the bread from becoming soggy, the spread also adds flavor and nutrients. Moreover, it ensures that the bread and the filling will stick together.

3. Pinwheels Sandwiches Pinwheels are cut lengthwise, about 3/8 inch thick. Fresh bread (hard-dough) is preferable because they are easy to roll and will not crack. Trim crusts and flatten long slices with rolling pin. Spread bread with softened butter or margarine and your choice of any smooth filling, like creamed cheese, marmalades, peanut butter, jams and jellies. Smooth filling are ideal for pinwheel sandwiches, because they do not have bulk and can be spread thinly. Roll up bread like a jelly roll. Wrap each rolled sandwich individually and chill for several hours or until they are firm. When ready to serve, unwrap the rolled sandwiches and cut into 1/2 inch slices. Use a sharp knife or a bread knife so the sandwiches are cut clear and neat. Arrange and serve them on a platter. Garnish if needed.

Sandwich: A sandwich is made up of one or more slices of bread with nutritious filling between them.

NB: sandwich is a favourite and convenient lunch time food; it is quickly made and served.

Types of bread Bagel-Jewish bread which is best served warm. Baguette- This is also referred to as French sticks Brioche- This bread is rich, light and slightly sweet Ciabatta- basic Italian dough flavored with olive oil. This bread has a light texture and may be plain in flavor

Cottage loaf- Crusty white loaf Croissants- Made of enriched laminate dough, and is best served warm Pitta Bread- An unleavened bread available in whole meal or white, in oval rounds and mini shapes Pugliese- Popular close texture bread made with olive oil Pumpernickled- Heavy, close texture black rye bread, with distinctive flavor Quarter loaf- This is a double size sandwich loaf Rye Bread- This bread is made with sunflower seeds or dark or light rye White Bread- - available in a lot of different varieties and is available pre packed and pre sliced

Bread Storage The bread should be as fresh as possible. If not, it stales quickly. Also, day old bread loses much of its freshness. Keep your bread tightly wrapped and in moisture-proof wrapping. This stops it from drying and guards against picking up odors. You should not wrap French bread and other hard-crust breads. Wrapping causes the crust to soften. They stale rapidly and it is best to use them the day they are baked. You want to store bread at room temperature and away from ovens or hot equipment. Do not refrigerate. Refrigerated bread becomes stale faster. If you must keep bread more than a day, it may be frozen. Without

unwrapping, thaw frozen bread. For toasting, you may use day-old bread without loss of quality. 2. Types of sandwiches (Hot and Cold)

Sandwiches can be served hot or cold, close or open-face, depending on the way in which the ingredients are assembled and presented.

Hot Sandwiches Hot closed sandwiches include those which the filling ingredients are served hot, such as a hamburger or hot dog, and those where the entire sandwich is heated for service, such as grilled cheese.

Cold Sandwiches Cold sandwiches are simple sandwiches that are eaten cold. They are made with raw ingredients that are not intended to be cooked such as vegetables and cheese, or with meat, poultry, fish and shellfish that is precooked and then chilled before use as a filling. Cold sandwiches may be cold or open face.

There are four types of cold Sandwiches

4. Open Sandwiches Open sandwiches make use of only one kind of bread with the filling on top. The slices of white bread can be cut into squares, triangles or rounds. Butter is spread lightly on top and pieces of cheese or meat fillings are placed on top.

Open sandwiches are similar to canaps. They make use of biscuits, cookies or toasts instead of using breads. 5. Regular Sandwiches Regular sandwich is made up of two slices of bread, preferably day-old bread, toasted if desired, and on which butter can be readily spread. Its crusts may or may not be removed, depending upon your preference. Butter, mayonnaise or a prepared sandwich spread may be used as lining to prevent the bread from absorbing moisture from the filling. Besides preventing the bread from becoming soggy, the spread also adds flavor and nutrients. Moreover, it ensures that the bread and the filling will stick together.

6. Pinwheels Sandwiches Pinwheels are cut lengthwise, about 3/8 inch thick. Fresh bread (hard-dough) is preferable because they are easy to roll and will not crack. Trim crusts and flatten long slices with rolling pin. Spread bread with softened butter or margarine and your choice of any smooth filling, like creamed cheese, marmalades, peanut butter, jams and jellies. Smooth filling are ideal for pinwheel sandwiches, because they do not have bulk and can be spread thinly. Roll up bread like a jelly roll. Wrap each rolled sandwich individually and chill for several hours or until they are firm. When ready to serve, unwrap the rolled sandwiches and cut into 1/2 inch slices. Use a sharp knife or a bread knife so the sandwiches are cut clear and neat. Arrange and serve them on a platter. Garnish if needed.

7. Ribbon \Decker Sandwiches Colored cream bread is suitable for ribbon sandwiches. Alternate 3 slices each of

pink and green bread with one or more fillings spread between slices. Press together stack of slices and then trim crusts. Wrap and chill for several hours. When ready to serve, cut into 1/2 inch slices. NB: Tea Sandwich: A tea sandwich is a small prepared sandwich meant to be eaten at afternoon teatime to stave off hunger until the main meal. The tea sandwich may take a number of different forms, but should be easy to handle, and should be capable of being eaten in two bites. It may be a long, narrow sandwich, a triangular half-sandwich, or a small biscuit. It may also be cut into other decorative shapes with a cookie cutter. The bread is traditionally white, thinly sliced, and buttered. The bread crust is cut away cleanly from the sandwich after the sandwich has been prepared but before serving. Modern bread variations might include wheat, pumpernickel, sour dough or rye bread.

Some Things to Remember in Making Sandwiches

1. When cutting bread, keep slices together in pairs so that they will fit together. 2. Have butter, margarine, or spread at room temperature so that it will spread without tearing the bread. Cream if necessary. Spread very thin. 3. Certain eating practices also affect the type of sandwich filling. Some prefer the more expensive fillings like chicken, luncheon meat, corned beef, and sausages while others prefer simple fillings like egg, tuna and cheese. 4. Bread may also be multilayered with one or more types of filling as in clubhouse sandwich. 5. Different colors of bread can be combined together and sliced differently to make interesting designs for the sandwich.

6. Apply spread on bread evenly to prevent sogginess. Then put in the prepared filling. 7. Vary serving of sandwiches by using different kinds of bread, fillings and by cutting them into different shapes.

Qualities of a sandwich Fresh tasting Easy to eat with fingers or a fork Firm in texture but tender Moist filling with some crunchy ingredients Flavourful Neat looking not messy Last but not least, sandwiches should be cut cleanly with no rugged edges and the filling should not be hanged over the edge Parts of a Sandwich A sandwich is consisting of four parts (bread, spread, filling, and garnish) Bread other wise know as the base: all sandwiches are made with bread. White bread is most commonly and popular. Bread for sandwiches should be firm but tender. It is better to use day old bread. Bread that is refrigerated is easier to spread because the cold firms the texture. Note: Only sandwiches make to order are toasts, as toast states quickly Spreads: Spreads may be butter, mayonnaises

The purpose of spreads To protect the bread from soaking up moisture from the filling To add flavor To add moisture or mouth feel To prevent the bread from drying out To keep garnish from slipping

Filling: The filling usually give the sandwich its name, it is the heart of the sandwich. E.g. Beef, Chicken, Ham, Salami etc. Garnish: Food used as an attractive decoration such as: Sliced pickles or olives Tomatoes Bell peppers Potato chips Carrot curls Preparing sandwiches Generally, sandwiches are prepared to order and the preparation requires a great deal of handwork. Your goal is to make the production as efficient as possible: therefore you should assemble all your ingredients and equipments so that your

motions will be as quick and efficient as possible at the final assemble. The following are a few basic guidelines for assembling sandwiches: Prepare ingredients: have all ingredients ready ahead of time to facilitate quick, efficient assembly at service time. Before service, mix fillings, prepare spreads, slice meats and cheese, separate lettuce leaves, slice tomatoes and prepare garnishes. Arrange and Store ingredients: every you need should be in easy reach of both hands. Keep cold ingredients refrigerated at all times. Cheese, meats and vegetables should be covered to reduce dehydration, bacterial infestation and contamination. When decided on at ingredients you should also consider: o Sanitation o Portion control

Select and Arrange Equipment Various types of equipment are necessary for the preparation of sandwiches depending on the menu and the size and types of operation. The equipment generally includes: Storage equipment include refrigeration equipment for cold ingredients and steam tables for hot ingredients Hand tools are basic and include: spreaders, knives, slicer, serrated knife, cutting board, and spatulas Portion control equipment, including scoops for filling and portion scale

Cooking equipment is necessary for most hot sandwiches. These equipment include: griddles, grills, broilers and deep fryers. Microwave ovens are used to heat ingredients and finish sandwiches Procedures for making simple cold sandwiches Prepare and collect all ingredients. Gather necessary equipment, including wrapping materials. Arrange bread sliced in rows on the tabletop. Spread each slice with butter or whatever spread is required. Place fillings evenly and nearly on alternate slices, leaving the other slices plain. Fillings should not hand over the edges of the bread. If the fillings are spreadable, spread it evenly to the edges. Top the filled slices with plain buttered slices. Stack two or three sandwich and cut with a sharp knife. To hold, do one of the following. o Wrap separately in plastic, waxed paper or sandwich bags. Place in storage pans, cover tightly with plastic wrap and over with clean, damp towels. Refrigerate immediately and hold until served. NB: Sandwiches made for commercial distribution must be kept at temperatures no higher than 8C and should be sold within 24 hours of production. In order to reduce the risk of spoilage and food poisoning refrigerated vehicles are used to transport sandwiches. Presentation Techniques

Piping- This is done with a piping bag and an assortment of tips. Layering- This is when more than one filling is used or when more than two slices of bread are used Portioning- Sliced sandwiches are portion by count and weight. If portion by count, make sure each portion is of the proper thickness Molding- Sandwiches are sometimes molded into form, attractive, hardedge shapes by using metal rings, circular cutters or other forms. Cutting- Sandwiches are cut to various attractive shapes. Diagonal, and quarter cuttings are popular Presenting sandwiches: Sandwiches are usually cut in haves, thirds or quarters for service. Cutting increases attractiveness and makes it easier for the consumer to handle. The filling, colors and textures can be exposed, and sandwich wedges can be arranged to add height to a plate. Hot sandwiches are often served open-faced, with mustard, mayonnaise, tomatoes, relishes, lettuce leaves, and garnishes served on the side or one of the open halves Although sandwiches can be a meal by themselves, they are often served with a salad, starch and bond salad. Sanitation: Because you subject cold sandwiches to a lot of handling and they are not cooked, it is especially important that ingredients be properly refrigerated and protected at all times.