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Original Title: 203020575 Stress Calculation (2)

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Copy write, Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 6 July 2006 * Machine components are designed to withstand: applied direct forces, moments and torsion. * These loads may be applied gradually, suddenly, and repeatedly. * The design load is equal to the applied load multiplied by a combined shock and fatigue factor, Ks. * The average applied design stress must be multiplied by a stress concentration factor K. * Calculated deflections are compared with required stiffness. * The material strength is compared with the maximum stress due to combinations of anticipated loads.

Math Symbols

Spread Sheet Method: 1. Type in values for the input data. 2. Enter. 3. Answer: X = will be calculated. 4. Automatic calculations are bold type. A x B = A*B 2x3= 2*3 =6 A/B= A/B 3/2= 3/2 = 1.5 Xn = X^n 23 = 2^3 =8

A+B= A+B 2+3= 2+3 =5 When using Excel's Goal Seek, unprotect the spread sheet by selecting: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Unprotect Sheet > OK When Excel's Goal Seek is not needed, restore protection with: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Protect Sheet > OK TENSION AND COMPRESSION As shown below, + P = Tension - P = Compression

Reference: Design of Machine Elements, by V.M. Faires, published by: The Macmillan Company, New York/Collier-Macmillan Limited, London, England.

Two machine components, shown above, are subjected to loads P at each end. The force P is resisted by internal stress S which is not uniform. At the hole diameter D and the fillet radius R stress is 3 times the average value. This is true for tension +P and compression -P.

Refer to the diagram above: External force, P = Section height, H = Section width, B = Original length, L = Stress concentration factor, K = Combined shock and fatigue factor, Ks = Section area, A = = Maximum direct stress, Smax = = Safety factor, SF = = Material Brass Bronze ASTM A47-52 Malleable Cast Iron Duralumin Monel Metal ASTM A-36 (Mild Steel) Nickel-Chrome Steel Input 2000 3.5 0.5 5 3.0 3.0 Calculations H*B 1.75 K*Ks*P / A 10286 Sa / Smax 2.14 E x 10^6 lbf/in^2 15.0 16.0 25.0 10.5 26.0 29.0 28.0

in^2 lbf/in^2 G x 10^6 5.80 6.50 10.70 4.00 10.00 11.50 11.80

Tension ( + ) Compression ( - ), P = Section Area, A = Original length, L = Original height, H = Material modulus of elasticity, E = Stress (tension +) (compression -), S = = Strain, e = = Extension (+), Compression ( - ), X = = Poisson's Ratio, Rp = 0.3 =

Transverse (contraction +) (expansion -) =

= =

Input 22000 2.00 10 3 29000000 Calculation P/A 11000 S/E 0.00038 L*e 0.0038 ((H - Ho) / H) / e (H - Ho) 0.3*e*H 0.00034

in

Shear Stress Distribution A stress element at the center of the beam reacts to the vertical load P with a vertical up shear stress vector at the right end and down at the other. This is balanced by horizontal right acting top and left acting bottom shear stress vectors. A stress element at the top or bottom surface of the beam cannot have a vertical stress vector. The shear stress distribution is parabolic. Reference: Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual (for the PE exam), by M.R. Lindeburg, Published by, Professional Publications, Inc. Belmont, CA. External shear force, Section height, Section width, Shear modulus, Length, P= H= B= G= L=

Section area, A = A= Shear stress concentration factor, k = Maximum shear stress, Sxy = = Shear strain, e = = Shear deflection, v = =

Input 2200 3.500 1.250 1150000 12 Calculation H*B 4.375 1.5 k*P / A 754 Fs / G 0.00066 e*L 0.0079

lbf in in lbf/in^2 in

in^2 lbf/in^2 in

Refer to the diagram above: Solid shafts: K = 1.5 & d = 0. Thin wall tubes: K = 2.0 & d is not zero. External shear force, P = Section outside diameter, D = Section inside diameter, d = Shear stress concentration factor, k = Shear modulus, G = Length, L = Section area, A = A= Maximum shear stress, Fs = Fs = Shear strain, e = e= Shear deflection, v = v= Input 4000 1.500 0.000 1.33 1.15E+06 5 Calculation *( D^2 - d^2 )/ 4 1.7674 k*P / A 3010 Fs / G 0.00262 e*L 0.0131

lbf in in lbf/in^2 in

in^2 lbf/in^2 in

COMPOUND STRESS

Stress Element The stress element right is at the point of interest in the machine part subjected to operating: forces, moments, and torques. Direct Stresses: Horizontal, +Fx = tension, -Fx = compression. Vertical, +Fy = tension, -Fy = compression. Shear stress: Shear stress, Sxy = normal to x and y planes.

Principal Stress Plane: The vector sum of the direct and shear stresses, called the principal stress F1, acts on the principal plane angle A degrees, see right. There is zero shear force on a principal plane. Angle A may be calculated from the equation: Tan 2A = 2 x Sxy / ( Fy - Fx)

Principal Stresses: Two principal stresses, F1 and F2 are required to balance the horizontal and vertical applied stresses, Fx, Fy, and Sxy. The maximum shear stress acts at 45 degrees to the principal stresses, shown right. The maximum shear stress is given by: Smax = ( F2 - F1 ) / 2 The principal stress equations are given below.

PRINCIPAL STRESSES

Principal stress, F1 = (Fx+Fy)/2 + [ ((Fx-Fy)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0.5 ] Principal stress, F2 = (Fx+Fy)/2 - [ ((Fx-Fy)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0.5 ] Max shear stress, Sxy = [Fn(max) - Fn(min)] / 2 Principal plane angle, A = ( ATAN(2*Sxy / (Fy - Fx) ) / 2

See Math Tab below for Excel's Goal Seek. Use Excel's, "Goal Seek" to optimize shaft diameter.

Horizontal force, Vertical force, Torsion, Cantilever length, Diameter, H= V= T= L= D= Input 3000 600 2000 10 2 lbf lbf in-lbf in in

Properties at section A-B = Area, A = A= Section moment of inertia, I = I= Polar moment of inertia, J = J= AT POINT "A" Horizontal direct stress, Fd = Fd = Bending stress, Fb = Fb = Combined direct and bending, Fx = Fx = Direct stress due to, "V", Fy = Torsional shear stress, Sxy = Sxy = Max normal stress at point A, F1 = F1 = Min normal stress at point A, F2 = F2 = Max shear stress at point A, Sxy = = AT POINT "B" Horizontal direct stress, Fd = Fd = Bending stress, Fb = Fb = Combined direct and bending, Fx = Fx = Direct stress due to, "V", Fy = Torsional shear stress, Sxy = Sxy =

Calculation 3.1416 *D^2 / 4 3.142 *D^4 / 64 0.7854 *D^4 / 32 1.5708 H/A 955 M*c / I 7639 H/A + M*c / I 8594 0 T*(D / 2) / J 1273

(Fx+Fy)/2 + [ ((Fx-Fy)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0.5 ] 8779 lbf/in^2 (Fx+Fy)/2 - [ ((Fx-Fy)/2)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0.5 ] -185 lbf/in^2 [Fn(max) - Fn(min)] / 2 4482 lbf/in^2

H/A 955 -M*c / I -7639 H/A + M*c / I -6684 0 T*D / (2*J) 1273

Max normal stress at B, F1 = (Fx+Fy)/2 + [ ((Fx-Fy)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0.5 ] F1 = 234 lbf/in^2 Min normal stress at B, F2 = (Fx+Fy)/2 - [ ((Fx-Fy)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0.5 ] F2 = -6919 lbf/in^2 Max shear stress at B, Sxy(max) = [Fn(max) - Fn(min)] / 2 3577 lbf/in^2

Outside radius, Ro = Inside radius, Ri = Section width, B = Applied moment, M = Section height, H = = Section area, A = Section neutral axis radius = Radius of neutral axis, Rna = = e= = Inside fiber bending stress, Si = = Outside fiber bending stress, So = = Input 8.500 7.000 1.500 500 Calculation Ro - Ri 1.500 2.250 Rna H / Ln(Ro / Ri) 7.726 Ri + H/2 - Rna 0.024 M*(Rna-Ri) / (A*e*Ri) 950 M*(Ro-Rna) / (A*e*Ri) 1013 in in in in-lbf in in in^2

in in lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2

Curved Beam-Section diameter, D = Ro - Ri = 1.500 Section radius of neutral axis, Rna = 0.25*(Ro^0.5 + Ri^0.5)^2 = 7.732 e= Ri + D/2 - Rna = 0.018 Inside fiber bending stress, Si = M*(Rna-Ri) / (A*e*Ri) = 1626 Outside fiber bending stress, So = M*(Ro-Rna) / (A*e*Ro) = 1406 in in in lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2

Outside radius, Ro = Inside radius, Ri = Applied moment, M = Curved Beam-Section diameter, D = D= Section radius of neutral axis, Rna = Rna = e= e= Inside fiber bending stress, Si = = Outside fiber bending stress, Fo = = Input 6.000 in 4.000 in 175 in-lbf Calculation Ro - Ri 2 in 0.25*(Ro^0.5 + Ri^0.5)^2 4.949 in Ri + D/2 - Rna 0.051 in (P*(Rna+e))*(Rna-Ri) / (A*e*Ri) 1309 lbf/in^2 M*(Ro-Rna) / (A*e*Ro) 193 lbf/in^2

Breadth, B = Height, H = Section moment of inertia, Ixx = = Center of area, C1 = C2 = = Input 1.500 3.000 Calculation B*H^3 / 12 3.375 H/2 1.5 in in

in^4 in

I and C Sections

Input 1 2 3 Bn 9 1.5 6 Hn 2 7 3 A = Calculation A 18 10.5 18 46.5 Yn 11 6.5 1.5

1 2 3

Calculation A*Yn A*Yn^2 198.00 2178.00 68.25 443.63 27.00 40.50 = 293.25 2662.13

Calculation Section modulus, Ixx = A*Yn^2 + Icg = 2724.50 in^4 Center of area, C1 = A*Yn/A = 6.306 in C2 = Y1 + H1/2 = 12.000 in

Input 2200 6 2 Calculation L-a 4 P*L 13200 P * a * b^2 / L^2 1956 P*a*b/L 2933

lbf in in

Bending shock & fatigue factor, Kb = Bending stress will be calculated. Applied moment from above, MMAX = Larger of: C1 and C2 = C = Section moment of inertia, Ixx = Bending shock & fatigue factor, Kb = Max moment stress, Sm = = 3 Input 13200 12.00 4.66 1.50 Calculation Kb*M*C / I 50987 Data in-lbf in in^4 -

lb/in^2

Input 1 2 3 Bn 2 7 3 Hn 9 1.5 6 A =

Calculations A*Yn A*Yn^2 9.00 4.50 18.38 32.16 13.50 10.13 = 40.88 46.78

Section modulus, Ixx = A*h^2 + Icg = 224.25 in^4 Center of area, C1 = A*Yn/A = 0.879 in C2 = B1 - C1 = 1.121 in Symmetrical H Section Properties Input Bn Hn 1 2 9 2 7 1.5 3 3 6 A = Center of gravity, Ycg = = Section modulus, Ixx = = Center of area, C1 = C2 = = B1 / 2 1.000 Icg 62 B1 / 2 1.000

in in^4

P= L= a= b= = Cantilever, MMAX at B = = Fixed ends, MMAX, at C ( a < b ) = = Pinned ends, MMAX, at C = Input 1800 12 3 Calculation L-a 9 P*L 21600 P * a * b^2 / L^2 3038 P*a*b/L 4050 lbf in in

Enter values for applied moment at a beam section given: C, Ixx and Ycg.

Bending stress will be calculated. Applied moment from above, MMAX = Larger of: C1 and C2 = C = Section moment of inertia, Ixx = Bending shock & fatigue factor, Kb = Shaft material elastic modulus, E = Beam length from above, L = Beam load from above, P = Max moment stress, Sm = = Cantilever deflection at A, Y = Fixed ends deflection at C, Y = Pinned ends deflection at C, Y = Input 13200 1.750 4.466 1.5 29000000 Calculation 12 1800 Kb*M*C / I 7759 P*L^3 / (3*E*I) 0.0080 P*a^3 * b^3 / (3*E*I*L^3) 0.000053 P*a^2 * b^2 / (3*E*I*L) 0.000281

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