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Earthquake Resistant Design Criteria

Dr. Maguid H.M. Hassan Ext. 1413 Email: mhassan@bue.edu.eg

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

OUTLINE
Performance-Based Seismic Design Performance Reliability Factors Affecting Performance Reliability Form, Material & Failure Modes

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Performance-Based Seismic Design


A set of performance objectives, combining the required level of performance with the expected levels of ground motions, shall be selected in consultation with the client and taking into consideration:
Seismic Hazard Economy Acceptable risks
Design Criteria
Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Performance-Based Seismic Design

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Performance Reliability
Function

Reliability

Cost

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Performance Reliability
Serviceability & Safety
The structure is considered to be reliable if acceptable number of elements behave as expected under the effect of the design earthquake. Thus, the reliability of the overall system is considered acceptable. Limit state design criteria are usually employed in ensuring any form of reliability based design

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Performance Reliability
Serviceability Undamaged Elastic Strength No Collapse, Ductile, Limited deformations Elastic Survivability Performance Normal Use Pre-Collapse

Return Period
Performance Critical Use Return Period

25-72
Elastic 100-1000

100-500

1000-2500
Pre-Collapse 1000-2500

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Performance Reliability
Ductile Behaviour
Deformations rather than stresses are increasingly being introduced as design parameters. Strength and deformation design requirements usually create unsolvable conflicts. Creative methods may be employed to reduce strength requirements such as energy dissipation.

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Performance Reliability
Ductile Behaviour & Repairability
Recent design codes require repairability as a design parameter. Drift limitations are one form of enforcing moderate damage and thus repairability. Drift limitations and resulting repaitrability will have indirect impact on life threatening damage.

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Performance Reliability
Survivability
It is now being considered for extreme events due to:
Better analysis methods Strong load for extreme events Economy Improved design methodologies

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Form, Material & Failure Modes


Form
Form is used to represent geometrical arrangement of structural elements. Form and structural detailing are considered major factors responsible for providing suitable earthquake resistance.

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Criteria for acceptable Form


Simplicity & Symmetry
Structures with the simplest form have the best considered. chance for acceptable earthquake performance due to:
Buildability Simple structural behaviour Simple detailing

Lack of symmetry results in torsional stresses which require complicated detailing and destructive results if not properly considered. Any irregular shaped structures shall be modeled using 3D earthquake analysis.
Design Criteria
Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Criteria for acceptable Form

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Criteria for acceptable Form

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Criteria for acceptable Form


Length
Long sides in plan result in variations in ground movements and soil conditions. Continuous foundations could reduce structural response, however, the foundations themselves will probably endure higher internal forces.

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Criteria for acceptable Form


Elevations
Several problems may arise due to some or all of the following forms:
Slender Structures, problems in columns and foundations Sudden changes in width require dynamic analysis to be properly considered.

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Criteria for acceptable Form

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Criteria for acceptable Form


Strength, Stiffness & Mass The following conditions ensure the best performance of structural systems:
Uniform distribution to load bearing element Continuous walls and columns Beams are free of offsets Columns & beams are coaxial Same width for RC columns and beams Sections do not experience sudden changes Redundant systems Uniform and regular mass distribution

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Criteria for acceptable Form

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Criteria for acceptable Form

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Criteria for acceptable Form


Appropriate Stiffness will result in:
Desired vibrational characteristics Control deformations Influence failure modes

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Criteria for acceptable Form


Stiff & Flexible Structures There is a current trend towards introducing additional elements, to moment resisting frames, to overcome excessive flexibility, such as:
Bracing Shear walls Base isolation Energy absorption mechanisms

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Criteria for acceptable Form


Advantages Disadvantages

Suitable for short period sites, for buildings with long periods
Flexible Structures Ductility easier to achieve Non-structural elements may cause inconsistent results

Higher response on long period sites


Flexible reinforced concrete is difficult to reinforce Non-structural elements difficult to detail

Suitable for long period sites


Stiff Structures Easier to reinforce stiff RC Non-structural elements easier to detail

Higher response on short period sites


Ductility cant be achieved

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Criteria for acceptable Material


Suitable materials should possess the following properties:
Ductility High-Strength weight ratio Homogeneity Orthotropy Full strength connections

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

Criteria for acceptable Material

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus

References
Dynamics of Structures, Ray Clough & Joseph Penzein Structural Dynamics for Structural Engineers, Gary Hart & Kevin Wong USGS web site Earthquake Resistant Design and Risk Reduction, David J. Dowrick Seismic Design of Building Structures: A Professionals Introduction to Earthquake Forces and Design Details , Michael R. Lindeburg PE (Author), Kurt M. McMullin PE Earthquake Engineering: From Engineering Seismology to PerformanceBased Engineering, Yousef Bozorgnia (Editor), Vitelmo V. Bertero The Seismic Design Handbook, Farzad Naeim Dynamics of Structures , Anil K. Chopra Structural Dynamics: Theory and Computation, Mario Paz, William Leigh

Design Criteria

Maguid H.M. Hassan, Ph.D. / Fulbright Alumnus