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AMPALAYA (Momordica charantia) AND MALUNGGAY (Moringa oleifera) LEAF EXTRACT AS BLOOD GLUCOSE STABLIZER IN WHITE MICE

An Investigatory Project Presented To the Faculty and Administration MANDAUE CITY SCIENCE HIGH SCHOOL In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements In curriculum For Research II

Authors Clexandrea D. Corpuz Cienavilla R. de los Cientos Patrick B. Tabuac

October 2013

TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgement..3 Abstract...4 Chapter 1 Introduction.5 Statement of the Problem.6 Hypothesis6 Significance of the Study.6 Scopes and Limitations.7 Definition of Terms...7 Review of Related Literature7 Chapter 2 Methodology Research Design10 Materials.10 Procedure11 Schematic Diagram.11 Data Gathering12 Chapter 3

Results and Discussion..12 Conclusion.12 Recommendation...12 Appendices....13 Bibliography..13

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
For the researchers, this journey has never been that easy. The road to success will never be a smooth one, there will always be bumps and coarse roads along the way but if wed just strive harder and harder then we will reach our destination somehow, and as we reach that certain point of success, let us not forget to keep our feet on the ground and look back, it is in these times where we feel most accomplished and eupeptic. Let us also not forget all the people who have helped us come to where we stand at this moment. The Beach Boys said it best, God only knows what Id be without you God only knows how the researchers would end up without these people, so they would like to fill this page as dedication to the people they are most grateful to. But first of all, the researchers would like to thank our omnipotent creator who showered them with blessings. To Mrs. Rose Madelle L. Amamangpang, the researchers generous teacher for educating them with the knowledge they need in their journey, for discerning and tirelessly correcting their missteps and for being patient with them. To the researchers loving parents, for supporting them all throughout the way, for financing and providing them with all their needs and for encouraging them to continue their journey, especially in the inevitable times of feeling so low in an enigma. To the people suffering from high blood sugar, who served as an inspiration for the researchers to pursue their study. To Ms. Satanina Remedio, the considerate chief medical technologist for allowing the researchers to use the laboratory at the Mandaue District Hospital. The researchers could never have done it without these amazing people.

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to identify if the Ampalaya and Malunggay extract can be a substitute blood sugar stabilizer. Nowadays, people are suffering a lot of health problems, specifically diabetes. This health problem could be solved with the aid of different prescriptions from the doctor. Unfortunately, not everyone can avail this kind of service so the researchers decided to focus on this problem. This study was designed to carry out an effective blood glucose stabilizer out from organic materials that are available in the locality. It aims to answer the questions such as; can the ampalunggay mixture be efficient as a blood glucose stabilizer and how its concentration affects its efficiency. This study was tested by making the mice diabetic then, treated them with 3 different concentrations. They scheduled the experimentation by about a week, conducted at a safe and controlled environment wherein materials, apparatuses and specimens were arranged in order and within the reach of the researchers to provide streamline operation. 164 WORD PA WHAT DID YOU FIND?

WHAT DOES UR FINDINGS MEAN?

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Nowadays, people are suffering a lot of health problems. It could be allergies, birth defects or in the blood itself. These health problems could be solved with the aid of medications and prescriptions from the doctor. But the problems could be hard that it could not be solved easily especially if the persons financial status is low. There is another way which could be done at home.

At home, the researchers are being trained to be resourceful. They learned that combining small things could create a big thing that could be helpful someday. One of the things that can be made at home is a natural blood stabilizer.

Blood stabilizer is widely known for maintaining the blood sugar of the human body, but commercial products are expensive. This led the researchers to search for an alternative natural blood stabilizer. Insulin is known to lower blood glucose, so the researchers take advantage of the insulin properties of Ampalaya and Malunggay plants, since these are also abundant in the Philippines. Both of these plants contain insulin properties so, the researchers try to combine these plants and see if it is more efficient than using one plant alone and at different concentrations.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study was designed to carry out an effective blood glucose stabilizer out of locally available organic materials specified as Malunggay and Ampalaya plant as alternative for commercial blood stabilizer. It aims to answer the question: 1. To test if the Ampalunggay mixture can be efficient as a blood glucose stabilizer. 2. To test if the Ampalunggay mixture concentration affects its efficiency. HYPOTHESIS There is no significant effect in using Ampalunggay mixture as alternative blood glucose stabilizer. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY INDIVIDUALS Individuals could greatly benefit from this study since the produced stabilizer is organic and affordable.

ENTREPRENEURS

Entrepreneurs could benefit from this study since the materials needed are available and affordable.

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS The study will focus on the effectiveness of the Malunggay and Ampalaya extract as glucose stabilizer. The researchers will conduct the study at Ibabao Estancia, Mandaue City for one week. The subject of the study is the effectiveness of the leaf extract. DEFINITION OF TERMS Ampalaya (Momordica Charantia) An ampalaya is a vegetable grown throughout the Philippines. It is mostly cultivated and has a bitter taste due to the presence of momordicin Malunggay (Moringa Oleifera) Malunggay is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Moringa Extract Glucose stabilizer A substance made by taking out a part of something Glucose stabilizer balances the level of sugar in the blood Ampalunggay The mixture of the Malunggay and Ampalaya treatment.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Ampalaya, also known as bitter melon, is a tropical fruit that grows in Africa, Asia, South America and India. The bitter-tasting fruit is orange-yellow when ripe, but resembles a green cucumber prior to ripening. Ampalaya has documented hypoglycemic, or blood-sugar lowering, effects, reports the University of Colorado. In fact, effects of this plants extracts provide action comparable to oral hypoglycemic agents like metformin and thiazolidinedione drugs. (Wikipedia, n.d.)
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Ampalaya has insulin-like polypeptides, called p-insulin, in its fruits and seeds. Insulin helps your body use and store blood glucose when you eat food, advises the American Diabetes Association. The plant also contains leptin, a hormone that can play a role in insulin resistance. While bitter melon has a scientifically proven track record for improving insulin resistance in the body, the exact mechanism by which the plant works remains unknown, reports Qixuan Chen, lead author of a study published in the Journal of Nutrition. The plants ability to lower bloodglucose levels might be the result of its ability to create a metabolic environment in the body that reduces body fat, specifically visceral fat, according to Chen. Alpha and beta-momorcharin, both proteins, are found in the fruits seeds. These produce fat-reducing activity in the body, according to C.P. Khares Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary.

Ampalaya has conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) derivatives including octadecatrienoic fatty acid, reports the Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. The linolenic acid is found in ampalayas seed oil and can kill off colon cancer cells, according to a study by Yumiko Yasui published in the journal, "Anticancer Research." CLA also may help build lean body mass and reduce body fat, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center. More studies need to be conducted before the true effect CLA has on people trying to lose weight is known, advise experts at UMMC. Ampalayas leaves have several nutrients. These include thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, iron, sodium, and ascorbic acid, according to the University of Colorado. The alkaloid momordicine is contained in ampalayas seeds and fruit is responsible for its bitter taste, according to Vegetables for Health and Healing, ( Hean Chooi Ong, n.d)

The diabetics need not to buy capsules, tablets or tea. They can just take the advantage of the medical benefit of ampalaya for diabetes. They can just grow ampalaya in their own garden and they can just prepare through juicing or decoction which is believed to be the most effective. The blood sugar lowering of ampalaya is cumulative and gradual. Whats responsible for the bitter taste of ampalaya is the bitter alkaloid called momodicin (atriterpere glycoside) the active principle. Amplaya increases the utilization of glucose by the liver is shown I the radioisotope labeled glucose study. Amplaya also has a polypeptide which has been identified with insulinlike properties and includes the capacity to regenerate procreate beta cells in animal models. Ampalaya also has lipid lowering properties in the absence or presence of diabetes with the consequent decrease in triglycerides and cholesterol. (DOST, n.d.) October 4, 2013 Ampalaya has documented hypoglycemic or blood lowering effect. Effects of this plants extracts provide action comparable to oral hypoglycemic agents like metformin or thiazolidinedione drugs. Ampalaya has insulin-like polypeptides called p-insulin in its seeds and fruits, insulin help your body use and store blood glucose when you eat food. This plant also contains lepton, a hormone that plays a role in insulin resistance, while this is proven. The exact mechanism by which the plant works remains unknown. The plants ability to lower blood glucose levels might be the result of its ability to create a metabolic environment in the body that reduces body fat, specifically visceral fat. This plant also contains alpha and betamomorcharin, proteins found in the seed and produce fat-reducing activity in the body. Amplaya can be either eaten as a vegetable or taken as a tea and other processes. Ampalaya is now single most promins plant/herb for diabetes. (Globalnation, n.d.)

Malunggay is a popular plant known for nutritional value as well as a herbal medicine. Malunggay is a plant that grows in the tropical climates such as the Philippines, India and Africa. Malunggay is widely used as vegetable ingredient in cooking, as herbal medicine for a number of illness and other practical uses. The Malunggay plant can grow to as high as 9 meters with erect white trunks. The compound leaf has about 3 to 9 leaflets. Malunggay has white fragrant flowers that produces long pods with 3-angled winged seeds. (Wikipedia, n.d.) CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY A. Research Design This study made use of the Randomized Block Design. This is a type of design that compares K or the product being produced to the blood glucose stabilizer itself. B. Materials White Rats of the same weight (approx. 2 grams) Condensed Milk (3mL) Glucometer Syringe Malunggay and Ampalaya fruit extracts (treatment A 3mL Ampalaya, 2mL Malunggay) (treatment B 2:3) (treatment C 2.5:2.5) C. Procedure First, the researchers gathered and prepared all the materials needed for them to conduct the experiment. Second, they took the normal blood glucose level of the mice Third, they fed the mice with 3mL Condensed milk, by doing this, it increases their blood glucose level

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Then, measure the blood glucose level after 2 hours by the glucometers reading Fourth , they fed each mice with the different concentration of the mixed Malunggay and Ampalaya fruit extract (Treatment A, B and C) Finally, after 2 hours they measured the mices blood glucose level again. After conducting the experiment and doing the treatment, we now make our observations and analysis with those substitute white mice blood glucose stabilizer. D. Schematic Diagram
Replication 1 Replication 2 Replication 3 Treatment 1 Malunggay and Ampalaya fruit extract in mL (2:3) 1. Collection and Interpretation of Data 2. Testing of the Ampalaya and Malunggay fruit extract mixture

Replication 1 Replication 2 Replication 3

Treatment 2 Malunggay and Ampalaya fruit extract in mL (3:2)

Analysis and Interpretation of Data

Replication 1 Treatment 3 Replication 2 Replication 3 Malunggay and Ampalaya fruit extracts in mL (2.5:2.5) 50% Baking soda (50 ml) Drawing of Conclusions

After a series of procedures, each mixture was given to the mice with different treatments. Interpretation and analysis of data was done right after all the necessary information has been gathered.

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Chapter III A. Results and Discussions In this chapter, the data gathered is shown in a tabular form. These data are in the description of the physical aspects of the different treatments of the Ampalunggay solution after 2 hours. TO EDIT

Replication 1 Treat. A Treat. B Treat. C 139 mg/dL 135 mg/dL 132 mg/dL 173 mg/dL 156 mg/dL 162 mg/dL 127 mg/dL 130 mg/dL 131 mg/dL 134 mg/dL 133 mg/dL 133 mg/dL

Replication 2 168 mg/dL 165 mg/dL 154 mg/dL 146 mg/dL 135 mg/dL 129 mg/dL 137 mg/dL 137 mg/dL 137 mg/dL

Replication 3 137 mg/dL 137 mg/dL 137 mg/dL 137 mg/dL 137 mg/dL 137 mg/dL

=0.05 d.f.N = 3 1 = 2 d.f.D = 9 1 = 8 Source of Variation Rows Columns Error Total

SS 124.963 3785.63 315.037 4225.63

df 2 8 16 26

MS 62.48148 473.2037 19.68981

F 3.173289 24.03292

F crit 3.633723 2.591096

Chapter IV: Conclusion TO EDIT Based on the results, the researchers came up with these findings: The Ampalunggay solution that contains more Ampalaya and Malunggay extract is capable of lowering the blood glucose
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level in the mouse itself better than the solution that contains less Ampalaya and Malunggay extract. Treatment A & B, showed a difference in both solutions while the constant showed no difference at all. Chapter V: Recommendation The researchers recommend this study, to serve as reference for students who are conducting a similar research study and a guide that will produce a better solution for lowering high blood sugar levels. You may use another type of animal which is more likely similar to the human body to gain an efficient glucose stabilizer. Bibliography Philippine Council for Health Research and Development: Ampalaya in the Treatment of Diabetes: (2007) Retrieved from http://www.pchrd.dost.gov.ph/index.php/2012-05-23-07-46-36/2012-05-24-0003-06/260-ampalaya-in-the-treatment-of-diabetes Sweet Life Diabetic of a Runner: Power of Ampalaya (2012) Retrieved from http://thesweetliferunner.blogspot.com/2012/06/power-of-ampalayaplus.html Charantia: About Ampalaya-Bitter Melon (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.charantia.com/about-ampalaya/

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