You are on page 1of 5

Korean Grammar:

Grammar Review Sheet

WEEK 1

WEEK 2

Grammar ()

Grammar ()

Intro to the Korean Language

Unit 1: Tenses

1. Korean sentence structure


Subject + (Adverb) + Object + Verb
Object + (Adverb) + Subject + Verb
/ ; / = subject particle marker;
/ = object particle marker
2. Conjugation of verbs and adjectives
Verbs: + (present)

+ + (honorific)

+ / + (past)
Adjectives: + (is ...)

+ / + (was ...)

+ (guess) + (seems to be ...)
3. Connecting sentences
// can drop all the
stuff to join together those two sentences
with just ~~/
~~/~~
4. Sentence types
Declarative, interrogative, imperative,
propositive
Formal (-()),
Informal polite (~/)
5. Honorific expressions
+ () to V/A stems ( -> )
/ -> ; / -> ; ()
->
= for spouse; = for close friends

1. Present Tense A/V-()


(used in formal/public situation: military,
news,
presentations, meetings, lectures)
+ = Declarative
+ ? = Interrogative
2. Present Tense A/V-/
(used most in daily life: with family, friends,
close acquaintences)
Declarative + Interrogative = the same
Present + Progressive + Near Future = the
same
= previous vowel (no )
= previous consonant (with )
3. Past Tense A/V-/
= + =
= previous vowel (no )
= previous consonant (with )
= NOT sent with vowel (no )
= NOT sent with consonant (with
)
4. Future Tense V-() (1)
Will or is going to
5. Progressive Tense V- (1)
~ing(dont use with past tense)
6. Past Perfect Tense A/V-/
did/had in the past
Expresses a past occurrence that doesnt
continue.

Getting Ready

Unit 2: Negative Expressions

1. (to be)
= ending when no final consonant;
= when previous word ends with a
2. (to exist/be, to have)
Typically, N/ N(place)
Can also, N(place) N/
3. Numbers
Sino-Korean (, , , ) = for counting
PureKorean (, , ) = 1st, 2nd, etc.
4. Dates and Days of the Week
= What Year?
= What Month?
= What Date?
= What day of the week?
5. Time
~ = attached to end of time noun

1. Word Negation
= (use / when written, not
spoken)
=
=
2. A/V-/ (A/V- )
Not - negates an action or state
= before verb/adjective
~ = end of verb/adjective stem
Declaractive & Interrogative sentences = OK
Imperative & Propositive sentences = NO (use ~
)
3. V-/ (V- )
Cannot - shows a lack of ability (impossible)
= before verb (no adjectives)
~ = end of verb stem (no adjectives)

www.keytokorean.com

Korean Grammar:
Grammar Review Sheet

WEEK 3

WEEK 4

Grammar ()

Grammar ()

Unit 3: Particles

Unit 4: Listing and Contrast

1. N/ ( Subject marker )
Emphasizes preceding subject; introduces new info
2. N/ ( Main idea, topic, issue of discussion )
As for...; refers to a previous topic (old info)
Used when comparing & contrasting
3. N/ ( Object marker; sometimes omitted in speech)
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
;
4. N/, N(), N (And)
/ = writing, presentations, speeches
() & = conversational
Cannot be mixed ; / cant be on final noun in list
5. N (ofor ~s; pronounced [] )
6. N(1) (to)
; ; ; ; ; ;

With / = on/in
7. N(2) (at/on for time); / = also OK
Not added to ; ; ; ; ;
8. N (at/in some action/behavior occurs)
= movement, location, existance / = action
9. N N, N N (from~to...
from~until)
Place Place / Time Time
10. N/ (Noun = recipient of some action)
; ; ; ; ; ;
; ; ; ; ; ; = OK
Person/animal = /; Thing/Plant/Place =
Older/honorable people = (not )
When receiving = / (but no = OK)
11. N (also/too)
Dont use: /; /; / / Use: ; ;
12. N (only/just/minimum)
No /; /; / or with first: ; ;
Other particles = after: ; ;
13. N (only/nothing but/very small)
Negative form follows
Cant be used with imperative/propositive/
= pos/neg sentences / = only negative
14. N() (to/toward or by/using)
Transport = noun = () / Verb = ~/
() = direction / = destination
15. N()(1) (choose one noun)
Omit /; // /
Nouns = (); Verbs/adjectives =
16. N()(2) (as many as/no less than)
= much less than expected
() = much greater than expected
17. N (around/about) For prices, use N
18. N, N (like/as...as)
Compare with animals/nature
19. N (more ... than/~er than)
Can be used with /
20. N (every/all/once every)
= ; = ; = /
; = / = (not )

1. A/V- (and/and then)


Lists 2 or more actions/states/facts
Expresses 1st clause happened before 2nd
N V N V = two+ facts about 1 subject
2. V- (or)
Verbs/adjectives (usually 2, sometimes 3+)
3. A/V- (but)
V/A stems - Past tense = ~/
4. A/V-()/(1) (but)
When 2nd clause is in opposition to 1st
Present Vs = ~; Present A = ~/
Past verbs/adj = ~/
Unit 5: Time Expressions
1. N , V- (before/ago) Ns
1 = Before 1:00;
1 = one hour before
2. N , V-() (after time/action)
Also ~() (After that)
3. V- (upon finishing/and then) (Vs)
Indicates 1st action is completely finished
W/motion verbs (; ; ;
; ; ; ; ;
; ; ; ) use ~/ not ~

4. V-/(1) (and/in order to)


Second action cannot occur without first
~ = 2 unrelated sequential actions OR
wearing clothes
Verb tense expressed with 2nd verb, not 1st
5. N , A/V-() (during/when)
= December 25;
= around December 25
6. V-() (while) (1st/2nd simultaneous)
Subject = same; if not, use ~
Verb tense expressed with 2nd verb, not 1st
7. N , V- (in process/currently)
~ = no natural phenomena (use ~
- like .)
8. V- (as soon as/right after)
Verb tense determined with 2nd not 1st;
Subjects can be same/diff
9. N , V- (during/while)
~() = subject of clauses are same
~ = subjects can be different
10. V-() (since)
Also ~() ~; ~() ~; ~()

www.keytokorean.com

Korean Grammar:
Grammar Review Sheet

WEEK 5

WEEK 6

Grammar ()

Grammar ()

Unit 6: Ability and Possibility

Unit 9: Reasons and Causes

1. V-() / (can/cant)
+ = emphatic ( .)
Also expresses if a situation is permitted.
2. V-() / (know/dont know
how)
Cant be used to express possibility.

1. A/V-/(2) (because of/so...that...)


= ; = or (in speech)
Not for imperative/propositive sents;
No tenses (/)
Used with greetings (; ; ;
)
2. A/V-()(1) (so/because)
Can be used for imperative/propositive sents
Tense markers can be used (//)
States subjective reason; basis for reason
Not for use with greetings
3. N , A/V- (because)
Clear reasons;
More literary than ~/; ~()

Unit 7: Demands, Obligations, Permission / Prohibition


1. V-() (please do) (also As)
Polite requests; directions; orders
Polite level 1: ~/
Polite level 2: ~()
Polite level 3: ~()
2. V- (please dont)
Polite level 2: ~
Polite level 3: ~
3. A/V-/ / (must/have to)
Obligatory
Present tense: ~/ / ~/
Past tense: ~/ / ~/
4. A/V-/ (may/be permitted)
Also, ~/ ; ~/ ;
()
5. A/V-() (may not/not allowed)
~() can be double negative for
emphasis:
~ ( .)
6. A/V- ( A/V-/ )
(doesnt have to do/not required)

Unit 10: Making Requests and Assisting


1. V-/ , V-/ ?
(please)
Polite level 1: ~/
Polite level 2: ~/ ?
Polite level 3: ~/ (for helping sm)
~() = for listener;
~/ = for speaker
2. V-/ , V-/ ? (Shall I?)
Polite level 2: ~/ ?
Polite level 3: ~/ ?
~/ = (Allow me)
Unit 11: Trying New Things and Experiences

Unit 8: Expressions of Hope

1. V-/ (try/experience) Not w/ V


2. V-() / (have/havent
done)
Not used for everyday/repeated occurences

1. V- (want to)
(Can be used w/particles)
First/second person: ~
Third person: ~
Add to As with ~/ ( .)
2. A/V-/ (wish/hope/want)
~/ = less emphasis on desire
~() = general want/desire
~/ = strong desire for sth unobtained

Unit 12: Asking Opinions and Making Suggestions


1. V-()?(1) (Shall we...?)
Answer with ~() / ~/
2. V-()?(2) (Shall I...?)
Answer with ~() / ~
3. V-() (Lets...)
For higher level people: ~()
4. V-()? (Would you mind...?)
More polite than: ~()? / ~()?
5. V-()?(1) (Want to...?)
Also: ~ ? ( ~()?)
Answer with ~().

www.keytokorean.com

Korean Grammar:
Grammar Review Sheet

WEEK 7

WEEK 8

Grammar ()

Grammar ()

Unit 13: Intentions and Plans

Unit 16: Conditions and Suppositions

1. A/V-(1) (I will/plan to/am going to)


No third person; ~~ = less assertive
Negative form = ~ / ~
2. V-() (I will do...) (colloquial)
~() = Relates with listener
~() = Unidirectional (no relationship)
3. V-()(2) (I will/am going to)
(Colloquial)
Does not confer a feeling of politeness

1. A/V-() (if/when/once)
When supposition: use adverbs ,
Past info cant come before it
If action is only once, use ~()
If subjects of 1st/2nd different, use /
2. V-() (if you want to)
Short form of ~()
In 2nd use: ~/ /; ~() ;
~(); / ; ~
3. A/V-/ (even if/regardless of)
Emphasize with before V; =

Unit 14: Background Information and Explanations

Unit 17: Conjecture


1. A/V-()/(2) (so/therefore/and)
1st clause expresses reason/background/
content
~() = As/; ~ = Present Vs
~/ = Past verbs/adjectives
2. V-()(2) (when/...only to discover)
2nd clause = discovery after action in 1st
~~/~~ cannot precede it

1. A/V-(2) (looks/sounds/appears like)


Past tense: ~/
2. A/V-() (2) (think/will)
(Personal experience)
No questions: use ~()?
Past tense: ~/
3. A/V-()?(3) (I wonder.../Do you think...)
Past tense: ~/?
4. A/V-()//()
(looks/seems like)
Past Vs/Present A: ~() (direct/definite)
Present verbs: ~
Future verbs: ~() (indirect/vague)
~ = Intuitive/instant with no reason
~() = info known only by speaker
~()//() = intuitive/universal/
indirect

Unit 15: Purpose and Intention


1. V-() / (in order to)
Action = first, place = second
Movement Vs only after (; ; )
Not before (; ; ; ;
; ; ; )
2. V-() (so that/in order to)
Do 2nd clause in order to do the 1st clause
~() = movement Vs; ~() = all Vs
~() = Past/now/future; ~() = no future
~() = ~() / ~();
~() = NO
3. V-() (plan/intend to)
~() = the plan wasnt as expected
4. N/ (), V- () (in order to)
The speaker will do 2nd clause for sake of 1st
= ; also no is OK =
No adjectives unless + ~/
( .)
~ can use ~/ ; ~()
; ~(); ~()?
But ~() cannot
5. V- ( Making a promise )
Often past (~ made a promise)
Present when deciding
( . Lets go hiking.)

Unit 18: Changes in Parts of Speech


1. -()/-/-() N
(...that/...who)
With 2+ adjs, only final is conjugated to modifier
~() = Present A/Past Vs (~ negative)
~ = Present verbs (~ negative)
~() = Future verbs
2. A/V- (...ing)
Makes adjs/verbs/phrases into Ns
3. A- (...ly) Functions as adverb
= ; =
/; /; /
4. A-/ (seems to be) Make A -> Vs
= ~
/ = hold dear/treat with
love

www.keytokorean.com

Korean Grammar:
Grammar Review Sheet

WEEK 9

WEEK 10

Grammar ()

Grammar ()

Unit 19: Expressions of State

Unit 23: Quotations

1. V- (2) (is ...ing)


Clothing Vs: ; ; ; ; ;
; ; ; ;
2. V-/ (is ...ed/...ing)
(Continued state)
Used with Vs that do NOT need direct object
Passive verbs: ; ; ; ;
; ; =
3. A-/ (become/turn) (no verbs)
Past: ~/ = change from last action
Present: ~/ = general change w/action
4. V- (became/has been decided)

1. Direct Quotations ( /+V after quotes )


Vs = (); ; ; ;
; ; ; ;
= shows original feeling, dont use w/ previous
= everyday speech
2. Indirect Quotations ( ~+V ) (more complex)
Direct request to listener = (~/)
Request for third person = (~/)
3. Indirect Quotations Contracted Forms (speech)

Declarative

Unit 20: Confirming Information

Interrogative

1. A/V-()/ (W6 questions + clause)


Clause requires additional info before verb
Used with: ; ; ; ;
; ; ; ;
Present Adj: ~();
Present verbs: ~
Past adjs/verbs: ~/;
Future Vs: ~()
2. V- / (takes/requires)
Time = ~ ; Money = ~
3. A/V-? (Isnt it? Right? Doesnt it?)
Past: ~/?;
Present: ~? (~?);
Future: ~() ?

Tense

Indirect

Contracted

~()

~()

()

()

~//

~//

~()

~()

~()

~()

~()

()

~()

~/

~()

~()

~()

~()

~//

~/

~//

~/

Suggestive
Imperative

Unit 21: Discovery and Surprise

Unit 24: Irregular Conjugations ()

1. A/V-/ (I see that!) (informal )


Written; Surprise w/ direct exp. OR heard abt
2. A/V- (Wow! Certainly!)
Direct exp. only (or agreeing with someone)
Spoken; cant express info heard abt

1.
(Drop it; vowel before tells / ending)

2.
(Drop it for ,, endings; keeps it)

3.
(Drop it; ; = ; others = )
; ; ; = regular conjugation

Unit 22: Additional Endings

4.
1. A-()?, V-? (Was...?) (gentle)
Present A: ~()?;
Present Vs: ~?
Past A/V: ~/?;
Future Vs: ~() ?
2. A/V-()/ (Well, as for me...)
Expresses disagreement w/someone else
Present A: ~();
Present V: ~;
Past A/V: ~/

(Some change to )
; ; = regular conjugation

5.
(Omit , add to make )

6.
(Omit & (if present); add to /)
; ; ; = regular conjugation

7.
(Drop for some)
; ; = regular conjugation

www.keytokorean.com