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Global Country Study Report On

FORESTRY AND FISHING INDUSTRIES OF CANADA


Business Opportunities for Gujarat / India

Submitted to Institute Code: 794 Institute Name: GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT

Under the Guidance of PROF.DHARMENDRA KHAIRJANI MBA (FINANCE)

In partial Fulfillment of the Requirement of the award of the degree of Master of Business Administration (MBA) Offered By Gujarat Technological University Ahmedabad Prepared by: Students of MBA (Semester - III / IV) Group No. 2 (A) Month & Year: Dec.2013

STUDENTS DECLARATION

We, following students, hereby declare that the Global/ Country Study Report titled forestry and fishing industries of in Canada is a result of my/our own work and our indebtedness to other work publications, references, if any, have been duly acknowledged. If I/we are found guilty of copying any other report or published information and showing as my/our original work, or extending plagiarism limit, I understand that I/we shall be liable and punishable by GTU, which may include Fail in examination, Repeat study & re -submission of the report or any other punishment that GTU may decide.

Enrolment no. 127940592007 127940592008 127940592009 127940592010 127940592011 127940592012

Name Chauhan vaishali Chavda hitendra Desai asha Dulam komal Gajjar montu Gandhi nishant

Signature

INSTITUTE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this Global Country Study and Report Titled FORESTRY AND FISHING INDUSTRIES OF CANADA Business Opportunities for Gujarat / India is the bonafide work of attached student list with enrollment numbers, who have carried out their research under my/our supervision. I/We also certify further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate. I/we have also checked the plagiarism extent of this report which is % and the separate plagiarism report in the form of html /pdf file is enclosed with this.

Signature of the Faculty Guide

PROF.DHARMENDRA KHAIRJANI MBA (FINANCE)

Signature of Principal/Director Dr.Kishor Bhanushali

PREFACE

It's a thing of massive gratification for me to present this Project Report on the topic Reality Television Shows influence on viewers. I know that even in the areas in which I have a little knowledge, I do not know enough.

This project attempts to identify and define business areas related to Canada and India for forest and fishing industry. Initially we were just a known about Canadas fishing and forest namely but after research on this topic, we got most of the practical knowledge. We have come to know, what actually happens in trade between India and Canada.

Since Fishing is the most important asset for Canada, there is increased emphasis on the need for export fishiest in a manner to satisfy them through quality of product. About Forest industry of Canadas is less earning scope. Still they are doing their search to innovation.

Acknowledgement

It was a great pleasure and a unique experience to work on this project and on its Completion. We would like to express my sincere thanks and gratitude to those who have extended their valuable time, co-operation and guidance during the time of the study. Completing a project without proper guidance is like sailing alone in an ocean without a compass. We must put on record my gratitude towards my faculty Prof. Dharmendra Khirjani, without whom we would not have reached to the conclusion of my project. It was through their efforts that we could complete the project well in time. The respondents constituted the back bone of my project. Thanks to the respondents who had taken out some time out of their busy schedule to fill in my questionnaire without which the survey could not have taken place.

Table of content

Sr.no

Content

Page no. Summary of Project 8

1.

CANADA STUDY AND BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES FOR GUJARAT / INDIA: MACRO ANALYSIS

2.

STEEPLED Analysis of selected Forest industry in the Canada.

15-21

3.

STEEPLED Analysis of selected Forest industry in the Canada.

23 34 35 37

4. 5. 6.

Overview of Forest Industry in Canada.

Overview of Forest Industry in Canada.

Trade and Commerce in the Canada Country of

39-43
Forest And Fishing Industry

7 8

STEEPLED Analysis of selected Forest industry in the India

44-55 56-65 66 76 77 78

STEEPLED Analysis of selected Forest industry in the Canada.

Business Potential between the Canada and India

10 11.

Present Trade Relations by the forest and fishing industry of Canada

Bilateral investment

Table of Charts Content Page.no

Sr. No.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Real GDP rate in Fishing Industry Canadian fishing Whole industry. Total fishing related expenditure and anger, retained Largest exporters of forest products Percentage firewood using households Trends in the overall development Percentage dividing households according their income. Canadian Agri food Export to china Indians Export and import to Canada

27 34 38 39 44 50 54 66 80

Table of Figures. Content Page.no 28 35 36 37 55 76 80

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Environmental analysis of fishing industry Forest region of Canada Canadas forest story Fisherman in Canada Favorable demography of forestry in India Investment opportunities The stock of two-way direct investment between India and Canada

Executive Summary Canadas Forest and fishing industries are undertaken for analysis of business opportunities. Forest industry is specialized for wood export, inter trade. Canadas forest sector is a high-technology sector that purchases as much as $2.8 billion annually in imbedded technology plus invests as much as $494 million annually in science and technology to modernize and improve performance, an amount that has been increasing in recent years. Other sectors have been better able to integrate the new technologies into their production processes. For example, the wood shingles sector uses hydraulic splitters and automatic splitter guides, thereby reducing the number of operations per production line and resulting in productivity gains. For some product lines, the converted paper industry imports its production machinery and is currently using the latest equipment. Technology in the forest industry has changed rapidly over the last few decades and new or modernized plants are much more efficient than those still using antiquated equipment. A number of new processing and production techniques are available throughout the world and many innovations are the subject of technology transfers. Forests provide substantial commercial benefits, including timber, no timber forest products, water, and tourism, and significant noncommercial benefits, including wildlife, recreation, aesthetics, and wilderness values. New knowledge gained is helping forest managers plan for ways to reduce the risks of climate change negatively affecting ecosystems and the forest sector. At the same time, it is helping managers optimize what benefits may come from climate change. Each year members of the Council assume the responsibility of the chair for the Council. Northwest Territories will assume the chair in 2005-2006, followed by Manitoba in 2007. The Canadian Council of Forest Ministers (CCFM) is composed of four federal, provincial and territorial ministers (elected officials secretariat for the Council is provided by the Canadian Forest Service. The Council provides leadership on national and international issues and sets direction for the stewardship and sustainable management of Canada's forests. In exercising the powers and performing the duties and functions assigned to the Minister by the Department of Natural Resources Act, the Minister. The Governor in Council may make regulations for the protection, care and management of lands comprised in Forest Experimental Areas and lands in respect of which the Minister has assumed responsibility under paragraph, including regulations respecting.

The vision and principles will be influenced through the engagement of interested parties in the development of the strategy. This strategy will be reviewed periodically as appropriate, to reflect changing circumstances. The strategy will include a mechanism for collaboration between governments and interested parties in priority areas set by CCFM. With the exception of the emergency funding provided by the federal government and provincial agencies in response to specific crises in Canadas urban forests (such as Asian long-horned beetle), and a few minor provincial programs, all planning and operations for Canadas urban forests are implemented solely by municipalities.

High end seafood product markets, such as lobster seem to have been the most affected by the recession, likely as a result of decreasing consumer confidence and spending. Treating all people with respect, dignity and fairness is fundamental to their relationship with the Canadian public and colleagues, and it contributes to a safe and healthy work environment that promotes engagement, openness and transparency. The diversity of people and the ideas they generate are the source of their innovation.

The Canadian Institute of Fisheries Technology (CIFT) at Dalhousie University is a specialized resource center of advanced technology for research and education in food science and process engineering with an emphasis on seafoods. Canada is currently the world's eighth-largest exporter of fish and seafood products. Crucial to economic prosperity in coastal Canada: e.g., contributes 2.5% to Atlantic regions GDP. The Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) is a special operating agency of Fisheries and Oceans Canada. It owns and operates the federal governments civilian fleet and provides key maritime services to Canadians.

Public Service Employment Act (PSEA) recognizes our right, as public servants, to engage in political activity so long as it does not impair, or is not perceived to impair, our ability to perform our duties in a politically impartial manner. The protection, ownership, allocation, use and management of fish and fish habitat, in Manitoba are governed by the Canadian constitution, duly signed treaties and federal and provincial legislation.

Demonstrate the highest standard of observance of the laws, including those which they are accountable for enforcing, and refrain from engaging in conduct which may adversely
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affect, or appear to affect, the performance of our duties and our dealings with other law enforcement agencies. As Fishery Officers They shall inform our supervisor without delay should they be arrested, detained, or charged with any criminal offence or for a violation of the laws they are accountable for enforcing.

The system of Canadian parliamentary democracy and its institutions are fundamental to serving the public interest. Public servants recognize that elected officials are accountable to Parliament, and ultimately to the Canadian people, and that a non-partisan public sector is essential to our democratic system. Forests are intrinsically linked with C a n a d a s h i s t o r y . Long b e fo r e t he a r r i v a l o f European settlers, the forest played a fundamental role in the lives of the First Nations peoples: it was a source of sustenance, supplying them with primary materials and meeting some of their basic needs, such as food, lodging and clothing. For example, the First Nations used the paper birch tree to build their famous canoes. Canada contains a huge number of beautiful lakes, rivers, streams and oceans spanning 10 provinces and 3 territories and an endless variety of fish species. Therefore, it's no wonder that the vast country has become an absolute fishing paradise. To give you an idea of how many water bodies exist in Canada, Sunset Country in northwestern Ontario has more than 100,000 lakes and rivers. Canadian Trade-Ex first established in 1994 is a company that works with organizations, associations and communities across Canada in the establishing of events, conferences, trade shows and seminars within specific markets. They have developed a number of ongoing events such as the CAN-USA Forestry & Construction Equipment Expo held in Sault Ste. Marie, Saw-Tech Log Expo which is Canadas largest hardwood & private woodlot event held in Bancroft Ontario, Fisheries products continue to be in high demand in world markets. New commercial uses are being identified for many species. In Canada, fisheries products are the largest single food commodity export.

Commercial fisheries play a vital role in Canada's economy, particularly for coastal regions. Commercial fishery operations large and small employ approximately 100 000 people nationwide, and fish and seafood exports reached $3.9 billion in 2007.

Forests and forest produce have been recognized as multipurpose resources with the potential of providing livelihoods to a substantial part of the population. Constitutional provisions empower the local panchayats with rights over NWFPs.
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Forest certification as a modern management tool has the potential to provide the gatherers and rural entrepreneurs with better access to international markets. Technology application can also boost the income of gatherers. Initially, benefits may not be adequately apportioned to poor gatherers. However, their involvement in selfhelp groups and access to microfinance and storage facilities is likely to improve their condition. With a per capita GDP of US$3, 4032 (2007 estimate which registered a 14% increase over 2005), India is a middle-income country. There are major and increasing differences between the rich and the poor, the north and the south, and the urban and rural areas of the country. The study estimated the total carbon stock in biomass and mineral soils to be 2,934 million tones and 5,109 million tons respectively for 1994 and 1995. The average biomass carbon of the forest ecosystem in India for 1994 was reported to be 46 tones/hectare, of which 76% is in aboveground biomass and the rest is in fine and coarse root biomass. The average mineral soil carbon was found to be 80 tones/hectare. The forestry institution in India is well organized but needs to gear up to deal with emerging demands and challenges. Meeting expectations of the stakeholders will require significant changes in the roles and responsibilities as well as structure of the forest administration. The Forest Act defines different regulatory systems for different classes of forest, of which the two most significant are reserved forest and protected forest. The term reserved refers to the said forest being reserved for government use. Any area of forest land or wasteland can be declared a reserved forest by the State government after following a procedure for settlement of rights, under which a Forest Settlement Officer is supposed to receive all claims for rights and decide whether to accept the right fully, permit it with conditions, or reject it. The above consideration why forest ethics is needed contains already a long list of topical issues for forest related studies in moral philosophy. What follows here is closely related to the above topics, but represents themes, which already are more or less established in forest ethics, framing the present structure of this relatively new area of forest research. Indias population of 1.12 billion (July 2007 estimate), approximately one sixth of the worlds population, is projected to touch 1.33 billion by 2020. The national demographic growth rate is estimated at 1.38% per annum, the population density is 336 inhabitants per square kilometer, seven times the world average. Seven hundred and forty million people (68%) live in rural areas, (growth rate 1.43% per annum).

- Incomes from fishing are usually confined to a maximum of nine months a year.The earnings from fishing are not confined to monetary payments; they frequently include
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non- monetized income like fish or other consumables, or utilities like firewood. Similarly, the cost of operations is not always monetized; a number of activities like launching and hauling of boats, repairing nets, women gutting fish for drying, involve drawing upon the social capital without which the economic viability of at least some of the activities can suffer. - The strong belief that the bulk of fishery potential of the state which lay unexploited was in the regions 50m depth contour led to the technical development in the industry. For the exploitation of these resources (Korakandy, 1991). For a proper development of the primary marine fishing industry of Kerala, development of suitable crafts, gears and techniques became unavoidable. In Kerala fisheries, the modernization programmer started in 1953 and mechanization in capture fisheries was confined basically at three levels. With respect to marine fishing, the country has a coastline of 8,118 km with an EEZ stretching over 2.02 million km2, and a continental shelf covering 0.53 million km. Marine fisheries remain an important source of employment, income and food security. Fish has been an important part of the human diet in almost all countries of the world. It is highly nutritious; it can provide vital nutrients absent in typical starchy staples which dominate poor peoples diets. The Five Year Annual Plans issued by the Union Government seemingly offer the best prospects for anchoring a performance assessment given that they have a large impact on the way fisheries management activities are funded and directed in both state and Union jurisdictions. Some of the ethical questions that are raised from the fisheries analysis come from overexploitation of resources. Some others result from the relationship among the stakeholders in the area of fisheries.

- Large-scale fishermen fish in larger groups by hiring 15 to 20 laborers and are confined only to TB reservoir (400 groups) representing about 30% of the total fishermen population. Laborers are usually hired from Andhra Pradesh. Nearly 66 percent of the fishermen are engaged in fishing throughout the year and the rest between 6 to 10 months. During the lean period, they are engaged in agriculture and construction etc. - But Sinclair raises the view that under a Canada-EU deal, European investors could face owner-operator limits and other domestic fishery protections using dispute tribunals that would avoid Canadian law. - India has huge potential for fishes from both internal and marine resources, due to its long seashore, huge reservoirs, etc. It is the fourth largest producer of fish in the world. It is also the second largest producer of domestic fish. The contribution of fisheries to the GDP is around 1.4%. From 0.75 million tons in 1950, the fishery sector has grown-up to the production level of 6.4 million tons worth Rs. 3,20,000 million, and an export of almost Rs. 70,000 million. Nearly 10 million people, living in 4,000 coastal villages and more number of interior villages, depend on fisheries to earn their livelihood.
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As discussed in the earlier article of this series of Gujarat - Golden Jubilee Celebrations, the State has been hallowed in many ways for its geographical location, which has proved to be a key driver for industrial development inland and offshore industries in the state.

Canadian forest companies are looking at potential wood markets in India, and with a free trade arrangement in the offing, there are predictions that overall trade between Canada and India could quadrupleto $15 billion over the next five years. Canadian forest companies are looking more closely at the potential marketing opportunities for their products offered by India. Almost 60 per cent of British Columbias land base is productive forest land, providing rich, diverse, and abundant wood fibres. Countries importing Indian fish and fish products include Japan, United Stated of America, European Union (Spain, Belgium, United Kingdom, Italy, France, Germany, Portugal, Netherland), China, Hong Kong, United Arab Emirates, Canada, Singapore and Thailand. Frozen crustaceans and mollusks are the top exporting products (in terms of value). India and Canada have signed several agreements including the Air Services Agreement, Extradition Treaty, Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty, Agreement on Patents, Agreement on Cooperation in Agriculture, Agreement on Science and Technology and Environment Cooperation, Nuclear Cooperation Agreement, Social Security Agreement, MOU on Cooperation in Energy, MOU on cooperation in Mining and Earth Sciences, MOU on Cooperation in Higher Education, MOU on Cultural Cooperation, MOU on Cooperation in Intelligent Transport Systems and MOU on Cooperation in ICTE. The India Canada CEOs Roundtable has been upgraded to a CEOs Forum. An annualized Trade Ministers dialogue has been institutionalized to review trade and economic relations. Both sides are engaged in technical negotiations for a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) including trade in goods, services, investment, trade facilitation etc. Separate MOUs exist with implementation mechanisms to advance relations in the fields of energy, mining, agriculture etc.
Canada is home to 962,670 Persons of Indian origin (2006 Census): 50% are Sikhs, 39% Hindus, and the remainder is Muslim, Christian, Jain, Buddhist, etc. A majority of PIOs live in Greater Toronto Area, Greater Vancouver Area, Montreal and Calgary.

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STEEPLED ANALYSIS

A STEEPLED analysis is one way of collating current information on a new development across different influencers and to forecast how those influences may develop over time. The information collated is provided below and may be used as a starting template for Higher Education Providers to develop further within their own areas. It should be used as a precursor to further inform and develop an institutional review of the impact on and risks to policy and practice. The STEEPLED analysis is divided across eight influencers: o o o o o o o o Socio-cultural Technological Economic Ethical Political Legal Educational Demographic

They have determines two major sector of Canada country o Forest industry o Fishery industry

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Social Analysis

FOREST INDUSTRY

The fate of the forestry industry will have an impact on the future of hundreds of Canadian communities. According to Natural Resources Canada, some 300 communities in Canada are at least 50% dependent on the forestry industry. Psychological suffering, crumbling infrastructure, reduced services and increased crime rates often plague rural communities whose dominant industry is in decline. In addition to facing decreased revenue, communities face the social and economic impact of employment loss in the forest sector. Employment loss can affect the emotional well-being of residents. In addition, the obvious impact is a loss of income, at least temporarily. This means less spending power to support other businesses and activities in a community, such as restaurants, movie theatres, sports teams and schools. Especially in the case of a forestry dependent community, a loss of employment can force relocation to another community. Forests support over 350 communities across Canada, most of which are rural. Sustainable forest management is particularly important to rural forest-dependent communities because they are more likely to suffer the high potential social costs of unsustainable practices than larger urban centers. The well-being and resilience of these communities can be examined by measuring specific human, economic, and social assets within the communities that provide the resources needed to respond to constant changes in their social, economic, or environmental systems. Many non-Aboriginal forest dependent communities across Canada enjoy higher than average levels of economic diversity, suggesting that they are better able to withstand a downturn in one sector of the economy than are other non- Aboriginal rural communities. However, they also tend to report lower than average education attainment levels, lower employment rates, and a higher incidence of low income compared with other rural communities. Part of Canadas responsibility to ensure the sustainable management of its forests is to demonstrate its commitment to improve the understanding of forest ecosystems and ensure that decisions are made using the best available information. The most common sources of forest information are forest inventories, which are widely available to the public and forest managers to inform decision making. Informed decision making is also ensured through continued investment in science and technology. Canadas forest sector is a high-technology sector that purchases as much as $2.8 billion annually in imbedded technology plus invests as much as $494 million annually in science and technology to modernize and improve performance, an amount that has been increasing in recent years.
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Technological Analysis

FOREST INDUSTRY

In general, wood processing plants in Canada are older and therefore less technologically sophisticated than those of competitors in the United States, Finland and Sweden. For example, Canadas millwork sector (doors, windows, kitchen cabinets, etc.) is less automated and less mechanized than that of the United States. Similarly, most Canadian hardwood sawmills are small operations that do not use the most up-to-date high-speed, electronically controlled equipment. Other sectors have been better able to integrate the new technologies into their production processes. For example, the wood shingles sector uses hydraulic splitters and automatic splitter guides, thereby reducing the number of operations per production line and resulting in productivity gains. For some product lines, the converted paper industry imports its production machinery and is currently using the latest equipment.

Canadian manufacturers R&D initiatives are limited to market needs and are aimed specifically at improving products and processes rather than at conducting basic research. In the pulp and paper sector, the adoption of new pulp production techniques has made it possible to substitute, in part, wood chips from sawmill waste for logs. The use of such techniques provides for a better use of forest resources and reduces the cost of processing. Softwood sawmills, for their part, earned an international reputation for their stateof-the-art techniques in the 1970s. However, the technological trend is moving toward the Scandinavian industry, which is using micro-electronic processing equipment to optimize the yield from saw logs and the value of products. Technology in the forest industry has changed rapidly over the last few decades and new or modernized plants are much more efficient than those still using antiquated equipment. A number of new processing and production techniques are available throughout the world and many innovations are the subject of technology transfers. However, a large number of Canadian companies are small operations that do not have sufficient capital to acquire new innovations. Furthermore, a number of firms feel that the investments required to modernize their facilities would not be cost-effective at the present time. Since the modernization and restructuring of mills is not as advanced in Canada as in some competing countries, productivity has not increased at the same pace. This is the case for many firms in the wood and pulp and paper sectors.

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Economic Analysis

FOREST INDUSTRY

Significant economic benefits accrue to Canadians from the forest. The most recent information shows that sales of timber products are valued at $77 billion and the contribution of the forest industry to Canadas gross domestic product is 2.9%. Growth in the forest sector lagged behind that of the rest of the Canadian economy for several decades, but is now, on average, similar. Secondary manufacturing of timber products has also increased markedly since 1995, which increases the economic benefits derived from each cubic meter of wood harvested. Almost 80% of finished wood products were destined for export according to a 1999 Statistics Canada model. In addition to being a source of timber, Canadas forests produce a diversity of no timber products. Although they are small in economic terms, there is considerable potential to grow and they have an important role in the economies of rural communities. Forests provide substantial commercial benefits, including timber, no timber forest products, water, and tourism, and significant noncommercial benefits, including wildlife, recreation, aesthetics, and wilderness values. Although not always measurable in monetary terms, all these goods and services are highly valued by Canadians and provide significant benefits to Canadian society. A competitive and vital forest industry is necessary to ensure that economic benefits continue to flow to Canadians. The average rate of return on capital employed (ROCE) in the forest sector had trailed that of the manufacturing sector and the total economy in Canada for much of the 1980s and early 1990s but improved in the late 1990s. Over the past five years, it has more closely tracked the ROCE for all industries, averaging around 6.62%.

There is considerable cyclical variation in returns, as well as wide variation between subsectors, corresponding to differences in capital investment needs as well as product prices. In particular, the pulp and paper subsector has been recently hit with several mill closures due to low commodity prices, high energy and wood costs, and a lack of capital investment as a result of low ROCE. Internationally, Canadian companies face challenges in attracting investments away from their international competitors that consistently have higher ROCE. Still, productivity growth in the forest sector is high. Between 1997 and 2002, average forest sector productivity growth at the aggregate level (4.96%) outperformed the average productivity growth of all business sectors in Canada (2.29%).

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Environmental Analysis

FOREST INDUSTRY

Climate is a major influencing factor on forests, and forests in turn influence climate. Earths climate has been changing regularly through natural cycles during the entire course of the planets history. At least five major ice ages have occurred in Earths past, each involving periods of glacial cooling and interglacial warming. With every prolonged period of change in climate, large-scale changes in forest composition have taken place as well. Today, however, because climate change appears to be occurring more rapidly than it has in the past, researchers are investigating the possibility that Canadas forests could be altered in new and significant waysparticularly if effective adaptation measures are lacking.

The Canadian Forest Service (CFS) is involved in two major areas of research on this front: (1) Understanding the impacts of climate change on forests and the forest sector; and (2) Preparing for suitable responses to these impacts. The CFS is, for example:

studying the influence of Canadas forests on the global carbon balance assessing the past, present and future impacts of climate change on Canadas forests identifying options for using Canadas forests to mitigate climate change identifying options for helping Canadas forest sector adapt to climate change

New knowledge gained is helping forest managers plan for ways to reduce the risks of climate change negatively affecting ecosystems and the forest sector. At the same time, it is helping managers optimize what benefits may come from climate change. The CFS is also working with provinces, territories, universities and industry to develop decision support tools for managers and policy-makers. Canadas forests cover a greater land area and store more carbon than do the forests of almost any other nation. How Canada manages its forests is therefore a global concern. Recognizing this responsibility, Canada is actively engaged in international negotiations on climate change. It is also involved in numerous research and monitoring projects aimed at understanding how climate change will affect forests and how forest changes will in turn affect climate.

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Political Analysis

FOREST INDUSTRY

The Canadian Council of Forest Ministers (CCFM) is composed of four federal, provincial and territorial ministers (elected officials). Each year members of the Council assume the responsibility of the chair for the Council. Northwest Territories will assume the chair in 20052006, followed by Manitoba in 2007. The secretariat for the Council is provided by the Canadian Forest Service. The Council provides leadership on national and international issues and sets direction for the stewardship and sustainable management of Canada's forests. CCFMs Leadership Role in Strategy Development and Implementation Collectively, the governments are responsible for protecting forest values as a national asset and for facilitating a flow of goods and services to Canadians from their forests.

Promotes cooperation among governments on forestry and forestry-related issues of common interest and of intergovernmental or international significance Fosters cooperation to develop and maintain the scientific information required to support forest management decision making Demonstrates international leadership on sustainable forest management; Promotes sustainable forest management in Canada Cooperates with other ministerial councils to address interrelated issues Shares information on issues affecting the forest sector Provides a framework for signing and implementing agreements on specific topics or issues of interest.

The current National Forest Strategy Coalition has a mandate to oversee and report on implementation of the 2003-2008 strategy. Its mandate ends in 2008. The CCFM recognizes the value of the Coalition and its unique position as the only national multistakeholder group in Canada concerned with forest issues. The CCFM is working with the current Coalition to evaluate and learn from the implementation of the 2003-2008 strategy.

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Legal Analysis

FOREST INDUSTRY

In exercising the powers and performing the duties and functions assigned to the Minister by the Department of Natural Resources Act, the Minister Shall provide for the conduct of research relating to the protection, management and utilization of the forest resources of Canada and the better utilization of forest products and may establish and maintain laboratories and other necessary facilities for those purposes May undertake, promote or recommend measures for the encouragement of public cooperation in the protection and wise use of the forest resources of Canada; May enter into agreements with the government of any province or with any person for forest protection and management or forest utilization, for the conduct of research related thereto or for forestry publicity or education May provide for the making of forestry surveys and provide advice relating to the protection and management of forests on lands administered by any department or agency of the Government of Canada or belonging to Her Majesty in right of Canada At the request of any department or agency of the Government of Canada, may assume responsibility for the protection and management of any forest on lands for which that department or agency is responsible, including responsibility for the disposal of timber and grass and for the granting of rights to the natural produce of the forest.

The Governor in Council may make regulations for the protection, care and management of lands comprised in Forest Experimental Areas and lands in respect of which the Minister has assumed responsibility under paragraph, including regulations respecting The cutting, removal and disposal of timber, the establishment and use of reservoirs, water power sites, power transmission lines and communication lines and any other use of those lands, and the granting of leases and permits therefor. The protection of the flora and fauna. The prevention and extinguishing of fires. The regulation and prohibition of traffic, the carrying on of businesses and other activities and the abatement and prevention of nuisances. The removal and exclusion of trespassers and of persons failing to comply with the regulations. the prevention of trespass to property, the mutilation or destruction of trees and the destruction or damaging of buildings, materials or notices used in connection with the administration or management of those lands.

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Ethical Analysis

FOREST INDUSTRY

Canadas forests will be maintained and enhanced, for the social, cultural, environmental and economic wellbeing of all Canadians, now and in the future. CCFM proposes the following principles for Canadas forest strategy:

The sound stewardship of all forest lands contributes to a broad range of benefits, which further contributes to the quality of life of all Canadians. Competitiveness and innovation provide the basis for a dynamic, progressive forest industry and must be continuously pursued to ensure Canada maintains its place in the domestic and international marketplace. Comprehensive and current information about the state of the forest, the forest industry, and the social and economic well-being of all who live and work in the forest environment must be publicly available. Social responsibility towards other global partners in encouraging and building systems of SFM must be continuously promoted and encouraging The strategy will set out what the CCFM views as the vision and principles of SFM in Canada for the future, as well as the goals and objectives related in particular to those issues CCFM sees as being of current and future national importance. The vision and principles will be influenced through the engagement of interested parties in the development of the strategy. This strategy will be reviewed periodically as appropriate, to reflect changing circumstances. The strategy will include a mechanism for collaboration between governments and interested parties in priority areas set by CCFM. The intent of the next strategy will be to achieve greater focus on topics of national importance. The CCFM will focus on priorities consistent with its members responsibilities and mandate, while respecting and supporting initiatives being undertaken by other organizations.

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Demographic Analysis

FOREST INDUSTRY

The Canadian Urban Forest Network is a pan-Canadian action group who speaks for Canadas urban forests. The Network seeks to build value by helping those who practice urban forestry; to build power and influence by helping those who are interested in urban forestry; to facilitate the exchange of information about urban forestry in Canada; and to increase awareness about the urgent issues facing Canadas urban forests. The Network is guided by a Steering Committee and reports to its members through a meeting held at the Canadian Urban Forest Conference. It is the Network that guides the creation and revision of this document and it is through this process that the Vision, Mission and Steering Committee are reviewed. The Steering Committee has 4primary tasks: 1. To review and update the Canadian Urban Forest strategy 2. To facilitate the implementation of the tasks outlined in the Strategy 3. To implement a Community Award in conjunction with Tree Canada 4. To improve dialogue with the Federation of Canadian Municipalities

National Urban Forestry Infrastructure With the exception of the emergency funding provided by the federal government and provincial agencies in response to specific crises in Canadas urban forests (such as Asian long-horned beetle), and a few minor provincial programs, all planning and operations for Canadas urban forests are implemented solely by municipalities. This working group will facilitate the development of an infrastructure that ensures urban forestry issues in Canada are addressed in a strategic and comprehensive manner at the national, provincial, municipal and community level.

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STEEPLED ANALYSIS OF FISHING INDUSTRY

High end seafood product markets, such as lobster seem to have been the most affected by the recession, likely as a result of decreasing consumer confidence and spending. The post-recession economic recovery has started, with positive signs for Canadas fishing industry (e.g. crab, shrimp). Uncertainty remains in the scope and speed of economic recovery beyond the end of government stimulus measures. Oil prices are set to take center stage in 2011, as the unfolding political crisis in the Middle East increase price volatility.

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Social Analysis

FISHING INDUSTRY

Conceptually, fisheries dependence is a continuous dimension, or several dimensions, and hence a matter of degree. For their purposes, statistics on the proportion of a places labor force, employed persons, or actual labor devoted to fishing and fish processing, provide simple operational measures of the degree of fisheries dependence. Such statistics commonly are available at community and regional levels, permitting comparisons between many places within each nation. Formal cross-national comparisons based on community or regional data remain problematic, due to inconsistencies in the definitions and units of analysis employed by each country. Less formally, however, they can examine the extent to which similar relationships exist between corresponding variables, measured within each of several nations. This section explores the relationship between population change and fisheries dependence. Treating all people with respect, dignity and fairness is fundamental to their relationship with the Canadian public and colleagues, and it contributes to a safe and healthy work environment that promotes engagement, openness and transparency. The diversity of people and the ideas they generate are the source of their innovation. Public servants shall respect human dignity and the value of every person by: 1. Treating every person with respect and fairness. 2. Valuing diversity and the benefit of combining the unique qualities and strengths inherent in a diverse workforce. 3. Helping to create and maintain safe and healthy workplaces that are free from harassment and discrimination. 4. Working together in a spirit of openness, honesty and transparency that engagement, collaboration and respectful communication. At Fisheries and Oceans Canada Respect for People also means: 1. 2. 3. 4. They respect human dignity. They respect the need for an appropriate balance between work and personal lives. They carefully consider the impacts of their words and actions on others. They adopt behavior, appearance and language that promote pride in, and respect for, the Department and enhance its corporate image and reputation.

The Government of Canada actively endorses the use of social networks as a communications tool to reach and interact with its employees as well as the public.

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However, we must bear in mind that social networks are public forums, and that comments and behaviors on these forums become part of the public record. As we are now more visible as public servants, we must always consider Their organizational values (especially respect for democracy and respect for people) as well as Their responsibilities under this Code when making statement on social networks sites.

Comments, criticisms, pictures, videos and personal information that we place on these sites are not private. We must be cautious of what is said and posted in light of Their duty of loyalty, security of information, the reputation and professionalism of the Department and the government, and respect for colleagues. Their general responsibilities and duties include: Taking all possible steps to recognize, prevent, report, and resolve any real, apparent or potential conflicts of interest between Their official responsibilities and any of Their private affairs; Unless otherwise permitted in this Code, refraining from having private interests, which would be unduly affected by government actions in which we participate, or of which we have knowledge or information; Not knowingly taking advantage of, or benefiting from, information that is obtained in the course of Their duties that is not available to the public; Refraining from the direct or indirect use of, or allowing the direct or indirect use of government property of any kind, including property leased to the government, for anything other than officially approved activities; Not assisting private entities or persons in their dealings with the government where this would result in preferential treatment of the entities or persons; Not interfering in the dealings of private entities or persons with the government in order to inappropriately influence the outcome; Maintaining the impartiality of the public service and not engaging in any outside or political activities that impair or could be seen to impair Their ability to perform Their duties in an objective or impartial manner; and Ensuring that any real, apparent or potential conflict that arises between Their private activities and Their official responsibilities as a public servant is resolved in the public interest.

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Technological Analysis

FISHING INDUSTRY

The Canadian Institute of Fisheries Technology (CIFT) at Dalhousie University is a specialized resource center of advanced technology for research and education in food science and process engineering with an emphasis on seafoods. The Institute promotes technology transfer and the development of advanced technologies aimed at more effective commercial utilization of marine resources in Canada and throughout the world. Major areas of emphasis include aquaculture development, biotechnology, fish/food process engineering, marine oils and nutrition, physical properties of foods, process chemical science, seafood biochemistry and toxicology. CIFT was established in 1979 as an industry oriented center. Analytical Services Their marine oils laboratory specializes in lipid analysis. They can provide basic fatty acid and lipid class analysis, as well as a variety of AOCS official methods. Their services include:
o o o o o o

fatty acid composition lipid class analysis (by TLC-FID) peroxide value free fatty acid value p-ranitidine value biogenic and petro genic hydrocarbon analysis

They have analyzed many different sample types, including fish, blubber and adipose, milk, edible oils and algae. For larger ecological studies, they can also provide assistance in data interpretation and quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA).

Economic Analysis

FISHING INDUSTRY
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The Canadian fishing industry needs greater ability to respond to changing market conditions and resource fluctuations than that afforded by Canadas current system of fisheries management. The long term approach to fisheries management proposed in the previous chapter will go part of the way toward enabling a more robust industry, but other roadblocks remain. Restrictive li censing rules that do not focus on conservation and vary significantly across the country may serve to impede the economic prosperity of the harvesting sector and discourage investment in the industry. A renewed, nationally consistent approach to fisheries management is needed to create a business environment conducive to economic prosperity in the 21 st century.

Rules must be reevaluated for continued need and relevance, management measures must be harmonized, and harvesters must be given the freedom to self-adjust to resource fluctuations and market demands. To realize these goals, Fisheries and Oceans Canada is seeking feedback and input from Canadians on how these changes can be realized. Canada has one of the world's most valuable commercial fishing industries, directly contributing $2 billion year to the national economys GDP.

The commercial fishing industry employs approximately 70,000 people (2009), and is the economic mainstay of approximately 1,500communities in rural and coastal Canada. Canada is currently the world's eighth-largest exporter of fish and seafood products.

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Environmental Analysis

FISHING INDUSTRY

The Fisheries Act contains two key provisions on conservation and protection of fish habitat essential to sustaining freshwater and marine fish species. The Department of Fisheries and Oceans administers section 35, the key habitat protection provision, prohibiting any work or undertaking that would cause the harmful alteration, disruption or destruction of fish habitat. Environment Canada administers section 36, the key pollution prevention provision, prohibiting the deposit of harmful substances into waters frequented by fish, unless authorized by regulations under the Fisheries Act or other federal legislation. The Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) is a special operating agency of Fisheries and Oceans Canada. It owns and operates the federal governments civilian fleet and provides key maritime services to Canadians. CCGs responsibilities include: maritime safety; protection of marine and freshwater environments; facilitation of maritime commerce and sustainable development; and support of marine scientific excellence. The CCGs Environmental Response (ER) programs mission is to ensure an appropriate level of preparedness and response capability for all ship-source and mystery source pollution incidents in waters under Canadian jurisdiction. To that end, CCG implements a consistent approach for responding to marine pollution incidents in all regions of Canada.

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Political Analysis

FISHING INDUSTRY

Political Activities Public Service Employment Act (PSEA) recognizes our right, as public servants, to engage in political activity so long as it does not impair, or is not perceived to impair, our ability to perform our duties in a politically impartial manner. Political activities are defined in Part 7 of the PSEA as:

any activity in support of, within or in opposition to a political party; carrying on any activity in support of or in opposition to a candidate before or during an election period; or, Seeking nomination as or being a candidate in an election before or during the election period.

If they wish to engage in a political activity not covered by Part 7 of the PSEA that could constitute a conflict of interest, they are required to report the proposed activity to the Centre for VICR. Similarly, if They are subject to this Code but not subject to Part 7 of the PSEA, including casual and part-time workers, and wish to engage in any political activity that could constitute a conflict of interest, They are to report the proposed activity to the Centre for VICR. Non-candidacy

Examples of non-candidacy political activities are: going door-to-door to solicit votes for a candidate or party, putting a sign on your front lawn supporting a candidate or party, donating to a political candidate or party, etc. While in uniform, they shall not attend political gatherings or participate in any political activity. For further examples and guidance, please consult the Public Service Commissions Guidance document. If they are considering involvement in non-candidacy political activities, they should seek advice from their manager or the Centre for VICR who is the Designated Departmental Official for Political Activities before acting. They should also refer to the Public Service Commissions webpage on political activities. Candidacy

They are required seeking and obtaining permission from the Public Service Commission to be a candidate, or seeking to be nominated as one, in a federal, provincial, territorial, or municipal election, in accordance with Part 7 of the PSEA. They should seek assistance from the Centre for VICR who is the Designated Departmental Official for Political Activities.

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Holding a Position of Office in and/or Volunteering for Aboriginal Band Councils Holding a position of office and/or volunteering in an Aboriginal band council is not considered a political activity under Part 7 of the PSEA. However, given the mandate of Their Department, there may be instances when these types of outside activities could place us in a real, apparent or potential conflict of interest. If they participate in any of these activities they must discuss it with their manager and if this participation could place us in a situation of real, apparent or potential conflict of interest, they must report it to the Centre for VICR for review, using the DFO COI Declaration Form.

The nature of Their position (i.e. regulatory role, visibility, decision-making power, extent and nature of dealings with the Aboriginal band, area of work coverage, etc.) will be key in the assessment of whether or not there is a real, apparent or potential conflict of interest between Their official duties and these outside activities.

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Legal Analysis

FISHING INDUSTRY

The following acts, orders and other acts of interest govern Canadas inland and marine fisheries, aquatic species, oceans, habitat, fishing and recreational harbors, and marine services fees. The protection, ownership, allocation, use and management of fish and fish habitat, in Manitoba are governed by the Canadian constitution, duly signed treaties and federal and provincial legislation. Conservation of Fish Resources in Federal Jurisdiction: Under section 92.12 of the Constitution Act, 1867, the Canadian Parliament has exclusive legislative authority to make laws respecting Sea Coast and Inland Fisheries. This has been judicially interpreted to mean that only the federal parliament, and not the provincial legislatures, Make laws that are essentially about the conservation and preservation of fisheries. Under the authority of s. 91.12 of the Constitution Act, 1867, Parliament has enacted the Fisheries Act (Canada). Under the authority of the Fisheries Act (Canada), regulations have been made to address specific fish management issues in each of the provinces. In Manitoba, Fish are managed under the Manitoba Fishery Regulations, made under the Fisheries Act (Canada).

Fish on Crown Property are a Provincial Resource: Until 1930, the Government of Canada administered and controlled all Crown lands and resources in Manitoba, Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Constitution Act of 1930 gave legal effect to Natural Resources Transfer Agreements in each of the Prairie Provinces. These agreements transferred administrative control of Crown lands and resources to provincial governments, in order that the Governments of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta would be in the same position as the other provinces of Canada.

Mixed Federal and Provincial Jurisdiction: The Canadian Parliament has exclusive constitutional jurisdiction to make laws for the Conservation of fish, including setting fishing seasons, quotas, size limits and gear restrictions, and does this under the authority of the Fisheries Act (Canada) and regulations to that Act. The Legislature of Manitoba maintains constitutional jurisdiction to make laws relating to the use and allocation of fish in Crown (Manitoba) waters as part of the public property. This includes the right to determine who can fish on provincial Crown land (licensing), what conditions may be included in a license and what fee would be paid for the license.
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This authority is exercised under The Fisheries Act of Manitoba and regulations to that Act. Simply, those matters dealing with the conservation of the fish resource are addressed by the Fisheries Act (Canada) and the Manitoba Fishery Regulations made under the Act. Those matters relating to property rights in fish on Manitoba Crown land (water) are covered by The Fisheries Act (Manitoba) and regulations to that Act

Fish Management and Administration: While the Government of Canada retains ultimate legal authority and responsibility for fish and fish habitat conservation matters, some of the day to day management and administration of federal fisheries regulations has effectively been delegated to Manitoba officials: The Minister of Water Stewardship, the Director of Fisheries and fishery officers employed by Manitoba. Under the Manitoba Fishery Regulations (Canada), the Minister of Water Stewardship and the Director of Fisheries have been given the authority to vary close times, quotas and gear types established under those regulations. Changes to the Manitoba Fishery Regulations (Canada) are proposed by the Minister of Water Stewardship to Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Fisheries and Oceans Canada then reviews the proposed changes and forwards them for approval by Federal Cabinet (Governor in Council). Legislative responsibility for management of fish habitat has not been specifically legislatively delegated to Manitoba officials. However, Manitoba Water Stewardship continues to manage habitat as an adjunct to other fish management activities

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Ethical analysis

FISHING INDUSTRY

As Fishery Officers They are and continue to be subject to the Fisheries and Oceans Canada Values and Ethics Code in its entirety. The following standards of conduct are supplementary to all other expectation of behavior already listed in this Code, and are intended to clearly articulate the additional standards that apply to Fishery Officers. Fishery Officers carry out the Departments enforcement mandate, and are a key contact group between the Department and the public. The professional and personal activities of Fishery Officers, as law enforcement / peace officers, reflect on the Department and the Government of Canada. As such, as Fishery Officers They are expected to conduct ourselves at all times, both on and off duty, in a manner which will not discredit the Department. In particular, as Fishery Officers They shall: Demonstrate the highest standard of observance of the laws, including those which they are accountable for enforcing, and refrain from engaging in conduct which may adversely affect, or appear to affect, the performance of our duties and our dealings with other law enforcement agencies. As Fishery Officers They shall inform our supervisor without delay should they be arrested, detained, or charged with any criminal offence or for a violation of the laws they are accountable for enforcing. Not perform our duties under the influence of alcohol or drugs, nor consume alcohol while in uniform at any time, whether on duty or not, without prior authorization to do so for a special event. For such events, impairment due to the consumption of alcoholic beverages or any other substance will not be tolerated under any circumstance. If required to take medication which may affect our ability to discharge our duties, they shall inform our supervisor prior to reporting for duty. Take reasonable steps to avoid conflicts of interest, as defined for all employees in Part 3 of this Code. In particular, as Fishery Officers They shall: 1. Not use our badge, title or authority to exert influence, obtain or appear to grant preferential treatment, for ourselves or any other person, group or organization 2. Not participate in commercial fishing or commercial sport fishing activities 3. Dispose of all fish, materials, equipment and/or proceeds obtained or seized in the performance of our duties in accordance with Departmental and / or Government of Canada directives. Under no circumstances are seized goods to be retained for our personal use.

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Demographic Analysis

FISHING INDUSTRY

The system of Canadian parliamentary democracy and its institutions are fundamental to serving the public interest. Public servants recognize that elected officials are accountable to Parliament, and ultimately to the Canadian people, and that a non-partisan public sector is essential to our democratic system. Public servants shall uphold the Canadian Parliamentary democracy and its institutions by:

1. Respecting the rule of law and carrying out their duties in accordance with legislation, policies and directives in a non-partisan and impartial manner. 2. Loyally carrying out the lawful decisions of their leaders and supporting Ministers in their accountability to Parliament and Canadians. 3. Providing decision-makers with all the information, analysis and advice they need, always striving to be open, candid and impartial. At Fisheries and Oceans Canada Respect for Democracy also means:

1. We align efforts, energy and expertise with government and departmental priorities. 2. We serve the public by providing impartial service and advice that is forthright and free from political influence. We provide the same support to the elected government regardless of which political party or parties are in office. 3. We raise concerns with management, by using the internal processes available to us.

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INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

FORESTS IN CANADA

Forests are intrinsically linked with C a n a d a s h i s t o r y . Long b e fo r e t he a r r i v a l o f European settlers, the forest played a fundamental role in the lives of the First Nations peoples: it was a source of sustenance, supplying them with primary materials and meeting some of their basic needs, such as food, lodging and clothing. For example, the First Nations used the paper birch tree to build their famous canoes. The bark of the paper birch also called a canoe birch was placed over a frame built of Thuja occidentalis wood that had been shaped with steam. The birch bark was sewn together using spruce, pine or larch roots and was waterproofed with pitch from conifers (spruce, pine). The First Nations also used bark from the paper birch for building shelters (wigwams), weaving baskets and as writing materials. They also used many trees for medicinal purposes. For example, the leaves and bark of the Thuju occidental is commonly but incorrectly known as cedar were used for infusions and ointments to treat coughs, swelling and burns. Jacques Cartier was probably referring to the Thuja occidentalis when he mentioned the annedda in his travel journals as the tree that saved his men from death by scurvy. Not surprisingly, the Thuja occidentalis is also known as the arborvitae, or tree of life

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Ash was the preferred wood for hockey sticks, a Canadian sports symbol par excellence if ever there was one. The Manitoba maple was used for shade trees and windbreakers in the Prairies and is used today for revegetation and stabilizing riverbanks. Spruce and fir are associated with the development of the pulp and paper industry, and of course, the firm is also the Christmas tree of choice. The construction industry uses large quantities of spruce, fir and pine. Long considered an undesirable species, the poplar has become widely used over the last 25 years for commercial purposes including plywood, and pulp and paper. The trembling aspen, a variety of poplar, is a preferred tree of the beaver both as a food source and as building materials for their dams and lodges. Spruce gum, used to make the famous spruce beer, eventually became a preferred source of essential vitamins and minerals for French settlers. The shagbark hickory and the yellow birch were highly valued for cabinetry in New France. During the same period, maple was used for heating homes and, of course, for making maple syrup.

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Overview of Fishery in Canadian

Canada contains a huge number of beautiful lakes, rivers, streams and oceans spanning 10 provinces and 3 territories and an endless variety of fish species. Therefore, it's no wonder that the vast country has become an absolute fishing paradise. To give you an idea of how many water bodies exist in Canada, Sunset Country in northwestern Ontario has more than 100,000 lakes and rivers. This is just one area of one province, so you can just imagine how many bodies of water there are to fish in the entire country. It doesn't matter whether you're an absolute beginner who has never even seen fishing tackle or been in a fishing boat before or a seasoned angler or true fishing pro, Canadian fishing offer something for everyone.

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Canada has become a premier destination for world class fishing, and Canadian lakes are famous for northern pike, trout, bass and trophy walleye fishing. Canada's fresh and salt waters attract fly fishing, bass fishing and ice fishing enthusiast of all ages and skill levels. The regulations differ from each region of the country so you should consult with the Canadian Fishing Outfitters, Associations & Regulations before you head out on your fishing trip. You can spend a relaxing day bass fishing or fly fishing on a serene lake and then retiring to a luxurious fishing lodge to enjoy your catch. If you crave more excitement and more of a challenge, you can test your skills during a deep sea fishing excursion. You can also fish all year round in Canada; all you need is a fishing line and some fishing bait to try your hand at the unique adventure of ice fishing. Commercial fishing began in Canada in approximately 1820. Fishing equipment and techniques continued to advance. Native American fishing treaties enable these original inhabitants to fish Canadian waters, but fishermen are encouraged to use trap nets instead of gill nets. The latter doesnt kill every creature that is caught, so anglers can throw back any sport species that are alive after their fishing nets are emptied.

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Trade and commerce of forest industry in Canada Trade of forestry Canadian Trade-Ex first established in 1994 is a company that works with organizations, associations and communities across Canada in the establishing of events, conferences, trade shows and seminars within specific markets. They have developed a number of ongoing events such as the CAN-USA Forestry & Construction Equipment Expo held in Sault Ste. Marie, Saw-Tech Log Expo which is Canadas largest hardwood & private woodlot event held in Bancroft Ontario, The Canadian Outdoor Recreation Expo which is held in Southern Ontario (Trenton), Lake Of The Woods Expo held in Kenora, Ontario and The BIG Event Northern Mines Expo held in Timmins. In 2009 Canadian Trade-Ex along with the City of Timmins and the Mining Industry will be hosting The Big Event Northern Mines and Exploration Expo which will highlight the 100th Anniversary of the Porcupine Mining Camp and the City of Timmins.

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Many activities will surround this event and it will be another milestone for Canadian Trade-Ex. The event is expected to take one full year and all the staff in order to complete. There are many events that the Canadian Trade-Ex Group has hosted and many Mile Stone Events such as the Boreal Summit in 2003, The Northern Value Added Wood Expo and many others. . The sister companies Forestry Life and Mining Life are magazines published from Timmins that promote Ontario and Quebecs industries and are published as periodicals, four times a year. These publications are circulated across Canada and the USA. With the changing face of the Mining and Forestry industries within Canada, Canadian Trade-Ex is positioning themselves to meet these changes.

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Canadas Commracial forest Regions There are five major forest regions in Canada. 1) Boreal Forest Region - By far the largest region. - Mainly coniferous trees of which black spruce is the most common. - Tree growth slow due to long winters and low precipitation. - Pulp and paper production tends to be more important than lumber production.

2) Taiga Forest Region


Stunted trees due to thin soils, cool temperatures, short growing season, and areas of permafrost. Mainly coniferous trees. Only small parts are logged because most of the forest is inaccessible and far from markets.

3) West Coast Forest Region


Most productive forest in Canada. Temperate rainforest grows on the western slopes of the coastal mountains. Volume of wood, per hectare, highest in Canada.

4) Montana Forest Region


Smaller coniferous trees such as spruce, lodge pole, and ponderosa pine. Volume of wood, per hectare, second only to that of the West Coast forest.

5) Mixed Forest Region


In the north, fir and spruce dominate, in the south there is a mixture of coniferous and deciduous. Conifers harvested for lumber, and pulp and paper; hardwoods for lump; sugar maples that grow in the mixed forest provide most of Canadas maple syrup. Hardwood trees such as maple, birch, black walnut, and cherry are used in flooring and furniture-making. Very little left since intensively farmed and highly urbanized.

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Trade and commerce of Fishing industry

Trade Fisheries products continue to be in high demand in world markets. New commercial uses are being identified for many species. In Canada, fisheries products are the largest single food commodity export. This section provides data on imports and exports of fisheries products for Canada and the world.

Canadian Data tables from Statistics Canada provide the quantity (in kg) and value (in $CAD) of Canadian imports and exports of fisheries products from 1989 to 2011. View data by:

Major market and country Product group Species group and species Province World Data tables present the quantity and value of imports and exports of fisheries products for the worlds top 40 importers and exporters of fisheries products. Data is provided b y the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations for the period of 1990 to 2009.

Publications Canadian Fisheries International Trade Publication 2004, presents highlights and a series of summary tables showing annual international trade data for Canadian fisheries. Data are presented by fishery product groups, species and country.

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Commercial Fisheries Commercial fisheries play a vital role in Canada's economy, particularly for coastal regions. Commercial fishery operations large and small employ approximately 100 000 people nationwide, and fish and seafood exports reached $3.9 billion in 2007. Fisheries and Oceans Canada works to protects and conserve resources in support of a stable and sustainable fishing industry. The Department manages and regulates commercial fisheries in accordance with the roles and responsibilities defined in the Fisheries Act (Resource Management). Data on Canada's marine commercial fisheries are presented in four categories: consumption, landings, licenses (fishers, vessels and species) and Atlantic quota reports. Consumption Information includes a table outlining the consumption of fish per capita from 1988 to 2010. Landings A landing refers to the part of the fish catch that is put ashore. Information covers both volume and value of fish landings in Canada from 1989 to 2011. Licenses Data includes the number of commercial fishing licenses issued by Fisheries and Oceans Canada, and the number of registered fishers and vessels. Information for the Atlantic Provinces is available from 1983 onwards, and for the Pacific Region from 1985 onwards. Quota Reports (Atlantic) Fisheries and Oceans Canada is organized into six administrative regions (Pacific, Central and Arctic, Quebec, Gulf, Maritimes and Newfoundland and Labrador). The Canadian Atlantic Quota Report (CAQR) presents the summary of quotas and catches by species for five of these six regions (Atlantic-based only). The catch data is based on fishing seasons (e.g. April 1 to March 31) that do not necessarily coincide with a calendar year. Additionally, the commercial landings in the CAQR include sentinel fisheries and Food, Social and Ceremonial (FSC) fisheries. These attributes differentiate the CAQR from the Commercial landings reports where all data is collected by calendar year and does not include sentinel or FSC fisheries. The Canadian Atlantic quota reports are currently available from 2000 to 2012.

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Social Analysis

FOREST INDUSTRY IN INDIA

Forestry and livelihoods o Forests and forest produce have been recognized as flexible resources with the potential of providing livelihoods to a substantial part of the population. Lawful provisions empower the local panchayats with rights over NWFPs. o The strategy for forest management focuses on permission of community institutions in management and deriving livelihoods from forests. The Government of India has broadcast a law recognizing the rights of forest dwellers in forestlands wherein ownership rights are documented and the rights of communities are recognized for common use of forests for their livelihood practices conforming to the principles of sustainability of forests.

Name of the State Chhattisgarh Tripura Meghalaya Nagaland Assam Arunachal Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Manipur Odisha Kerala Jharkhand

Percentage of Households Percentage of Total using Firewood for Cooking* Geographical Area of the State under Forest Cover# 80.8 41.18 80.5 76.07 79 77.02 77.9 80.33 72.1 35.28 68.7 80.50 66.4 25.21 65.7 76.54 65 31.41 61.9 44.52 57.6 28.82

o These provisions are considered to be enhancing the stake of the forest dwellers and fringe populations in the development of forests. The effect of this new law will be clear after a few years. o Similarly, with the realization that the existing forest areas alone cannot cater to all the livelihood needs of the country, sizeable areas of non-forest lands used earlier by rural communities for their daily needs as common property resources need to be revived and regenerated.

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Technological Analysis -

FOREST INDUSTRY IN INDIA

Reduction of Energy Consumption in Forest Industries Permanently rising energy costs and the climate change problem make energy saving measures a priority topic industry today. Cutting-edge technology could result in savings of up to 90 percent in the life-cycle costs of individual components such as electric motors, and up to 70 percent in ancillary equipment including pumps, fans, compressed air technology and cooling systems. The Hannover Fair offered valuable advice on how to achieve this in the brand-new "Energy Efficiency Tunnel" India to use ICTs to save forest The Ministry of Environment and Forests is planning extensive use of ICT for setting up national forestry knowledge forum, national forestry information network, fire monitoring and detection and forest genetics resource network. Five initiatives have been introduced recently to give a new thrust to forest and environment. The national forestry information network is being established using remote sensing, GIS and MIS. All land based forestry interventions will be geo-mapped and monitored on a time scale, and will be put in the public domain. The Ministry is also planning to use information technology for fire monitoring. It is working on a programmer to use satellite data for early transmission of fire signals to mobile phones and PDAs of field officers.

Materials and methods Forest cover mapping : Expert classification technique was followed to prepare the forest cover density map of the study area. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was prepared and recoded into four classes based on the density, viz. very dense (>70%), dense (4070%), open (1040%) and de- graded (<10%)39. Digital elevation model (DEM) was prepared using the 20 m contours.

Estimation of biomass carbon Plot sampling technique was followed to estimate the stand density in different forest types. Twenty-five 20 20 m quadrates in each forest type were laid and variables such as girth at breast height were recorded. Using Smalians formula38, timber volume of about 1000 trees was worked out and bivariate regression equations were derived using calculated volume, gbh and height for different girth class.

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Technological changes within and outside the forest sector Information technology is gradually emerging as an important tool for assessment and decision making in planning and management of forest resources. The FSI is already using remote sensing in forest assessment on a bi-annual basis. Presently, it is limited to assessing the changes in forest cover on a snapshot basis. With the refinement of technology, the assessment is likely to provide more useful data for forest planning and management. Tissue culture and clonal propagation are already being extensively applied by forest-based industries to produce quality planting material and this has revolutionized plantation forestry. Improved technology has also found many applications in processing of secondary tropical species. Material hitherto used as fuel wood is now being converted to produce decorative furniture. Similarly, paper pulp and hardboard technology is making use of all types of forest wood in producing durable material for house building and furniture. This is likely to replace the use of sawn planks and optimize the use of wood. Thus, the same production technology is likely to provide better economic returns to industry and help all classes of consumers to meet their requirements. The availability of improved technology for processing and value addition of NWFPs, can ensure remunerative returns to gatherers, besides providing opportunities for developing rural enterprises for value addition and trade. Forest certification as a modern management tool has the potential to provide the gatherers and rural entrepreneurs with better access to international markets. Technology application can also boost the income of gatherers. Initially, benefits may not be adequately apportioned to poor gatherers. However, their involvement in selfhelp groups and access to microfinance and storage facilities is likely to improve their condition.

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Economic Analysis

FOREST INDUSTRY IN INDIA

With a per capita GDP of US$3,4032 (2007 estimate which registered a 14% increase over 2005), India is a middle-income country. There are major and increasing differences between the rich and the poor, the north and the south, and the urban and rural areas of the country. It is estimated that there are between 300 and 500 million Indians who are heavily affected by poverty (living on less than US$1 per day); many of them are living in forest-fringe areas. The most poverty-prone states are in northeast and central India. The urban-based economy has grown rapidly through investment in industries and services which are increasingly being liberalized from government control. Currently the economy has been growing at about 9% per annum. The projections for the coming years are 9%+. This high rate of economic growth, however, is not commensurate with employment figures. During 2004/2005, almost 58% of the population was unemployed. The impetus on agriculture is considered helpful in reducing rural unemployment. Skill development for value addition and manufacturing in small and medium sectors is also recognized as equally important in this respect. High economic growth, physical infrastructure and industrial sectors have also put pressure on environmental resources. Increasing education and awareness of civil society have brought the environmental sustainability agenda to the forefront of national awareness. The imperatives of conservation of the environment in general and forests, biodiversity and ecosystem services in particular have been recognized as essential components of sustainable development.

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Environmental Analysis

FOREST INDUSTRY IN INDIA

With the recognition of climate change as a consequence of anthropogenic carbon emissions, every effort is being made to either mitigate impact by reducing emissions or working on adaptation to the changing situations. As the predictions of the impact of climate change are still full of uncertainties, concepts on possible strategies for adaptations are said to be far from clear and the cost of adaptations is also indicated to be much more than mitigation. Further, in the wake of uncertainties, mitigation or reduction of greenh ouse gases (GHG) is the only option available. The united global efforts in this context, which include the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and related protocols, focus on arrangements on limiting carbon emissions to the lowest levels possible. Carbon sequestration is a very important option in this context. Forests can be used as sinks for carbon dioxide, which is the most prevalent GHG. The role as sinks is presently the most important for immobilizing large quantities of carbon for long periods. Thus, the role of forests in climate change is determined by their state and management. The impact of climate change on forests is also expected to be in line with changes in climatic conditions, to be manifested in species composition, profile, productivity, resilience and biodiversity. In India, with around 70 million tribal and 200 million non-tribal rural people depending on forest resources for their subsistence needs, climate change will have an impact on their livelihoods. There are varying estimates of carbon stock in the biomass and mineral soils in India. A comprehensive study conducted by Haripriya (2003) takes into account the carbon stored in both above and below ground biomass as well as in the soil. The study estimated the total carbon stock in biomass and mineral soils to be 2,934 million tones and 5,109 million tones respectively for 1994 and 1995. The average biomass carbon of the forest ecosystem in India for 1994 was reported to be 46 tones/hectare, of which 76% is in aboveground biomass and the rest is in fine and coarse root biomass. The average mineral soil carbon was found to be 80 tones/hectare. The forest cover and the growing stock of India have shown a gradual upward trend over the years. However, the growing stock per unit area of Indian forests is substantially lower (and hence the carbon in biomass) when compared to other South Asian countries and the global average.

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The post-Kyoto Protocol negotiations are sure to have carbon sequestration as an important factor in mitigation strategies and Indian forests will have a key role. Based on the annual average afforestation of 1.16 million hectares as the default rate of afforestation, the mitigation potential of forestry was analyzed by Rabindranath et al. (2006). The studies indicated that from 2005 to 2025, the mitigation potential of short-rotation forestry options for carbon stock may vary from 63 tones/hectare for hot arid regions to 101 tones/hectare in the northern and eastern plains. For long rotation forestry, the potential varies from 58 tones/hectare for the Eastern/Western Ghats and coastal plains to 118 tonnes/hectare in the northern and eastern plains. The mitigation potential of the natural regeneration option varied from 71 tones/hectare to 89 tones/hectare.

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Political Analysis

FOREST INDUSTRY IN INDIA

The forestry institution in India is well organized but needs to gear up to deal with emerging demands and challenges. Meeting expectations of the stakeholders will require significant changes in the roles and responsibilities as well as structure of the forest administration. The increasing decentralization of the democratic processes, community empowerment, participation in decision making, increasing inter-sectoral linkages, and economic aspects governing decision making require urgent development of skills for interpreting conservation and ecosystem services in economic terms and support to conservation on the basis of economic imperatives. The use of modern technologies and concepts in natural resource management planning and implementation needs suitable and compatible changes in governance and documentation systems. The auditing system could include environmental audit as an integral part of the social audit. A long-term strategy will be needed to deal with the challenges of improving governance, accountability and transparency in all spheres of central and local governments, the corporate sector and community levels.

Trends in the overall development

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There are a number of indicators showing all round improvement and they are all likely to have a positive influence on the forestry sector. One of the most important attributes would be governance indicators. For this purpose three major economies of Asia viz., Singapore, China and India have been compared for control of corruption, role of law, regulatory governance effectiveness, political stability, voice and accountability. Changing political and institutional environment Although the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act 2006 (TFRA) has generated much concern for the conservation of forests because of recognition granted for the habitation and livelihood rights of forest dwellers, it also assigns responsibilities of forest conservation and assistance in SFM to local communities.

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Legal Analysis

FOREST INDUSTRY IN INDIA

INDIAN FOREST ACT, 1927 Analysis & Legal tips for implementation The Forest Act defines different regulatory systems for different classes of forest, of which the two most significant are reserved forest and protected forest. The term reserved refers to the said forest being reserved for government use. Any area of forest land or wasteland can be declared a reserved forest by the State government after following a procedure for settlement of rights, under which a Forest Settlement Officer is supposed to receive all claims for rights and decide whether to accept the right fully, permit it with conditions, or reject it. Once the final notification is issued, no one can have any rights in the reserved forest except those specifically recorded and permitted by the settlement process (Section 9). Moreover, even those rights are not concrete; for up to five years after the settlement, the State government has the power to revise, rescind or modify any arrangement made in the settlement proceeding (Section 22). Protected forests are regulated in a different manner. In law, all rights in such areas continue except those that are specifically barred by regulation. Therefore, unlike in the case of reserved forests, the Act does not provide any procedure for recording these rights. It only requires that some form of rights settlement should have taken place in the past, and even permits declaration in the absence of any settlement at all. But the mere legal provision that peoples rights can continue hardly provides any protection in practice. In protected forests, the government has sweeping rule-making powers over cultivation, collection of forest produce, etc., and such regulations can so severely circumscribe peoples rights that their livelihoods are rendered impossible. Thus, the legal regime of the Forest Act heavily favors the governments power to arbitrarily regulate and prohibit activities and to expropriate resources. The burden of proof is always placed on the community or the people, and even recognized rights can later be withdrawn. The Wild Life (Protection) Act of 1972 follows the same pattern, with more severe punishments.

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Ethical Analysis

FOREST INDUSTRY IN INDIA

The above consideration why forest ethics is needed contains already a long list of topical issues for forest related studies in moral philosophy. What follows here is closely related to the above topics, but represents themes, which already are more or less established in forest ethics, framing the present structure of this relatively new area of forest research. Ethics of sustainability.

Whenever in the past local cultures had beliefs or traditions, which regulated relationships between human beings and forests, or states and nations developed rules or norms how forests should be utilized or protected, there already existed a kind of implicit (not written-out) forest ethics. As German foresters in the turn of 18th and 19th developed the sustained-yield doctrine in a systematic way, the fundamental moral principle of forestry sustainable management of forest resources - became operational for the first time. The modern multidimensional concept of sustainability in forestry (including economic, ecological, social and cultural dimensions) represent the current challenges to forest ethics (Saastamoinen 2005) as it does to more traditional forest sciences. Professional ethics.

The development of the professional ethics of foresters has been the first context where ethics explicitly (as declared and widely discussed concept)was present in forestry. This important sprout of forest ethics has longest been developed and debated by the Society of American of Foresters (SAF), which adopted its first Code of Ethics in 1948. However, the seed for SAFs professional ethics can be traced already back to the first years of last century when the public good comes first, the motto of that time U.S. president Theodore. Ethics of forest environment. The role of forests and trees in the environment, as habitat for wildlife and biodiversity and as landscape and wilderness, has been a fertile field for moral deliberations (List 2000). Consequently, the field of environmental ethics has provided a large collection of ethical discussion and inquiry related to forests and forestry within the recent past. Environmental ethics has been defined as the discipline that studies the moral relationship of human beings to, and also the value and moral status of, the environment and its nonhuman contents (Brennan and Lo 2000).

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Demographic Analysis

FOREST INDUSTRY IN INDIA

Indias population of 1.12 billion (July 2007 estimate), approximately one sixth of the worlds population, is projected to touch 1.33 billion by 2020. The national demographic growth rate is estimated at 1.38% per annum, the population density is 336 inhabitants per square kilometer, seven times the world average. Seven hundred and forty million people (68%) live in rural areas, (growth rate 1.43% per annum). Six hundred million people are dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods, of which 200 million are to some degree forest dependent whereas 90 million are in scheduled lists of tribes under the Indian Constitution and are particularly forest dependent. Thirty-one percent of the population is less than 14 years of age while another 64% is between 14 and 64. The population of farmers is aging rapidly, and the next generation is more focused on opportunities for urban employment. Eighty-eight percent of the 89.4 million Indian farmers have land holdings in the range of 0.1 to 2 ha. The geographic location of India allows for human habitation with near optimum environmental living conditions. Therefore, even with a low per capita energy intensity and carbon emission levels, a high density of the population is living comfortably. However, with increasing population, per capita availability of natural resources is decreasing, resulting in an increase in the cost of living in terms of energy requirement and proportionate use of resources. Based on the above demographic profile energy consumption, particularly the use of firewood, was assessed in 2006 (Table ).

Table . Percentage distribution of households in various income groups using sources other than firewood for heating water

Income group Rural low Rural middle Rural high Urban low Urban middle Urban high

Firewood 100 70 60 60 20 0

Other 0 sources 30 40 40 80 100

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Figure 2. Demographics depicting dependence on forest product use. The dependency ratio of the population on forests shows a declining trend (Figure The most likely scenario is also presented in Figure 2. However, as the size of the population depending on forests increases with faster growth of population, the demand for products and services from forests keeps increasing, albeit at a slower rate than the population.

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Social Analysis Poverty and Livelihoods in Marine Fisheries

FISHING INDUSTRY IN INDIA

Structural Features Relating to Poverty and Livelihoods

- Of the more than 3,000 coastal fishing villages in India, 85 percent are electrified, 80 percent connected by road, 65 percent have a hospital, and 42 percent have a bank; - Nearly 57 percent of the population is educated, which is below the national average of 65 percent. Only 6 percent of the fishers have education above secondary level; - Fishing communities are characterized by high levels of illiteracy, and poor access to piped water and efficient sanitation services; - Close to 100 percent of working people in these communities are engaged in fisheriesrelated livelihoods, for about half of them it is full-time work; - Fishing is a largely caste-based occupation and caste plays a determining role for entry into, or exit from, fishing; - There is a clear gender-based division of labor, as males largely do the sea fishing; fish once landed, are often handled by women for processing and marketing. The fact that the men are at sea most of the time requires the women to act as de facto heads of the households, giving them a prominent role in the family; Income Patterns

- Annual incomes for large trawler owners can range from Rs. 75,000 to Rs. 150,000 or more; the majority of traditional boat owners earn annual incomes ranging from less than Rs. 25,000 to Rs. 100,000; the majority of crew members earn annual incomes from less than Rs. 35,000 to Rs. 75,000; traders can earn from less than Rs. 25,000 to Rs. 100,000 per annum. - The higher average annual fishing incomes are generally in Karnataka; lower annual incomes are found in Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Gujarat. In these latter three states, annual incomes from marine fishing of less than Rs. 25,000 are quite common. - Incomes from fishing are usually confined to a maximum of nine months a year. - The earnings from fishing are not confined to monetary payments; they frequently include non- monetized income like fish or other consumables, or utilities like firewood. Similarly, the cost of operations is not always monetized; a number of activities like launching and hauling of boats, repairing nets, women gutting fish for drying, involve drawing upon the social capital without which the economic viability of at least some of the activities can suffer.

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Livelihoods and the Evolving Marine Sub-sector The phenomenal growth in the fishing economy in the modernization phase was accompanied by the entry of new fishing methods, players, and trading systems that have had long-lasting impacts on the life and livelihoods of the fishers, particularly for small-scale fishers. Within a states territorial waters, the consequences of an open-access system with declining fish stocks overall, and general over-capitalization of fishing capacity are felt in many ways:

a) Reduced productivity within the fishery (returns per unit of labor or capital) b) Further reductions in resource stocks and negative changes in household livelihoods c ) Human health and gender workloads An FAO study in Tamil Nadu (Neiland et al. 2006) indicated that of 212 small scale fishers surveyed, 59 percent indicated that the viability of their principal livelihood had declined from the previous year. Of these individuals, 85 percent said that it was a matter of concern because of a greater risk of starving. Major reasons for the downturn in livelihoods were decreased fish catches and scarcity of fish during poor fishing seasons; low fish prices, especially during supply gluts; increased input costs; and poor access to more distant and lucrative markets.

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Technological Analysis

FISHING INDUSTRY IN INDIA

Technology Quality seed production Selective breeding of carps Formulation of low cost feed materials using locally available ingredients Fabrication of nets for targeted fishing

Development in fishing crafts and gears and technology The strong belief that the bulk of fishery potential of the state which lay unexploited was in the regions 50m depth contour led to the technical development in the industry. For the exploitation of these resources (Korakandy, 1991). For a proper development of the primary marine fishing industry of Kerala, development of suitable crafts, gears and techniques became unavoidable. In Kerala fisheries, the modernization programmer started in 1953 and mechanization in capture fisheries was confined basically at three levels. 1. Craft Movement (Method of Propulsion) 2. Development of Gears and 3. Tackling Techniques (Suresh Kumar, 1999) These changes have considerably helped in improving the productive capacity of the fishing sector. The new techniques have raised the productive capacity by four ways. 1. Use of machine power enables the fishermen to reach the fishing ground early thereby raising the fishing time. 2. The new technology enables the fishermen to increase the distance range of fishing operations. 3. Fishermen could succeed in capturing the bottom dwelling or crustacean species like prawns, crabs, lobsters, etc. since the new technology has raised the depth range of operations. 4. The fishermen become less fatigued which thereby increases the productivity. The development efforts for the evolution of suitable crafts gears and techniques are divided into three distinct periods. A.1953 to 1963. B.1963 to 1979 and C.1979 onwards

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Economic Analysis

FISHING INDUSTRY IN INDIA

Contribution to National GDP With respect to marine fishing, the country has a coastline of 8,118 km with an EEZ stretching over 2.02 million km2, and a continental shelf covering 0.53 million km. Marine fisheries remain an important source of employment, income and food security. At the global level, it is ranked third in overall fish production and second in aquaculture. The economic importance of the fisheries sector for the country can be described by contributions to national GDP, foreign exchange earnings, domestic food security, and employment generation. The GDP contribution from fisheries is about 1/20th that of agriculture. The percentage contribution of fisheries to GDP has increased from 0.46 percent in 195051 to a peak of 1.24 percent in 1997-98, and then has declined to just over one percent in 2007-08. Marine fishing accounts for about half this GDP value.

Contribution to Exports Since the beginning of modernization in the 1950s, the fisheries sector, especially the marine and the coastal aquaculture sub-sectors, have had a growing focus on export markets (MPEDA 2006), particularly for shrimp, which now makes up 54 percent of total exports by value. Frozen fish, cuttlefish and squid account for another 32 percent of total export value. The remainder is comprised of dried fish products, as well as live and chilled exports. About 20 percent of Indias total marine fish production is exported

Employment Generation in Marine Fisheries The 17th Livestock Census of 2003 (Government of India 2004a) gives the total number of fishers in the country (inland and marine) as 14.5 million, of whom 4.6 million are men (32 percent), 4.0 million are women (28 percent), and 5.8 million a r e chi l d r en ( 40 pe r c ent ). According to the 2005 Marine Fisheries Census ( CMFRI 2 0 0 6 ), the total population of marine fishers in the country is 3.52 million, living in 756,212 households in 3,202 fishing villages along the coast, or nearly 25 percent of the total number of fishers in India. Of this total, over 900,000 are recorded as active fishers, 1.0 million as part time fishers while 1.4 million fell into the category of others

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Environmental Analysis

FISHING INDUSTRY IN INDIA

Impacts of Climate Change on Fisheries and Aquaculture Fish has been an important part of the human diet in almost all countries of the world. It is highly nutritious; it can provide vital nutrients absent in typical starchy staples which dominate poor peoples diets. Fish provides about 20 % of animal protein intake and is one of the cheapest sources of animal proteins as far as availability and affordability is concerned. While it serves as a health food for the affluent world owing to the fish oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids for the people in the other extreme of the nutrition scale, fish is a health food owing to its proteins, oils, vitamins and minerals and the benefits associated with the consumption of small indigenous fishes. Although aquaculture has been contributing an increasingly significant proportion of fish over recent decades, approximately two-thirds of fish are still caught in capture fisheries. The number of people directly employed in fisheries and aquaculture is estimated at 43.5 million, of which over 90 % are small scale fishers.

In addition to those directly employed in fishing, over 200 million people are thought to be dependent on small scale fishing in developing countries, in terms of other economic activities generated by the supply of fish and supporting activities building, net making, engine manufacture and repair, supply of services to fisherman and fuel to fishing boats in addition to millions for whom fisheries provide a supplemental income. Fisheries are often available in remote and rural areas where other economic activities are limited and can thus be important sources for economic growth and livelihoods in rural areas with few other economic activities.

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Political Analysis -

FISHING INDUSTRY IN INDIA

The Five Year Annual Plans issued by the Union Government seemingly offer the best prospects for anchoring a performance assessment given that they have a large impact on the way fisheries management activities are funded and directed in both state and Union jurisdictions. They are consequently the primary policy documents that provide a historical link between the objectives set by the government and the activities undertaken in the administration and use of fisheries. The Working Group Report on the Eleventh Five Year Plan provides an assessment of the delivery performance with respect to the schemes funded during the Tenth Five Year Plan (operated between 2002 and 2007). A range of other intended outcomes for fisheries are identified at various places in the Tenth Five Year Plan that warrant mention. For marine fisheries, these outcomes include; Increased production from the deep-water fisheries (linked to the overall fish production target) Increased fish consumption per capita in India Management of coastal fisheries Equity in participation Optimal exploitation.

i)

ii) iii) iv) v)

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Legal Analysis

FISHING INDUSTRY IN INDIA

The Legal Framework Five major legal instruments of the central Government directly govern marine fisheries activities:
1. 2. 3. 4.

The Indian Fisheries Act, 1897. Marine Products Export Development Authority Act 1972 (No. 13 of 1972). The Maritime Zones of India (Regulation of fishing by foreign vessels) Act, 1981 (No. 42 of 1981). The Maritime Zones of India (Regulation of fishing by foreign vessels) Rules, 1982. The Operation of Deep Sea Fishing Vessels, 20m OAL and above, Notifications dated 14 December 2006.

In addition, there are several related laws dealing with the environment, biodiversity, trade, and shipping impact on fisheries and coastal communities, namely:
1.

Indian Ports Act, 1908. Forest Act, 1927.

2. Indian

3. Merchant

Shipping Act, 1958 4. Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, amended 1983, 1986, 1991. 5. Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act, 1974. 6. The Coast Guard Act, 1978. 7. Forest Conservation Act, 1980. 8. Environment Protection Act, 1986. 9. Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 1991. 10. Foreign Trade Act, 1992. 11. Biological Diversity Act, 2002. 12. Coastal Aquaculture Authority Act, 2005.

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Ethical analysis

FISHING INDUSTRY IN INDIA

Some of the ethical questions that are raised from the fisheries analysis come from overexploitation of resources. Some others result from the relationship among the stakeholders in the area of fisheries. Some others may result yet, for example, from the existence of conflicts in the approval processes of aquaculture projects. Many divergent interests are involved. Some ethical issues may be expressed considering the conflicts that result from the relationship among private agents and public agents or also some others resulting from environmental policies that deal with the rights of individuals versus the rights of the state and that deal also with the rights of property owners versus those of the community. The ways of dealing with the environmental issues may vary according to the organizations that intend to protect the environment and some conflicting situations may result from the way environment is faced. Often, a private agent intending to exploit a resource for self-interest may be contributing also with the project for the public good. This fact for itself permits, on these cases, to solve some ethical issues. When a private agent intends to implement an aquaculture project his interest it to make profit. Anyway, this will allow that sea live resources may be preserved Aquaculture fish offer in the market has increased, given an existing demand. This means that aquaculture can give a strong contribution for reducing sea fisheries.

Law is fundamental to conserve and to protect environment and so it is in this area of fishing resources. Rules should be precise and simple enough to be implemented and to be fulfilled. In aquaculture projects law often seems to arise too many procedures and to generate too many public agents involved in the decision process that complicate the final decision (and evidently bureaucracy is present). An anti- commons problem can emerge from this complex situation. In consequence, the multiple agencies and their work frequently frustrate worthwhile projects and economic growth.

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Demographic Analysis

FISHING INDUSTRY IN INDIA

Large -scale Fishermen

Large-scale fishermen fish in larger groups by hiring 15 to 20 laborers and are confined only to TB reservoir (400 groups) representing about 30% of the total fishermen population. Laborers are usually hired from Andhra Pradesh. Nearly 66 percent of the fishermen are engaged in fishing throughout the year and the rest between 6 to 10 months. During the lean period, they are engaged in agriculture and construction etc. They use Alivi nets of various sizes ranging from 1 to 12 inches. They are members of FCS and pay an annual membership fee for obtaining license. The larger groups are headed by a fisherman who invests approximately around INR 3 lakhs. Each laborer is paid between INR 1800 to 2500 per month along with allowance for food, medical expenses, etc. The group spends the whole night (up to 10 hours) casting the nets and fishing till early hours. Fish catch ranging between 10 to 100 kegs, and is highly dependent on weather conditions, fingerlings released and season.

Small-scale Fishermen

Small-scale fishermen work in a team of two or three persons representing 60 % in the basin. Payments made to the society9 vary between INR 200 (riverine, tank) to INR 4000 (reservoir) based on type of net and fishing location. They use gill nets of various sizes. 53% of fishermen invest about INR 2000 on boats and nets, annually. They are members of FCS and obtain license for a period varying between 3 months to 1 year. However, there are instances where some fishing communities pay the Fisheries department for canal fishing in Saibabanagar. Small-scale fishermen are economically poor and most vulnerable as fish catch depends on external factors beyond their control and hence, migration becomes inevitable to sustain livelihoods.

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Women and Fishing in TBSB The role of women largely depends on the socio -economic conditions of the households. Overall, the conditions and quality of life for women are poor across different fishing groups. This included long working hours, poor wages in addition to the burden of household maintenance. There are no special programs targeting women. For instance, women in Hale Ajodhya, confine themselves mainly to weaving nets. However, women in this village do not go out for selling fish unlike their counter parts in some villages. Women are involved mostly in processing and marketing of fish. In Thambrahalli, about 40 women work as laborers sorting fish for the large contractors. On an average, they sort out 30 kegs of fish per day and are paid about INR 45 per day. Women also work as agricultural laborers to supplement their household income.

Formal Fishing Rights Fishing rights are given through open tenders in reservoirs and rivers, whereas in the case of tanks, it is done through open auctioning. We see in the following sections, as to how these varied forms of allocating fishing rights favor/disfavor the fishing communities. For example, licensing favors the fishermen in the place of tender systems, whereas, in the tank systems, open auctioning invites any person to bid for the tank, and promote aquaculture as entrepreneurship thereby disfavoring or marginalizing the fishing communities. Department of Fisheries decides on the minimum reserve price for obtaining fishing rights.

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Business Potential of Canadas fishing industry in Canada. Canadas potential free trade deal with Europe should raise alarms that open right of entry to profitable seafood markets will come at the expense of protections for Atlantic fishery jobs, says a new report. "At chance is the ability of Canadians to pursue public policies that restrain power of the fisheries by large corporations," says the study released Wednesday by the left-leaning Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.

"My biggest concern is that Canadian governments and citizens, particularly local governments, will lose their ability to regulate the fishery to maximize local benefits," author Scott Sinclair said in an interview.

His study, "Globalization, Trade Treaties and the Future of the Atlantic Canadian Fisheries," includes details allegedly leaked from ongoing closed-door Canada-EU trade talks. They point to that "the EU is strongly pressuring Canada to put an end to minimum processing requirements" as the two sides work toward a deal known as the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement, or CETA, says the report.

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European market access at stake Rudy Husny, a spokesman for federal International Trade Minister Ed Fast, said eliminating seafood tariffs as high as 25 per cent would open right to use to a $25-billion European import market.

But Sinclair raises the view that under a Canada-EU deal, European investors could face owner-operator limits and other domestic fishery protections using dispute tribunals that would avoid Canadian law. "Protecting Canada's ability to regulate the fisheries for protection purposes and to ensure that the benefits from fisheries are shared with independent fishers and coastal communities should be much higher priorities," his report concludes. Keith Hutchings, the provincial minister for innovation, business and rural development, said open right of entry to the European market of about 500 million consumers would be a major benefit for a struggling industry.

"This holds the potential to create more jobs, higher wages and greater long-term wealth," he said in an email. However, regional officials are pushing for maximum local benefits, Hutchings added. "We will only support a deal that is in the best interests of Newfoundland and Labrador." Inshore fisheries concerns

He's also worried that other policies that protect domestic inshore fisheries could be challenged under a new deal with Europe. For example, only Canadian independent owner-operators can now obtain inshore fishing licenses. For bigger vessels offshore, foreign investors can only hold a marginal interest of up to 49 per cent in a Canadian corporation that's licensed to fish. Federal Fisheries Minister Keith Ash field has deprived of that such measures are in danger.

"Let me be completely clear: the fleet separation and owner-operator policies in Atlantic Canada will remain intact," he said Sept. 21 in Fredericton.
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Business Potential of fishing industry in India India has huge potential for fishes from both internal and marine resources, due to its long seashore, huge reservoirs, etc. It is the fourth largest producer of fish in the world. It is also the second largest producer of domestic fish. The contribution of fisheries to the GDP is around 1.4%. From 0.75 million tons in 1950, the fishery sector has grown-up to the production level of 6.4 million tons worth Rs. 3,20,000 million, and an export of almost Rs. 70,000 million. Nearly 10 million people, living in 4,000 coastal villages and more number of interior villages, depend on fisheries to earn their livelihood.

1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands: The ecosystem and geographical location of Islands offer a huge marine potential for the fishing and marine sector (mainly sea farming activities), due to its long shoreline and a unique and rare marine environment. Fabulous opportunities are available for the fishing and marine industry. The estimated marine potential of the islands is 2.44 lakh tonnes, which remains optimally unexploited. The islands unique ecosystem provide opportunity of wide range of species, which could be caught, cultured, processed and marketed on values.

Further, the large expanse of ocean provides opportunity for industrial scale fostering of sea plants, pearls, oysters, mussels, etc. But, lack of processing infrastructure, cold chain, and transport support has not allowed the sector to understand its potential. So, efforts are being made to identify opportunities while looking into environmental concerns and potential for diversified decentralized supply chain.

2. Assam: Assam is a mostly fish consuming State. Here, the demand for fish is very high. The hypsographic profile and the river systems of Assam disclose rich repository of aquatic resources that have great potential for production of fish. The fisheries resource of Assam comprises important river basins, namely, Brahmaputra, Barak and their tributaries. There is potential for producing both the cold and warm water fisheries. The State with two major river systems, several beels, lakes, tanks/ ponds and swamps is endowed with valuable fishery resources.

complete development of these water resources calls for identification of potential, proper planning and phasing.
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3. Chhattisgarh: The State possesses huge and different natural water area available for fish culture in the form of river, reservoirs, ponds and tanks. About 1.58 lakhs hectare average water area is available for fish culture. The State has two major river system, namely, Mahanadi and Godavari and their tributaries forming a network of 3573 km. About 90% water area has already been brought under fish culture. The fisheries sectors have been known as a powerful income and employment generator and play an important role in rural economy and are a source of inexpensive and healthy food. More than 1.50 lakh fishermen in the State depend on fisheries and aquaculture for their livelihood. Fisheries sector occupies an important place in the socio-economic development of the State. It caters mainly to the need of socio-economically weaker and backward communities of fishermen.

4. Kerala: The Government of Kerala gives top priority to the fisheries sector, because:(i) This sector provides employment and income to more than one million people, either directly or indirectly; (ii) It satisfies the protein necessities of a considerable large piece of the population; and (iii) It provides significant revenue, especially in foreign exchange, to the exchequer of the state. Hence, it has undertaken several projects and programmes for increasing production, for conserving and ensuring sustainable utilization of fisheries wealth, for promoting cultivation of fish and prawns, for development of fishing harbors and facilities for landing of fish, for intensification facilities for marketing of fish, and for the upliftment and welfare of the fisher-folk. The importance of fisheries sector in Kerala and the beneficial position that Kerala enjoys as a maritime State is to be considered in the National policies. There is a great need to introduce recent trends in fish processing technology, in order to preserve the State's position in international market. Government is also envisaging the Fisheries Policy, which is the blue print of the action plans for the developments in the sector and the welfare activities envisaged for the next twenty five years.

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5. Goa: Fishing is the long-established and important economic activity of the State. Goa, being located on the west coast of India, has a coastline extending over 100 kms and inland waterways of another 250 kms, rich in marine wealth. Prawns, the valuable foreign exchange earner, mackerels, sardines, etc. are available in prosperity in Goa coast. Many small scale units based on fisheries resources like salt healing of mackerels, fish meat, fish oils, thirst of fishes, etc. are being set up. The fishing activity has also given a big increase to canning, freezing and other fish processing units in the State.

6. Lakshadweep: Due to its beautiful beaches and pollution-free environment, the Lakshadweep has become a great tourist destination for activities like watersports, fishing, etc. The people of UT are mainly dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Fishing is one of the mainstays of the people. It has become the main source of income of the people of Lakshadweep, besides coconut promotion. Lakshadweep has a coastline of 132 Km and lagoon area of 4,200 sq. km. The sea around the island is highly fruitful. The islands stand first in the country in per capita availability of fish. During 2004, 10,300 tonnes of fish have been landed in the UT. The main fishery is developed on skipjack tuna. The estimated possible resources of the sea around Lakshadweep are about 1 lakh tones of Tuna and equal quantity of Shark.

7. Odisha: The State attaches top most main concern to the growth of agro based and food processing industries. The Government has framed an agricultural policy with the intend of increasing investment in agriculture, with special focus on fisheries and fish processing. The 'State Reservoir Fishery policy' has also been announced with a view to supplement fish production in the State by harnessing the vast untapped /under tapped reservoir resources.

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The objectives of the policy are to: Generate profitable rural employment with special reference to the fishing communities; Introduce systematic management strategies both for preservation and continued fish production; Attract increasing investments from private sector; encourage entrepreneurship for fishery sector with special reference to tank fishery; Substitute traditional methods by introduction of advanced technology in operation of tank fishery; Develop skill among fishermen/ fisherwomen in tank operation and organizational intensification; Generate substantial revenue for the State.

8. Pondicherry: Marine product processing is an important component of agro-processing industry. Pondicherrys long coastline provides sufficient opportunities for the growth and development of its fisheries sector. There exists huge scope in shrimp culture and crab farming. The modern fishing harbors are at Thengaithittu, Pondicherry and Karukalacheri, Karaikal.

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Business Potential of fishing industry in Gujarat

Gujarat Fisheries Central Co-operative Association Limited (GFCCA) Gujarat Fisheries Central Co-operative Association Limited (GFCCA) is a top cooperative body of the fishermen cooperatives in the State of Gujarat. It was recognized in the year 1956 with financial and administrative support of the Government of Gujarat. The main activities of the Association include: Development and exploitation of fresh water fisheries. Marketing of fresh water fish and marine fish in wholesale and in retail through its different outlets and mobile vans. To supply fishing equipment at economical rate. To implementation of Government Schemes & New Project.

About Gujarat fishing:

As discussed in the earlier article of this series of Gujarat - Golden Jubilee Celebrations, the State has been hallowed in many ways for its geographical location, which has proved to be a key driver for industrial development inland and offshore industries in the state. The longest coastline of 1600 kms puts Gujarat in to one of the different places in the country, where not only shipping or logistics industry is seen prospering but fishing activities too are considered as serious business with large investments torrential in. The shoreline of Gujarat is broken by several bays, inlets, estuaries and marshy lands giving sufficient opportunity for blast of sea-food industry here. The area available for fishing on the coast of the State extends from Lakhpat in the northern shore of the state in Kutchh district to Umbergaon in Valsad district a place in the deep south of the State. The sea-food industry specially fishing has emerged as a major revenue making business not only for the private players but also to the state exchequer.

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According to a state government report, during the year 2008-09, total fish production in the Gujarat State has been predictable at 7.66 lakh tonnes worth Rs.3063.23 crore. The marine fish production constitutes about 89.16% of total fish production of the State. During the year 2008-09 the state earned Rs.1064.50 crore (provisional) from export of 112800 tonnes of fish and fish products. for the meantime the provisional figures from the state fisheries department represent that during the year, 2009-10 (April- September 2009) the total fish production has been expected at 2.23 lakh tonnes worth of Rs.889.97 crore. The exports of fish and fish products, is likely at 38816 tonnes, worth Rs.370 crore, at the end of September 2009. Traditionally, fishing has been a general business activity in the coastal area of the state. However, with current business proposal emerging from the export prospective of fishing and allied products, the sector has seen some of the highly complicated technologies getting into the sector. in recent times, the union government had planned to bring highly mechanized motor boats for the fishermen so as to reduce efforts for fishing and improve the quantity of the catch. However, most of the fishermen rejected the draft proposal saying, it might damage marine life in long term with severely impacting local employment as well, hence the proposal was put on hold and the union government will consider the entire issue anew in coming months. In Gujarat, some of the important fish varieties are set up that includes Pomfret, Jew Fish, Bombay duck, Shrimp, Lobster, Squid, Cuttle fish, Silver bar, Hilsa, Shark, Catfish, Mullets etc. Though, over the years, due to chemical pollution and steady fishing activity, fish availability from the shore has been declining continually. According to experts in the field, accessibility of fish has reduced considerably on the southern part of the coastal belt. The fish accessibility has moved out far deep in to the sea up to 12-25 nautical miles, prompting the fishermen to sail deep into the sea till 150 nautical miles.

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Business Potential of Canadas Forest industry in Canada and India

Canadian companies exploring the Indian wood market


Canadian forest companies are looking at potential wood markets in India, and with a free trade arrangement in the offing, there are predictions that overall trade between Canada and India could quadrupleto $15 billion over the next five years. By Jim Sterling Canadian forest companies are looking more closely at the potential marketing opportunities for their products offered by India. Earlier this year, a delegation from the City of Surrey, in B.C.s Lower Mainland, spent 11 days in India visiting seven cities to help develop new trading relationships. An estimated 27 per cent of Surrey s population is of Indian origin making it a good fit for such trade relationships, says Dianne Watts, Surreys mayor.

The phenomenon is an understandable extension of the nightmare collapse of the housing market in the United States and its buoyed by continuing development in the Chinese market for Canadian and especially British Columbian manufactured wood products. Other factors come into play. This country is home to a significant population of successful Indo-Canadians. And the worlds most populous democracy is negotiating with Canada for a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement, a kind of free trade arrangement. When it fully kicks in, business experts predict bi-lateral trade between Canada and India willduring the next five yearsalmost quadruple to $15 billion. Discovering what all that might mean for B.C.-based forest companies was a factor behind a recent exploratory trip to India involving Paul Newman, executive director of market access and trade with the Council of Forest Industries (COFI), based in Vancouver Predictions and expectations at this very preliminary stage are punctuated with qualifications and but yet.

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Present trade relationship between Canada and India of forest industry


FOREST INDUSTRY SNAPSHOT Almost 60 per cent of British Columbias land base is productive forest land, providing rich, diverse, and abundant wood fibres.

Timber supplies British Columbia has 55 million hectares of productive forests that provide diverse and abundant wood fiber. These forests contain roughly 11 billion cubic meters of timber. Varied tree species Tree species in our forests are primarily coniferous or softwood, including Douglas-fir, western hemlock, ambles fir, western red cedar, lodge pole pine and interior spruce. Beneficial land tenure system Most of our land is publicly owned. The provincial government issues land tenures, giving companies the right to harvest in exchange for fees and management responsibilities. With no need to purchase land, capital required to invest is low compared to other regions. Preferred supplier British Columbia has more lands certified to internationally recognized sustainability standards than any other jurisdiction. This ensures sustainable production, and gives access to markets around the world looking for environmentally sound products. Varied wood products Commodity products, including standard dimensional lumber, pulp, paper, and panel boards, dominate the forest industry in British Columbia. Growing value-added sector Small and medium-sized firms produce a wide range of valueadded products, such as treated lumber, engineered wood products, shakes and shingles, posts, poles, log and timber-frame homes, moldings, and other finished or semi-finished products. New utilization opportunities Under-utilized species, smaller stems, dead trees, mill residue, and debris from silviculture and harvesting now have new value as raw materials for next-generation forest products.

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Investment opportunities
Type Commodity Typical Products Boards Chips Hog Panels Plywood Pulp and Paper Shakes and shingles Standard dimensional lumber Pallets & boxes Posts & poles Tall oil Treated lumber Windows & doors Wood I-joists

Fuel

Traditional Value-Added

Art Cabinets and furniture Dissolving pulps (leads directly to biochemical and materials like rayon) Glulam Laminated veneer lumber (LML) Log/timber homes Moldings

Next Generation Manufacturing

Alternative energy products - wood pellets, ethanol, biodiesel, xylose, syngas Engineered wood products - cross-laminated timbers, high strength and stiffness composite lumber products, high strength and stiffness hybrid engineered wood products, new fibre-polymer composite wood products New building systems

FORESTRY SECTOR SUPPORTS British Columbia offers support programs for the forestry sector, including the following:

The BC Bioenergy Network is led by industry and supports near-term bioenergy technologies and research to build a world-class bioenergy capability in British Columbia. Funding programs can be accessed through the Network. Explore how the BC Bioenergy Network can support your investment. The Investments in Forest Industry Transformation Program promotes new technologies that lead to non-traditional, high-value forest products and renewable energies. Find out about the Program. The Forestry Innovation Investment (FII) is our market development agency for forest products. FII works with industry trade associations in promoting B.C. forest products domestically and internationally, but does not provide loans, subsidies or other financial incentives to individual businesses.
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Present Trade Relationship between Canada and India of fishing industry


India Canada trade relations have flourished in spite of the fact that Canada was one of the founder members of NATO while India was not. Both countries have shared a cordial and productive trading relationship right since the days of Indian independence. After a decline in India Canada trading relations in the 1970s due to India's Peaceful Nuclear Explosion, trade between India and Canada picked up in the 1990s. In 1997, Canada started focusing on India in a big way, after the financial crisis in south east Asia. Canada then zeroed in on India intending to tap its huge trading potential. However, after India conducted nuclear tests in 1998, Canada once again went on an alert as far as its trading relations with India were concerned. But in 1999, after the Indian visit of the then Secretary of State for Asia Pacific, Raymond Chan, India Canada Trade Relations resumed once again economic alliances were agreed upon. government of India in its Eleventh Five Year Plan period (2007-2012) has set a target to increase fisheries exports from Rs 6000 crore to Rs 14000 crore. Seafood exports are an important component of food exports, as they constitute more than 70 per cent of the food exports. Fish and fish products (Tariff code 03) contributed to nearly 1 per cent of Indias total export value in 2007-08.

Countries importing Indian fish and fish products include Japan, United Stated of America, European Union (Spain, Belgium, United Kingdom, Italy, France, Germany, Portugal, Netherland), China, Hong Kong, United Arab Emirates,Canada, Singapore and Thailand. Frozen crustaceans and molluscs are the top exporting products (in terms of value). Indias major importing fish and fish products are fresh or chilled fish , and feed from aquatic products. These products are mainly imported from countries such as Bangladesh, Japan and Pakistan besides some from USA, Norway, China, Singapore, Thailand and Republic of Korea. Fish feed is imported from countries such as Thailand, Chile, Peru, Myanmar and Taiwan (during the year 2007-08).

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Bilateral investment of India and Canada for forest industry India-Canada Relations

Political relations:

In Canada, India is represented by the High Commission of India in Ottawa and the Consulate General of India in Toronto and Vancouver. In India, Canada is represented by the Canadian High Commission in New Delhi; the Consulate General of Canada in Chandigarh, Chennai, Mumbai and a Consulate in Bangalore. India established diplomatic relations with Canada in 1947. India and Canada have longstanding bilateral relationship based on shared democratic values, the multi-cultural, multi-ethnic and multi- religious nature of two societies and strong people-to-people contacts. In recent years, both countries have been working to enhance bilateral cooperation in a number of areas of mutual importance. Several high level visits have been exchanged during recent years including at PM levels: Prime Minister Stephen Harper of Canada visited India in 2009 and 2012; Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India visited Canada in 2010. India and Canada pursue bilateral relations through the mechanisms of annual Foreign Office Consultations, Strategic Dialogue, Joint Working Group on Counter-terrorism, Science & Technology Committee, Environment Forum, Energy Forum, Steering Committee on Mining and Earth Sciences; Joint Working Groups on ICTE, Education, Pulses, Plant Protection, Health, Agriculture and SPS issues etc. India and Canada have signed several agreements including the Air Services Agreement, Extradition Treaty, Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty, Agreement on Patents, Agreement on Cooperation in Agriculture, Agreement on Science and Technology and Environment Cooperation, Nuclear Cooperation Agreement, Social Security Agreement, MOU on Cooperation in Energy, MOU on cooperation in Mining and Earth Sciences, MOU on Cooperation in Higher Education, MOU on Cultural Cooperation, MOU on Cooperation in Intelligent Transport Systems and MOU on Cooperation in ICTE.

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Agreements/MOUs under negotiation are: Foreign Investment Promotion Agreement (FIPA), Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA), and Audio-Visual Co-Production Treaty. Agreements ready to be signed include Transfer of Prisoners Agreement. . Among other agreements signed include MOU for India Chair at CanadaIndia Centre of Excellence at Carleton University, MOU between Indian and Canadian Public Service Commissions for sharing experiences and expertise in Civil Services matters, MOU between Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR) to establish new and/or strengthen existing collaborations in special health related fields of research, etc. Separate MOUs on Mines and Mineral resources have been signed with the provinces of Saskatchewan, British Columbia, Ontario & Quebec. DRDO has signed MOU with York University for R&D in E-Warn. Commercial relations: The India Canada CEOs Roundtable has been upgraded to a CEOs Forum. An annualized Trade Ministers dialogue has been institutionalized to review trade and economic relations. Both sides are engaged in technical negotiations for a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) including trade in goods, services, investment, trade facilitation etc. Separate MOUs exist with implementation mechanisms to advance relations in the fields of energy, mining, agriculture etc. Air India (currently suspended) and Jet Airways operate air services to Canada. State Bank of India, ICICI Bank, Government of India Tourist Office, Air India and Jet Airways has offices in Canada. Many renowned Indian companies have presence in Canada such as Tata, Aditya Birla, Reliance, Wipro, Infosys, TCS, Essar, etc. Canada has established Trade Offices in Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Chennai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai and New Delhi. Reputed Canadian companies such as Bombardier, SNC Lavalin, CAE, Inc., etc. have a strong presence in India. Trade: Bilateral trade during the calendar year of 2011 crossed US$ 5 billion mark. Indias exports to Canada in 2011 were up 25 per cent and imports from Canada registered an increase of 31.7 per cent over 2010. Total bilateral trade during 2011 registered 28.35 per cent increase .
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Figures in billion US Dollars]

Details Indias Exports Indias Imports Total

2006 1.692 1.477 3.169

2007 1.841 1.667 3.508

2008 2.065 2.268 4.333

2009 1.754 1.881 3.635

2010 2.064 2.024 4.088

2011 2.581 2.635 5.216

[Source: Statistics Canada]

Major Items of Indian Exports are: Medicines, Garments, diamonds, chemicals, gems and jewellery, petroleum oils, made-up, sea food, engineering goods, marble and granite, knitted garments, rice, electric equipment, plastic products, etc. Major items of Canadas export to India are: Pulses, fertilizers, newsprint, aircrafts & aviation equipment, diamonds, copper ores and concentrates, bituminous coal, wood pulp, nickel, unwrought aluminum, asbestos, god, cameras, lumber, ferrous waste, etc.

The stock of two-way direct investment between India and Canada is as under: [Figures in million Canadian Dollars]

2005 Canadian FDI in India Indian FDI in Canada Total 319 171 490

2006 677 211 888

2007 506 1,988 2,494

2008 667 6,514 7,181

2009 520 6,217 6,737

2010 676 4,364 5,040

2011 587 4,396 4,983

[Source: Government of Canada]

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Canadian investors are present in the Indian banking; insurance and financial services sectors, as also in engineering and consultancy services. Canadian investment in India has targeted telecommunications, environment, energy and mining. Indian investment in Canada has increased steadily in the recent years, especially in the information technology, software and natural resources sectors. A Bilateral Investment Promotion Agreement is under negotiation.

Cultural relations:
Year of India 2011 in Canada (YOI): Pursuant to the announcement made by Indian and Canadian Prime Ministers in November 2009, the Year of India 2011 was organized in different cities of Canada which included multi sectorial events such as cultural shows, Writers festivals, film festivals, food festivals, trade shows, Education Summit, Innovation Summit, PBD-Canada, LKAs Moderns Exhibition, Eminent lecture series, installation of Gandhi statues, Tagore anniversary etc. The Rt Hon Stephen Harper, Prime Minister of Canada officiated at both the inaugural and the closing ceremonies of YOI. Among the Indian dignitaries who officiated at various YOI events included Ms. Preneet Kaur, Minister of State for External Affairs, Dr. D. Purandeswari, MOS (HRD), Mr. Arun Maira, Member, Planning Commission, Dr. R. Chidambaram, Principal Scientific Advisor to Government of India, CMs of Jharkhand and Nagaland, and Mr. Suresh Prabhu, former Minister of Power. In the Education field, the Shastri Indo-Canadian Institute (SICI) was founded in 1968 to promote academic relations mainly through funding research and linking academic institutions in the two countries; as of today, 50 universities from India and 40 from Canada are members of the Institute. SICI broadly meets its objective by promoting Canadian Studies in India and Indian Studies in Canada. MOU on Educational cooperation has been signed with the Government of Canada. ICCR has sanctioned India Chairs for 5 Canadian universities (Carleton. McGill, York, Toronto, McMaster). India specific centers have been set up in Canadian Universities, the most prominent being the Canada India Centre of Excellence at Carleton, Ottawa. Over 300 MOUs exist between Canadian and Indian higher education institutions for collaborative research and exchange programmers. Bilateral Education Summit was held in Ottawa in June 2011. There are approx. 23,000 Indian students currently in Canada which makes India the second largest source of foreign students after South Korea.

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Indian community:
Canada is home to 962,670 Persons of Indian origin (2006 Census): 50% are Sikhs, 39% Hindus, and the remainder is Muslim, Christian, Jain, Buddhist, etc. A majority of PIOs live in Greater Toronto Area, Greater Vancouver Area, Montreal and Calgary. (Unofficial figures place the number of PIOs currently in Canada at 1.2m). There are 9 Indo-Canadian MPs in the House of Commons and one in the Senate. Two PIO MPs are Ministers of State in the Federal government and one PIO MP is Parliamentary Secretary to the Foreign Minister. Prominent Indo-Canadian bodies include Canada India Business Council (CIBC), Canada India Foundation (CIF) and several other local chambers and associations.

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Reference

Fisheries and oceans Canada articles page no. 1 to 6 World Health Organization (2000): Climate change and human health: impact and adaptation; Document WHO/SDE/OEH/004, Geneva and Rome, 48 p. Canadian Institute for Health Information (2002): Health care in Canada 2002; available on-line at http://secure.cihi.ca/cihiweb/dispPage.jsp?cw_page =AR_43_E&cw_topic=43 (accessed April 2003). https://www.ic.gc.ca/app/scr/sbms/sbb/cis/definition.html?code=11&lang=eng

http://www.ccfm.org/ci/rprt2005/english/toc.htm The%20Canadian%20forestry%20sector%20%20an%20industrial%20and%20technological%20profile% 20%28BP-294E%29.htm Canadian Public Health Association (2001): Strategic plan on health and climate change: a framework for collaborative action; final report of the Roundtable on Health and Climate Change, Canadian Public Health Association, Ottawa, Ontario. Health Canada (2000): Health Canada decision-making framework for identifying, assessing, and managing health risks; Health Canada, 75 p.

Government of Karnataka, Karnataka Fisheries Statistics- 2005-06

Economic and Political Weekly Research Foundation, Mumbai. http://www.ysr.in/userpressitem.aspx?id=35

Coelho, M., Ferreira, M. A. M., Filipe, J. A.,(2012), Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Bureaucracy: The Possible Emergence of andante-commons Tragedy in the Portuguese Aquaculture Sector. 15th Uddevalla Symposium2012 on Entrepreneurship and Innovation Networks.

Bjorndal, T. and Conrad, J. (1987), The dynamics of an open access fishery. Canadian Journal of Economics, 20(1), 74-85..

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INDIA Marine Fisheries: Issues, Opportunities and Transitions for Sustainable Development .page no..10 ti 15.

Subramanian K.A., Biodiversity and Status of Riverine Ecosystems of the Western Ghats, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Submitted to Western Ghats Ecological Expert Panel (2010) Bhat A., Diversity and composition of freshwater fishes in river system of Central Western Ghats, India, Environmental Biology of Fishes, 68, 25-38 (2003). Heartsill-Scalley. T and Aide T. M., Riparian Vegetation and Stream Condition in a Tropical AgricultureSecondary Forest Mosaic, Ecological Applications, 13(1), 225-234 (2003)

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