Network Topology
2.1
Introduction
An important step in the procedure for solving any circuit problem consists first in selecting a number of independent branch currents as (known as loop currents or mesh currents) variables, and then to express all branch currents as functions of the chosen set of branch currents. Alternately a number of independent node pair voltages may be selected as variables and then express all existing node pair voltages in terms of these selected variables. For simple networks involving a few elements, there is no difficulty in selecting the independent branch currents or the independent nodepair voltages. The set of linearly independent equations can be written by inspection. However for large scale networks particularly modern electronic circuits such as integrated circuits and microcircuits with a larger number of interconnected branches, it is almost impossible to write a set of linearly independent equations by inspection or by mere intuition. The problem becomes quite difficult and complex. A systematic and step by step method is therefore required to deal with such networks. Network topology (graph theory approach) is used for this purpose. By this method, a set of linearly independent loop or node equations can be written in a form that is suitable for a computer solution.
2.2
The description of networks in terms of their geometry is referred to as network topology. The adequacy of a set of equations for analyzing a network is more easily determined topologically
than algebraically. Graph (or linear graph): A network graph is a network in which all nodes and loops are retained but its branches are represented by lines. The voltage sources are replaced by short circuits and current sources are replaced by open circuits. (Sources without internal impedances or admittances can also be treated in the same way because they can be shifted to other branches by Eshift and/or Ishift operations.) Branch: A line segment replacing one or more network elements that are connected in series or parallel.
112
Network Theory
Node: Interconnection of two or more branches. It is a terminal of a branch. Usually interconnections of three or more branches are nodes. Path: A set of branches that may be traversed in an order without passing through the same node more than once. Loop: Any closed contour selected in a graph. Mesh: A loop which does not contain any other loop within it. Planar graph: A graph which may be drawn on a plane surface in such a way that no branch passes over any other branch. Nonplanar graph: Any graph which is not planar. Oriented graph: When a direction to each branch of a graph is assigned, the resulting graph is called an oriented graph or a directed graph. Connected graph: A graph is connected if and only if there is a path between every pair of nodes. Sub graph: Any subset of branches of the graph. Tree: A connected subgraph containing all nodes of a graph but no closed path. i.e. it is a set of branches of graph which contains no loop but connects every node to every other node not necessarily directly. A number of different trees can be drawn for a given graph. Link: A branch of the graph which does not belong to the particular tree under consideration. The links form a subgraph not necessarily connected and is called the cotree. Tree compliment: Totality of links i.e. Cotree. Independent loop: The addition of each link to a tree, one at a time, results one closed path called an independent loop. Such a loop contains only one link and other tree branches. Obviously, the number of such independent loops equals the number of links. Tie set: A set of branches contained in a loop such that each loop contains one link and the remainder are tree branches. Tree branch voltages: The branch voltages may be separated in to tree branch voltages and link voltages. The tree branches connect all the nodes. Therefore if the tree branch voltages are forced to be zero, then all the node potentials become coincident and hence all branch voltages are forced to be zero. As the act of setting only the tree branch voltages to zero forces all voltages in the network to be zero, it must be possible to express all the link voltages uniquely in terms of tree branch voltages. Thus tree branch form an independent set of equations. Cut set: A set of elements of the graph that dissociates it into two main portions of a network such that replacing any one element will destroy this property. It is a set of branches that if removed divides a connected graph in to two connected subgraphs. Each cut set contains one tree branch and the remaining being links. Fig. 2.1 shows a typical network with its graph, oriented graph, a tree, cotree and a nonplanar graph.
Let B = Total number of branches in the graph or network N = total nodes L = link branches Then N 1 branches are required to construct a tree because the first branch chosen connects two nodes and each additional branch includes one more node. Therefore number of independent node pair voltages = N 1 = number of tree branches. Then L = B (N 1) = B N 1 Number of independent loops = B N 1
2.3
Isomorphic graphs
Two graphs are said to be ismorphic if they have the same incidence matrix, though they look differe It means that they have the same nt. numbers of nodes and the same numbers of branches. There is one to one correspondence between the nodes and one to one correspondence between the
Figure 2.2
11!
 Network Theory
2.4
For a given oriented graph, there are several representative matrices. They are extremely important in the analytical studies of a graph, particularly in the computer aided analysis and synthesis of large scale networks.
2.4.1 Incidence atri! An
It is also known as augmented incidence matrix. The element node incidence matrix A indicates in a connected graph, the incidence of elements to nodes. It is an N " B matrix with elements of
"n = (ak# )
ak# = 1$ when the branch %# is incident to and oriented away from the k no&e.
th
= 1$ when the branch %# is incident to and oriented towards the k no&e. = '$ when the branch %# is not incident to the k no&e.
As each branch of the graph is incident to exactly two nodes,
n
th
th
k='
ak# = '
(or
# = 1$ 2$ 3$ ) ) ) B.
That is, each column of "n has exactly two non zero elements, one being +1 and the other 1. Sum of elements of any column is zero. The columns of "n are lineraly dependent. The rank of the matrix is less than N. Significance of the incidence matrix lies in the fact that it translates all the geometrical features in the graph into an algebraic expression. Using the incidence matrix, we can write *+L as An iB = 0, where iB = branch current vector. But these equations are not linearly independent. The rank of the matrix A is N 1. This property of "n is used to define another matrix called reduced incidence matrix or bus incidence matrix. For the oriented graph shown in Fig. 2.3(a), the incidence matrix is as follows: No&e, %ran.h e, 2 3 11
a%
"
n
' 1
1 '
1'
'
'
'
'
1
&
'
' 1
Figure 2.3(a)
Any node of a connected graph can be selected as a reference node. Then the voltages of the other nodes (referred to as buses) can be measured with respect to the assigned reference. The matrix obtained from An by deleting the row correspondi ng to the reference node is the elementbus incident matrix " and is called bus incidence matrix with dimension (N 1) " B. A is rectangular and therefore singular. In An,
the sum of all elements in each column is zero. This leads to an important conclusion that if one row is not known in A, it can be found so that sum of elements of each column must be zero. From A, we have A iB = 0, which represents a set of linearly independen t equations and there are N 1 independen t node equations. For the graph shown in Fig 2.3(a), with & selected as the reference node, the reduced incidence matrix is No&e, 
"=
Anothe r important property of A is that determinan T t "" gives the number of possible trees of the network. If " = 0"t 1 "i2 where "t and "i are submatrices of A such that "t contains only twigs, then det "t is either + 1 or 1. To verify the property that det T "" gives the number of all possible trees, consider the reduced incidence matrix A of the example considered. That is,
Then, 1 1
3et "" =
1 '
1 '
1 1
'
'
114
 Network Theory
Figure 2.3(%)
To verify the property that the determinant of sub matrix At of A = At ; Ai is +1 or 1. For tree [2, 3, 4] No&e, %ran.h e, 3 !
From
" =
1'
%
.
'
1 1
1'
' 1
1 1
'
'
1
= " t5 "i
' =
3et " =
i
'
1
1
'
'
1
'
No&e, "=
a
2
1
%ran.h e, ! / 1 1
'
3 = " t5 "i
% '
'
'
11
'
1 . 1 1 1 ' '
3et " =
i
'
'
'
'
2.6
atri!'
From the knowledge of the basic loops (tiesets), we can obtain loop matrix. In this matrix, the loop orientation is to be the same as the corresponding link direction. In order to construct this matrix, the following procedure is to be followed.
Network Topology
116
1. Draw the oriented graph of the network. Choose a tree. 2. Each link forms an independent loop. The direction of this loop is same as that of
the corresponding link. Choose each link in turn.
Figure 2.!
Selecting (2, 4, 5) as tree, the cotree is (1, 3). Fig. 2.4 leads to the following tieset. Loop, 1 1 = 2 1 %ran.h e, ! / 1 '
1
2 3 1 ' 1 1
7 81
8
3
'
'
82
with
( =
8
!
) 8/ 9*
Then
='
82 82
='
83 8/
Looking column wise, we can express branch currents in terms of loop currents. This is done by the following matrix equation. T + = I
11:
Network Theory
The above matrix equation gives 1 = 1, 2 = 1 2, 3 = 2, ! = 1 2 Note that stands for branch current while stands for loop current.
In this matrix,
(i) Each row corresponds to an independent loop. Therefore the columns of the resulting
schedule automatically yield a set of equations relating each branch current to the loop currents.
(ii) As each column expresses a branch current in terms of loop currents, the rows of the
matrix automatically yield the closed paths in which the associated loop currents circulate. Expressions for branch currents in terms of loop currents may be obtained in T matrix form as + = I. where M is the tieset matrix of . In the present example,
7
!
1
2
)
an &
=
9*
2. ,
A cutset of a graph is a set of branches whose removal, cuts the connected graph into two parts such that the replacement of any one branch of the cutset renders the two parts connected. For example, two separated graphs are obtained for the graph of Fig. 2.5(a) by selecting the cutset consisting of branches [1, 2, 5, 6]. These seperated graphs are as shown in Fig. 2.5(b).
Just as a systematic method exists for the selection of a set of independent loop current variables, a similar process exists for the selection of a set of independent node pair potential variables.
Network Topology
11=
It is already known that the cut set is a minimal set of branches of the graph, removal of which divides the graph in to two connected subgraphs. Then it separates the nodes of the graph in to two groups, each being one of the two subgraphs. Each branch of the tieset has one of its terminals incident at a node on one subgraph. Selecting the orientation of the cut set same as that of the tree branch of the cut set, the cut set matrix is constructed rowwise taking one cut set at a time. Without link currents, the network is inactive. In the same way, without node pair voltages the network is active. This is because when one twig voltage is made active with all other twig voltages are zero, there is a set of branches which becomes active. This set is called cutset. This set is obtained by cutting the graph by a line which cuts one twig and some links. The algebraic sum of these branch currents is zero. Making one twig voltage active in turn, we get entire set of node equations. This matrix has current values,
= 1, if branch is in the cutset with orientation same as that of tree branch. = 1, if branch is in the cutset with orientation opposite to that of tree branch. = ', if branch is not in the cutset. and dimension is ( 1) .
Rowbyrow reading, it gives the at each node and therefore we have QJ = 0. The procedure to write cutset matrix is as follows:
(i) Draw the oriented graph of a network and choose a tree. (ii) Each tree branch forms an independent cutset. The direction of this cutset is
same as that of the tree branch. Choose each tree branch in turn to obtain the cut set matrix. Isolate the tree element pairs and energize each bridging tree branch. Assuming the bridging tree branch potential equals the node pair potential, thus regarding it as an independent variable.
(iii) Use the columns of the cutset matrix to yield a set of equations relating the
branch potentials in terms of the node pair potentials. This may be obtained in matrix form as V = Q E where 8 and are used to indicate branch potential and node voltage respectively. In the example shown in Fig 2.5 (c), (3, 4, 5) are tree branches. Links are shown in dotted lines. If two tree branch voltages in 3 and 4 are made zero, the nodes and are at the same potential. Similarly the nodes and are at the same potential. The graph is reduced to the form shown in Fig. 2.5(d) containing only the cutset branches. Then, we have
T
/ 1 2 4
='
Similarly by making only ! to exist (with / and 3 zero), the nodes , and are at the same potential, reducing the graph to the form shown in Fig. 2.5(e). Thus,
='
12'
Network Theory
Figure 2./(.)
Figure 2./(&)
Figure 2./(e)
Figure 2./(()
For the remaining cutset, ! and / are made zero as in Fig. 2.5(g). 3 is active and hence, the nodes , , and are at the same potential. Thus
='
Figure 2./(g)
Figure 2./(h)
1
8 1
2 1
3 '
! '
/ 1
4 1
8 2 3
= =
'
1
1 1
' 1
1 '
' '
1 '
= 
8
3
Network Topology
1 2 1
Note that QJB gives the following equilibrium equations: ?1 ?2 ?/ ?2 ?! ?4 = ' ?4 = '
?1 ?2 ?3 = ' Looking columnwise, we can express branch voltages in terms of node pair voltages as
>
>
2 1
= e 1
e 1
e 2
e3
1
1
1
e3
'
1
' 1
>3 = e3
>
!
@r
e e 2
1
e
'
' 1
= (B
= e
'
= >
3
e
1
1 e1 e2
T
' '
>4 = That is
1 '
(B =  .N
2 . /
Loop equations: A branch of a netwrok can, in general, be represented as shown in Fig. 2.6,
Figure 2.4
where AB is the voltage source of the branch. BB is the current source of the branch CB is the impedance of the branch ?B is the current in the branch The voltagecurrent relation is then given by DB = (?B BB ) CB AB For a general network with many branches, the matrix equation is (B = 1B (+B IB ) .B (2.1) are B " 1 vectors and ZB is the branch impedance matrix of B "
where VB , JB , IB , and EB B.
122
 Network Theory
Each row of the tieset matrix corresponds to a loop and involves all the branches of the loop. As per *D L, the sum of the corresponding branch voltages may be equated to zero. That is
(B = ' where M is the tieset matrix. In the same matrix, each column represents a branch current in terms of loop currents. Transposed M is used to give the relation between branch currents and loop currents. +B = IL This equation is called loop transformation equation. we get 1B ;+B IB < Substituting equation (2.3) in (2.4), we get 1B o r
T T T
(2.2)
.B = '
(2.4)
IL
T
1B IB IL = .B
.B = ' 1B IB
1B
With 1B = 1L, we have 1LIL = .L If there are no current sources in the network, then 1LIL = .B = AL (2.5)
where CL is the loop impedance matrix and AL is the resultant loop voltage source vector. Node equations: Next, each row of the cutset matrix corresponds to a particular node pair voltage and indicates different branches connected to a particular node. *+L can be applied to the node and the algebraic sum of the branch currents at that node is zero. +B = ' Each column of cutset matrix relates a branch voltage to node pair voltages. Hence, (B =  .N This equation is known as node transformation equation. branch is
T
(2.6)
?B = EB (DB AB ) BB For a netwrok with many branches the above equation may be written in matrix form as + B = 2B ( B 2B .B IB (2 .8 )
The matrix nodal equations may be obtained from equations 2.6, 2.7, and 2.8. Substituting equation (2.8) in (2.6) 2B (B
(2.9)
Substituting equation (2.7) in (2.9) 2B  .N =  (IB 2B .B ) In the absence of voltage sources, the equation becomes 2N .N = IB = IN where 2N is the node admittance matrix and IN is the node current vector.
T
3orked .!amples
AFAGHLA 2.1
Refer the circuit shown in Fig. 2.7(a). Draw the graph, one tree and its cotree.
Figure 2.6(a)
I@LJTB@N
We find that there are four nodes (N = !) and seven branches (B = 6). The graph is then drawn and appears as shown in Fig. 2.7 (b). It may be noted that node & represented in the graph (Fig. 2.7(b)) represents both the nodes & and e of Fig. 2.7(a). Fig. 2.7(c) shows one tree of graph shown in Fig. 2.7(b). The tree is made up of branches 2, 5 and 6. The cotree for the tree of Fig. 2.7(c) is shown in Fig. 2.7(d). The cotree has L = B N 1 = 6 ! 1 = ! links.
Figure 2.6(%)Kraph
12!
Network Theory
AFAGHLA
2.2
Refer the network shown in Fig. 2.8(a). Obtain the corresponding incidence matrix.
Figure 2.:(a)
I@LJTB@N
Figure 2.:(%)
The network shown in Fig. 2.8(a) has five nodes and eight branches. The corresponding graph appears as shown in Fig. 2.8(b). The incidence matrix is formed by following the rule: The entry of the incidence matrix, M = 1, if the current of branch M leaves the node = 1, if the current of branch enters node = ', if the branch M is not connected with node . Incidence matrix: Nodes 1 2 +1 1 0 +1 0 0 1 0 Branch numbers 1 0 0 0
0 1
0 0
3 4 5
0 0 0
0 0
+1 1 0
0 +1 0
0 0 +1
0 0 +1
0 +1
0 1 +1
Some times, we represent an incidence matrix as follows: 1 1 1 ' ' ' ' ' 1 1 ' 1 ' ' ' ' "/ = 1 1 ' 1 ' ' ' ' 1 ' ' 1 ' ' ' 1
) '
'
'
'
where subscript 5 indicates that there are five nodes in the graph. It may be noted that from a given incidence matrix, the corresponding graph can be drawn uniquely.
AFAGHLA 2.3
For the incidence matrix shown below, draw the graph. 1 2 3 ! / 4 6 : 1 ' ' ' 1 ' ' 1 ' 1 ' ' 1 1 ' ' 1 ' ' 1 ' ' 1 1 )' ' ' 1 ' ' 1 '
5
*
I@LJTB@N
Figure 2.=
Observing the matrix, it can be seen that it is a reduced incidence matrix. Branches 1, 2, 3
and 4 are to be connected to the reference node. Branch 5 appears between the nodes and , 6 between and , 7 between and and 8 between and . With this infromation, the oriented graph is drawn as shown in Fig. 2.9. Orientation is +1 for an arrow leaving a node 1 for an arrow entering a node.
AFAGHLA 2.!
Draw the graph of a netwrok of whose the incidence matrix is as shown below. 1 1 2 3 ! / 4 6 : = ' ' 1 1 1 1 ' 1 ' ' ' ' 1 1 ' 1 ' ' ' ' 1 1 1 1 1 ' ' ' ' ' M 1 ) 1 ' ' ' 1 1 1 ' ' '
5
*
124
Network Theory
I@LJTB@N
Sum of the elements in columns 4, 9 are not zero. Therefore the given matrix is a reduced matrix. Taking 0 as reference node, the oriented graph is shown in Fig. 2.10 after making the nodes in an order.
Figure 2.1'
AFAGH LA
2 . /
For the graph shown in Fig. 2.11(a), write the incidence matrix. Express branch voltage in terms of node voltages and then write a loop matrix and express branch currents in terms of loop currents.
I@LJTB @N
With the orientation shown in Fig. 2.11(a), the incidence matrix is prepaed as shown below. 1 1
2 ' 1
'
:
1
Figure 2.11(a)
'
1
'
'
82
et c.
Figure 2.11(%)
=
For loop (tieset) matrix, = 1 = : / 1 = !. With twigs (1, 2, 3, 4), we have chords (links) (5, 6, 7, 8) and the corresponding tree is as shown in Fig 2.11 (b). Introducing the chords one at a time, the tieset matrix is prepared as shown below.
Network Topology
1 2 6
1
= = ? ? 4/
= ?6
2 1
! / 4 6 : '
1
'
1
2
1
i3
'
1
'
'
1 '
1
'
'
i =
!
?:
'
For the network shown in Fig. 2.12(a), determine the number of all possible trees. For a tree consisting of (1, 2, 3) (i) draw tie set matrix (ii) draw cutset matrix.
Figure 2.12(a)
I@LJTB@N
If the intention is to draw a tree only for the purpose of tieset and cutset matrices, the ideal current source is open circuited and ideal voltage source is short circuited. The oriented graph is drawn for which & is the reference. Refer Fig. 2.12(b), 1
a
1
2 '
3 '
! 1 1
4
' 1
"=
'
11
1 1 '
'
'
'
1 2 :
Network Theory
' '
'
' 1 1
'
'
1
1 1
'
'
11
' '
'
= 12
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
Therefore, possible number of trees = 12. Fig. 2.12(b) shows the corresponding graph, tree, cotree, and loops 1, 2, 3.
+oLtree (link,)
Figure 2.12(%)
( i )
2 1
i
3
= = ? ? /!
'
'
1 1
'
'
'
'
1
= ?4
1 1 1
'
'
( i i )
Cutset matrix is
N To
%ran.h e,
1 1
1 2
81
'
82
' 1
'
3 ! ' 1 ' 1
1 1
/ 1 ' '
4
1
1
5
a
83
'
AFAGHLA
2.6
For the network shown in Fig. 2.13(a), write a tieset schedule and then find all the branch currents and voltages.
Figure 2.13(a)
I@LJTB@N
shown in Fig. 2.13(a). Also, a possible tree and cotree are shown in Fig. 13(c). Cotree is in dotted lines.
Figure
13'
Network Theory
First, the tieset schedule is formed and then the tieset matrix is obtained. Tieset schedule: Branch Loop numbers currents 1 2 3 4 5 6 + 1 1 0 0 +1 0 1 0 +1 0 0 +1 6 + 1 0 0 1 0 +1 N Tieset matrix is
1 1
1
'
1 '
'
1
'
' 1
/
'
/'
'
' '
'
'
'
. =
) ' '
' *
The loop impedance matrix is 1 = 1 O 1 ' ' 1 1 ' 1 ' ' = ' ' 1 O
T
' 1 O1 '1
/ ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 1' ' ' ' / ' ' ' ' ' ' 1' ' '
' ' 1
' ' 1 O
' /
O1
1
=
'
'
5
'
'
'
1 '
' 1
1' '
' /
1 O ' 1
' 1
1
'
'
1
'
'
'
1 1
'
'
'
1
' 5
'
' 5 1'
'
'
1 1
'
/ '
'
'
1' '
'
'
' '
=
1/
5
/ 1'
/
'
2'
5=
/
/ 1'
/
'
1'
2'
1'
1/
/'' 5 '
. = '
1'
2'
'
Network Topology

131
.B
/ '
2'/ 1'/
Py
'
1'
/ Q Solving by matrix method, we get P = 4.1666 y = 1.16666 A, A, The branch currents are computed using the equations: IB =
B B
2
1
'
1
2 '
' Q = 2.5 A
IL '
1
'
'
B
3
B
!
'
1
1
' 1
'
1
'
Py
1
Q
B
/
B
4
'
1 1 B3 = Q = 2./ A, B4 = y Q = '.:33! A
Hence, B1 = P = !.1444 A,
B2 = y = 1.4444 A,
B! = P Q = 1.4444 A, B/ = P y = 2./ A, The branch voltages are computed using the equation: (B = 1B IB .B
Hence, D1 D!
AFAGHLA
Refer the network shown in Fig. 2.14(a). Find the tieset matrix and loop currents.
Figure 2.1!(a)
132
 Network Theory
I@LJTB@N
In the circuit, 4 in series with current source is shorted (as it is trival), the graph is as shown in Fig. 2.14(b) with 1 as tree branch and 2 as link. Using the equation, 1B with [1 = 1], we have 1] =
T
IL =
.B
1B I B
Figure 2.1!(%)
[1
.
B
1B
1
4
1
=8
4
4 0
1 1
1B IB =
0
0
0
4
DP0R4
1 1
10
DP
10
DP
8B1 = 10 DP 8B1 = 10 4B1 B1 = DPR4 B2$ As AFAGHL A 2.= For the given cutset matrix, draw the oriented graph 0
1 0
0
bu t
1
0
0
1 0
0
0
0
1 1
0
1
1
0 0
I@LJTB@N
1
0
0 1
Nt
e3 = >3 and e! = >!.
>2, Therefore all these are connected to reference node. Individual cutsets are
which indicates that 5 is common to a and %, 7 is common to % and ., 6 is common to . and &.
AFAGHLA
2.1'
Refer the network shown in Fig. 2.15(a). Solve for branch currents and branch voltages.
2I
2I
1I
!I
Figure 2.1/(a)
I@LJTB@N
The oriented graph for the network is shown in Fig. 2.15(b). A possible tree and cotree with fundamental cutsets are shown in Fig. 2.15(c).
(3) (1) (2)
(!)
(3)
(1)
(2) (!)
1 3 !
Network Theory
1 2 1 0 0 1
1
3 1 1
4 0 1
= Cutset matrix:
'
11
'
1
'
1
2
2B = '
'
'
2
'
'
'
'
'
S 1 ' 1
' 1
1
'
1
'
'
'
'
1
1
'
1
' 1
S 2 ' 2
' 1
2
'
!
'
1
'
1
'
2 !
e
!2
2
1'
1
S
1
=S
'
1
1 '
1 1
'
'
'
6 S
2
!
S e
'
21
1''
6' e1 = 2! D$
e2 = D
2'
2!
'
1
2 !6
1
'
1
1
2 '
D
!
'
2!
Ten.e$
= D =
1
6'
2!
2 '
2.= 16D
D
2
= 2! D = '.:33D
D = 2! 2.':!D 3
2 '
6' 2' 2! =
D
!
= 2! =
'.:33D Branch currents are found using the matrix equation (2.8): +B = 2B (B IB
B B
2
1
B3
' 2
= '
'
'
D D
2
1
D3
' 1'
'
'
B
1
B
2
B
3
B
!
Verification: Refer Fig. 2.15(a). KCL equations B1 = B3 = !.14: A B3 = B2 B! = '.:33 3.332 = !.144 A and KVL equations: D3 D2 D1 = '
134
Network Theory
AFAGHLA
2.11
For the oriented graph shown, express loop currents in terms of branch currents for an independent set of columns as those pertinent to the links of a tree:
1 +1 0 0 0
2 0 +1 0 0
7 0 1 +1 0
8 0 0 1 +1
= / 4 6 : and = 1 2 3 !. = = 2 3 = , , ,
1 1 2 3
! ! & Then for the second set, of the mesh currents indicated for the first set, we have
! !
! 2
=
1
=
3
! :
! 6 :
: ! ! Thus the two sets of relations for s in terms of s are equivalent. The tieset schedule with the currents in links 4, 5, 7, 8 as loop currents are shown below.
3 6
! 6 :
Loop No:1 2 3 4
1 +1 0 0 +1
2 0 1 1 +1
Branch numbers 3 4 5 6 0 0 +1 1 0 1 +1 0 0 + 1 0 0 0 1 1 0
7 0 + 1 0 0
8 0 0 +1 0
AFAGHLA
2.12
In the graph shown in Figure 2.16(a), the ideal voltage source e = 1 V. For the remaining branches each has a resistance of 1 with @ as the reference. Obtain the node voltage e1, e2 and e3 using network topology.
I@LJTB@N
Figure 2.14(a)
With e shift, graph is as shown in Figure 2.16(b). Branches are numbered with orientation.
Figure 2.14(%)
0 0
0 1
0 0
0 0
0 1 1 1 0
1 3 :
Network Theory
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Therefo re,
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6 3
Network Topology
1 3 =
AFAGHL A
2.1 3
For the circuit shown in Fig. 2.17, for a tree consisting of , , form a tieset schedule and obtain equilibrium loop equations. Choose branch numbers same as their resistance values. Solve for loop currents.
Figure 2.16
I@LJTB@N
Figure 2.16(a)
Tree with nodes , , and and links are shown in dotted line. The tie set matrix is 1
2 1 1 '
3 ! ' 1
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1
3 1 2
1!'
Network Theory
1B
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