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Infant Jesus Academy Marikina

The effects of diluted coffee grounds, eggshell extract, hugas bigas, and saba banana peel extract as liquid fertilizer on the growth of Pechay (Brassica pekinensis)

Submitted by: Barretto, Clarisse Arcipe, Joshua Hirang, Manuel Sulapat, John

Submitted to: Mr. John Mark Doria

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine if diluted coffee grounds, eggshell extract, hugas bigas, and saba banana peel extract have an effect on Pechay (Brassica pekinensis). 24 plants were reared (in groups of four) under the following setups: under the following set-ups: (Pot A) 100% commercialized fertilizer (Agri-Saver), (Pot B) 25/25/25/25 of diluted coffee grounds, eggshell extract, hugas bigas, and saba banana peel extract, (Pot C) 70% diluted coffee grounds, 10% eggshell extract, 10% hugas bigas, and 10% saba banana peel extract, (Pot D) 70% eggshell extract, 10% diluted coffee grounds, 10% hugas bigas, and 10% saba banana peel extract; (Pot E) 70% hugas bigas, 10% diluted coffee grounds, 10% eggshell extract, and 10% saba banana peel extract, and (Pot F) 70% saba banana peel extract, 10% diluted coffee grounds, 10% eggshell extract, and 10% hugas bigas. After two applications, pot F had the most significant effect on the growth of the plants. However, there was a flaw in the methodology, and thus the study was unable to show the effectiveness of the different solutions to the growth of pechay. Chapter 1: In sustaining human life, people depend highly on agriculture. This is where people get their food, drugs, biofuel, and other products used in everyday life. Almost everything that is in your cupboards, refrigerators, as well as the garments we wear come from this sector. Agriculture plays a big part in our daily lives in one way or another. Scientists are constantly looking for innovations to make products more convenient and more effective. The researchers of this study aimed to find innovation from wasted materials. They aimed to find an inexpensive organic alternative to commercialized fertilizers. These materials can be found either in our homes, or given for free in some shops. Coffee grounds are leftovers from brewing coffee. It is also given for free in some coffee shops like Starbucks. Eggshells are often thrown in the trash after cooking. Hugas bigas is often wasted after rinsing rice grains with water. Banana peels are thrown in the garbage after eating the fruit or after frying turon. These everyday waste materials contain nutrients that can help plant growth, and can be used as fertilizers. The researchers used Pechay (Brassica pekinensis) as subject, because it is one of the most in demand vegetables sold in local markets. This variant of vegetable appeals to a lot of Filipinos for its budget-friendly price. Pechay (Brassica pekinensis) is also an easy-to-grow plant, thus making it a convenient choice for backyard gardeners. Statement of the Problem:

1. How can we reuse organic wasted materials, such as coffee grounds, eggshells, hugas bigas, and saba banana to benefit us? 2. Can the solution water be effective in fertilizing Pechay (Brassica pekinensis)? 3. Can the product equal with the commercialized fertilizer?

Formulation of the Hypothesis: The solution of diluted coffee grounds, eggshell extract, hugas bigas, and saba banana peel extract has no effect on the growth of the plant.

Significance of the Study: The researchers aim to help hasten the growing process of plants. If successful with the project, this method will allow the crops of farmers to grow even faster, thus reducing the chances of weather damage. One of the most common nuisances of farmers these days are the sudden weather change, which can bring production to a halt, thus losing lots of money. If the researchers manage to accomplish what they have stated, numerous positive changes will occur. Even if the plants finish growing two to three days earlier that is a big difference because of the previously stated nuisance that may destroy the crops at any given time. There will be other people who will benefit from this, like the people who will actually eat the crops. With the release of food getting done earlier, right when a calamity strikes, there will be no shortage of food for those who will need it most. Straight to the point, if the project is successful, everybody involved with plants, the farmers, the consumers and even the investors will be benefiting from the project.

Scope and Limitation: The study does not discuss each materials role in the growth of the plant. Its focus is the solution itself (i.e. effects of diluted coffee grounds, eggshell extract, hugas bigas, and saba banana). This study only aimed to compare the solutions to a given commercialized fertilizer (Agri-Saver), that is sold in an inexpensive price, but has the basic nutrients needed by a plant (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium). Pechay (Brassica pekinensis) was chosen as subject in the study, because of its convenience. It has a short growth time (usually harvested after 60 days), and has a short maximum length (10-20cm). Moreover, Pechay is also in demand in local markets. It appeals to a lot of Filipinos for its inexpensive price, and it can also be grown by backyard gardeners or farmers.

The results of the study only show the effectiveness of the product in following set-ups: (Pot A) control group (fertilizer); (Pot B) 25/25/25/25 of diluted coffee grounds, eggshell extract, hugas bigas, and saba banana peel extract; (Pot C) 70% diluted coffee grounds, 10% eggshell extract, 10% hugas bigas, and 10% saba banana peel extract; (Pot D) 70% eggshell extract, 10% diluted coffee grounds, 10% hugas bigas, and 10% saba banana peel extract; (Pot E) 70% hugas bigas, 10% diluted coffee grounds, 10% eggshell extract, and 10% saba banana peel extract; and (Pot F) 70% saba banana peel extract, 10% diluted coffee grounds, 10% eggshell extract, and 10% hugas bigas.

Definition of Terms: 1. Coffee grounds The remains after brewing coffee; contains nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium that are all needed by plants. 2. Eggshell water The leftover water when boiling eggshells; extracted calcium, nitrogen, and other nutrients from the eggshell that are needed by the plants 3. Nitrogen A macronutrient needed by plants to thrive. Nitrogen is responsible for vegetative growth. 4. Phosphorous A macronutrient needed by plants to thrive. Phosphorous is responsible for root development, crop maturity, and seed production. 5. Potassium A macronutrient needed by plants. Potassium is responsible for the activation of enzymes in a plant, and increases water use efficiency. 6. Calcium A micronutrient needed by a plant to thrive. It is responsible for maintaining chemical balance in the soil, and strengthens the cell wall of the plants. 7. Macronutrient A substance needed by a plant in large amounts. 8. Micronutrient A substance needed by a plant in small amounts. 9. Cell wall The protective outer layer of a cell in a plant. Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

Coffee grounds can be added into the compost pile. They are rich in nitrogen that could provide bacteria the energy they need to turn organic matter into compost (Hannigan, Jack 2008). Coffee grounds contain 2.2% of Nitrogen, 0.3% of Potassium, and 0.3% of Phosphorous (NC State University 2000) Coffee grounds can also be diluted, and be used as a liquid fertilizer. They contain calcium and magnesium that

are needed by plants. It should be diluted enough for it to look like a weak tea. The rule of thumb in using diluted coffee grounds is applying it once a week (Vanderlinden, Colleen). Eggshells commonly used as addition to compost piles. They are a great source of calcium and other nutrients (Clawson, Beth 2013). Eggshells are just as effective as lime in providing calcium for plants. Eggshells can be put in a jar with water to make eggshell tea. Plants can get the nutrients extracted from the eggshells in this method (Selvey, Tiffany). In a nutritional analysis done by Tenn. Jeff Gillman, eggshell-infused water contains calcium, potassium, as well as amounts of phosphorous, magnesium, and sodium (Freeman, Elizabeth). Eggshells contain a large amount of calcium, as well as a small amount of nitrogen. Both of which are beneficial to the growth and development of healthy plants. There are several ways eggshells can be used that will benefit your garden. Some people like to crush them into fine particles and add them to the bottom of the hole when lying in transplants. But it probably won't benefit the current seasons garden very much as eggshells take too long to break down in the soil to be of immediate benefit (Freeman, E. 2013). The researchers can also add them, crushed up or pulverized into the compost heap. A quick rinse is a good idea as the scent of the egg residue can attract rodents and assorted critters. The moist efficient way to use eggshells as a fertilizer is to make a stew out of them. Using a 5 gallon bucket I thoroughly crush/pulverize my accumulated unwashed eggshells and dump them into the bucket full {To the brim} of water. Let this sit in the sun for a week or more but don't allow ALL the water to evaporate. When about a third of the water has evaporated pour this 'stew' around the base of your plants. (Gordon, A. 2008) Nitrogen and phosphorus were present in hugas bigas when tested. Hugas bigas helps contribute to the growth of pechay plants, and can be an effective alternative for tap water (Ryan Buan, Ronald Dimaculangan, Mylai lbero, Jasmin Jara, Monica Felise). It also helps contribute to the growth of mung beans (Vigna radiata), and can also be an effective alternative to tap water (Mok Hong Heng, 2011). Hugas bigas or rice wash can also be used as fertilizer through fermentation. It is achieved though fermenting rice was with EM and molasses for one week. Bananas are rich in phosphorus and potassium, both of them important macronutrients for the plants. Potassium in particular is the responsible for the new formation of flower buds (Fernando del Castillo, 2010). According to researchers, the high potassium and phosphorus content of banana peels would make them an ideal candidate as an organic fertilizer (Emma Cooper, 2010). Banana peels can be baked to use as fertilizer. Spread the mulch around houseplants and garden plants. The cooked peels will fertilize the plants as they break down, gently releasing the potassium and phosphorus (wikiHow). Banana peels are also used as rose fertilizers. The potassium feeds the plant and helps it resist disease (Melinda Page & Elizabeth Wells).

Bibliography Brenes RAG (1979) Processing of coffee pulp: chemical treatments. In: Coffee pulp Composition, technology, and utilization. Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama, pp 72-81. Strzalka, K.; Kostecka-Gugala, A. Latowski, D. Carotenoids and environmental stress in plants: Significance of carotenoid-mediated modulation of membrane physical properties. Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 2003, 50, 168172. Bumgarner, N.R.; Scheerens, J.C.; Mullen, R.W.; Bennett, M.A.; Ling, P.P.; Kleinhenz, M.D.Root-zone temperature and nitrogen affect the yield and secondary metabolite concentration of fall- and spring-grown, high-density leaf lettuce. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2011, 92, 116124. R. Cruz, P. Baptista, S. Cunha, J. A. Pereira; S. Casal:Carotenoids of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Grown on Soil Enriched with Spent Coffee Grounds.. Molecules 2012, 17, 15351547; doi: 10.3390/molecules17021535.. J. Environ. Qual. 2012, 33, Freeman, E. Homemade Eggshell Plant Fertilizer. SFGate. Retrieved 2013, from http://homeguides.sfgate.com/ Clawson, B.: Adding egg shells to compost.; Michigan State University. From http://msue.anr.msu.edu/ Selvey, T. Fertilizing Plants with Coffee Grounds and Eggshells. SFGate. Retrieved 2013, from Woodhead Pub Hannigan J. 2008. Coffee Grounds Perk Up Compost Pile With Nitrogen. Science Daily. From http://www.sciencedaily.com/ Vanderlinden, C. Use Diluted Coffee to Fertilize Plants. TLC. Retrieved 2013, from http://tlc.howstuffworks.com/ Trees: Nutrient Content, Table 1. Nutrient Content of Natural Materials. NC State University. From http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/ del Castillo, F. Using banana peels as fertilizer for container plants. My little Garden in Japan. Retrieved 2014, from http://www.mygardeninjapan.com/2010/11/usingbanana-peels-as-fertilizer-for.html Copper, E. Can you use banana peels as free fertilizer? Emma the Gardener. Retrieved 2014, from http://emmacooper.org/blog/can-you-use-banana-feels-as-free-fertilizer wikiHow. How to Make Fertilizer from Banana Peels. wikiHow. Retrieved 2014, from http://www.wikihow.com/Make-Fertilizer-from-Banana-Peels

Page, M.; Wells, E. Banana Peel as Rose Fertilizer. Real Simple. Retrieved 2014, from http://www.realsimple.com/food-recipes/new-uses-for-old-things/banana-peel10000001193282/index.html Buan, R.; Dimaculangan, R.; Ibero, M.; Jara, J.; A.,M.; The effects of Hugas Bigas on the growth of pechay (Brassica pekinesis) plants. Investigatory Project Collection. Retrieved 2014, from http://www.edu-sciece.com/2012/11/the-effect-of-hugas-bigason-growth-of.html Heng, M. Can Rice Water Replace fertilizer in plant growth? Blogspot. Retrieved 2014, from http://researchprojectricewater.blogspot.com/ Turning Your Rice Wash into Fertilizer EMRW. Agribusiness News. Retrieved 2014, from http://agribusinessnews.com/turning-your-rice-wash-into-fertilizer-emrw/ Chapter 3 : Research Methodology The study was conducted at a residential house in Marikina, Philippines, using 24 plants of Pechay (Brassica pekinensis), which were reared (in groups of four) under the following set-ups: (Pot A) 100% commercialized fertilizer (Agri-Saver), (Pot B) 25/25/25/25 of diluted coffee grounds, eggshell extract, hugas bigas, and saba banana peel extract, (Pot C) 70% diluted coffee grounds, 10% eggshell extract, 10% hugas bigas, and 10% saba banana peel extract, (Pot D) 70% eggshell extract, 10% diluted coffee grounds, 10% hugas bigas, and 10% saba banana peel extract; (Pot E) 70% hugas bigas, 10% diluted coffee grounds, 10% eggshell extract, and 10% saba banana peel extract, and (Pot F) 70% saba banana peel extract, 10% diluted coffee grounds, 10% eggshell extract, and 10% hugas bigas. The seeds were planted on February 2, 2014. The healthiest plants were then transplanted to their designated pots, and were given the first application of fertilizers on February 9, 2014. The second application was given on February 16, 2014. The plants received 60mL of liquid fertilizer once a week, starting from the first week of sprout. The watering of plants was done only once (6:00pm). Data was recorded based on the height of the plant in centimetres, and the number of leaves. Procedures for extracting and preparing of solutions: I. Diluted coffee grounds:

1. Prepare a casserole with 500 millilitres of tap water; 2. Place 25 grams of coffee grounds in the casserole; 3. Boil water with coffee grounds; then 4. Put the diluted coffee grounds in a container. II. Hugas bigas 100% of first washing, with a ratio of 1 kilogram of rice to a litre of tap water. III. Eggshell Extract 1. Prepare a casserole with 1 litre of tap water; 2. Boil the water; 3. Place 300 grams of eggshells (cleaned) in the casserole; 4. Boil the eggshells in the casserole for10 minutes; and finally, 5. Remove the eggshells from the casserole. IV. Saba banana peel extract *Follow procedure III. V. Preparing of solutions (Pot B: 25/25/25/25) 1. Measure 15 millilitres of each ingredient (diluted coffee grounds, eggshell extract, hugas bigas, and saba banana peel extract); then 2. Mix the ingredients. (Pot C: 70% diluted coffee grounds, 10% eggshell extract, 10% hugas bigas, and 10% saba banana peel extract) 1. Measure 42 mL of diluted coffee grounds; 2. Measure 6mL each of other ingredients; then 3. Mix the ingredients. *Follow procedure for Pots D, E, and F.

Schematic Diagram

Chapter 4: Results and Discussion Four (4) plants per plant group (setup) were observed. In figure 4.1, the initial average height, average height after first application, average height after second application, and growth in per cent are shown. In figure 4.2, the differences of the average growth in percent between the setups are shown. In figure 4.3, the average numbers of fully formed leaves after the first and second applications are shown.

Pot A (control group) had the highest average growth in percent (51.76%) compared to the other setups in the first application. However, in the second application, pot F (70% saba banana peel extract, 10% diluted coffee grounds, 10% eggshell extract, and 10% hugas bigas) had the highest average growth in percent (121.25%). Compared to pot A, which has the second highest average growth, the difference of pot F to pot A is 33.92%, making a significant change from being the

fourth highest average growth in the first application. Comparing the results after the second application to the initial height of the plants, pot F still had the highest average growth, and pot A had the second highest average growth. Their difference is 25.61%, still a significant number. The researchers then have looked over at the variables again, that could explain the significant change in pot F, and have formulated the following hypotheses: 1. The age of bananas (before peeling; dark spots can be an indicator of the age) affects the growth of the plant once nutrients are extracted to make the fertilizer. 2. The chemical reaction between elements or compounds in air and banana peels (which cause dark spots), and the time of exposure to air, affects the growth of the plant once nutrients are extracted to make the fertilizer. Pot E had the highest average number of leaves after the two applications of fertilizer. Pot B and pot C have the lowest average number of leaves after two applications. Chapter 5: Conclusion & Recommendation The best performing fertilizer (of at least after two applications) was the solution given to pot F (70% saba banana peel extract, 10% diluted coffee grounds, 10% eggshell extract, and 10% hugas bigas), which has the highest average growth in percent (209.92%). All the experimental solutions had effects to the growth of the plant. However, the researchers of the study recommends consumers to use the commercialized fertilizer used in pot A. This is because there was a flaw in the methodology, thus making the researchers unable to show the effectiveness of the different solutions to the plants.