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Ecology Chapter 4: Population Genetics and Natural Selection

Allele: number of alternate forms of the same gene Phenotype: Observable traits (ie:blue eyes, tounge roller) Genotype: an individuals collection of genes (ie:Aa, AA. Aa) Dominant Gene: the gene that is expressed whether the alleles are the same or not (ie: AA and Aa produce brown eyes) Recessive Gene: the gene that is rarer and must have identical alleles to be expressed (ie: aa blue eyes) Darwins Theory of Natural Selection: 1. Organisms beget like organisms. (Offspring appear, behave. Function and so forth like their parents. 2. There are chance variations between individuals in a species. Some variations (differences among parents) are heritable (passed on to the offspring) 3. More offspring are produced each generation than can be supported by the environment. 4. Some Individuals, because of their physical or behavioral traits, have a higher chance of surviving and reproducing than other individuals in the same population.

Adaptation: an evolutionary process that changes anatomy Phenotypic variation among individuals in a population results from the combined effects of genes and environment. Phenotypic Plasticity: variation among individuals in form and function as a result of environmental influences. Microsatellite DNA: tandemly repetitive nuclear DNA, 10 t0 100 base pairs long

The Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium Helps to identify evolutionary forces that can change gene frequencies in populations States that in a population mating at random in the absence of evolutionary forces, allele frequencies will remain constant

The conditions necessary to Hardy Weinberg

1. Random Mating. Nonrandom or preferential mating, which the probability of pairing alleles is either greater or lower than would be expected based on their frequency of genotypes 2. No Mutations. Mutations that add new alleles to the population or change an allele from one form to another have the potential ti change allele frequencies in a population and therefore disrupt the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 3. Large Population Size. Small population size increases the probability that allele frequencies will change from one generation to the next due to chance alone. Change in allele frequencies due to chance or random events called genetic drift. Genetic drift reduces genetic variation in populations over time by increasing the frequency of some alleles and reducing the frequency or eliminating other alleles. 4. No Immigration. Immigration can introduce new alleles into a population or, because allele frequencies are different among immigrants, alter the frequency of existing alleles. In either case immigration will disrupt the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. 5. All Genotypes have equal fitness, where fitness is the genetic contribution of individuals to future generations. If different genotypes survive and reproduce at different rates, then gene and genotype frequencies will change in populations. Hardy Weinberg requires that all of these conditions be met!!!!!

Natural Selection is differential survival and reproduction among phenotypes! Stabilizing Selection: acts against extreme phenotypes and as a consequence favors the average phenotype. Occurs when average individuals in a population are best adapted to a given set of environmental conditions. Directional Selection: favors extreme phenotypes over other phenotypes in a population. Occurs when extreme phenotype has an advantage over all other phenotypes . (there are circumstances in which more than one extreme phenotype may have an advantage over the average phenotype which leads to diversification within a population) Disruptive Selection: Favors two or more extreme phenotypes over the average phenotype in a population. The result is two peaks. Genetic Drift: Change in allele frequency due to chance or random events