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Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 1

Electric Circuits
Eighth Edition
Appendix E
James W. Nilsson
Professor Emeritus
Iowa State University
Susan A. Riedel
Marquette University
HW 0
(a) Use semi-log graph paper (in the last page of this note) to sketch the
(approximate) Bode plots for the magnitude and phase of the transfer function;
(b) Plot the exact magnitude and phase using the computer (use any software).
(Appendix E, Sidra and Smith, Problem E.10, 5
th
):
4 5
3 4
10 (1 /10 )
( )
(1 /10 )(1 /10 )
s
H s
s s
+
=
+ +
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 2
Bode Plots
Hendrik Wade Bode
(pronounced Boh-dee in English ),
(1905 1982) was an American engineer,
researcher, inventor, author and scientist.
A Bode plot is a graph of the logarithm of the transfer function
versus frequency, plotted with a log-frequency axis, to show the
system's frequency response. It is usually a combination of a
Bode magnitude plot and a Bode phase plot.
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 3
1
1
( )
( )
( )
K s z
H s
s s p
+
=
+
where z
1
= e
z1
and p
1
= e
p1
To draw the Bode diagrams we must put H(je) in a standard form
1
1
1
1
1 1
1
1
( 1)
( )
( 1)
(1 )
( )
( )(1 )
s
Kz
z
H s
s
sp
p
j
Kz z
H j
p
j j
p
e
e
e
e
+
=
+
+
=
+
Straight-Line (Approximate) Bode Plot
Nilsson and Riedel, Appendix E
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 4
1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1
1 1
1 1 1
1 1
1
1
1
1 1
1 1
1 tan
(1 )
( )
( )(1 )
90 1 tan
1
tan 90 tan ( ) ( )
1
1
( )
1
( ) tan 90 tan
o
o
o
j
j
z z
Kz z
H j K
p
j j
j
p
p p
K j
z
H j
z p
j
p
K j
z
H j
j
p
z p
e e
e
e
e
e e
e
e
e
e e
e u e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e e
u e



+ Z
+
= =
+
Z + Z
+
| |
= Z = Z
|
\ .
+
+
=
+
=
Straight-Line (Approximate) Bode Plot
Nilsson and Riedel, Appendix E
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 5
1
1
dB
1 1
1
( )
1
20log ( )
20log 20log1 20log 20log1
o
o
K j
z
H j
j
p
A H j
K j j
z p
e
e
e
e
e
e e
e
+
=
+
=
= + + +
Straight-Line (Approximate) Magnitude Bode Plot
Nilsson and Riedel, Appendix E
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 6
dB
1
1
20log
20log1
20log
1
20log1
o
A K
j
z
j
p
e
e
e
=
+ +

+
Assume; K
o

= \10, e
z1
= 4 rad/s, e
p1
= 4 rad/s
Straight-Line (Approximate) Magnitude Bode plot
1
1
1
( )
1
o
K j
z
H j
j
p
e
e
e
e
+
=
+
This is why crossing x-axes at 1
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 7
Assume; K
o

= \10, e
z1
= 0.1 rad/s, e
p1
= 5 rad/s
1
0
1
(1 )
( )
( )(1 )
j
z
H j K
j j
p
e
e
e
e
+
=
+
Straight-Line (Approximate) Magnitude Bode Plot
Nilsson and Riedel, Appendix E
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 8
Example E.1
Construct the straight-line (approximate) of the Bode Magnitude plot.
dB
20log ( )
20log0.11 20log 20log1 20log1
10 100
A H j
j j j
e
e e
e
=
= + + +
-19.2 dB
Nilsson and Riedel, Appendix E
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 9
(Actual ) Magnitude Bode Plot
( ) 20log1 1
20log 2
3 dB
c
H j j e = +
=
=
When

=
c
where
c

is either
p

or
z
( ) 20log1
20log1
z
p
H j j
or
j
e
e
e
e
e
= + +
= +
Nilsson and Riedel, Appendix E
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 10
Assume;
K
o

= \10
e
z1
= 0.1 rad/s
e
p1
= 5 rad/s
Straight-Line (approximate) Phase Angle plot
Nilsson and Riedel, Appendix E
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Example E.2
Make a straight-line (approximation) phase angle plot.
Nilsson and Riedel, Appendix E
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(Actual) Phase Bode Plot
5.7

in Sidra 5
th
edition, Appendix-E, page E-5
Nilsson and Riedel, Appendix E
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13
s-Domain Analysis: Poles,
Zeros, and Bode Plots
Sidra Appendix D4-D5
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Exercise E.1
Find the H(s) = V
o

/V
i
Sidra Appendix D4-D5
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Figure E.2 Bode plots for Example E.1.
Example E.1
An amplifier has the following transfer function
Sketch the Bode plot for the magnitude of the transfer function.
2 5
10
( )
(1 /10 )(1 /10 )
s
H s
s s
=
+ +
Sidra Appendix D4-D5
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Example E.2
An amplifier has the following transfer function
Sketch the Bode plot for the phase of the transfer function.
2 5
10
( )
(1 /10 )(1 /10 )
s
H s
s s
=
+ +
Figure E.4 Phase plots for Example E.2.
Sidra Appendix D4-D5
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Low-pass filter (LPF)
Sidra Appendix D4-D5
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 18
High-pass filter (HPF)
Sidra Appendix D4-D5
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