Electric Circuits
Eighth Edition
Appendix E
James W. Nilsson
Professor Emeritus
Iowa State University
Susan A. Riedel
Marquette University
HW 0
(a) Use semilog graph paper (in the last page of this note) to sketch the
(approximate) Bode plots for the magnitude and phase of the transfer function;
(b) Plot the exact magnitude and phase using the computer (use any software).
(Appendix E, Sidra and Smith, Problem E.10, 5
th
):
4 5
3 4
10 (1 /10 )
( )
(1 /10 )(1 /10 )
s
H s
s s
+
=
+ +
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 2
Bode Plots
Hendrik Wade Bode
(pronounced Bohdee in English ),
(1905 1982) was an American engineer,
researcher, inventor, author and scientist.
A Bode plot is a graph of the logarithm of the transfer function
versus frequency, plotted with a logfrequency axis, to show the
system's frequency response. It is usually a combination of a
Bode magnitude plot and a Bode phase plot.
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 3
1
1
( )
( )
( )
K s z
H s
s s p
+
=
+
where z
1
= e
z1
and p
1
= e
p1
To draw the Bode diagrams we must put H(je) in a standard form
1
1
1
1
1 1
1
1
( 1)
( )
( 1)
(1 )
( )
( )(1 )
s
Kz
z
H s
s
sp
p
j
Kz z
H j
p
j j
p
e
e
e
e
+
=
+
+
=
+
StraightLine (Approximate) Bode Plot
Nilsson and Riedel, Appendix E
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 4
1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1
1 1
1 1 1
1 1
1
1
1
1 1
1 1
1 tan
(1 )
( )
( )(1 )
90 1 tan
1
tan 90 tan ( ) ( )
1
1
( )
1
( ) tan 90 tan
o
o
o
j
j
z z
Kz z
H j K
p
j j
j
p
p p
K j
z
H j
z p
j
p
K j
z
H j
j
p
z p
e e
e
e
e
e e
e
e
e
e e
e u e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e e
u e
+ Z
+
= =
+
Z + Z
+
 
= Z = Z

\ .
+
+
=
+
=
StraightLine (Approximate) Bode Plot
Nilsson and Riedel, Appendix E
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 5
1
1
dB
1 1
1
( )
1
20log ( )
20log 20log1 20log 20log1
o
o
K j
z
H j
j
p
A H j
K j j
z p
e
e
e
e
e
e e
e
+
=
+
=
= + + +
StraightLine (Approximate) Magnitude Bode Plot
Nilsson and Riedel, Appendix E
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 6
dB
1
1
20log
20log1
20log
1
20log1
o
A K
j
z
j
p
e
e
e
=
+ +
+
Assume; K
o
= \10, e
z1
= 4 rad/s, e
p1
= 4 rad/s
StraightLine (Approximate) Magnitude Bode plot
1
1
1
( )
1
o
K j
z
H j
j
p
e
e
e
e
+
=
+
This is why crossing xaxes at 1
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 7
Assume; K
o
= \10, e
z1
= 0.1 rad/s, e
p1
= 5 rad/s
1
0
1
(1 )
( )
( )(1 )
j
z
H j K
j j
p
e
e
e
e
+
=
+
StraightLine (Approximate) Magnitude Bode Plot
Nilsson and Riedel, Appendix E
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 8
Example E.1
Construct the straightline (approximate) of the Bode Magnitude plot.
dB
20log ( )
20log0.11 20log 20log1 20log1
10 100
A H j
j j j
e
e e
e
=
= + + +
19.2 dB
Nilsson and Riedel, Appendix E
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 9
(Actual ) Magnitude Bode Plot
( ) 20log1 1
20log 2
3 dB
c
H j j e = +
=
=
When
=
c
where
c
is either
p
or
z
( ) 20log1
20log1
z
p
H j j
or
j
e
e
e
e
e
= + +
= +
Nilsson and Riedel, Appendix E
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 10
Assume;
K
o
= \10
e
z1
= 0.1 rad/s
e
p1
= 5 rad/s
StraightLine (approximate) Phase Angle plot
Nilsson and Riedel, Appendix E
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 11
Example E.2
Make a straightline (approximation) phase angle plot.
Nilsson and Riedel, Appendix E
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 12
(Actual) Phase Bode Plot
5.7
in Sidra 5
th
edition, AppendixE, page E5
Nilsson and Riedel, Appendix E
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 13
13
sDomain Analysis: Poles,
Zeros, and Bode Plots
Sidra Appendix D4D5
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 14
Exercise E.1
Find the H(s) = V
o
/V
i
Sidra Appendix D4D5
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 15
Figure E.2 Bode plots for Example E.1.
Example E.1
An amplifier has the following transfer function
Sketch the Bode plot for the magnitude of the transfer function.
2 5
10
( )
(1 /10 )(1 /10 )
s
H s
s s
=
+ +
Sidra Appendix D4D5
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 16
Example E.2
An amplifier has the following transfer function
Sketch the Bode plot for the phase of the transfer function.
2 5
10
( )
(1 /10 )(1 /10 )
s
H s
s s
=
+ +
Figure E.4 Phase plots for Example E.2.
Sidra Appendix D4D5
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 17
Lowpass filter (LPF)
Sidra Appendix D4D5
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 18
Highpass filter (HPF)
Sidra Appendix D4D5
Dr Husain Kamal Bode magnitude and phase plots 19