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# thermal conductance

A measure of the ability of a material to transfer heat per unit time, given one unit area of the material and a temperature gradient through the thickness of the material. It is measured in watts per meter per degree Kelvin.

Thermal resistance is a heat property and a measurement of a temperature difference by which an object or material resists a heat flow (heat per time unit or thermal resistance). Thermal resistance is the reciprocal of thermal conductance. In physics, thermal conductivity (often denoted k, , or ) is the property of a material to conduct heat. It is evaluated primarily in terms of Fourier's Law for heat conduction. Heat transfer occurs at a higher rate across materials of high thermal conductivity than across materials of low thermal conductivity. Correspondingly materials of high thermal conductivity are widely used in heat sink applications and materials of low thermal conductivity are used as thermal insulation. Thermal conductivity of materials is temperature dependent. The reciprocal of thermal conductivity is called thermal resistivity.

The R-value is a measure of thermal resistance used in the building and construction industry. Under uniform conditions it is the ratio of the temperature difference across an insulator and the heat flux (heat transfer per unit area per unit time, ) through it or . The R-value being discussed is the unit thermal resistance. This is used for a unit value of any particular material. It is expressed as the thickness of the material divided by the thermal conductivity. For the thermal resistance of an entire section of material, instead of the unit resistance, divide the unit thermal resistance by the area of the material. For example, if you have the unit thermal resistance of a wall, divide it by the cross-sectional area of the depth of the wall to compute the thermal resistance. The unit thermal conductance of a material is denoted as C and is the reciprocal of the unit thermal resistance. This can also be called the [2] unit surface conductance, commonly denoted by h. The higher the number, the better the building insulation's effectiveness. R-value is the reciprocal of U-value. A thermal break or thermal barrier is an element of low thermal conductivity placed in an assembly to reduce or prevent the flow of thermal energy between conductive materials. In architecture and building construction some examples include the following: a thermal break is also a load-bearing thermal insulation system used in reinforced concrete structures to form a thermal break between cantilever structures and internal floor. Insulated glazing the air or gas between the panes stops the conductive thermal energy from passing through the glass. Metal window or curtain wall framing a separator material is used between the inner and outer frames to prevent the temperature transfer through the frame and condensation on the inside frame. Concrete work a single row of concrete masonry units (CMU block) is commonly set between the inner concrete slab and exterior concrete work to prevent the transfer of heat or cold through the slab.

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Garage doors in some doors that have high R-rating insulation, a vinyl thermal break is used along the edges of each segment instead of rolled steel. Metal and wood framed buildings - an insulation material installed on the roof, walls and floor prevents thermal short circuit creating the heat transfer through the framing material and controls when desired (winter/summer)resulting in energy savings. Metal windows and doors - separating the frame into two separate interior and exterior pieces joined with a less conductive material reduces temperature transfer. Thermal breaks (made of substantially rigid, low thermal conductive polyamide or polyurethane which is mechanically locked in aluminum window framing can be more than a thousand times less conductive than aluminum and a hundred times less than steel.

Windows and doors - separating the frame into 2 separate interior and exterior pieces joined with a less conductive material between reduces temperature transfer. In addition thermal breaks can have the added benefit of reducing sound transmittance by dampening vibration Infiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil. Infiltration rate in soil science is a measure of the rate at which soil is able to absorb rainfall or irrigation. It is measured in inches per hour or millimeters per hour. The rate decreases as the soil becomes saturated. If the precipitation rate exceeds the infiltration rate, runoff will usually occur unless there is some physical barrier. It is related to the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the near-surface soil. The rate of infiltration can be measured using an infiltrometer.

Weatherstripping is the process of sealing openings such as doors, windows, and trunks from the elements. The term can also refer to the materials used to carry out such sealing processes. The goal of weatherstripping is to prevent rain and water from entering entirely or partially and accomplishes this by either returning or rerouting water. A secondary goal of weatherstripping is to keep interior air in, thus saving energy on heating and air conditioning. utomotive weatherstripping is used extensively aboard automobiles, and can be found anywhere the interior compartment must be sealed from the environment. It must be both functional and cohesive with the body design of the vehicle. In addition to factors standard to weatherstripping, additional factors must be considered for vehicles, specifically in the engineering of the parts. For example, the weatherstripping must function the same while the vehicle is parked and at full speed; be flexible to accommodate motion vibrations; endure extreme temperatures of hot and cold; withstand long periods of sun exposure; and resist automotive liquids such as oil, gasoline, and windshield washer fluid (methanol). Weatherstripping also plays a part in maintaining satisfactory ride quality in the vehicle, being partially responsible for sealing noise out from the passenger compartment. Automobile flex when going over bumps, and vibrations cause relative motions between the relatively fixed body and movable parts like doors, windows, and sunroofs. This movement could allow water in the vehicle so the weatherstrip must compensate by filling the gap. Furthermore, this relative movement can cause noises such as squeaks, rattles, and creaks to be heard within the vehicle. Considering a standard four-door vehicle, the doors require 20 feet (6 meters) or more of material per door, windows require upwards of 10 feet (3 meters), and trunks require large amounts. Automotive weatherstripping can fail because of age or use.
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Poorly performing weatherstripping should be reported to the car dealership if the vehicle is under warranty, as fixes may be known. The efficacy of weatherstripping can be significantly increased by specialty coatings during manufacture. Coatings for weatherstripping must adhere to all of these weatherstrip materials. Like other paints and coatings, a large variety of weatherstrip coatings are commonly available, with a large variety of coating performances. Silicone is the most difficult to adhere to, but at least one coating is commercially available. After bonding to the weatherstrip, these coatings provide chemical and ultraviolet resistance, decrease the static coefficient of friction (thereby reducing the force required to open or close [2] doors), and reduce or eliminate noise. In vehicles without coated weatherstripping, the weatherstripping is much more likely to cause the above-mentioned issues along with others such as rust following premature failure of the paint. That some cars have non-coated weatherstripping is surprising, given that the cost of the coating is less than US\$1 to US\$3 per vehicle, whereas the rubber and steel is tens of dollars; an entire car set of weatherstripping may be worth US\$100 to US\$300 in the total cost of the vehicle, which includes all labor and costs of the manufacturing equipment.

Radiant barriers or reflective barriers inhibit heat transfer by thermal radiation. Thermal energy may also be transferred via conduction or convection, however, and radiant barriers do not necessarily protect against heat transfer via conduction or convection. To improve the resistance to convection and conduction, a reflective insulation may be used by having the radiant barrier installed facing a dead air space or with a layer of traditional insulation like foam, fiberglass, or bubblepack.

## How to Decide Between Batt Insulation and Loose-Fill Insulation

When it comes to deciding between batt insulation and loose-fill insulation, its important to keep in mind what you intend to insulate and what kind of insulation method you want to use. Both batt insulation and loose-fill insulation work very well you just need to decide which one you prefer.

Loose-fill insulation: Made out of small chunks of fibers, this insulation type is also known as blown insulation because its installed with a giant blower hose. Loose -fill insulation is also available in bags for filling gaps. When loose-fill insulation settles and compacts, you should vacuum out the old and start fresh.

Batt insulation: Made out of insulating fibers that are woven together to create a continuous blanket of material with a moisture barrier (either paper or foil) that is glued to one side. Batt insulation is available in 16 and 24 inch wide rolls (or 8 foot strips) to fit between the framing in ceilings and walls.