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Acalypha ciliata Forssk.


Protologue Fl. aegypt.-arab.: 162 (1775). Family Eup orbiaceae Chromosome number n ! 1" Origin and geographic distribution Acalypha ciliata occurs #ro$ %e&egal east to Et iopia a&d sout to 'a$ibia a&d %out (#rica. )t also occurs i& *e$e&+ Pakista&+ )&dia a&d %ri ,a&ka+ a&d probably else- ere as a -eed. Uses )& ./te d0)1oire a lea# decoctio& is dru&k to treat #e$ale sterility. )& 2 a&a $as ed lea1es are applied as a dressi&g to sores. )& East (#rica a root i&#usio& is take& to treat sc istoso$iasis. )& %e&egal+ 3e&i& a&d 'igeria t e lea1es are eate& as a 1egetable. )& %e&egal t e pla&t is -idely bro-sed by cattle+ s eep a&d goats+ but &ot by orses. Properties )& a& i&-1itro e4peri$e&t a& a5ueous lea# e4tract reduced t e gro-t o# Fusarium moniliforme (Gibberella fujikuroi) o& $ai6e grai&. )& #ield trials t e lea# e4tract s o-ed $oderate acti1ity agai&st bro-& blotc disease ( Colletotrichum capsici) a&d i&sect pests (Ootheca mutabilis+ Nezara viridula+ Clavigralla tomentosicollis a&d Maruca testulalis) o# co-pea. Botany 7o&oecious+ a&&ual erb up to 1 $ tall8 ste$s s ortly airy. ,ea1es arra&ged spirally+ si$ple8 stipules li&ear+ c. 2 $$ lo&g8 petiole up to 7.5 c$ lo&g8 blade o1ate to elliptical-o1ate+ 9:1" c$ ; 1.5:5 c$+ base cu&eate to rou&ded+ ape4 acu$i&ate+ $argi&s coarsely toot ed+ $e$bra&ous+ spari&gly a&d s ortly airy o& bot sur#aces+ later al$ost glabrous+ <:5-1ei&ed at base a&d -it 9:5 pairs o# lateral 1ei&s. )&#loresce&ce a& a4illary+ solitary or paired spike up to 5 c$ lo&g+ de&sely #lo-ered+ lo-er <5:7"= -it #e$ale #lo-ers+ upper part -it $ale #lo-ers+ so$eti$es ter$i&ated by a #e$ale #lo-er8 bracts i& #e$ale #lo-ers tra&s1ersely o1ate+ beco$i&g c. 6 $$ ; 12 $$+ -it $a&y #ili#or$ seg$e&ts 1.5:< $$ lo&g. Flo-ers u&ise4ual+ sessile+ petals abse&t8 $ale #lo-ers -it 9-

lobed+ $i&ute+ gra&ular dotted+ gree&is caly4+ sta$e&s >+ a&t ers yello-8 #e$ale #lo-ers -it < o1ate-la&ceolate+ c. 1 $$ lo&g+ ciliate sepals+ o1ary superior+ c. ".5 $$ i& dia$eter+ <-celled+ slig tly <-lobed+ styles <+ #ree+ c. 2 $$ lo&g+ #ri&ged+ - ite. Fruit a <-lobed capsule c. 1.5 $$ ; 2.5 $$+ s$oot + al$ost glabrous+ splitti&g i&to < cocci+ eac 2-1al1ed a&d 1-seeded. %eeds o1oidglobose+ c. 1 $$ i& dia$eter+ s$oot + bro-&+ caru&cle elliptical. Acalypha co$prises about 96" species a&d occurs t roug out t e tropics+ subtropics a&d -ar$ te$perate regio&s+ e4cludi&g Europe. )& tropical (#rica about 65 species occur a&d i& 7adagascar a&d ot er )&dia& ?cea& isla&ds about <5 species. Ecology Acalypha ciliata occurs o& ope& a&d -ooded grassla&d+ i& deciduous a&d coastal bus la&d+ o#te& i& rocky or da$p localities+ &ear lakes a&d o& #lood plai&s+ #ro$ sea-le1el up to 165" $ altitude. )t is also a -eed i& #ields. )t a1oids ig rai&#all areas. Management (s a -eed+ Acalypha ciliata ca& be co&trolled -ell by a&d-eedi&g a&d se1eral erbicides. )& )&dia Acalypha ciliata is a ost o# po-dery $ilde- ( rysiphe cichoracearum)8 i& 2 a&a it -as #ou&d to be a ost o# root-k&ot &e$atodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Genetic resources and breeding Acalypha ciliata is -idespread a&d -eedy a&d &ot t reate&ed by ge&etic erosio&. Prospects Acalypha ciliata is &ot co$$o&ly used as a $edici&al pla&t+ a&d its use -ill probably re$ai& li$ited. @it respect to crop protectio&+ its i&secticidal a&d #u&gicidal properties $erit #urt er researc . Ma or re!erences A 3urkill+ B.7.+ 1CC9. D e use#ul pla&ts o# @est Dropical (#rica. 2&d Editio&. Eolu$e 2+ Fa$ilies E:). Royal 3ota&ic 2arde&s+ Fe-+ Ric $o&d+ G&ited Fi&gdo$. 6<6 pp. A Bal1a&kar+ 2.3.+ Earg ese+ P.+ Da-are+ %.P. H Raut+ E.7.+ 2""5. E##ect o# erbicides o& -eed dy&a$ics a&d yield o# soybea&. Iour&al o# 7a aras tra (gricultural G&i1ersities <"(1): <5:<7. A 'eu-i&ger+ B.J.+ 2""". (#rica& traditio&al $edici&e: a dictio&ary o# pla&t use a&d applicatio&s. 7edp ar$ %cie&ti#ic+ %tuttgart+ 2er$a&y. 5>C pp. A ?-olade+ ?.F.+ ($usa+ (.'. H ?sika&lu+ *.?.F.+ 2""". E##icacy o# certai& i&dige&ous pla&t e4tracts agai&st seed-bor&e i&#ectio& o# Fusariu$ $o&ili#or$e o& $ai6e (Kea $ays ,.) i& sout -ester& 'igeria. .ereal Researc .o$$u&icatio&s 2>(<): <2<:<27. A Radcli##e-%$it + (.+ 1CC6. Eup orbiaceae+ sub#a$ilies P ylla&toideae+ ?ld#ieldioideae+ (calyp oideae+ .roto&oideae a&d Eup orbioideae+ tribe

Bippo$a&eae. )&: Pope+ 2.E. (Editor). Flora Ka$besiaca. Eolu$e C+ part 9. Royal 3ota&ic 2arde&s+ Fe-+ Ric $o&d+ G&ited Fi&gdo$. pp. 1:<<7. Other re!erences A ?-olade+ ?.F.+ (labi+ 3.%.+ ?sika&lu+ *.?.F. H ?deye$i+ ?.?.+ 2""9. ?&-#ar$ e1aluatio& o# so$e pla&t e4tracts as bio#u&gicide a&d bioi&secticide o& co-pea i& %out -est 'igeria. Iour&al o# Food+ (griculture a&d E&1iro&$e&t 2(2): 2<7:29". Author"s# A 2.B . %c $el 6er PR ?D ( 'et -or k ?##i ce Eur ope + @a ge& i&g e& G&i 1er sity+ P.? . 3o4 <91 + 67" " (B @a ge& i&g e&+ 'et erl

a&d s

Editors A 2.B . %c $el 6er PR ?D ( 'et -or k ?##i ce Eur ope + @a ge& i&g e& G&i 1er sity+ P.? . 3o4 <91 + 67" " (B @a ge& i&g e&+ 'et erl a&d s A (.

2ur ibFak i$ Fac ulty o# %ci e&c e+ G&i 1er sity o# 7a uriti us+ RLd uit+ 7a uriti us Associate editors A ..B . 3os c PR ?D ( 'et -or k ?##i ce Eur ope + @a ge& i&g e& G&i 1er sity+ P.?

. 3o4 <91 + 67" " (B @a ge& i&g e&+ 'et erl a&d s 7.% .I. %i$ $o &ds Roy al 3ot a&ic 2ar de& s+ Fe -+ Ric $ o&d + %ur rey D@ C <( 3+ G&it ed Fi& gdo $ R. (rr

oo ,eic est er %c ool o# P a r$a cy+ 'at ural Pro duc ts Res ear c + Je 7o &t#o rt G&i 1er sity+ D e 2at e-a y+ ,eic est er ,E1 C3 B+ G&it ed Fi& gdo $ (. de RuiM ter PR ?D

( 'et -or k ?##i ce Eur ope + @a ge& i&g e& G&i 1er sity+ P.? . 3o4 <91 + 67" " (B @a ge& i&g e&+ 'et erl a&d s General editors A R.B .7. I. ,e $$ e&s PR ?D ( 'et -or k ?##i

ce Eur ope + @a ge& i&g e& G&i 1er sity+ P.? . 3o4 <91 + 67" " (B @a ge& i&g e&+ 'et erl a&d s ,.P. (. ?ye & PR ?D ( 'et -or k ?##i ce Eur ope + @a ge& i&g e&

G&i 1er sity+ P.? . 3o4 <91 + 67" " (B @a ge& i&g e&+ 'et erl a&d s