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Environmental Degradation

Environmental Issues
Lecture 2

exceeding a resources natural replacement shrinking of available supply examples urbanization of productive land excessive erosion of topsoil deforestation depletion of groundwater reduction of biodiversity pollution (air, water)

Effects
disruption of life-support systems for humans and other species damage to wildlife, human health, and property noise, unpleasant smells, and sights

Possible Root Causes


rapid population growth little emphasis on pollution prevention poverty failure of economic and political systems little knowledge about the environment

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Philippine Environmental Laws


P.D. 825 penalty for improper disposal of garbage P.D. 984 Pollution Control Law policy for pollution control and including land pollution P.D. 1151/1152 Philippine Environment Policy/Code

Philippine Environmental Laws


P.D. 1181 Anti Smoke Belching Law P.D. 1586 establishment of Environmental Impact Statement System R.A. 3931 creation of National Water and Air Pollution Control Commission (DENR-EMB)

Philippine Environmental Laws


R.A 6969 Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control act of 1990 R.A. 7924 creation of Metro Manila Development Authority R.A. 7942 Philippine Mining Act of 1995

Philippine Environmental Laws


R.A. 8485 The Animal Welfare Act of 1998 R.A. 8749 Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 R.A. 9003 Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 R.A. 9147 Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act

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Philippine Environmental Laws


R.A. 9275 Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 R.A. 9367 Biofuels Act of 2006 R.A. 9729 Climate Change Act of 2009

Environmental Issues
1. Climate Climate science, carbon footprint 2. Water Water pollution, drinking water 3. Air Air pollutants, air quality

http://www.chanrobles.com/legal9.htm

http://www.epa.gov/epahome/learn.htm

Environmental Issues
4. Wastes and Pollution Toxics, oil spills 5. Human Health Pesticides, Mercury, Lead 6. Biodiversity Depletion Destruction of habitat 7. Ecosystems

1. Climate Change
"the phrase 'climate change' is growing in preferred use to 'global warming' because it helps convey that there are [other] changes in addition to rising temperatures.
- National Academy of Sciences

http://www.epa.gov/epahome/learn.htm

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Climate Change
the distinct change in measures of climate lasting for a long period of time major changes in temperature, rainfall, snow, or wind patterns lasting for decades

Causes

natural factors (suns intensity, Earths orbit around the sun) natural processes (ocean circulation) human activities (burning of fossil fuel, deforestation, urbanization)

http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/basicinfo.html

http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/basicinfo.html

Environmental and Health Effects sea level rise shrinking glaciers changes in the range and distribution of plants and animals trees blooming earlier lengthening of growing seasons ice on rivers and lakes freezing later and breaking up earlier increased risk of some infectious diseases
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/basicinfo.html http://health.state.tn.us/images/ClimateChangeImpacts.jpg

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Global Warming
refers to an increase in average global temperatures near the Earths surface and in the lowest layers of the atmosphere (troposphere) caused by natural events and human activities caused by increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions such as CO2
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/basicinfo.html

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Greenhouse Effect
energy from the sun drives the earths weather and climate, and heats the earths surface the earth radiates energy back into space but atmospheric gases trap some of the outgoing energy CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6

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450 Scenario
to limit long-term concentration of GHG in the atmosphere to 450 ppm CO2 equivalent global temperature rise 2oC (preindustrial) heavy development and implementation of energy efficient technologies

http://www.iea.org/co2highlights/co2highlights.pdf

http://www.energyboom.com/emerging

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450 Scenario
low-carbon energy technologies will produce 60% global electricity by 2030, renewable (37%), nuclear (18%), plants w/ CCS technology (5%) $10.5 Trillion investment

http://www.energyboom.com/emerging

The Ozone Layer


it protects all life on earth from the harmful effects of the suns rays global warming leads to a weaker ozone layer

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ozone hOle
the ozone hole over Antarctica is three times the size of the US in Punta Arenas, Chile 120,000 residents were exposed to very high levels of UV radiation its depletion causes cancer in humans and animals

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Global Dimming???
reduction of heat reaching the earth caused by burning fossil fuels by-product pollutants e.g. SO2, soot, ash causes changes in the properties of clouds polluted air has more larger number of droplets causes acid rain, smog, and respiratory problems

2. Biodiversity Loss
human activity causes massive extinctions one-third to two-thirds of all species of plants, animals, and other organisms would be lost during the second half of the next century many plants and animals are being lost before being identified lost of forest equates to a lost of many species

Biodiversity of Plants and Animals


benefits: protection of water resources nutrient storage and recycling pollution breakdown and absorption food medicinal and pharmaceutical drugs wood products diversity in genes and species research and education recreation

Threats to Biodiversity
1. Habitat loss conversion of terrestrial ecosystems to industrial or urban use rivers are altered for irrigation 2. Overexploitation of species harvesting of plants/animals for food more than the reproductive capacity of the population to replace itself overfishing, hunting related to overharvesting of timber
2010 and Beyond: Rising to the biodiversity challenge, WWF

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Threats to Biodiversity
3. Pollution excess nutrient loading causes eutrophication and oxygen depletion toxic chemicals from farming and industry wastes acidification of oceans due to increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere

Threats to Biodiversity
4. Spread of invasive species or genes becomes competitor, predator, and parasites of indigenous species causes the decline of populations main cause of extinction among endemic species 5. Climate change no ecosystem will be immune to rising air temperatures and changing weather patterns
2010 and Beyond: Rising to the biodiversity challenge, WWF

2010 and Beyond: Rising to the biodiversity challenge, WWF

is an indicator of the state of global biological diversity based on trends in vertebrate population species from around the world

WWF

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measure of the productive capacity of the biosphere used to provide natural resources and absorb wastes
WWF WWF

3. Pollution
an addition to air, water, soil, or food that threatens the health, survival, or activities of humans or other living organisms can enter the environment through natural means can enter the environment through human activities

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Water Pollution caused by toxic substances that enters in lakes, streams, rivers, etc Sources: domestic sewage agricultural runoff industrial effluents

4. Natural Disasters
Earthquakes and tsunami Sink holes Floods Storm (hurricane and cyclone) Epidemic diseases Extreme temperatures Wildfire Volcanic eruption

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Sink Holes depressions that occur when soil or bedrock has been removed leaving air only when rock below the surface is limestone rocks are dissolved by groundwater and creates spaces (suffosion)

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Storms caused by changes in the atmosphere (T, P, or water level) that involves heavy rains and strong winds when a system of low pressure air is surrounded by high pressure air thunderstorm, hail storm, rainstorm, sand/dust storm, cyclone, hurricane, tornado

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Team Activity #1
WEB-vocacy Create a poster of advocacy regarding discussed environmental issues Post the picture in one of your members facebook account (after the teachers approval) Invite your friends to like and write relevant comments in your post The most number of likes and different comments gets +5 on our first quiz Duration: July 11 18

Assignment #2
Write a reaction paper or critique on one of the following environmental reports. a. Global Environment Outlook b. Living Planet Report c. World Energy Outlook d. World Population Data Sheet Be ready for recitation next meeting!

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