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Class: - 10th

Q#1 Ans.

Our Resources (Land And Soil)

Geography

What are natural resources? A resource is that natural and human wealth which can be used to satisfy human needs. Nothing can be termed as a resource unless and until it has attained the capability to serve man. Resources are those aspects of mans environment which facilitate the satisfaction of human wants and attainment of social objectives. Resources form the backbone of economy of any nation. Thus, any material which can be transformed in a way that it becomes more valuable to man is termed as a resource. OR The gifts of nature (natural endowments) which are used for satisfying the needs of living organisms especially humans are called natural resources. Air, Water, Land, Plants, Animals, Minerals, and Sunlight are the main natural resources. Resources and Developments:- Resources are vital for development of any nation. Man has been struggling with nature since the dawn of civilization to get the best from nature. Earlier man was completely depending on nature but now he is able to modify nature to some extent with the help of various tools, techniques and skills. Thus, resources and advancement in technology are prime requirements for development. Thus, we can say that the development of a nation, group or an individual is directly related to resource cover of the area. Features of Resources:i) They are economic indicators of a nation or individual. ii) They have utility. iii) Some of the resources are limited in nature. iv) Resources are unevenly distributed on the surface of earth.

Q#2 Ans.

Give four examples of human made resources? Buildings, railways, machines and the electric power are the four important examples of human made resources. Why is conservation of resources necessary? Resource conservation can be defined as the proper and wise use of natural resources efficiently to produce greatest possible benefit to man over the longest possible period of time. OR By the conservation of resources we mean the proper use, management and utilization of the resources. The conservation of these resources is necessary because it directly or indirectly influences the economy of a country. We need to conserve our resources because some of them are limited in quantity. These are the bases for the economic strength and prosperity of a nation or a country. Besides, the conservation of resources also helps us in the preservation of resources for our future generations. Proper exploitation of renewable resources creates less problems and over exploitation causes damage to the atmosphere and pollutes the environment. Non-renewable resources demand extra care, because they cannot be renewed and their excessive use may let our future generations suffer in the near future. So we need to take several measures in the right direction for the conservation of resources. Methods of Resource conservation Judicious use of Resources:- We should use resources in a proper and planned way in order to meet our needs. We should use resources in such a way, so that minimum quantity will provide maximum benefits. The over use of resources may have negative consequences on resource cover and on our surroundings and thus can lend to various hazards. Efficient Technology: - It is another important method of conserving resources. The increase in technology will reduce the wastage of resources to a greater extent. More and more benefits can be obtained by increasing our technology e.g., coal engine produces lot of smoke due to inefficient combustion as compared to diesel engine. 1

Q#3 Ans.

i)

ii)

Class: - 10th
iii)

Our Resources (Land And Soil)

Geography

iv) v)

Use of Alternatives:- The use of alternatives or substitutes in place of limited resources will help us to preserve resources e.g., we can use sunlight, water and wind as sources of energy which in turn will help us to preserve coal, petrol etc. Awareness:- Awareness plays an important role in the conservation of resources. With the help of education, people can easily understand the benefits of resource conservation. Government can also play an important role in resource conservation by launching several policies or laws. What is resource planning? Resource planning is a technique or skill of proper utilization and management of resources. Resource planning comprises of three stages. Resources are limited and unevenly distributed throughout the land. So planning of resources is necessary to ensure proper use and even distribution of these resources. It comprises three stages: Preparation of inventory of resources: - At this stage, surveying is done by any expert body like the Geological Survey of India to locate the resources. Once the deposits of resources called reserves are located, their potential is measured so that they can be developed economically. Evaluating and examining of the resources: - At this stage, actual resources which can be mined or dug out are evaluated and examined from the technological and economic point of view. Further their need is also determined at this stage. Planning for exploitation of resources: - At this stage the efficient methods of extraction and utilization of the resources are used and action oriented planning for their use and reuse is taken into consideration. Those resources are exploited first who are most needed at the given point of time. How is soil formed? The soil is formed mainly by the process of weathering. The word soil has been derived from the Latin word Solum meaning ground or floor. The loose and unconsolidated material which forms the upper layer of the crust is called soil. Its thickness varies from place to place. The soil is composed of many organic and inorganic materials, humus, bacteria and other minerals. There are a large number of factors responsible for the formation of the soil. The transformation of parent rock into tiny and very fine particles due to weathering and other erosional agents are the main cause of soil formation. The structure and history of rocks, topographic conditions, climatic variations, vegetation and human activities together also determine the formation of the soil. The process of formation of soil is called pedogenesis. How is soil erosion caused? The removal or the destruction of the top soil by natural agents such as running water, glaciers, sea waves, winds, overgrazing and deforestation is called soil erosion. Soil formation is a slow process and it takes thousands of years to develop soils, but its destruction takes no time. Soil erosion makes the land unfertile and unsuitable for cultivation. In certain areas soil erosion has become a big threat to the farmers of the country. It does not allow farmers to grow crops and, thus, affects their prosperity. Steep slopes, heavy rainfalls, floods, strong winds, over-grazing by animals and deforestation are the main causes responsible for soil erosion. What is meant by land degradation? The degrading and the loosing of the top soil by the natural agents or the human activities is called the land degradation. Besides the natural agents such as floods, winds and running water, the human activities are also responsible for the degradation of the land. Mining, industrialization, overgrazing and deforestation are the main factors responsible for land degradation. The mineral processing, like grinding of limestone for cement industry, calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generates heavy amounts of dust and releases it into the air which later on settles down in the surrounding areas causing land degradation. At present, India is having about 30 million hectares of degraded land. Discharge of industrial effluents and wastes is also one of the main causes of land degradation in industrial and suburban areas. The degradation of the land renders the land unfit for cultivation. 2

Q#4 Ans.

a.

b.

c.

Q#5 Ans.

Q#6 Ans.

Q#7 Ans.

Class: - 10th
Q#8

Our Resources (Land And Soil)

Geography

Describe the factors which contribute in the formation of soil.

Ans: - The following factors contribute a lot in the formation of the soil. (1) Parent Material It is the basic material from which soil is formed. The physical and chemical composition of weathered rock particles determines the relative proportions of different minerals in the soil layers. The particles may be obtained from the weathering of rocks or deposition of materials by rivers, winds, glaciers, volcanoes or material moving down a slope. (2) Climate Climate influences the decomposition of the rocks to a great extent. The soil forming processes take place more rapidly during high temperature and heavy rainfall. The division of the soils also depends on the climate. (3) Topography It also affects the formation of soils. Steep slopes usually have thin soil layer due to the erosion. Thick fertile soils are developed in the valleys and lowlands. Topography controls the state of moisture in the soil layer. (4) Organisms The dead remains of both plants and animals decompose in the earth and form organic matter that enriches the soil. (5) Time Time plays an important role in influencing soil formation. A rich and fertile soil is formed only when the weathered particles of rocks remain undisturbed at one place for a long time. During a short period the layers of soil remain immature and thin Q#9 Ans. Give three examples of renewable resources. Sunlight, wind and water are the three examples of renewable resources.

Q#10 Name main soil types found in Kashmir? Ans. The main types of soils found in Kashmir are 1. Gurti 2. Sekil 3. Behil 5. Zabelzamin 6. Surzamin 7. Lemb 9. Shath 10. Tand 11. Tats 13. Rad 14. Dazanlad

4. Nambal soil 8. Ront 12. Tresh

Q#11 Distinguish between Natural resources and Cultural resources. NATURAL RESOURCES CULTURAL RESOURCES 1. These are gifts of nature, which are 1. These are gifts of man, obtained by considered to be the backbone of the utilizing natural resources. economy of a country. 2. They are primary resources. 2. They are secondary resources. 3. Land, water, air, minerals, plants and 3. Houses, buildings, bridges, dams, animals are the best examples. railway etc. are the best examples. 4. Natural resources are essential for the 4. Cultural resources are essential for the development of the economy of a development of natural resources. country. 5. They are created after spending much 5. They are free gifts of nature. money.

Class: - 10th

Our Resources (Land And Soil)

Geography

RENEWABLE RESOURCES NON- RENEWABLE RESOURCES 1. These resources can be regenerated 1. These resources cannot be regenerated. after some time. 2. They do not get exhausted easily. 2. They get exhausted after use. 3. Sunlight, water and forests are the best 3. Metals, petroleum and natural gas are examples. the best examples.

RE-USABLE RESOURCES 1. These resources are used again and 1. again. 2. All metals are reusable resources. 2.

NON- REUSABLE RESOURCES These resources are not used again and again. Petroleum, coal and natural gas are non-reusable. 3. They do not cause any pollution. 3. They cause pollution in the three realms of the earth. 4. Land, water and forests can be reused 4. Minerals and fossil fuels are non-usable after their development. because they cannot be reused after they are used. RED SOILS 1. Red soils are formed due to weathering of igneous and metamorphic rocks. LATERITE SOILS 1. Laterite soils are formed by the leaching process in the areas having the monsoon climate. 2. Laterite soils occur in the Hills of Deccan, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa and the parts of Asam and Meghalaya. 3. They are not porous and fertile. 4. These soils are red due to presence of much gravel of red sand stones. 5. It is Crystalline.

2. Red soils occur in the parts of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orrisa and Jharkhand. 3. They are highly porous and fertile. 4. These soils are red due to presence of iron. 5. It is less Crystalline.

Q#12 Why are resources necessary for human beings? Ans. Resources are necessary for human beings because they are considered to be the backbone of the economy of a country or a nation. Economic strength and prosperity of a nation depends largely on the availability and the proper management of the natural resources. The development of industries of a country depends upon the availability of resources. Human beings are directly as well as indirectly dependent on resources for their living. Resources help humans to create their own world of living. They also help us to create goods or provide services. The resources help human beings to build houses, roads, bridges, villages, towns, machines etc. Extraction, utilization and their development enable human beings to create employment. This helps people to live comfortable and lead a better life. Q#13 Describe briefly the distribution of alluvial and back soils in India. Ans. Soil is the upper most layer of the earth's crust and provides the basic medium for growing plants and cultivating the crops. Soils are not uniformly distributed over the land. They are classified on the basis of fertility, colour, composition and texture. In India soils are classified into the following types. 1. Alluvial Soils 4. Laterite soils 2. Black soils 5. Mountain Soils 3. Red soils 6. Desert soils.

Class: - 10th

Our Resources (Land And Soil)

Geography

Alluvial soils: Alluvial soils are mostly found in the northern fertile plains, coastal strips and Chattisgrah basin. These soils are formed by the sediments brought down by the rivers. These are deep soils rich in potash, but poor in nitrogen. These soils contain fine particles of soil called alluviam deposited by the Himalayan rivers during the course of thousands of years. Alluvial soils are of two types - Khadar and Bhangar. Khadar is newer alluvium found close to the rivers and is sandy and light in colour, while as Bhanger is older alluvium found away from the rivers and is clayey and dark. Black soils: Black soils are mainly found in Maharashtra, Western Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat where soils have been derived from Deccan traps. Black soils are also found in parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, where soils have been derived from metamorphic rocks. These soils are formed due to the weathering of rocks and are rich in lime, iron, magnesia and alumina. But these lack in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic matter. They are also called Regur soils. These soils are most suitable for cotton cultivation and are known as black cotton soils. Q#14 What is meant by land degradation? How does industry cause land degradation? Ans. The land which has lost or depleted its value that is soil resource value is called land degradation. The depletion of natural vegetation by over-grazing of animals and soil erosion are the main causes of land degradation. Mining and industrialization are the two main causes of land degradation. The mineral processing, like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite for ceramic industry generate heavy amounts of dust and release it in the air, which later on settles down in the surroundings, affecting infiltration of water and crop cultivation, and ultimately causing land degradation. The other industrial effluents and wastes are also the main sources of land degradation in India. Fertilizers and chemicals are also the cause of land degradation making the soil saline and alkaline. Discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes also cause land degradation. Q#15 Write short notes on the following. i. Soil erosion: Soil is the most important natural resource available to man. The removal of top soil by any natural agency like running water, glaciers or wind is called soil erosion. It makes the land unsuitable for cultivation and it doesn't allow farmers to grow crops, hence, affects their economy and prosperity as well. Gully erosion is the most spectacular type of erosion and have already degraded about 40 lakh hectares of land in India. The worst affected by the gully erosion are the areas of U.P, M.P, Bihar, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Utaranchal, Chattisgarh and Jarkhand. Necessary steps like construction of dams and bunds, planting of more and more trees and terrace farming should be taken to prevent the soil erosion. We should not depend only on Government's efforts to stop soil erosion. We must willingly come forward to propagate and speed up the programme of soil conservation. ii. Land conservation measures: Conservation of resources: - The wise and the judicious use of the natural resources to minimize their wastage and increase their life span is called conservation of natural resources. We need to conserve them in order to maintain the ecological balance. Land is one of the important natural resources as it provides the basic medium for forests and agriculture. Since it is one of the basic realms of the earth, necessary measures should be taken to conserve land. Land as a resource should be used in planned manner the land use pattern must be wise and proper. Over grazing and deforestation should be controlled. Surface mining should be minimized and there should be a proper system for the disposal of the industrial effluents and wastes. Soil erosion should also be checked to conserve the land. Plugging of gullies and terrace farming are the best control measures. The various methods which must be followed for conservation of land are afforestation, contour ploughing, gully-plugging, crop rotation etc.

Class: - 10th

Our Resources (Land And Soil)


Khadar Soil

Geography

Distinguish between Bangar Soil 1. It is the old alluvium. 2. It is Clayey and dark in colour. 3. It is not renewed frequently. Hence it is less fertile. 4. It is found away from the rivers.

1. It is new alluvium. 2. It is sandy and light in colour. 3. It is renewed frequently and is more fertile. 4. It is found near the river channels, in deltas and in flood plains.

Q#16 - Give reasons for the increase in net sown area and the land under forests after independence. Ans: - The main reasons for the increase in the net sown area and the land under forests are:1. Water shed development and rain water harvesting. 2. Development of several multipurpose river valley projects in the country. 3. Due to public awareness about the importance of trees through electronic and print media etc. 4. Programme for soil moisture conservation etc. Q#17 Describe a soil profile. Ans. The face of the soil or the way it looks when we cut a section of it is called Soil Profile. It shows different layers called horizons. These different horizons vary in thickness and composition. Horizons are labeled with a special code to identify them. The main codes are 0, A, B, C, E & R. O - Horizon: It is made up of organic matter like dead leaves, twigs and the remains of animals. This is the top most layer mostly found in forests. A-Horizon: It is the first mineral horizon of the soil and is called topsoil. This layer is rich in minerals and is ideal and suitable for agricultural purposes. B - Horizon: This layer of the soil also called sub soil is primarily made up of parent material or parent rock. This layer is rich in organic matter, iron, aluminum and the soil materials. C-Horizon: It is similar to the original parent material of the soil. E- Horizon: It is named after the word alluvial, meaning that clay, iron and aluminum have been leached out from it. It is commonly found in the forests where coniferous trees grow. R-Horizon: It represents a layer of rock that is sometimes found under the soil profile. ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS: Q# 1 What are Human-made or artificial resources? Ans. Resources created by humans after the proper utilization of the natural resources are called human made or artificial resources. Engineering, technology, machines, buildings, dams, roads, railways and social institutions are human made resources. These are also called cultural resources. Q#2 Ans. What are biotic and abiotic natural resources? Biotic: - Those resources which are originated from living things. Coal and petroleum are the best examples. Forests and animals are also biotic. Abiotic: - Physical components of the environment like land, water and air are abiotic. Differentiate between exhaustible and inexhaustible resources. Exhaustible Resources: - The natural resources which are limited in quantity and are going to be exhausted in the near future are called exhaustible resources e.g., natural gas, petroleum and metals like gold, silver, copper, tin etc. 6

Q#3

Class: - 10th

Our Resources (Land And Soil)

Geography

Inexhaustible resources: - The resources which are available in abundance and are going to last for the unlimited period of time are called inexhaustible resources. Ocean water, radiant energy and wind energy are the best examples of inexhaustible resources. Land utilization or Land use pattern: The total land area of our country is 3.28 million km2. However, the land use data is available for 93% only. Out of which 46% is net sown area. Forests cover 22%, culturable wastelands 5%, fallow lands 8%, pastures 4%, land not available for cultivation 14% and miscellaneous tree crops 1% of the total area. A comparison of the present land use pattern with that of 1950 -51 shows that the net sown area and the land under forests have increased. Land not available for cultivation and land under tree crops on the other hand have decreased during the period. The pattern of net sown area varies from one state to another. It is more than 80% of the total area in Punjab and Haryana and less than 10% in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Manipur. Waste Lands: - A part of the land is classified as waste land. This includes arid, rocky and desert areas. Some of these lands have been created by human beings through deforestation and overgrazing, while others have been created by nature. Q#4 Ans. What is soil? What are the different kinds of soils? The word soil is derived from a Latin word 'solum' which means floor or ground. Soil is the loose rock material, rich in humus and is capable of growing plants. It consists of a mixture of mineral and organic matter including sand, clay, decayed leaves, flowers, minute bacteria and earthworms. It contains varying amount of moisture and air between the solid particles. Generally speaking soil is the loose surface of the earth consisting of clay, sand, stones, minerals, humus etc. This is that layer of the earth where all kind of vegetation grows. Soil types: - Soils are classified on the basis of colour such as red, yellow, black and they are also classified on the basis of texture such as sandy, clayey, loamy etc. In India soils are classified into the following types. Viz. 1. Alluvial soils 2. Blacks soils 1. Red soils 4, Laterite soils 5. Mountainous soils 6. Desert soils. 1. Alluvial soils: Alluvial soils are mostly found in the northern fertile plains, coastal strips and Chattisgrah basin. These soils are formed by the sediments brought down by the rivers. These are deep soils rich in phosphoric acid and potash, but poor in nitrogen. These soils contain fine particles of soil called alluvium deposited over thousands of years by the Himalayan rivers. Alluvial soils are of two types - Khadar and Bhangar. Khadar is newer alluvium found close to the rivers and is sandy and light in colour, while as Bhanger is older alluvium found away from the rivers and is clayey and dark. Rice, Wheat, Cotton, Oilseeds, Sugarcane can be cultivated on alluvial soils. 2. Black soils: Black soils are mainly found in Maharashtra, Western Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat where soils have been derived from Deccan traps. Black soils are also found in parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, where soils have been derived from metamorphic rocks. These soils are formed due to the weathering of rocks and are rich in lime, iron, magnesia, alumina, Potash, Calcium Carbonate. But these lack in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic matter. They are also called Regur soils. These soils are most suitable for cotton cultivation and are known as black cotton soils. They can retain moisture. They are more fertile in valleys as compared to uplands. During dry season they develop cracks.

Class: - 10th

Our Resources (Land And Soil)

Geography

3. Red Soils:These soils are formed in the areas of igneous and metamorphic rocks. These have developed as a result of weathering. They are red in colour due to the presence of iron in them. They are highly porous and fertile when they are fine grained and deep. They occur in parts of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Jharkhand. They have more contents of lime, potash, and iron than the Regur soils. Crops like wheat, rice, cotton, pulses and sugarcane can be grown in red soils. Their fertility is increased by using fertilizers. 4. Laterite soils: These are intensively leached soils of the monsoon climate. They are less fertile. These are red in colour, composed of little clay and much gravel of red sand-stones. These are well developed in the hills of the Deccan, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa and the parts of Assam and Meghalaya which receive heavy rainfall. They contain iron, aluminum, manganese and titanium. It is suitable for cultivation of coffee, rubber, cashew, tea. They are deficient in Potassium, lime, silica, Phosphoric acid, nitrogen 5. Mountain Soils:- These soils are found in mountainous regions of the country, particularly in Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern ranges, Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh and J&K. These soils contain much organic matter and are heterogeneous in nature. In the Shiwalik hills, these are shallow and immature, containing large proportions of decomposed mineral grains. These are sandy, porous and devoid of humus. They have rich iron content but they lack in lime. On terrace farming fruits, vegetables and rice are grown on these soils. 6. Desert Soils:- These are found largely in arid parts of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. These soils contain high percentage of soluble salt and lack in organic matter. These soils are dry due to scarcity of water. These soils can be reclaimed if irrigation facilities are made available. The sands are partly of local origin and partly have been blown in from the Indus Valley. They are loose, porous and coarse. Wheat, bajra, melon, grams can be grown on these soils. Q#5 Ans. What arc the characteristic of natural resources? The following are the characteristics of natural resources:1. They have utility. 2. They are normally available in limited quantity. 3. They help us to create goods which are useful to us in many ways. 4. They provide us services. 5. Their utility and usage changes with the improvement in Science and technology. 6. If we consume them thoughtlessly they will exhaust altogether. 7. They help in the economic development of a country. Why is resources development necessary? Resource development can be defined as the development or increasing the quality of resources to that level, so that they can provide benefits to the man kind. The resource development is necessary because most of the resources provided by nature cannot be used directly by man for satisfying his needs. We have to make an extra effort in order to develop them for human satisfaction. For example, land is to be cleared from unwanted materials and ploughed so that it can be used for growing crops. Water has to be taken to the fields to irrigate them. Materials are to be dug out from earth and smelt before they are used for making machinery and other implements. Thus, resource development is a necessary for the proper utilization of these resources.

Q#6 Ans.

Class: - 10th
Q#7 Ans:

Our Resources (Land And Soil)

Geography

How can we ensure proper use of our available land resources? We can ensure proper use of our available land resources by adopting following measures. 1. Adoption of suitable measures to check or prevent soil erosion. 2. Stoppage of desertification by increasing water availability in arid regions and adopting afforestation programmes. 3. Measure to conserve soil fertility. 4. Check on floods. 5. Bringing wastelands back to other uses. 6. Adoption of modern and scientific means of farming. 7. Increasing soil productivity. These measures not only conserve land resources but also help to maintain land use pattern. 8. Rapid population expansion. What are the major causes of soil erosion. The following are the some of the major factors which cause soil erosion: (1) Deforestation: Deforestation is the main cause of soil erosion. The roots of the plants and trees hold the soil particles together. But when trees are cut down recklessly, nothing can check the speed of running water and soil erosion occurs. (2) Over-grazing: Soil is eroded due to over grazing especially by cows, goats and sheep. It generally happens on the hills. Water during heavy rainy season carries away the loose soil resulting in soil erosion. (3) Winds: When the winds blow violently, they carry away several millions of tonnes of soil dust with them. Wind action is powerful in the desert and semi desert regions. (4) Slope of the land: If the slope of land is steep, water runs down with great speed eroding soil. In such case, soil erosion is more than on gentle slope. (5) Nature of the land: Clayey soil can absorb water easily. Hence the soil erosion is much less in clayey soil. Soil erosion by water is also much less on sandy soils. (6) Heavy and Torrential Rains: Heavy and Torrential rains carry away the fine soil particles with them due to their great speed and erosive capacity. Chambal ravines are the result of such rains. How can we conserve soil? we can adopt following means to conserve soil:(1) Afforestation checks the speed of running water and puts a check on soil erosion. (2) Construction of terraces on hill slopes reduces the speed of flowing water and checks soil erosion. (3) Soil erosion can be checked by constructing check dams. It helps to prevent the spread of gullies. (4) We should plant trees along the banks of the rivers and streams. The trees thus planted will reduce the speed of water and there will be less of soil erosion. (5) We should educate, inform and sensitize common people about various aspects of land resource and its sustainable use. (6) By nourishing the land through conservation of rain water; recharging of ground water and judicious water use. (7) By enriching soil fertility through leguminous crops and adoption of suitable crop rotation that support diversification. (8) By protecting land from overuse of chemical pesticides. (9) By saving land from overgrazing. (10) Proper management of waste lands. (11) Control of mining activities. (12) Proper discharge and disposal of industrial wastes after treatment.

Q#8 Ans:

Q#9 Ans:

Class: - 10th

Our Resources (Land And Soil)

Geography

Q#10 What things should we keep in mind while using natural resources? Ans. The following things should be kept in mind while using the natural resources:1. We should consider the nature, type and size of these resources while using them. 2. We should thoughtfully use the resources which are exhaustible and available in limited quantity. 3. We should use these resources judiciously so that greater part of them is preserved and left for our future generations. 4. We should also see that the inexhaustible resources like land, water, solar energy etc. are not put to wrong use. 5. If we use land for cultivation, we must also see that its fertility is maintained. 6. Our birds and animals should be protected from human exploitation. 7. We must give stress on reusing and re-cycling of the natural resources, so that we are able to preserve greater part of these resources for our future generations. Q#11 What is resource planning? Why is it necessary? Ans. Resource planning is a technique or a skill of proper utilization and management of the resources available to us. The progress and development of a country to a greater extent depends on the richness, development and management of the resources. Since resources provided by nature are limited in quantity and unevenly distributed all over the country, their planning is necessary. Over exploitation and excessive use of the resources lead to the problems of wastage and pollution. Improper use of fertilizers and insecticides causes pollution and affects plant and animal life. Unscientific use of minerals releases dust and smoke and makes land unsuitable for agriculture. Resource planning, thus, helps people in many ways. It reduces wastage, keeps the environment pollution free and takes care of our future generations. A resource planning also helps in stabilizing prices by maintaining balance between demand and supply. Q#12 What do you mean by land resource? How is its useful to mankind? Ans. Land is an important natural resource, which is very essential for the sustenance of mankind. The main three relief features of land are plains, plateaus and mountains. The plains cover about 43% of the total land area of the country and support major part of the Indian population dependent on agriculture. The mountains which cover 30% of the Indian land provide us with natural forests, scenic beauty and wildlife. Besides, these mountains attract thousands of tourists from all over the world and thus help us in strengthening the economy of the country. The plateaus covering 27% of the total area provide raw materials for our industry and are suitable for human settlements. Home Assignment Prepare the answers of the following questions at home:1. What do you mean by Resource Development? How can we develop our land, water and minerals? 2. Which are the important natural resources in India? How are they used and useful to us? What is the role of humans in their development? 3. How can you say that over-exploitation and excessive use of resources lead to the problems of waste and pollution? 4. What are the merits of proper utilization of resources, and what are the demerits of their improper utilization? 5. What are the main relief features of our country? How are they useful to us? 6. Write a short paragraph on the climate, growing season of India and the need for irrigation. 7. How can we reduce land degradation in industrial and suburban areas?

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