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ELEMENTARY STATISTICS SBST 1303

FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT

SEMESTER SEPTEMBER 2012

SBST 1303

ELEMENTARY STATISTICS

MATRICULATION NO

820105125525001

IDENTITY CARD NO.

820105125525

TELEPHONE NO.

014-3729894

E-MAIL

davidbalanting@yahoo.com

LEARNING CENTRE

SABAH LEARNING CENTRE

ELEMENTARY STATISTICS SBST 1303

QUESTION 1
a) n = 51
Approximate number of classes (K)
K 1+3.3log(n)
1+3.3log(51)
6.6
As this is an approximation we would choose integer 6 as the approximate number of
classes.

Class Width =

Data Range
Number of class (K)

= Largest Number Smallest Number


K
= 94 41 = 8.8 9
6

Class

Counting Tally

Frequency (f)

40 48

1111 1111

10

49 57

1111 111

58 66

1111 111

67 75

1111 1111

76 84

1111 111

85 93

1111 11

94 102

Sum

= 51

ELEMENTARY STATISTICS SBST 1303

Figure 1: Frequency Distribution Table on Number of Miles Travelled in a Week


40 48 49 57 58 66

Class
Frequency

10

67 -75

76 84 85 93

94 102

Total

51

(f)

b)

12

10

10
9

8
7

Frequency

2
1
0

Class
40 48
Figure 2:

49 57

58 66

67 -75

76 84

85 93

94 102

Histogram of frequency distribution table for number of miles tavelled in a week

c)
i)

Mean

= 11 + 22 + + k-1k-1+ kk = ii
_______________________________________

1 + 2 + + + k-1+ k

_______

( Formula 1.1)

ELEMENTARY STATISTICS SBST 1303

Where I = 1,2,k

Lower boundary of a class =


(LB)

upper limit of
previous class

lower limit
of that class

_________________________________
2
LB

39 + 40
_______________

39.5

48.5

57.5

66.5

75.5

84.5

93.5

LB

48 + 49
_______________
2

LB

57 + 58
_______________
2

LB

66 + 67
_______________
2

LB

75+ 76
_______________
2

LB

84+ 85
_______________
2

LB

93 + 94
_______________
2

ELEMENTARY STATISTICS SBST 1303

Upper boundary of a class =


(UB)

upper limit of
that class

lower limit
of next class

_________________________________
2
UB

48 + 49
_______________

48.5

57.5

66.5

75.5

84.5

93.5

102.5

UB

57 + 58
_______________
2

UB

66 + 67
_______________
2

UB

75 + 76
_______________
2

UB

84 + 85
_______________
2

UB

93 + 94
_______________
2

UB

102 + 103
_______________
2

ELEMENTARY STATISTICS SBST 1303

Class mid-point

Lower Boundary
of that class

Upper Boundary
of that class

_________________________________
2
=

39.5 + 48.5
_______________

44

53

62

71

80

89

98

48.5 + 57.5
_______________
2

57.5 + 66.5
_______________
2

66.5 + 75.5
_______________
2

75.5 + 84.5
_______________
2

84.5 + 93.5
_______________
2

93.5 + 102.5
_______________
2

ELEMENTARY STATISTICS SBST 1303

40 48

Lower
Boundary
39.3

Class
mid-point
44

Upper
Boundary
48.5

49 57

48.5

53

57.5

58 66

57.5

62

66.5

67 75

66.5

71

75.5

76 84

75.5

80

84.5

85 93

84.5

89

93.5

94 102

93.5

98

102.5

Class

Frequency (f)
10

= 51

By using Formula 1.1,

= 11 + 22 + + k-1k-1+ kk =
_______________________________________

1 + 2 + + + k-1+ k

ii
_______

Where I = 1,2,k

fx

Class
mid-point
()

Frequency (f)

40 48

44

10

(f multiplies )
440

49 57

53

424

58 66

62

496

67 75

71

639

76 84

80

640

85 93

89

623

94 102

98

98

Class

Sum

3360

ELEMENTARY STATISTICS SBST 1303

= 3360
______
51

ii)

= 65.8 66 miles

Mode
Class mode is 40 48
LB = 39.5
C=9
B = 10 0 = 10
A = 10 8 = 2
x = LB + C

= 39.5 + 9

B
_____
B + A

10
______
10 + 2

= 39.5 + 7.5
= 47 miles

iii)

Median
=

LB + C

n+1
______ - FB
2
____________

m
M0 =

n+1 = 51+1 = 26
2

m = 8
LB = 57.5
C=9

FB = 18

ELEMENTARY STATISTICS SBST 1303

= 57.5 + 9

26 - 18
_______
8

= 57.5 + 9
= 66.5 67 miles

QUESTION 2
a) Data Set for Smokers in ascending order
114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 124, 126, 128, 130, 134, 146
n=12

1 + 2 + + n =

____________________

1 i
n

n
114 + 116 + 118 +120 + 122 + 124 + 126 + 128 + 130 + 130 + 134 + 146
12
1508 = 125.66 126
12

Mod
Since number 130 occurs two times (the highest frequency) therefore the value of
mod is 130.

Median

= n+1 = 12+1 = 6.5

Thus the position of median is at the middle between 6th position and 7th position. The
observation at the 6th position is number 124, and the observation at 7th position is
number 126.

ELEMENTARY STATISTICS SBST 1303

= 124 + 126

= 125 ( which is at the position 6.5)

Data Set for Non-Smokers in ascending order

108, 110, 112, 114, 114, 116, 116, 116, 126, 132, 134, 138
n=12

1 + 2 + + n =

____________________

1 i
n

n
=

108 + 110 + 112 + 114+ 114 + 116 + 116 + 116 + 126 + 132 + 134 + 138
12
1436 = 119.66 120

12

Mod
Since number 116 occurs three times (the highest frequency) therefore the value of
mod is 116.

Median
= n+1 = 12+1 = 6.5

Thus the position of meridian is at the middle between 6th position and 7th position.
The observation at the 6th position is number 116, and the observation at 7th position is
number 116.

= 116 + 116

= 116 (which is at the position of 6.5)

ELEMENTARY STATISTICS SBST 1303

Comparison of skewness between data sets

Category

Mean

Mod

Median

Smokers

126

130

125

Non-Smokers

120

116

116

ELEMENTARY STATISTICS SBST 1303

b) IQR = Q3 Q2

Qr = r (n + 1)
4
Q1 = 1 (12 + 1)
4
= 3.25 = 3 + 0.25
Q1 is at the position between 3rd and 4th and it is 0.25 above the 3rd position.
Q3 = 3 (12 + 1)
4
= 9.75
Q3 is at the position between 9th and 10th and it is 0.75 above the 9th position.

Data Set for Smokers in ascending order


114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 124, 126, 128, 130, 134, 146
Q1 is at the position between 3rd and 4th and it is 0.25 above the 3rd position.
Number at 3rd position = 118;
Number at4th position = 120;
Q1 = 118 + (0.25) (120-118) = 118.5
Q3 is at the position between 9th and 10th, and it is 0.75 above the 9th.
Number at 9th position =130
Number at 10th position = 130
Q3 = 130 + (0.75) (130-130) = 130

IQR =

Q3 Q1
= 130 118.5
= 11.5

ELEMENTARY STATISTICS SBST 1303

IQR = Q3 Q2

Qr = r (n + 1)
4
Q1 = 1 (12 + 1)
4
= 3.25 = 3 + 0.25
Q1 is at the position between 3rd and 4th and it is 0.25 above the 3rd position.
Q3 = 3 (12 + 1)
4
= 9.75
Q3 is at the position between 9th and 10th and it is 0.75 above the 9th position.

Data Set for Non-Smokers in ascending order


108, 110, 112, 114, 114, 116, 116, 116, 126, 132, 134, 138
Q1 is at the position between 3rd and 4th and it is 0.25 above the 3rd position.
Number at 3rd position = 112;
Number at4th position = 114;
Q1 = 112 + (0.25) (114-112) = 112.5
Q3 is at the position between 9th and 10th, and it is 0.75 above the 9th.
Number at 9th position =126
Number at 10th position = 132
Q3 = 126 + (0.75) (132-126) = 130.5

IQR =

Q3 Q1
= 130.5 112.5
= 18.0