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- Minor Losses in pipes
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Eric G. Paterson

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering

The Pennsylvania State University

Spring 2005

Note to Instructors

These slides were developed1, during the spring semester 2005, as a teaching aid

for the undergraduate Fluid Mechanics course (ME33: Fluid Flow) in the Department of

M h i l and

Mechanical dNNuclear

l E

Engineering

i i att PPenn St

State

t U

University.

i it Thi

This course h hadd ttwo

sections, one taught by myself and one taught by Prof. John Cimbala. While we gave

common homework and exams, we independently developed lecture notes. This was

also the first semester that Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications was

used at PSU. My section had 93 students and was held in a classroom with a computer,

projector, and blackboard. While slides have been developed for each chapter of Fluid

Applications I used a combination of blackboard and

Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications,

electronic presentation. In the student evaluations of my course, there were both positive

and negative comments on the use of electronic presentation. Therefore, these slides

should onlyy be integrated

g into yyour lectures with careful consideration of yyour teachingg

style and course objectives.

Eric Paterson

Penn State, University Park

August 2005

1 These slides were originally prepared using the LaTeX typesetting system (http://www.tug.org/)

and the beamer class (http://latex-beamer

(http://latex beamer.sourceforge.net/),

sourceforge net/) but were translated to PowerPoint for

wider dissemination by McGraw-Hill.

Objectives

turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully

developed

p flow

2. Calculate the major and minor losses

associated with pipe flow in piping networks

and determine the pumping power

requirements

3. Understand the different velocity and flow rate

measurement techniques and learn their

advantages and disadvantages

Introduction

Recall - because of the no-slip

condition, the velocity at the walls of

a pipe or duct flow is zero

We are often interested only in Vavg,

which we usually call just V (drop the

subscript

b i t ffor convenience)

i )

Keep in mind that the no-slip

condition causes shear stress and

friction along the pipe walls

Friction force of wall on fluid

Introduction

For p

pipes

p of constant

diameter and

incompressible

p flow

Vavg stays the same

down the pipe, even if

the velocity profile

Vavg Vavg changes

Wh ? C

Why? i off

Conservation

Mass

same same

same

Introduction

For p

pipes

p with variable diameter,, m is still the

same due to conservation of mass, but V1 ≠ V2

D1

D2

V1 m V2 m

Laminar and Turbulent Flows

Laminar and Turbulent Flows

Critical Reynolds number

Definition of Reynolds number (R cr) for

(Re f flow

fl in

i a round

d pipe

i

Re < 2300 ⇒ laminar

2300 ≤ Re ≤ 4000 ⇒ transitional

Re > 4000 ⇒ turbulent

approximate.

For a given application, Recr

depends upon

Pipe roughness

Vibrations

Upstream fluctuations,

disturbances (valves, elbows, etc.

that may disturb the flow)

Laminar and Turbulent Flows

For non-round pipes, define the

h dra lic diameter

hydraulic

Dh = 4Ac/P

Ac = cross-section area

P = wetted

tt d perimeter

i t

Ac = 0.15 * 0.4 = 0.06m2

P = 0.15 + 0.15 + 0.5 = 0.8m

Don’t count free surface, since it does not

contribute to friction along pipe walls!

Dh = 4Ac/P = 4 0.06/0.8 = 0.3m

4*0.06/0.8

What does it mean? This channel flow is

equivalent to a round pipe of diameter

0.3m ((approximately).y)

The Entrance Region

p of diameter D. The flow

can be laminar or turbulent. In either case, the

profile develops

p p downstream over several

diameters called the entry length Lh. Lh/D is a

function of Re.

Lh

Fully Developed Pipe Flow

Comparison

p of laminar and turbulent flow

There are some major differences between laminar and

turbulent fully developed pipe flows

Laminar

Can solve exactly (Chapter 9)

Flow is steady

Velocity profile is parabolic

Pipe roughness not important

u(r)= 2Vavg(1 - r2/R2)

Fully Developed Pipe Flow

Turbulent

Cannot solve exactly (too complex)

Flow is unsteady (3D swirling eddies), but it is steady in the mean

Mean velocityy profile is fuller ((shape more like a top-hat profile,

with very sharp slope at the wall)

Pipe roughness is very important

IInstantaneous

t t

profiles

No analytical solution

solution, but there are some good semi-empirical

semi empirical

expressions that approximate the velocity profile shape. See text

Logarithmic law (Eq. 8-46)

Power law ((Eq.

q 8-49))

Fully Developed Pipe Flow

Wall-shear stress

Recall,, for simple

p shear flows u=u(y),(y), we had

τ = µdu/dy

In fully developed pipe flow

flow, it turns out that

τ = µdu/dr

Laminar Turbulent

τw τw

τw = shear stress at the wall,,

acting on the fluid

τw,turb > τw,lam

ME33 : Fluid Flow 13 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes

Fully Developed Pipe Flow

Pressure drop

There is a direct connection between the pressure drop in a pipe and

the shear stress at the wall

Consider a horizontal pipe, fully developed, and incompressible flow

τw

P1 V P2

L

1 2

Let’s mass, momentum

momentum, and energy to this CV

(good review problem!)

Fully Developed Pipe Flow

Pressure drop

Conservation of Mass

Conservation of x-momentum

and V1 = V2

Fully Developed Pipe Flow

Pressure drop

Thus, x-momentum reduces to

or

Velocity terms cancel again because V1 = V2, and α1 = α2 (shape not changing)

hL = irreversible head

loss & it is felt as a pressure

drop in the pipe

Fully Developed Pipe Flow

Friction Factor

From momentum CV analysis

From energy

gy CV analysis

y

E

Equating

ti ththe ttwo gives

i

Laminar flow: solve exactly

Turbulent flow: rely on empirical data (experiments)

In either case, we can benefit from dimensional analysis!

Fully Developed Pipe Flow

Friction Factor

τw = func(ρ, V, µ, D, ε) ε = average roughness of the

i id wallll off th

inside the pipe

i

Π-analysis gives

Fully Developed Pipe Flow

Friction Factor

Now go back to equation for hL and substitute f for τw

Recall But for laminar flow, roughness

does not affect the flow unless it

Therefore is huge

Laminar flow: f = 64/Re (exact)

Turbulent flow: Use charts or empirical equations (Moody Chart, a famous

plot of f vs. Re and ε/D, See Fig. A-12, p. 898 in text)

ME33 : Fluid Flow 20 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes

Fully Developed Pipe Flow

Friction Factor

Moody chart was developed for circular pipes, but can

b used

be d ffor non-circular

i l pipes

i using

i h hydraulic

d li di diameter

Colebrook equation is a curve-fit of the data which is

convenient for computations (e.g.,

(e g using EES)

using the root finding algorithm in EES

root-finding

to ±15% due to roughness size, experimental error,

curve fitting of data, etc.

Types of Fluid Flow Problems

In design

g and analysis

y of p

piping

p g systems,

y 3

problem types are encountered

1. Determine ∆p (or hL) given L, D, V (or flow rate)

Can be solved directly using Moody chart and Colebrook

equation

2. Determine V, given L, D, ∆p

3. Determine D, given L, ∆p, V (or flow rate)

Types 2 and 3 are common engineering

design problems, i.e., selection of pipe

diameters to minimize construction and

pumping costs

However, iterative approach

pp required

q since

both V and D are in the Reynolds number.

ME33 : Fluid Flow 22 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes

Types of Fluid Flow Problems

Explicit

p relations have been developedp which

eliminate iteration. They are useful for quick,

direct calculation,, but introduce an additional 2%

error

Minor Losses

tees, inlets, exits, enlargements, and contractions.

These components interrupt the smooth flow of fluid and

cause additional losses because of flow separation and

mixing

W introduce

We i t d a relation

l ti for

f the

th minor

i losses

l associated

i t d

with these components

• KL is the loss coefficient.

• Is different for each component.

• Is assumed to be independent of Re.

• Typically provided by manufacturer or

generic table (e.g., Table 8-4 in text).

ME33 : Fluid Flow 24 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes

Minor Losses

y is comprised

p of

major losses (in the pipe sections) and the minor

losses ((in the components)

p )

If the p

piping

p g system

y has constant diameter

ME33 : Fluid Flow 26 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 27 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes

Piping Networks and Pump Selection

Two g

general types

yp of

networks

Pipes in series

Volume flow rate is

constant

Head loss is the

summation of parts

Pi

Pipes iin parallel

ll l

Volume flow rate is the

sum of the components

Pressure loss across all

branches is the same

ME33 : Fluid Flow 28 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes

Piping Networks and Pump Selection

For p

parallel p

pipes,

p p

perform CV analysis

y between

points A and B

branches, head loss

in all branches is the same

Piping Networks and Pump Selection

Head loss relationship between branches allows the following ratios

to be developed

t solve

easy to l with

ith EES!

Note: the analogy with electrical circuits should be obvious

Flow flow rate ((VA)) : current (I)

()

Pressure gradient (∆p) : electrical potential (V)

Head loss (hL): resistance (R), however hL is very nonlinear

Piping Networks and Pump Selection

When a piping system involves pumps and/or

t bi

turbines, pump and

d tturbine

bi h head

d mustt b

be iincluded

l d d iin

the energy equation

pump u) or the head

extracted by the turbine (hturbine,e), are functions of

volume flow rate, i.e., they are not constants.

Operating point of system is where the system is in

balance, e.g., where pump head is equal to the head

losses.

Pump and systems curves

Supply curve for hpump,u:

d

determine

i experimentally

i ll bby

manufacturer. When using EES,

it is easy to build in functional

relationship for hpump,u.

System curve determined from

analysis of fluid dynamics

equations

Operating point is the

i t ti off supply

intersection l and d

demand curves

If p

peak efficiencyy is far from

operating point, pump is wrong

for that application.

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