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Chapter 1 #explain the meaning of environmental engineering.

Environmental Engineering is the integration of science and engineering principles to improve the natural environment, to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate pollution sites. Furthermore, it is concerned with finding plausible solutions in the field of public health, such as arthropod-borne diseases, implementing law which promote adequate sanitation in urban, rural and recreational areas. It involves waste water management and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, radiation protection, industrial hygiene, environmental sustainability, and public health issues as well as a knowledge of environmental engineering law. It also includes studies on the environmental impact of proposed construction projects. #understand the principles of conservation of matter and energy. conservation of matter - a fundamental principle of classical physics that matter cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system Conservation of energy -The principle that the total amount of energy in a closed system remains always the same, none being lost or created in any chemical or physical process or in the conversion of one kind of energy into another, within that system. #explain the effect of the laws of thermodynamics on living systems. Biological systems are subject to the same physicochemical laws that govern non-living systems. It is important therefore to understand explicitly how basic thermodynamic principles are applied in biochemistry and biology. (The following is a brief summary of the basic ideas of thermodynamics; for a more extensive review, see the Chemical Thermodynamics webpages.) For example, we can usually treat processes in living organisms and tissues as occurring at constant pressure and temperature, with little or no change in volume. Thus, any thermodynamic methods valid in general for such processes will be useful in this specific biological context. #define ecology, ecosystems, photosynthesis, respiration, and other ecological concepts. Ecology- The study of living organisms and their environment or habitat.

Ecosystem -An organism or group of organisms and their surroundings. The boundary of an ecosystem may be arbitrarily chosen to suit the area of interest or study. Photosynthesis - the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water Respiration a. The act or process of inhaling and exhaling;
breathing. Also called ventilation.b. The act or process by which an organism without lungs, such as a fish or plant, exchanges gases with its environment.

niche is the "occupation" of an organism. It defines the role of an organism in an ecosystem, such as a "fish-eating wader" for a heron, or a "plant-juice-sipping summer buzzer" for a cicada. habitat refers to the kind of place where an organism normally lives. It includes the arrangement of food, water, shelter and space that is suitable to meet an organism's needs. You can think of this as the "address" where an organism lives. #discuss the food chains/webs and the ecological pyramid. organisms eat the plants, or eat organisms that eat plants, and in doing so indirectly gain the benefit of the sun's energy to run their bodies. The flow of sunlight energy is therefore passed from producers (green plants) to primary consumers (animals that eat plants, such as leafhoppers) to secondary consumers (animals that eat other animals, such as birds); this sequence is known as a food chain. As energy is passed along the food chain, much is used up at each level as it works to run each organism. This energy is given off as heat and results in less energy being available at each stage along the food chain. It takes a lot of grass to support one rabbit, and many rabbits to support one hawk. As a consequence, there are many, many green plants on the Earth, fewer animals that eat plants, and even fewer animals that eat animals; this is known as the energy pyramid. #discuss and compare the carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus cycle within the ecosystem. Carbon cycle. Carbon is a very important element, as it is a building block of all organic matter, including parts of the human body, such as proteins, fats, DNA and RNA. Carbon can mainly be found in air as carbon dioxide, but as a part of the carbon cycle it may also be dissolved in water or stored in sediments. Nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen is a substance that is essential for all life on earth. Most nitrogen can be found in air in the gaseous

form, but nitrogen can also be found in water and soil in different forms. There, it will be decomposed by bacteria and absorbed by plants and animals. Sulfur cycle. Sulfur is present within every organism in small quantities, mainly in the amino acids. It can be found in air as sulfur dioxide and in water sulfuric acid and in other forms. The sulfur cycle is not only concerned with natural processes, but also with human additions through industrial processes. Phosphorus cycle. Phosphorus is an element that can be found in the DNA structures of organisms. Phosphorus is the main limiting growth factor for ecosystems, because the phosphorus cycle is mainly concerned with the movement of phosphorus between continents and the ocean. Contrarily to the nitrogen cycle there is no gaseous phase found in air. Chapter 2 #define ecosystems/biomes, species, populations, communities, and biodiversity. A biome is a large ecosystem, such as the Amazon rain forest or the Sahara desert, which are referred to as biomes. A major ecological community of organisms adapted to a particular climatic or environmental condition on a large geographic area in which they occur. Species. a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding. The species is the principal natural taxonomic unit, ranking below a genus and denoted by a Latin binomial, e.g., Homo sapiens. Population. It's a group of organisms of the same species living together in an area. a community or biocoenosis is an assemblage or associations of populations of two or more different species occupying the same geographical area. The term community has a variety of uses. In its simplest form it refers to groups of organisms in a specific place or time, for example, "the fish community of Lake Ontario before industrialization". biodiversity .the existence of a wide variety of plant and animal species in their natural environments, which is the aim of conservationists concerned about the indiscriminate destruction of rainforests and other habitats. #describe the processes, interaction, and relationships of species in communities and populations. an organism is one of its species .a species is one of its population.a population is one/part of an ecosystem . an

ecosystem is one/part of a biome. a biome is one/part of a biosphere. biosphere is the earth. - Neutral = neither species directly affect the other - Commensalism = one species benefits, the other is not affected (birds nest in trees) - Mutualism = symbiotic relationship where both spp. benefit (yucca moth) - Interspecific competition = both spp. harmed by interaction - Predation, parasitism = one species benefits, the other is harmed #describe the characteristics of the different classification of biomes Aquatic biomes are defined as oceanic areas that have similar climatic conditions on the Earth. There are two basic regions of aquatic biomes and they are freshwater and marine. Freshwater regions consist of ponds, lakes, streams, rivers and wetlands and marine regions include oceans, coral reefs and estuaries. Terrestrial biome are land ecosystems. They are defined by factors such as plant structures, plant spacing, leaf types and climate. Climatic factors such as latitude and humidity affect the distribution of terrestrial biome. #discuss the significance of biodiversity in our environment. Biodiversity is clearly a fundamental component of life on Earth. It creates complex ecosystems that could never be reproduced by humans. The value of that biodiversity, both intrinsically and to humans, is immeasurable, and thus must be protected. In the end, we both want and need biodiversity. Although we continue to harm the natural environment, often without realizing the impact that we have, an increasing number of people are becoming aware of the need to protect biodiversity. Hopefully humans will continue to pursue the issue so we can eventually live entirely with nature, not harm the very system that allows us to exist. Chapter 3 #identify and state the different units of measurements #state the first and second law of thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics, also know as the law of conservation of energy, states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It may change from one form to another, but the energy in a closed system remains constant.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that when energy is transferred, there will be less energy available at the end of the transfer process than at the beginning. Due to entropy, which is the measure of disorder in a closed system, all of the available energy will not be useful to the organism. Entropy increases as energy is transferred. #discuss the importance of mass and energy transfer and its application to the design of treatment systems. Mass transfer is the net movement of mass from one location, usually meaning a stream, phase, fraction or component, to another. Mass transfer occurs in many processes, such as absorption, evaporation, adsorption, drying, precipitation, membrane filtration, and distillation. Mass transfer is used by different scientific disciplines for different processes and mechanisms. The phrase is commonly used in engineering for physical processes that involve diffusive and convective transport of chemical species within physical systems. Energy transfer. In the physical sciences, an energy transfer or 'energy exchange' from one system to another is said to occur when an amount of energy crosses the boundary between them, thus increasing the energy content of one system while decreasing the energy content of the other system by the same amount. The transfer is characterized by the quantity of energy transferred, which can be specified in energy units such as the joule (J), in combination with the direction of the transfer, which can be specified as in (to) or out of (from) one system or the other. The transfer occurs in a process which changes the state of each system. Thermodynamics recognizes three categories (mechanisms or modes) of such transfers: Heat[ing], which can occur via conduction, thermal electromagnetic radiation, and other mechanisms Work (thermodynamics), for example, electric power transmission is a (non-mechanical) thermodynamic work process that can transfer energy from a power generation station to your home, where a pump can use it to perform mechanical work on water to lift it out of your basement. Mass transfer, processes in which material moves from one system to the other, carrying its energy with it

distance mass time electric charge* temperature amount of substance luminous intensity acceleration area capacitance concentration density electric current electric field intensity electric resistance emf energy force frequency heat illumination inductance magnetic flux potential difference power pressure

meter kilogram second coulomb Kelvin mole candela meter per second squared square meter farad molar kilogram per cubic meter ampere newton per coulomb ohm volt joule newton hertz joule lux (lumen per square meter) henry weber volt watt pascal (newton per square meter)

velocity volume work

meter per second cubic meter Joule