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:::Linear Algebra Lectures ::: MAL101 :::

January 2014

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Lecture 1 We study system of linear equations with complex coecients. But for most of the cases the coecients will be rational numbers. Give examples of such systems. Explain what is a solution of a system of linear equations. Geometrically describe solution of an equation when number of unknowns is two or three and the coecients are real numbers (respectively as a line in a plane and a plane in space). Also describe what is a solution of a system of linear equations when the number of unknowns is two or three (as intersection of lines or planes etc.). Examples of systems which have (a) no solutions, (b) has a unique solution, (c) innitely many solutions (when number of unknowns is two or three or four): a) x1 + x2 + x3 = 3, x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 = 6, x2 + 2x3 = 1; b) x1 + x2 + x3 = 3, x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 = 6, x1 + x2 + 2x3 = 4; c) x1 + x2 + x3 = 3, x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 = 6, x2 + 2x3 = 3. Verify that the rst system has no solution, (1, 1, 1) is the only solution of the second system and the third equation has innitely many solutions. Indeed, for any real number , the tuple (, 3 2, ) is a solution. Students should recall Crammers rule and any other methods they learnt to solve a system of equations. The Crammers rule is applicable when number of unknowns and equations are same and the determinant of the coecient matrix is nonzero. Discuss the limitations. We will not disucss Crammers rule in the class. We write a general system of m linear equations with real (or complex) coecients with n unknowns x1 , x2 , . . . , xn as a11 x1 + a12 x2 + + a1n xn = b1 a21 x1 + a22 x2 + + a2n xn = b2 am1 x1 + am2 x2 + + amn xn = bm

ai,j (1 i m, 1 j n) are called coecients and b1 , b2 , . . . , bm are called constant terms of the equations. We call the system a homogenous system if bi = 0 for each i and a nonhomogeneous system if it is not homogenous. The above system described by the following matrix equation: AX = B (5) can be where A= a11 a12 a1n b1 x1 a21 a22 a2n b2 x2 , B = and X is the matrix (or column) of unknowns . . .. A is am1 am2 amn bm xn called the coecient matrix and B the matrix (or column) of constants. The matrix (A|B ) is called the augmented matrix of the system. 1 1 1 | 3 1 1 1 3 x1 In a), A = 1 2 3 , B = 6, X = x2 and (A|B ) = 1 2 3 | 6 . 0 1 2 | 1 0 1 2 1 x 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 | 3 3 x1 In b), A = 1 2 3 , B = 6, X = x2 and(A|B ) = 1 2 3 | 6 . 1 1 2 x 1 1 2 | 4 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 | 3 3 x1 In c), A = 1 2 3 , B = 6, X = x2 and (A|B ) = 1 2 3 | 6 . 0 1 2 x3 0 1 2 | 4 3 Remark: i) A solution of a system of equations in n unknowns is an n-tuple whose components are from R (or C or Q). ii) The homogeneous equations always has a solution (namely, the zero tuple). iii) When scalars are complex numbers geometric description of the solution set is not what we have when scalars are real. Warning: Before we write the matrix equation we should arrange the unknowns in the same order in the equations. If an unkown is missing from an equation the corresponding coecient is assumed to be zero.