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SENAI Prof.

Elisabete Barbosa
How Oil Drilling Works
by Craig Freudenrich, Ph.D. and Jonathan Strickland

Oil Rig Systems Once the equipment is at the site, the crew sets the rig up. Here are the major systems of a land oil rig:

Power system
o large diesel engines - burn diesel-fuel oil to

provide the main source of power o electrical generators - powered by the diesel engines to provide electrical power

Mechanical system - driven by electric motors


o hoisting system - used for lifting heavy loads;

consists of a mechanical winch (drawworks) with a large steel cable spool, a block-andtackle pulley and a receiving storage reel for the cable o turntable - part of the drilling apparatus

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Anatomy of an oil rig

15 Rotating equipment - used for rotary drilling o swivel - large handle that holds the weight of the drill string; allows the string to rotate and makes a pressure-tight seal on the hole o kelly - four- or six-sided pipe that transfers rotary motion to the turntable and drill string o turntable or rotary table - drives the rotating motion using power from electric motors 20 o drill string - consists of drill pipe (connected sections of about 30 feet (10 meters) and drill collars (larger diameter, heavier pipe that fits around the drill pipe and places weight on the drill bit) o drill bit(s) - end of the drill that actually cuts up the rock; comes in many shapes and materials (tungsten carbide steel, diamond) that are specialized for various drilling tasks and rock 25 formations Casing - large-diameter concrete pipe that lines the drill hole, prevents the hole from collapsing, and allows drilling mud to circulate

Circulation system - pumps drilling mud (mixture of water, clay, weighting material and chemicals, used to lift rock cuttings from the
Photo courtesy the Energy Institute bit to the surface) under pressure through the kelly, rotary table, drill Mud circulation in the hole pipes and drill collars o pump - sucks mud from the mud pits and pumps it to the drilling apparatus o pipes and hoses - connects pump to drilling apparatus o mud-return line - returns mud from the hole o shale shaker - shaker/sieve that separates rock cuttings from the mud o shale slide - conveys cuttings to the reserve pit o reserve pit - collects rock cuttings separated from the mud o mud pits - where drilling mud is mixed and recycled o mud-mixing hopper - where new mud is mixed and then sent to the mud pits

30 drill

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Derrick - support structure that holds the drilling apparatus; tall enough to allow new sections of drill pipe to be added to the drilling apparatus as drilling progresses Blowout preventer - high-pressure valves (located under the land rig or on the sea floor) that 45 seal the high-pressure drill lines and relieve pressure when necessary to prevent a blowout (uncontrolled gush of gas or oil to the surface, often associated with fire)

Source: Freudenrich, Ph.D., Craig, and Jonathan Strickland. "How Oil Drilling Works" 12 April 2001. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/oil-drilling.htm> 05 February 2011.

HowStuffWorks.com.

Atividade de grupo (obs: recortar os quadros... no entra na xerox). Pode fazer grupos de 4 ou 3. Observar a figura no slide e relacionar os termos referentes anatomia de uma torre de perfurao de petrleo (oil rig).

Drill string Drill collar Bit Electric generator Mud and casings Casing Spare pipe Blowout preventer Turntable Engines turn tables Derrick

Coluna de perfurao Colar de perfurao Broca Gerador de eletricidades Lama e revestimentos Revestimento Tubo sobressaltante Sistema de segurana contra estouros Mesa giratria Motores que giram a mesa Torre

1. Relacione as palavras do texto aos significados em portugus. Deduza pelo contexto. a) crew ( ) tripulao b) burn ( ) queima c) load ( ) carga d) winch ( ) guincho e) reel ( ) bobina, carretel, cilindro, tambor f) weight ( ) peso g) shape ( ) forma h) clay ( ) barro, argila i) pit ( ) fosso j) hose ( ) mangueira k) shale ( ) peneira l) cuttings ( ) recorte?? m) gush ( ) jorrar, verter; derramamento; jato n) swivel ( ) tornel o) kelly ( ) conjunto de ligao 2. Busque no texto os termos em ingls para:
a) b) c) d) Tambor de cabo de ao - steel cable spool Polia de moito e talha - block-and-tackle pulley Carboneto de tungstnio - tungsten carbide steel Lameiro - mud-mixing hopper e) f) g) h) Sistema de iamento - hoisting system shale shaker peneira oscilante calha de folhelho shale slide guincho principal drawworks

3. Responda de acordo com o texto. Escreva o termo em ingls no espao ao lado. a. O que sistema de iamento? (_______________________________) _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ b. O que coluna de perfurao? (_______________________________) _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ c. O que fosso de lama? (_______________________________) _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ d. Defina revestimento: (_______________________________) _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ e. Explique o sistema de segurana contra estouros. (________________________) _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 4. Marque Verdadeiro ou Falso: a. O revestimento: ( ) permite que a lama da perfurao circule. ( ) formado por uma tubulao de concreto de dimetro pequeno. ( ) evita que o poo desmorone. ( ) reveste a perfurao.

b. A torre: ( ) uma estrutura de sustentao do mecanismo de sondagem. ( ) no necessrio que seja muito alta. ( ) novas sees de tubulao de perfurao no podem ser adicionadas ao mecanismo de sondagem enquanto a perfurao acontece. ( ) uma das funes da torre permitir que as novas sees de tubulao de perfurao sejam adicionadas ao mecanismo de sondagem. c. O sistema de segurana contra estouros: ( ) se localizam acima do poo terrestre ou no fundo od mar. ( ) so vlvulas de alta presso. ( ) sua funo prevenir o jorro descontrolado de gs ou petrleo para a superfcie. ( ) quando h aumento de presso, o referido sistema mantm a presso estabilizada. 5. O sistema de circulao formado por: Portugus Ingls a. Calha de folhelho _____________________________________________ b. Bomba _____________________________________________ c. Lameiro _____________________________________________ d. Fosso de lama _____________________________________________ e. Linha de retorno de lama _____________________________________________ f. Peneira oscilante _____________________________________________ g. Tubulaes e mangueiras _____________________________________________ h. Fosso de reserva _____________________________________________ 6. Sobre o sistema mecnico, correto afirmar: a) composto pelo sistema de iamento, pela mesa giratria e pela bomba. b) Cargas pesadas so suspensas pelo sistema de iamento. c) O sistema de iamento composto por um guincho mecnico, uma polia de moitao e talha e um carretel de armazenamento para receber o cabo. d) b e c so verdadeiros. e) a e b esto corretos. 7. Sobre o sistema de energia, incorreto dizer: a) Motores a diesel queimam combustvel e, assim, atuam como fonte principal de energia b) composto pelos motores diesel e pelos geradores eltricos. c) Os geradores eltricos so movidos pelos motores diesel. d) O sistema de energia alimentado por vrios tipos de combustveis. 8. Encontre em ingls os termos equivalentes ao sistema rotativo:
d e

a) b) c) d) e)

Tornel Conjunto de ligao Mesa giratria Coluna de perfurao Broca da sonda