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INDEX

CHAPTER 1. ABSTRACT CHAPTER2. INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDED SYSTEMS 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.2 APPLICATIONS OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS CHAPTER 3. INTRODUCTION TO MICROCNTROLLER 3.1 AT89C51 3.2 FEATURES 3.3 TIMERS 3.4 SERIAL COMMUNICATION 3.5 INTERRUPTS CHAPTER 4. POWER SUPPLY CHAPTER 5. SPECIFIED TECHNOLOGY 5.1L293D 5.2DC MOTOR CHAPTER 6. SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 7. CONCLUSION 7.1 CONCLUSION 7.2 REFERENCE

CHAPTER 1 ABSTRACT

BOMB DETECTION ROBOT


The pre e!" #!$e!"#%! pr%$#&e ' #(p)e '!& re)'"#$e)* )%+ ,% " +'* %- per-%r(#!. ' (e"') %r /%(/ &e"e,"#%! "e " %! "he "e " * "e( "% &e"er(#!e +he"her %r !%" "he * "e( # 0/1e," "% /%(/ e2p)% #%!. The (e"') &e"e,"%r +#)) /e -#2e& #! "he pre&e"er(#!e& 're' "% ,he,3 "he p% #/#)#"* %- ' (e"') %r ' /%(/. I- "here # '! e2# "e!,e %- (e"') #! "h'" 're'4 "he (e"') &e"e,"%r #&e!"#-#e "he (e"') '!& #!"#('"e "h# "% "he ,%!"r%))#!. 0!#". S#!,e "he h0('! ,'!!%" e!"er #!"% "he 're' +here "here "he /%(/ %r (e"') # pre e!"4 ' R%/%" # e(p)%*e& "% (%$e #! "he #(0)'"e& e!$#r%!(e!" '!& ,%!"#!0%0 )* (%!#"%r "he "'"0 %- "he (e"') &e"e,"%r #! "h'" p'r"#,0)'r 're'. The * "e( # e!"#re)* '! '0"%('"e& &e #.!. The (#,r%,%!"r%))er p)'* ' $#"') r%)e #! "h# pr%1e,". The ,%!"r%))#!. e,"#%! +#)) /e -#2e& "% "he r%/%". The ,%!"r%))#!. ,%!"'#! "he (#,r%,%!"r%))er4 (e"') &e"e,"%r '!& "he /055er ,#r,0#". The (#,r%,%!"r%))er ,%!"#!0%0 )* (%!#"%r "he %0"p0" %- "he (e"') &e"e,"%r. I- '!* (e"') # -%0!&4 "he (e"') &e"e,"%r re,%.!#5e #" '!& #" %0"p0" ,h'!.e #((e&#'"e)*. The (#,r%,%!"r%))er &e"e," "h# '!& #((e&#'"e)* ')er" "he /055er.

SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE TOOLS S!"#$%&' T!!() 1. 6e#) ,%(p#)er 2. Or,'&. H%&*$%&' T!!() 1. M#,r%,%!"r%))er AT89S52. 2. Me"') &e"e,"%r. 3. B055er ,#r,0#" 4. DC (%"%r '!& L293D -%r R%/%".

B(!+, *-%.&%/

CHAPTER 2
INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEM

2. INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEM

An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions, sometimes with real-time computing constraints !t is usually embedded as part of a complete de"ice including hardware and mechanical parts !n contrast, a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer, can do many different tas#s depending on programming Embedded systems ha"e become "ery important today as they control many of the common de"ices we use $ince the embedded system is dedicated to specific tas#s, design engineers can optimi%e it, reducing the si%e and cost of the product, or increasing the reliability and performance $ome embedded systems are mass-produced, benefiting from economies of scale Physically, embedded systems range from portable de"ices such as digital watches and &P' players, to large stationary installations li#e traffic lights, factory controllers, or the systems controlling nuclear power plants Comple(ity "aries from low, with a single microcontroller chip, to "ery high with multiple units, peripherals and networ#s mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure !n general, )embedded system) is not an e(actly defined term, as many systems ha"e some element of programmability *or e(ample, Handheld computers share some elements with embedded systems + such as the operating systems and microprocessors which power them + but are not truly embedded systems, because they allow different applications to be loaded and peripherals to be connected An embedded system is some combination of computer hardware and software, either fi(ed in capability or programmable, that is specifically designed for a particular #ind of application de"ice !ndustrial machines, automobiles, medical e,uipment, cameras, household appliances, airplanes, "ending machines, and toys -as well as the more ob"ious cellular phone and P.A/ are among the myriad possible hosts of an embedded system Embedded systems that are programmable are pro"ided with a programming interface, and embedded systems programming is a speciali%ed occupation Certain operating systems or language platforms are tailored for the embedded mar#et, such as Embedded 0a"a and 1indows 2P Embedded Howe"er, some low-end consumer products use "ery ine(pensi"e microprocessors and limited storage, with the application and operating system both part of a single program The program is written permanently into the

system3s memory in this case, rather than being loaded into RA& -random access memory/, as programs on a personal computer are 2.1 APPLICATIONS OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM 1e are li"ing in the Embedded 1orld 4ou are surrounded with many embedded products and your daily life largely depends on the proper functioning of these gadgets Tele"ision, Radio, C. player of your li"ing room, 1ashing &achine or &icrowa"e 5"en in your #itchen, Card readers, Access Controllers, Palm de"ices of your wor# space enable you to do many of your tas#s "ery effecti"ely Apart from all these, many controllers embedded in your car ta#e care of car operations between the bumpers and most of the times you tend to ignore all these controllers !n recent days, you are showered with "ariety of information about these embedded controllers in many places All #inds of maga%ines and 6ournals regularly dish out details about latest technologies, new de"ices7 fast applications which ma#e you belie"e that your basic sur"i"al is controlled by these embedded products 8ow you can agree to the fact that these embedded products ha"e successfully in"aded into our world 4ou must be wondering about these embedded controllers or systems 1hat is this Embedded $ystem9 The computer you use to compose your mails, or create a document or analy%e the database is #nown as the standard des#top computer manufactured to ser"e many purposes and applications 4ou need to install the rele"ant software to get the re,uired processing facility $o, these des#top computers can do many things !n contrast, embedded controllers carryout a specific wor# for which they are designed &ost of the time, engineers design these embedded controllers with a specific goal in mind $o these controllers cannot be used in any other place Theoretically, an embedded controller is a combination of a piece of microprocessor based hardware and the suitable software to underta#e a specific tas# These days designers ha"e many choices in microprocessors:microcontrollers Especially, in ; bit and '2 bit, the a"ailable "ariety really may o"erwhelm e"en an e(perienced designer $electing a right microprocessor may turn out as a most difficult first step and it is getting complicated as new de"ices continue to pop-up "ery often These des#top computers are

!n the ; bit segment, the most popular and used architecture is !ntel3s ;<'= &ar#et acceptance of this particular family has dri"en many semiconductor manufacturers to de"elop something new based on this particular architecture E"en after 2> years of e(istence, semiconductor manufacturers still come out with some #ind of de"ice using this ;<'= core Military and aero !a"e o#t$are a!!li"ation *rom in-orbit embedded systems to 6umbo 6ets to "ital battlefield networ#s, designers of mission-critical aerospace and defense systems re,uiring real-time performance, scalability, and high-a"ailability facilities consistently turn to the ?yn(5$@ RT5$ and the ?yn(5$-=A; RT5$ for software certification to .5-=A;B Rich in system resources and networ#ing ser"ices, ?yn(5$ pro"ides an off-the-shelf software platform with hard real-time response bac#ed by powerful distributed computing -C5RBA/, high reliability, software certification, and long-term support options The ?yn(5$-=A; RT5$ for software certification, based on the RTCA .5-=A;B standard, assists de"elopers in gaining certification for their mission- and safety-critical systems Real-time systems programmers get a boost with ?ynu(1or#s3 .5-=A;B RT5$ training courses ?yn(5$-=A; is the first .5-=A;B and ECR5CAE:E.-=2B certifiable, P5$!2@-compatible RT5$ solution Co%%&ni"ation a!!li"ation )*i"e-nines) a"ailability, CompactPC! hot swap support, and hard real-time response+ ?yn(5$ deli"ers on these #ey re,uirements and more for today3s carrier-class systems $calable #ernel configurations, distributed computing capabilities, integrated communications stac#s, and fault-management facilities ma#e ?yn(5$ the ideal choice for companies loo#ing for a single operating system for all embedded telecommunications applications+from comple( central controllers to simple line:trun# cards ?ynu(1or#s 0umpstarts for Communications pac#age enables 5E&s to rapidly de"elop mission-critical communications e,uipment, with pre-integrated, state-of-the-art, data networ#ing and porting software components+including source code for easy customi%ation The ?yn( Certifiable $tac# -?C$/ is a secure TCP:!P protocol stac# designed especially for applications where standards certification is re,uired

Ele"troni" a!!li"ation and "on &%er de'i"e As the number of powerful embedded processors in consumer de"ices continues to rise, the Blue Cat@ ?inu(@ operating system pro"ides a highly reliable and royalty-free option for systems designers And as the wireless appliance re"olution rolls on, web-enabled na"igation systems, radios, personal communication de"ices, phones and P.As all benefit from the cost-effecti"e dependability, pro"en stability and full product life-cycle support opportunities associated with Blue Cat embedded ?inu( Blue Cat has teamed up with industry leaders to ma#e it easier to build ?inu( mobile phones with 0a"a integration *or ma#ers of low-cost consumer electronic de"ices who wish to integrate the ?yn(5$ realtime operating system into their products, we offer special &$RP-based pricing to reduce royalty fees to a negligible portion of the de"ice3s &$RP Ind& trial a&to%ation and !ro"e "ontrol o#t$are

.esigners of industrial and process control systems #now from e(perience that ?ynu(1or#s operating systems pro"ide the security and reliability that their industrial applications re,uire *rom !$5 D<<= certification to fault-tolerance, P5$!2 conformance, secure partitioning and high a"ailability, we3"e got it all Ta#e ad"antage of our 2< years of e(perience

CHAPTER ' !8TR5.CCT!58 T5 &!CR5C58TR5??ER$

MICRO CONTROLLER ()C*1


I0#&!*1+#-!0
A M#,r% ,%!"r%))er ,%! # " %- ' p%+er-0) CPU "#.h")* ,%0p)e& +#"h (e(%r*4 $'r#%0 I7O #!"er-',e 0,h ' er#') p%r"4 p'r'))e) p%r" "#(er %r ,%0!"er4 #!"err0p" ,%!"r%))er4 &'"' ',80# #"#%! #!"er-',e 9A!')%. "% D#.#"') ,%!$er"er4 D#.#"') "% A!')%. ,%!$er"er4 #!"e.r'"e& %! "% ' #!.)e #)#,%! ,h#p. I- ' * "e( # &e$e)%pe& +#"h ' (#,r%pr%,e %r4 "he &e #.!er h' "% .% -%r e2"er!') (e(%r* 0,h ' RAM4 ROM4 EPROM '!& per#pher') . B0" ,%!"r%))er # pr%$#&e& ')) "he e -',#)#"#e %! ' #!.)e ,h#p. De$e)%p(e!" %- ' M#,r% ,%!"r%))er re&0,e PCB #5e '!& ,% " %&e #.!. O!e %- "he ('1%r &#--ere!,e /e"+ee! ' M#,r%pr%,e %r '!& ' M#,r% ,%!"r%))er # "h'" ' ,%!"r%))er %-"e! &e') +#"h /#" !%" /*"e ' #! "he re') +%r)& 'pp)#,'"#%!. I!"e) h' #!"r%&0,e& ' -'(#)* %- M#,r% ,%!"r%))er ,'))e& "he MCS951.

T2' M%3!& F'%#1&')


C%(p'"#/)e +#"h MCS951 pr%&0," 43 B*"e %- #!9 * "e( Repr%.r'(('/)e -)' h (e(%r* F0))* "'"#, %per'"#%!: ;<= "% 24M<= Three )e$e) pr%.r'(('/)e ,)%,3 128 > 8 ?/#" "#(er7,%0!"er S#2 #!"err0p" %0r,e Pr%.r'(('/)e er#') ,h'!!e) L%+ p%+er #&)e p%+er9&%+! (%&e

+,y AT ()C*1
The system re,uirements and control specifications clearly rule out the use of =E, '2 or EF bit micro controllers or microprocessors $ystems using these may be earlier to implement due to large number of internal features They are also faster and more reliable but, ;-bit micro

controller satisfactorily ser"es the abo"e application Csing an ine(pensi"e ;-bit &icrocontroller will doom the '2-bit product failure in any competiti"e mar#et place

C%(#!. "% "he 80e "#%! %- +h* "% 0 e AT89C51 %- ')) "he 89/#" (#,r%,%!"r%))er '$'#)'/)e #! "he ('r3e" "he ('#! '! +er +%0)& /e /e,'0 e #" h' 4 6/ %! ,h#p -)' h (e(%r* +h#,h # 10 " 0--#,#e!" -%r %0r 'pp)#,'"#%!. The %!9,h#p F)' h ROM '))%+ "he pr%.r'( (e(%r* "% /e repr%.r'((e& #! * "e( %r /* ,%!$e!"#%!') !%!9$%)'"#)e (e(%r* Pr%.r'((er. M%re%$er ATMEL # "he )e'&er #! -)' h "e,h!%)%.* #! "%&'*@ ('r3e" p)',e '!& he!,e 0 #!. AT 89C51 # "he %p"#(') %)0"#%!.
AT()C*1 MICROCONTROLLER ARC-ITECTURE The ;DC>= architecture consists of these specific featuresG Eight Hbit CPC with registers A -the accumulator/ and B $i(teen-bit program counter -PC/ and data pointer -.PTR/ Eight- bit stac# pointer -P$1/ Eight-bit stac# pointer -$p/ !nternal R5& or EPR5& -;A>=/ of <-;<'=/ to FI -;DC>=/ !nternal RA& of =2; bytesG = 2 ' *our register ban#s, each containing eight registers $i(teen bytes, which maybe addressed at the bit le"el Eighty bytes of general- purpose data memory

Thirty Htwo input:output pins arranged as four ;-bit portsGp<-p' Two =E-bit timer:countersG T< and T= *ull duple( serial data recei"er:transmitterG $BC* Control registersG TC58, T&5., $C58, PC58, !P, and !E Two e(ternal and three internal interrupts sources 5scillator and cloc# circuits

*ig A G *unctional bloc# diagram of micro controller

T,e ()C*1 o "illator and "lo"./

The he'r" %- "he 89C51 ,#r,0#"r* "h'" .e!er'"e "he ,)%,3 p0) e /* +h#,h ')) "he #!"er!') ')) #!"er!') %per'"#%! 're *!,hr%!#5e&. P#! ATAL1 A!& ATAL2 # pr%$#&e& -%r ,%!!e,"#!. ' re %!'!" !e"+%r3 "% -%r( '! % ,#))'"%r. T*p#,'))* ' 80'r"5 ,r* "') '!& ,'p',#"%r 're e(p)%*e&. The ,r* "') -re80e!,* # "*p#,'))* 1 "% 1B M<5. "he /' #, #!"er!') ,)%,3 -re80e!,* %- "he (#,r%,%!"r%))er. The ('!0-',"0rer ('3e 89C51 &e #.! "h'" r0! '" pe,#-#, (#!#(0( '!& ('2#(0( -re80e!,#e

9 O ,#))'"%r '!& "#(#!. ,#r,0#"

Ty!e o# %e%ory/
The ;DC>= ha"e three general types of memory They are on-chip memory, e(ternal Code memory and e(ternal Ram 5n-Chip memory refers to physically e(isting memory on the micro controller itself E(ternal code memory is the code memory that resides off chip This is often in the form of an e(ternal EPR5& E(ternal RA& is the Ram that resides off chip This often is in the form of standard static RA& or flash RA& a0 Code %e%ory Code memory is the memory that holds the actual ;DC>= programs that is to be run This memory is limited to EFI Code memory may be found on-chip or off-chip !t is possible to ha"e FI of code memory on-chip and E<I off chip memory simultaneously !f only off-chip memory is a"ailable then there can be EFI of off chip R5& This is controlled by pin pro"ided as EA

10 Internal RAM The ;DC>= ha"e a ban# of =2; of internal RA& The internal RA& is found on-chip $o it is the fastest Ram a"ailable And also it is most fle(ible in terms of reading and writing !nternal Ram is "olatile, so when ;DC>= is reset, this memory is cleared =2; bytes of internal memory are subdi"ided The first '2 bytes are di"ided into F register ban#s Each ban# contains ; registers !nternal RA& also contains =2; bits, which are addressed from 2<h to 2*h These bits are bit addressed i e each indi"idual bit of a byte can be addressed by the user They are numbered <<h to A*h The user may ma#e use of these "ariables with commands such as $ETB and C?R FLAS- MEMORY/ *lash memory -sometimes called Jflash RA&K/ is a type of constantly-powered non "olatile that can be erased and reprogrammed in units of memory called blocks !t is a "ariation of electrically erasable programmable read-only memory -EEPR5&/ which, unli#e flash memory, is erased and rewritten at the byte le"el, which is slower than flash memory updating *lash memory is often used to hold control code such as the basic input:output system -B!5$/ in a personal computer 1hen B!5$ needs to be changed -rewritten/, the flash memory can be written to in bloc# -rather than byte/ si%es, ma#ing it easy to update 5n the other hand, flash memory is not useful as random access memory -RA&/ because RA& needs to be addressable at the byte -not the bloc#/ le"el *lash memory gets its name because the microchip is organi%ed so that a section of memory cells are erased in a single action or Jflash K The erasure is caused by *owler8ordheim tunneling in which electrons pierce through a thin dielectric material to remo"e an electronic charge from a floating gate associated with each memory cell !ntel offers a form of flash memory that holds two bits -rather than one/ in each memory cell, thus doubling the capacity of memory without a corresponding increase in price *lash memory is used in digital cellular phones, digital cameras, ?A8 switches, PC Cards for noteboo# computers, digital set-up bo(es, embedded controllers, and other de"ices

Me%ory Ty!e FLAS-

Feat&re ?ow-cost, high-density, high-speed

architecture7 low power7 high reliability ROM Read-5nly &emory &ature, high-density, reliable, low cost7 time-consuming mas# re,uired, suitable for high production with stable code SRAM $tatic Random-Access &emory EPROM &emory EEPROMorE2PROM Electrically Erasable Read-5nly &emory Electrically byte-erasable7 lower Highest speed, high-power, low-density memory7 limited density dri"es up cost High-density memory7 must be e(posed

Electrically Programmable Read-5nly to ultra"iolet light for erasure

Programmable reliability, higher cost, lowest density

DRAM .ynamic Random Access &emory

High-density, high-power

low-cost,

high-speed,

Te",ni"al O'er'ie$ o# Fla , Me%ory


*lash memory is a non"olatile memory using 85R technology, which allows the user to electrically program and erase information !ntel@ *lash memory uses memory cells similar to an EPR5&, but with a much thinner, precisely grown o(ide between the floating gate and the source *lash programming occurs when electrons are placed on the floating gate The charge is stored on the floating gate, with the o(ide layer allowing the cell to be electrically erased through the source architecture !ntel *lash memory is an e(tremely reliable non"olatile memory

F#. 8: P#! &#'.r'( %- AT89C51


Pin De "ri!tion/ 2CC/ $upply "oltage 3ND/ Lround Port 4/

P%r" ; # '! 89/#" %pe!9&r'#! /#9&#re,"#%!') I7O p%r". A '! %0"p0" p%r"4 e',h p#! ,'! #!3 e#.h" TTL #!p0" . Che! %!e@ 're +r#""e! "% p%r" ; p#! 4 "he p#! ,'! /e 0 e& ' h#.h #(pe&'!,e #!p0" . P%r" ; ('* ') % /e ,%!-#.0re& "% /e "he (0)"#p)e2e& )%+ %r&er '&&re 7&'"' /0 &0r#!. ',,e e "% e2"er!') pr%.r'( '!& &'"' (e(%r*. I! "h# (%&e P; h' #!"er!') p0))90p . P%r" ; ') % re,e#$e "he ,%&e /*"e &0r#!. F)' h pr%.r'((#!.4 '!& %0"p0" "he ,%&e /*"e &0r#!. pr%.r'( $er#-#,'"#%!. E2"er!') p0))90p 're re80#re& &0r#!. pr%.r'( $er#-#,'"#%!.

Port 1/

P%r" 1 # '! 89/#" /#9&#re,"#%!') I7O p%r" +#"h #!"er!') p0))90p . The P%r" 1 %0"p0" /0--er ,'! #!37 %0r,e -%0r TTL #!p0" . Che! 1 're +r#""e! "% P%r" 1 p#! "he* 're p0))e& h#.h /* "he #!"er!') p0))90p '!& ,'! /e 0 e& ' #!p0" . A #!p0" 4 P%r" 1 p#! "h'" 're e2"er!'))* /e#!. p0))e& )%+ +#)) %0r,e ,0rre!" DIILE /e,'0 e %- "he #!"er!') p0))90p . P%r" 1 ') % re,e#$e "he )%+9%r&er '&&re
Port 2/

/*"e &0r#!. F)' h pr%.r'((#!. '!& $er#-#,'"#%!.

P%r" 2 # '! 89/#" /#9&#re,"#%!') I7O p%r" +#"h #!"er!') p0))90p . The P%r" 2 %0"p0" /0--er ,'! #!37 %0r,e -%0r TTL #!p0" . Che! 1 're +r#""e! "% P%r" 2 p#! "he* 're p0))e& h#.h /* "he #!"er!') p0))90p '!& ,'! /e 0 e& ' #!p0" . A #!p0" 4 P%r" 2 p#! "h'" 're e2"er!'))* /e#!. p0))e& )%+ +#)) %0r,e ,0rre!" DIILE /e,'0 e %- "he #!"er!') p0))90p . P%r" 2 e(#" "he h#.h9%r&er '&&re /*"e &0r#!. -e",he -r%( e2"er!') pr%.r'( (e(%r* '!& &0r#!. ',,e e "% e2"er!') &'"' (e(%r#e "h'" 0 e 1B9/#" '&&re e DMOFA GDPTRE. I! "h# 'pp)#,'"#%!4 #" 0 e "r%!. #!"er!') p0))90p +he! e(#""#!. 1 . D0r#!. ',,e e "% e2"er!') &'"' (e(%r#e "h'" 0 e 89/#" '&&re e DMOFA G RIE4 P%r" 2 e(#" "he ,%!"e!" %- "he P2 Spe,#') F0!,"#%! Re.# "er. P%r" 2 ') % re,e#$e "he h#.h9%r&er '&&re $er#-#,'"#%!. /#" '!& %(e ,%!"r%) #.!') &0r#!. F)' h pr%.r'((#!. '!&

Port 5/ Port ' is an ;-bit bi-directional !:5 port with internal pull-ups The Port ' output buffers can sin#:source four TT? inputs 1hen =s are written to Port ' pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs As inputs, Port ' pins that are e(ternally being pulled low will source current -!!?/ because of the pull-ups Port ' also ser"es the functions of "arious special features of the AT;DC>= as listed belowG Port ' also recei"es some control signals for *lash programming and "erification

Tab E 2 = Port pins and their alternate functions RST/ Reset input A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the de"ice ALE6PRO3/

A&&re

L'",h E!'/)e %0"p0" p0) e -%r )'",h#!. "he )%+ /*"e %- "he '&&re

&0r#!.

',,e e "% e2"er!') (e(%r*. Th# p#! # ') % "he pr%.r'( p0) e #!p0" DPROHE &0r#!. F)' h pr%.r'((#!.. I! !%r(') %per'"#%! ALE # e(#""e& '" ' ,%! "'!" r'"e %- 17B"he % ,#))'"%r -re80e!,*4 '!& ('* /e 0 e& -%r e2"er!') "#(#!. %r ,)%,3#!. p0rp% e . N%"e4 h%+e$er4 "h'" %!e ALE p0) e # 3#ppe& &0r#!. e',h ',,e "% e2"er!') D'"' Me(%r*.
!f desired, A?E operation can be disabled by setting bit < of $*R location ;EH 1ith the bit set, A?E is acti"e only during a &5M2 or &5MC instruction 5therwise, the pin is pulled high $etting the A?E-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in e(ternal e(ecution mode PSEN/

Pr%.r'( S"%re E!'/)e # "he re'& "r%/e "% e2"er!') pr%.r'( (e(%r*. Che! "he AT89C51 # e2e,0"#!. ,%&e -r%( e2"er!') pr%.r'( (e(%r*4 PSEN # ',"#$'"e& "+#,e e',h (',h#!e ,*,)e4 e2,ep" "h'" "+% PSEN ',"#$'"#%! 're 3#ppe& &0r#!. e',h ',,e (e(%r*. "% e2"er!') &'"'

EA62PP/ E(ternal Access Enable EA must be strapped to L8. in order to enable the de"ice to fetch code from e(ternal program memory locations starting at <<<<H up to ****H 8ote, howe"er, that if loc# bit = is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset EA should be strapped to MCC for internal program e(ecutions This pin also recei"es the =2"olt programming enable "oltage -MPP/ during *lash programming, for parts that re,uire =2-"olt MPP

7TAL1/

I!p0" "% "he #!$er"#!. % ,#))'"%r '(p)#-#er '!& #!p0" "% "he #!"er!') ,)%,3 %per'"#!. ,#r,0#".
7TAL2/ !t is the 5utput from the in"erting oscillator amplifier O "illator C,ara"teri ti" /

ATAL1 '!& ATAL2 're "he #!p0" '!& %0"p0"4 re pe,"#$e)*4 %- '! #!$er"#!. '(p)#-#er +h#,h ,'! /e ,%!-#.0re& -%r 0 e ' '! %!9,h#p % ,#))'"%r4 ' ATAL2 h%0)& /e )e-" 0!,%!!e,"e& +h#)e ATAL1 # &r#$e! ' h%+! #! F#. 9. E#"her ' 80'r"5 h%+! #! F#.0re 1;.There 're !% ,r* "') %r ,er'(#, re %!'"%r ('* /e 0 e&. T% &r#$e "he &e$#,e -r%( '! e2"er!') ,)%,3 %0r,e4 re80#re(e!" %! "he &0"* ,*,)e %- "he e2"er!') ,)%,3 #.!')4 #!,e "he #!p0" "% "he #!"er!') ,)%,3#!. ,#r,0#"r* # "hr%0.h ' &#$#&e9/*9"+% -)#p9-)%p4 /0" (#!#(0( '!& ('2#(0( $%)"'.e h#.h '!& )%+ "#(e pe,#-#,'"#%! (0 " /e %/ er$e&.

*ig D 5scillator Connections

*ig =< E(ternal Cloc# .ri"e Configuration

N!#'):
2 Cnder steady state -non-transient/ conditions, !5? must be e(ternally

limited as followsG &a(imum !5? per port pin G =< mA &a(imum !5? per ;-bit port G Port < G 2E mA Ports =, 2, 'G => mA &a(imum total !5? for all output pinsG A= mA

!f !5? e(ceeds the test condition, M5? may e(ceed the related specification Pins are not guaranteed to sin# current greater than the listed test conditions

2. &inimum MCC for Power-down is 2M

RE3ISTERS/ !n the CPC, registers are used to store information temporarily That information could be a byte of data to be processed, or an address pointing to the data to be fetched The "ast ma6ority of ;<>= registers are ;Hbit registers !n the ;<>= there is only one data typeG ;bits The ;bits of a register are shown in the diagram from the &$B -most significant bit/ .A to the ?$B -least significant bit/ .< 1ith an ;-bit data type, any data larger than ;bits must be bro#en into ;-bit chun#s before it is processed $ince there are a large number of registers in the ;<>=, we will concentrate on some of the widely used general-purpose registers and co"er special registers in future chapters . A . E . > . F . ' . 2 . = . <

The most widely used registers of the ;<>= are A -accumulator/, B, R<, R=, R2, R', RF, R>, RE, RA, .PTR -data pointer/, and PC -program counter/ All of the abo"e registers are ;bits, e(cept .PTR and the program counter arithmetic and logic instructions SFR) 4S5'+-%( F10+#-!0 R'.-)#'&)6 The accumulator, register A, is used for all

A(%!. "he re.# "er R;9R7 # p'r" %- "he 128 /*"e %- RAM (e(%r*. Ch'" '/%0" re.# "er A4 B4 PSC4 '!& DPTRI D% "he* ') % h'$e '&&re e I The '! +er # *e . I! "he 8;514 re.# "er A4 B4 PSC '!& DPTR 're p'r" %- "he .r%0p %- re.# "er ,%((%!)* re-erre& "% ' SFR D pe,#') -0!,"#%! re.# "er E. There 're ('!* pe,#') -0!,"#%! re.# "er '!& "he* 're +#&e)* 0 e&. The SFR ,'! /e ',,e e& /* "he !'(e D+h#,h # (0,h e' #erE %r /* "he#r '&&re e . F%r e2'(p)e4 re.# "er A h' '&&re #! "'/)e. The -%))%+#!. "+% p%#!" h%0)& !%"e& '/%0" "he SFR '&&re e . E;h4 '!& re.# "er B h' /ee! #.!#"e& "he '&&re F;<4 ' h%+!

1. The Spe,#') -0!,"#%! re.# "er h'$e '&&re e /e"+ee! 8;< '!& FF<. (e(%r* #! #&e "he 8;51. 2. N%" ')) "he '&&re

The e

'&&re e 're '/%$e 8;<4 #!,e "he '&&re e ;; "% 7F< 're '&&re e %- RAM p',e %- 8;< "% FF< # 0 e& /* "he SFR. The 0!0 e& )%,'"#%!

8;< "% FF< 're re er$e& '!& (0 " !%" /e 0 e& /* "he 8;51 pr%.r'((er. Re.'r&#!. &#re," '&&re #!. (%&e4 !%"#,e "he -%))%+#!. "+% p%#!" : D'E "he '&&re )%,'"#%! '!& re.# "er )%,'"e& #! #&e "he 8;51. D/E I- *%0 e2'(#!e "he ) )# "e& #! "'/)e.
Sy%1 ol ACC B P$1 $P .PTR .P? .PH P< P= P2 P' !P !E T&5. TC58 T2C5 Accumulator B register Program status word $tac# pointer .ata pointer 2 bytes ?ow byte High byte Port< Port= Port2 Port' !nterrupt priority control !nterrupt enable control Timer:counter mode control Timer:counter control Timer:counter 2 control ;2H ;'H ;<H D<H <A<H <B<H <B;H <A;H ;DH ;;H <C;H <E<H <*<H <.<H ;=H Na%e Addre
"

$')0e

# )#(#"e& "% %!e /*"e4 ;;9FF<4 +h#,h (e'! "h# '&&re #!. (%&e # )#(#"e& "% ',,e #!. RAM -#)e -%r '! ' e(/)* )'!.0'.e pr%.r'(4 *%0 +#)) ee "h'" "he SFR re.# "er !'(e 're rep)',e& +#"h "he#r '&&re e '

8 T2&5 . TH< T?< TH= T?= TH2 T?2 RCAP 2H RCAP 2? $C58 $BC* PC58 Timer:counter <high byte Timer:counter < low byte Timer:counter = high byte Timer:counter = low byte Timer:counter 2 high byte Timer:counter 2 low byte T:C 2 capture register high byte T:C 2 capture register low <CAH byte $erial control $erial data buffer Power control D;H DDH ;AH ;CH ;AH ;.H ;BH <C.H <CCH <CBH Timer:counter mode2 control <CDH

Ta1le/ (4*1 S!e"ial #&n"tion re8i ter Addre

A Re8i ter 9A""&%&lator0

*ig ==G Accumulator register

Th# # ' .e!er')9p0rp% e re.# "er +h#,h er$e -%r "%r#!. #!"er(e&#'"e re 0)" &0r#!. %per'"#!.. A !0(/er D'! %per'!&E h%0)& /e '&&e& "% "he ',,0(0)'"%r pr#%r "% e2e,0"e '! #! "r0,"#%! 0p%!

#". O!,e '! 'r#"h(e"#,') %per'"#%! # pre-%r(e& /* "he ALU4 "he re 0)" # p)',e& #!"% "he ',,0(0)'"%r. I- ' &'"' h%0)& /e "r'! -erre& -r%( %!e re.# "er "% '!%"her4 #" (0 " .% "hr%0.h ',,0(0)'"%r. F%r 0,h 0!#$er ') p0rp% e4 "h# # "he (% " ,%((%!)* 0 e& re.# "er "h'" !%!e (#,r%,%!"r%))er ,'! /e #('.#!e& +#"h%0" D(%re "h'! ' h')- 8;51 (#,r%,%!"r%))er@ #! "r0,"#%! 0 e& 0 e "he ',,0(0)'"%r #! %(e +'*E.
B Re8i ter

B re.# "er # 0 e& &0r#!. (0)"#p)* '!& &#$#&e %per'"#%! +h#,h ,'! /e per-%r(e& %!)* 0p%! !0(/er "%re& #! "he A '!& B re.# "er . A)) %"her #! "r0,"#%! #! "he pr%.r'( ,'! 0 e "h# re.# "er ' ' p're ',,0(0)'"%r DAE.

*ig =2G B register .uring programming, each of registers is called by name so that their e(act address is not so important for the user .uring compiling into machine code -series of he(adecimal numbers recogni%ed as instructions by the microcontroller/, PC will automatically, instead of registersN name, write necessary addresses into the microcontroller

R Re8i ter 9R4:R;0

*ig ='GRA&

Th# # ' ,%((%! !'(e -%r "he "%"') 8 .e!er') p0rp% e re.# "er DR;4 R14 '!& R2 ...R7E. E$e! "he* 're !%" "r0e SFR 4 "he* &e er$e "% /e &# ,0 e& here /e,'0 e %- "he#r p0rp% e. The /'!3 # ',"#$e +he! "he R re.# "er #" #!,)0&e 're #! 0 e. S#(#)'r "% "he ',,0(0)'"%r4 "he* 're 0 e& -%r "e(p%r'r* "%r#!. $'r#'/)e '!& #!"er(e&#'"e re 0)" . Ch#,h %- "he /'!3 +#)) /e ',"#$e &epe!& %! "+% /#" #!,)0&e& #! "he PSC Re.# "er. The e re.# "er 're "%re& #! -%0r /'!3 #! "he ,%pe %- RAM. The -%))%+#!. e2'(p)e /e " #))0 "r'"e "he 0 e-0) p0rp% e %- "he e re.# "er . S0pp% e "h'" ('"he('"#,') %per'"#%! %! !0(/er pre$#%0 )* "%re& #! "he R re.# "er E$er*"h#!. # 80#"e #(p)e '!& "he pr%.r'( # ' -%))%+ : MOV A7 R38 Me'! : (%$e !0(/er -r%( R3 #!"% ',,0(0)'"%r ADD A7 R48 Me'! : '&& !0(/er -r%( R4 "% ',,0(0)'"%r Dre 0)" re('#! #! ',,0(0)'"%rE MOV R57 A8 Me'! : "e(p%r'r#)* (%$e "he re 0)" -r%( ',,0(0)'"%r #!"% R5 MOV A7 R18 Me'! : (%$e !0(/er -r%( R1 #!"% ',,0(0)'"%r ADD A7 R28 Me'! : '&& !0(/er -r%( R2 "% ',,0(0)'"%r SUBB A7 R58 Me'! : 0/"r'," !0(/er -r%( R5 D"here 're R3JR4E h%0)& /e per-%r(e&: DR1JR2E ? DR3JR4E. O/$#%0 )*4 ' re.# "er -%r "e(p%r'r* "%r#!. re 0)" %- '&&#"#%! # !ee&e&.

(4*1 Re8i ter Ban. and Sta".


RAM %e%ory !a"e allo"ation in t,e (4*1 There are =2; bytes of RA& in the ;<>= The =2; bytes of RA& inside the ;<>= are assigned addresses << toA*H followsG = 2 ' A total of '2 bytes from locations << to =*H he( are set aside for register ban#s and the stac# A total of =E bytes from locations 2< to 2*H he( are set aside for bit-addressable read:write memory A total of ;< bytes from locations '<H to A*H are used for read and write storage, or what is normally called $cratch pad These ;< locations of RA& are widely used for the purpose of storing data and parameters nu ;<>= programmers These =2; bytes are di"ided into three different groups as

Re8i ter 1an. in t,e (4*1 A total of '2bytes of RA& are set aside for the register ban#s and stac# These '2 RA&

bytes are di"ided into F ban#s of registers in which each ban# has registers, R<-RA

locations < to A are set aside for ban# < of R<-RA where R< is RA& location <, R= is RA& location =, and R2 is location 2, and so on, until memory locationA, which belongs to RA of ban#< The second ban# of registers R<-RA starts at RA& location <; and goes to location <*H The third ban# of R<-RA starts at memory location =<H and goes to location =AH *inally, RA& locations =;H to =*H are set aside for the fourth ban# of R<-RA *ig shows how the '2 bytes are allocated into F ban#s As we can see from fig =, the ban# = uses the same RA& space as the stac# This is a ma6or problem in programming the ;<>= 1e must either not use register ban#=, or allocate another area of RA& for the stac#

De#a&lt re8i ter 1an.

!f RA& locations <<-=* are set aside for the four register ban#s, which register ban# of R<-RA do we ha"e access to when the ;<>= is powered up9 The answer is register ban# <7 that is , RA& locations <, =,2,',F,>,E, and A are accessed with the names R<, R=, R2, R', RF, R>, RE, and RA when programming the ;<>= !t is much easier to refer to these RA& locations with names such as R<, R= and so on, than by their memory locations as shown in fig 2 The register ban#s are switched by using the .' O .F bits of register P$1

*!L=F G RA& Allocation in the ;<>=

*ig =>G

;<>= Register Ban#s and their RA& Addresses

PS+ Re8i ter 9Pro8ra% Stat& +ord0

*ig =EG P$1 register

Th# # %!e %- "he (% " #(p%r"'!" SFR . The Pr%.r'( S"'"0 C%r& DPSCE ,%!"'#! e$er') "'"0 /#" "h'" re-)e," "he ,0rre!" "'"e %- "he CPU. Th# re.# "er ,%!"'#! : C'rr* /#"4 A02#)#'r* C'rr*4 "+% re.# "er /'!3 e)e," /#" 4 O$er-)%+ -)'.4 p'r#"* /#"4 '!& 0 er9&e-#!'/)e "'"0 -)'.. The ALU '0"%('"#,'))* ,h'!.e %- "he pr%.r'( per-%r(#!.. %(e %- re.# "er@ /#" 4 +h#,h # 0 0'))* 0 e& #! re.0)'"#%!

P 9 P%&-#: ;-# I- ' !0(/er #! ',,0(0)'"%r # e$e! "he! "h# /#" +#)) /e '0"%('"#,'))* e" D1E4 %"her+# e #" +#)) /e ,)e're& D;E. I" # ('#!)* 0 e& &0r#!. &'"' "r'! (# #%! '!& re,e#$#!. $#' er#') ,%((0!#,'"#%!. < B-# 1. Th# /#" # #!"e!&e& -%r "he -0"0re $er #%! %- "he (#,r%,%!"r%))er 4 % #" # !%" 0pp% e& "% /e here. OV O='&"(!$ %,,0r +he! "he re 0)" %- 'r#"h(e"#,') %per'"#%! # .re'"er "h'! 255 D&e,#(')E4 % "h'" #" ,'! !%" /e "%re& #! %!e re.# "er. I! "h'" ,' e4 "h# /#" +#)) /e e" D1E. I- "here # !% %$er-)%+4 "h# /#" +#)) /e ,)e're& D;E. RS>7 RS1 9 R'.-)#'& ;%0, )'('+#) ;-#). The e "+% /#" 're 0 e& "% e)e," %!e %- "he -%0r re.# "er /'!3 #! RAM. B* +r#"#!. 5er%e '!& %!e "% "he e /#" 4 ' .r%0p %- re.# "er R;9R7 # %!e %- -%0r /'!3 #! RAM.
RS1 < < = = RS2 < = < = S!a"e in RAM Ban#< <<h-<Ah Ban#= <;h-<*h Ban#2 =<h-=Ah Ban#' =;h-=*h

"%re& #!

F> 9 F(%. >. Th# # ' .e!er')9p0rp% e /#" '$'#)'/)e "% "he 0 er. AC 9 A1?-(-%&: C%&&: F(%. # 0 e& -%r BCD %per'"#%! %!)*. CY 9 C%&&: F(%. # "he D!#!"hE '02#)#'r* /#" 0 e& -%r ')) 'r#"h(e"#,') %per'"#%! '!& h#-" #! "r0,"#%! .
DPTR Re8i ter 9Data Pointer0

The e re.# "er 're !%" "r0e %!e /e,'0 e "he* &% !%" ph* #,'))* e2# ". The* ,%! # " %"+% ep'r'"e re.# "er : DP< DD'"' P%#!"er <#.hE '!& DD'"' P%#!"er L%+E. The#r 1B /#" 're 0 e& -%r e2"er!') (e(%r* '&&re #!.. The* ('* /e h'!&)e& ' ' 1B9/#" re.# "er %r ' "+% #!&epe!&e!" 89/#" re.# "er . Be #&e 4 "he DPTR Re.# "er # 0 0'))* 0 e& -%r "%r#!. &'"' '!& #!"er(e&#'"e re 0)" +h#,h h'$e !%"h#!. "% &% +#"h (e(%r* )%,'"#%! .

*ig =AG .PTR register SP Re8i ter 9Sta". Pointer0

*ig =;G $P register

The "',3 # ' e,"#%! %- RAM 0 e& /* "he CPU "% "%re #!-%r('"#%! "e(p%r'r#)*. Th# #!-%r('"#%! ,%0)& /e &'"' %r '! '&&re . The CPU !ee& "h# )#(#"e& !0(/er %- re.# "er . "%r'.e 're' #!,e "here 're %!)* '

H!$ )#%+,) %&' %++'))'* -0 #2' @>51 I- "he "',3 # ' e,"#%! %- RAM4 "here (0 " /e re.# "er #! #&e "he CPU "% p%#!" "% #". The re.# "er 0 e& "% ',,e "he "',3 # ,'))e& "he SP DS"',3 p%#!"E Re.# "er. The "',3 p%#!"er #! "he 8;51 # %!)* 8 /#" +#&eK +h#,h (e'! "h'" #" ,'! "'3e $')0e %- ;; "% FF<. Che! "he 8;51 # p%+ere& 0p4 "he SP re.# "er ,%!"'#! $')0e ;7. Th# (e'! "h'" RAM )%,'"#%! ;8 # "he -#r " )%,'"#%! 0 e& -%r "he "',3 /* "he 8;51. The "%r#!. %- ' CPU re.# "er #! "he "',3 # ,'))e& ' PUS<4 '!& p0))#!. "he ,%!"e!" %-- "he "',3 /',3 #!"% ' CPU re.# "er # ,'))e& ' POP. I! %"her +%r& 4 ' re.# "er # p0 he& %!"% "he "',3 "% '$e #" '!& p%ppe& %-- "he "',3 "% re"r#e$e #". The 1%/ %- "he SP # $er* ,r#"#,') +he! p0 h '!& p%p ',"#%! 're per-%r(e&. P1)2-0. !0#! #2' )#%+, I! "he 8;51 "he "',3 p%#!"er DSPE p%#!" "% "he )' " 0 e& )%,'"#%! %- "he "',3. A +e p0 h &'"' %!"% "he "',34 "he "',3 p%#!"er # #!,re(e!"e& /* %!e. N%"#,e "h'" "h# &#--ere!" -r%( ('!* (#,r%pr%,e %r 4 !%"'/)* 28B pr%,e %r #! +h#,h "he SP # &e,re(e!"e& +he! &'"' # p0 he& %!"% "he "',3. A e',h PUS< # e2e,0"e&4 "he ,%!"e!" %- "he re.# "er 're '$e& %! "he "',3 '!& SP # #!,re(e!"e& /* 1. N%"#,e "h'" -%r e$er* /*"e %- &'"' '$e& %! "he "',3 '!& "he! SP # #!,re(e!"e& %!)* %!,e. N%"#,e ') % "h'" "% p0 h "he re.# "er %!"% "he "',3 +e (0 " 0 e "he#r RAM '&&re e . F%r e2'(p)e4 "he #! "r0,"#%! LPUS<M p0 he re.# "er R1 %!"% "he "',3. P!55-0. "&!/ #2' )#%+, P%pp#!. "he ,%!"e!" %- "he "',3 /',3 #!"% ' .#$e! re.# "er # "he %pp% #"e pr%,e #! "r0,"#%! '!& "he "',3 p%#!"er # &e,re(e!"e& %!,e. T2' 155'& (-/-# !" #2' )#%+, A 4 (e!"#%!e& e'r)#er4 )%,'"#%! ;8 "% 1F< #! "he 8;51 RAM ,'! /e 0 e& -%r "he "',3. Th# # /e,'0 e )%,'"#%! 2;92F< %- RAM 're re er$e& -%r /#"9'&&re '/)e (e(%r* '!& (0 " !%" /e 0 e& /* "he "',3. I- #! ' pr%.r'( +e !ee& (%re "h'! 24 /*"e D;8 "% 1F<N24/*"e E %- "',34 %-

p0 h#!.. C#"h e$er* p%p4 "he "%p /*"e %- "he "',3 # ,%p#e& "% "he re.# "er pe,#-#e& /* "he

+e ,'! ,h'!.e "he SP "% p%#!" "% RAM )%,'"#%! 3;97F<. Th# # &%!e +#"h "he #! "r0,"#%! LMOF SP4 OAAM.
P4< P1< P2< P5 = In!&t6O&t!&t Re8i ter

*ig =DG P5RT< !:5 register

I! ,' e "h'" e2"er!') (e(%r* '!& er#') ,%((0!#,'"#%! * "e( 're !%" #! 0 e "he!4 4 p%r" +#"h #! "%"') %- 32 #!p0"9%0"p0" )#!e 're '$'#)'/)e "% "he 0 er -%r ,%!!e,"#%! "% per#pher') e!$#r%!(e!". E',h /#" #! #&e "he e p%r" ,%rre p%!& "% "he 'ppr%pr#'"e p#! %! "he (#,r%,%!"r%))er. Th# (e'! "h'" )%.#, "'"e +r#""e! "% "he e p%r" 'ppe'r ' ' $%)"'.e %! "he p#! D; %r 5 FE. N'"0r'))*4 +h#)e re'&#!.4 "he %pp% #"e %,,0r ? $%)"'.e %! %(e #!p0" p#! # re-)e,"e& #! "he 'ppr%pr#'"e p%r" /#". The "'"e %- ' p%r" /#"4 /e #&e /e#!. re-)e,"e& #! "he p#!4 &e"er(#!e '" "he '(e "#(e +he"her #" +#)) /e ,%!-#.0re& ' #!p0" %r %0"p0". I- ' /#" # ,)e're& D;E4 "he p#! +#)) /e ,%!-#.0re& ' %0"p0". I! "he '(e ('!!er4 #- ' /#" # e" "% 1 "he p#! +#)) /e ,%!-#.0re& ' #!p0". A-"er re e"4 ' +e)) ' +he! "0r!#!. "he (#,r%,%!"r%))er ON4 ')) /#" %! "he e p%r" 're e" "% !0' 416. Th# (e'! "h'" "he 'ppr%pr#'"e p#! +#)) /e ,%!-#.0re& ' -051#). P&!.&%/ +!10#'&: The #(p%r"'!" re.# "er #! "he 8;51 # "he PC DPr%.r'( ,%0!"erE. The pr%.r'( ,%0!"er p%#!" "% "he '&&re %- "he !e2" #! "r0,"#%! "% /e e2e,0"e&. A "he CPU -e",he "he OPCODE pr%.r'( -r%( "he pr%.r'( ROM4 "he pr%.r'( ,%0!"er # #!,re(e!"e& "% p%#!" "% "he !e2" #! "r0,"#%!. The pr%.r'( ,%0!"er #! "he 8;51 # 1B/#" +#&e. Th# (e'! "h'" "he 8;51 ,'! ',,e h'$e "he e!"#re B46 /*"e %- %!9,h#p ROM #! "'))e&4 ' +e +#)) ee %%!. '&&re e ;;;; "% FFFF<4 ' "%"') %- B43 /*"e %- ,%&e. <%+e$er4 !%" ')) (e(/er %- "he 8;51

T:5') !" -0)#&1+#-!0)

Depe!&#!. %! %per'"#%! "he* per-%r(4 ')) #! "r0,"#%! 're &#$#&e& #! e$er') .r%0p :

Arithmetic !nstructions Branch !nstructions .ata Transfer !nstructions ?ogical !nstructions ?ogical !nstructions with bits

The -#r " p'r" %- e',h #! "r0,"#%!4 ,'))e& MNEMONIC re-er "% "he %per'"#%! '! #! "r0,"#%! per-%r( D,%p*#!.4 '&&#"#%!4 )%.#,') %per'"#%! e",.E. M!e(%!#, ,%((%!)* 're h%r"e!e& -%r( %- !'(e %- %per'"#%! /e#!. e2e,0"e&. F%r e2'(p)e:
INC R17 !ncrement R= -increment register R=/ LJMP LAB5

7?ong 0ump ?AB> -long 6ump to address specified as ?AB>/

JNZ LOOP 70ump if 8ot Pero ?55P -if the number in the accumulator is not <, 6ump to address

specified as ?55P/

A!%"her p'r" %- #! "r0,"#%!4 ,'))e& OPERAND #

ep'r'"e& -r%( (!e(%!#, '" )e' " /*

%!e e(p"* p',e '!& &e-#!e &'"' /e#!. pr%,e e& /* #! "r0,"#%! . S%(e #! "r0,"#%! h'$e !% %per'!&K %(e h'$e %!e4 "+% %r "hree. I- "here # (%re "h'! %!e %per'!& #! #! "r0,"#%!4 "he* 're ep'r'"e& /* ,%(('. F%r e2'(p)e:
RET H -return from sub-routine/ JZ TEMP H -if the number in the accumulator is not <, 6ump to address specified as TE&P/ ADD A,R3 H -add R' and accumulator/ CJNE A,#20,LOOP H -compare accumulator with 2< !f they are not e,ual, 6ump to address

specified as ?55P/

Arit,%eti" in tr&"tion

The e #! "r0,"#%! per-%r( e$er') /' #, %per'"#%! D'&&#"#%!4 0/"r',"#%!4 &#$# #%!4 (0)"#p)#,'"#%! e",.E A-"er e2e,0"#%!4 "he re 0)" # "%re& #! "he -#r " %per'!&. F%r e2'(p)e:

ADD A, R1 H The result of addition -AQR=/ will be stored in the accumulator

Arit,%eti"al In tr&"tion Mne%oni" A.. A,Rn A.. A,R( De "ri!tion Add R Register to accumulator Add directly addressed R( Register to Byte N&%1er = 2 O "illator Period = 2

accumulator Add indirectly addressed Register to

A.. A,RRi A.. A,S2 A..C A,Rn

accumulator Add number 2 to accumulator Add R Register with Carry bit to accumulator

= 2 =

= 2 =

Bran", In tr&"tion

There 're "+% 3#!& %- "he e #! "r0,"#%! : U0+!0*-#-!0%( 31/5 -0)#&1+#-!0) A-"er "he#r e2e,0"#%! ' 10(p "% ' !e+ )%,'"#%! -r%( +here "he pr%.r'( ,%!"#!0e e2e,0"#%! # e2e,0"e&. C!0*-#-!0%( 31/5 -0)#&1+#-!0)

I- %(e ,%!&#"#%! # (e" ? ' 10(p # e2e,0"e&. O"her+# e4 "he pr%.r'( !%r('))* pr%,ee& +#"h "he !e2" #! "r0,"#%!.
Bran", In tr&"tion Mne%oni" De "ri!tion Call subroutine located at address within 2 I byte Program &emory space Call subroutine located at any address within EF I byte Program &emory space Return from subroutine Return from interrupt routine 0ump to address located within 2 I byte Program &emory space 0ump to any address located within EF I byte Program &emory space Byte N&%1er 2 O "illator Period '

ACA?? adr==

?CA?? adr=E RET RET! A0&P adr==

' = = 2

F F F '

?0&P adr=E

'

Data Tran #er In tr&"tion

The e #! "r0,"#%! (%$e "he ,%!"e!" %- %!e re.# "er "% '!%"her %!e. The re.# "er +h#,h ,%!"e!" # (%$e& re('#! 0!,h'!.e&. I- "he* h'$e "he 0--#2 LAM DMOFAE4 "he &'"' # e2,h'!.e& +#"h e2"er!') (e(%r*.
Data Tran #er In tr&"tion Mne%oni" &5M A,Rn De "ri!tion &o"e R register to accumulator Byte N&%1er = Cy"le N&%1er =

&5M A,R(

&o"e

directly

addressed

R(

register

to

accumulator &o"e indirectly addressed register to

&5M A,RRi &5M A,S2

accumulator &o"e number 2 to accumulator

= 2

= 2

Lo8i"al In tr&"tion

The e #! "r0,"#%! per-%r( )%.#,') %per'"#%! /e"+ee! ,%rre p%!&#!. /#" %- "+% re.# "er . A-"er e2e,0"#%!4 "he re 0)" #
Lo8i"al In tr&"tion Mne%oni" A8? A,Rn A8? A,R( De "ri!tion ?ogical A8. between accumulator and R register ?ogical A8. between accumulator and directly addressed register R( ?ogical A8. between accumulator and indirectly addressed register ?ogical A8. between accumulator and number 2 Byte N&%1er = 2 Cy"le N&%1er = 2

"%re& #! "he -#r " %per'!&.

A8? A,RRi A8? A,S2

= 2

= 2

Lo8i"al O!eration on Bit

S#(#)'r "% )%.#,') #! "r0,"#%! 4 "he e #! "r0,"#%! per-%r( )%.#,') %per'"#%! . The &#--ere!,e # "h'" "he e %per'"#%! 're per-%r(e& %! #!.)e /#" .
Lo8i"al o!eration on 1it Mne%oni" De "ri!tion Byte Cy"le

N&%1er C?R C C?R bit $ETB C $ETB bit CP? C CP? bit Clear Carry bit Clear directly addressed bit $et Carry bit $et directly addressed bit Complement Carry bit Complement directly addressed bit = 2 = 2 = 2

N&%1er = 2 = 2 = 2

TIMERS
5n-chip timing:counting facility has pro"ed the capabilities of the microcontroller for implementing the real time application These includes pulse counting, fre,uency measurement, pulse width measurement, baud rate generation, etc, Ha"ing sufficient number of The ;<>= has two timer:counters may be a need in a certain design application

timers:counters They can be used either as timers to generate a time delay or as counters to count e"ents happening outside the microcontroller ?et discuss how these timers are used to generate time delays and we will also discuss how they are been used as e"ent counters PRO3RAMMIN3 (4*1 TIMERS The ;<>= has timersG Timer < and Timer= they can be used either as timers or as e"ent counters ?et us first discuss about the timersN registers and how to program the timers to generate time delays

BASIC RI3ISTERS OF T-E TIMER Both Timer < and Timer = are =E bits wide $ince the ;<>= has an ;-bit architecture, each =E-bit timer is accessed as two separate registers of low byte and high byte TIMER 4 RE3ISTERS

The =E-bit register of Timer < is accessed as low byte and high byte The low byte register is called T?<-Timer < low byte/and the high byte register is referred to as TH<-Timer < high byte/ These register can be accessed li#e any other register, such as A,B,R<,R=,R2,etc for e(ample, the instruction K&5M T?<, SF*Kmo"es the "alue F*H into T?<,the low byte of Timer < These registers can also be read li#e any other register

*ig 2<GTimer <-TH< and T?< / registers

TIMER 1 RE3ISTERS Timer = is also =E-bit register is split into two bytes, referred to as T?= -Timer = low byte/ and TH= -Timer = high byte/ these registers are accessible n the same way as the register of Timer < TMOD 9ti%er %ode0 RE3ISTER Both timers T!&ER < and T!&ER = use the same register, called T&5., to set the "arious timer operation modes T&5. is an ;-bit register in which the lower F bits are set aside for Timer < and the upper F bits for Timer = in each case7 the lower 2 bits are used to set the timer mode and the upper 2 bits to specify the operation

MODES/ M1< M4/ &< and &= are used to select the timer mode There are three modesG <, =, 2 &ode < is a ='-bit timer, mode = is a =E-bit timer, and mode 2 is an ;-bit timer 1e will concentrate on modes = and 2 since they are the ones used most widely 1e will soon describe the characteristics of these modes, after describing the reset of the T&5. register 3ATE/ Late control when set The timer:counter is enabled only 1hile the !8T( pin is high and the TR( control pin is $et 1hen cleared, the timer is enabled C6T Timer or counter selected cleared for timer operation -!nput from internal system cloc#/ set for counter 5peration -input T2 input pin/ M1 M4 &ode bit = &ode bit <

M1 <

M4 4

MODE 4

O!eratin8 Mode ='-bit timer mode ;-bit timer:counter TH( with T?( as > H Bit pre-scaler

=E-bit timer mode =E-bit timer:counters TH( with T?( are Cascaded7 there is no prescaler

<

;-bit auto reload ;-bit auto reload

timer:counter7TH( into T?( each

Holds time

a it

"alue that is to be reloaded o"erflows 1 1 5 $plit timer mode

C6T 9"lo".6ti%er0 This bit in the T&5. register is used to decide whether the timer is used as a delay generator or an e"ent counter !f C:TT<, it is used as a timer for time delay generation The cloc# source for the time delay is the crystal fre,uency of the ;<>= this section is concerned with this choice The timerNs use as an e"ent counter is discussed in the ne(t section

Serial Co%%&ni"ation/
Computers can transfer data in two waysG parallel and serial !n parallel data transfers, often ; or more lines -wire conductors/ are used to transfer data to a de"ice that is only a few feet away E(amples of parallel data transfer are printers and hard dis#s7 each uses cables with many wire strips Although in such cases a lot of data can be transferred in a short amount of time by using many wires in parallel, the distance cannot be great To transfer to a de"ice located many meters away, the serial method is used !n serial communication, the data is sent one bit at a time, in contrast to parallel communication, in which the data is sent a byte or more at a time few wires !f data is to be transferred on the telephone line, it must be con"erted from <s and =s to audio tones, which are sinusoidal-shaped signals A peripheral de"ice called a modem, which stands for Jmodulator:demodulatorK, performs this con"ersion $erial communication of the ;<>= is the topic of this chapter The ;<>= has serial communication capability built into it, there by ma#ing possible fast data transfer using only a

$erial data communication uses two methods, asynchronous and synchronous transfers a single byte at a time

The

synchronous method transfers a bloc# of data at a time, while the asynchronous method

!n data transmission if the data can be transmitted and recei"ed, it is a duple( transmission This is in contrast to simple( transmissions such as with printers, in which the .uple( transmissions can be half or full duple(, depending on computer only sends data

whether or not the data transfer can be simultaneous !f data is transmitted one way at a time, it is referred to as half duple( !f the data can go both ways at the same time, it is full duple( 5f course, full duple( re,uires two wire conductors for the data lines, one for transmission and one for reception, in order to transfer and recei"e data simultaneously

A yn",rono&

erial "o%%&ni"ation and data #ra%in8

The data coming in at the recei"ing end of the data line in a serial data transfer is all <s and =s7 it is difficult to ma#e sense of the data unless the sender and recei"er agree on a set of rules, a protocol, on how the data is pac#ed, how many bits constitute a character, and when the data begins and ends

Start and to! 1it


Asynchronous serial data communication is widely used for character-oriented transmissions, while bloc#-oriented data transfers use the synchronous method framing !n the asynchronous method, each character is placed between start and stop bits This is called !n the data framing for asynchronous communications, the data, such as A$C!! characters, are pac#ed between a start bit and a stop bit The start bit is always one bit, but the stop bit can be one or two bits The start bit is always a < -low/ and the stop bit -s/ is = -high/ Data tran #er rate The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated in bps -bits per second/ Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate Howe"er, the baud and bps rates are not necessarily e,ual This is due to the fact that baud rate is the modem terminology and is defined as the number of signal changes per second !n modems a single change of signal, sometimes transfers se"eral bits of data As far as the conductor wire is concerned, the baud rate and bps are the same, and for this reason we use the bps and baud interchangeably

The data transfer rate of gi"en computer system depends on communication ports incorporated into that system *or e(ample, the early !B&PC:2T could transfer data at the rate of =<< to DE<< bps high as >EI bps !n recent years, howe"er, Pentium based PC$ transfer data at rates as !t must be noted that in asynchronous serial data communication, the baud

rate is generally limited to =<<,<<<bps RS252 Standard To allow compatibility among data communication e,uipment made by "arious manufacturers, an interfacing standard called R$2'2 was set by the Electronics !ndustries Association -E!A/ in =DE< !n =DE' it was modified and called R$2'2A R$2'2B A8. R$2'2C were issued in =DE> and =DED, respecti"ely Today, R$2'2 is the most widely used serial !:5 interfacing standard This standard is used in PCs and numerous types of e,uipment Howe"er, since the standard was set long before the ad"ert of the TT? logic family, its input and output "oltage le"els are not TT? compatible !n R$2'2, a = is represented by -' to -2>M, while a < bit is Q' to Q2>M, ma#ing -' to Q' undefined *or this reason, to connect any R$2'2 to a microcontroller system we must use "oltage con"erters such as &A22'2 to con"ert the TT? logic le"els to the R$2'2 "oltage le"els, and "ice "ersa referred to as line dri"ers RS252 !in &A22'2 !C chips are commonly

RS232 ,'/)e # ,%((%!)* re-erre& "% ' "he DB925 ,%!!e,"%r. I! )'/e)#!.4 DB925P re-er "% "he p)0. ,%!!e,"%r D(')eE '!& DB925S # -%r "he %,3e" ,%!!e,"%r D-e(')eE. S#!,e !%" ')) "he p#! 're 0 e& #! PC ,'/)e 4 IBM #!"r%&0,e& "he DB99 Fer #%! %- "he er#') I7O "'!&'r&4 +h#,h 0e 9 p#! %!)*4 ' h%+! #! "'/)e.

12345 B789
-5ut of computer and e(posed end of cable/ *ig 2=G .B-D pin connector Pin *unctionsG

P#! 1 2 3 4 5 B 7 8 9

De ,r#p"#%! D'"' ,'rr#er &e"e," DDCDE Re,e#$e& &'"' DRADE Tr'! (#""e& &'"' DTADE D'"' "er(#!') re'&*DDTRE S#.!') .r%0!& DHNDE D'"' e" re'&* DDSRE Re80e " "% e!& DRTSE C)e'r "% e!& DCTSE R#!. #!&#,'"%r DRIE

N%"e: DCD7 DSR7 RTS '!& CTS 're ',"#$e )%+ p#! . The (e"h%& 0 e& /* RS9232 -%r ,%((0!#,'"#%! '))%+ -%r ' #(p)e ,%!!e,"#%! %- "hree )#!e : T24 R24 '!& Hr%0!&. The "hree e e!"#') #.!') -%r 29+'* RS9232 C%((0!#,'"#%! 're "he e: TXD: ,'rr#e &'"' -r%( DTE "% "he DCE. RXD: ,'rr#e &'"' -r%( DCE "% "he DTE SG: #.!') .r%0!&

(4*1 "onne"tion to RS252


The R$2'2 standard is not TT? compatible7 therefore, it re,uires a line dri"er such as the &A22'2 chip to con"ert R$2'2 "oltage le"els to TT? le"els, and "ice "ersa The interfacing of ;<>= with R$2'2 connectors "ia the &A22'2 chip is the main topic The ;<>= has two pins that are used specifically for transferring and recei"ing data serially These two pins are called T2. and R2. and a part of the port ' group -P' < and P' =/ Pin == of the ;<>= is assigned to T2. and pin =< is designated as R2. These pins are TT? compatible7 therefore, they re,uire a line dri"er to ma#e them R$2'2 compatible 5ne such line dri"er is the &A22'2 chip &A22'2 con"erts from R$2'2 "oltage le"els to TT? "oltage le"els, and "ice "ersa 5ne ad"antage of the &A22'2 chip is that it uses a Q>M power source which, is the same as the source "oltage for the ;<>= !n the other words, with a single Q>M power supply we can power both the ;<>= and &A22'2, with no need for the power supplies that are common in

many older systems data

The &A22'2 has two sets of line dri"ers for transferring and recei"ing

The line dri"ers used for T2. are called T= and T2, while the line dri"ers for R2. are

designated as R= and R2 !n many applications only one of each is used

TAD

RAD TAD

2 3 5

E(/e&&e& C%!"r%))er

RAD HND

MAA 232

*!L 22 GC588ECT!8L UC to PC using &A2 2'2

INTERRUPTS
A #!.)e (#,r%,%!"r%))er ,'! er$e e$er') &e$#,e . There 're "+% +'* "% &% "h'": INTERRUPTS %r POLLINH.

POLLIN3/

I! p%))#!. "he (#,r%,%!"r%))er ,%!"#!0%0 )* (%!#"%r "he "'"0 %- ' .#$e! &e$#,eK +he! "he "'"0 ,%!&#"#%! # (e"4 #" per-%r( "he er$#,e .A-"er "h'"4 #" (%$e %! "% (%!#"%r "he !e2" &e$#,e 0!"#) e',h %!e # er$#,e&. A)"h%0.h p%))#!. ,'! (%!#"%r "he "'"0 %- e$er') &e$#,e '!& er$e e',h %- "he( ' ,er"'#! ,%!&#"#%! 're (e".

INTERRUPTS/

I! "he #!"err0p" (e"h%&4 +he!e$er '!* &e$#,e !ee& #" (#,r%,%!"r%))er /* e!&#!. #" '! #!"err0p"

er$#,e4 "he &e$#,e !%"#-#e "he

#.!'). Up%! re,e#$#!. '! #!"err0p" #.!')4 "he

(#,r%,%!"r%))er #!"err0p" +h'"e$er #" # &%#!. '!& er$e "he &e$#,e. The pr%.r'( ' %,#'"e& +#"h "he #!"err0p" # ,'))e& "he #!"err0p" er$#,e r%0"#!e DISRE.%r #!"err0p" h'!&)er.

INTERRUPTS 2 POLLIN3/

The '&$'!"'.e %- #!"err0p" # "h'" "he (#,r%,%!"r%))er ,'! er$e ('!* &e$#,e D!%" ')) "he '(e "#(e4 %- ,%0r eEK e',h &e$#,e ,'! .e" "he '""e!"#%! %- "he (#,r%,%!"r%))er /' e& ! "he pr#%r#"* ' #.!e& "% #". The p%))#!. (e"h%& ,'!!%" ' #.! pr#%r#"* #!,e #" ,he,3 ')) &e$#,e #! r%0!&9r%/#! -' h#%!. M%re #(p%r"'!")*4 #! "he #!"err0p" (e"h%& "he (#,r%,%!"r%))er ,'! ') % #.!%re D(' 3E ' &e$#,e re80e " -%r er$#,e. Th# # '.'#! !%" p% #/)e +#"h "he p%))#!. (e"h%&. The (% " #(p%r"'!" re' %! "h'" "he #!"err0p" (e"h%& # pre-er'/)e # "h'" "he p%))#!. (e"h%& +' "e (0,h %- "he (#,r%,%!"r%))er@ "#(e /* p%))#!. &e$#,e "h'" &% !%" !ee& er$#,e. S%4 #! %r&er "% '$%#& "*#!. &%+! "he (#,r%,%!"r%))er4 #!"err0p" 're 0 e&.

INTERRUPT SER2ICE ROUTINE *or e"ery interrupt, there must be an interrupt ser"ice routine -!$R/, or interrupt handler 1hen an interrupt is in"o#ed, the microcontroller runs the interrupts ser"ice routine *or e"ery interrupt, there is a fi(ed location in memory that holds the address of its !$R The group of memory location set aside to hold the addresses of !$R and is called the !nterrupt Mector Table $hown belowG Interr&!t 2e"tor Ta1le #or t,e (4*1/

S.No.

INTERRUPT

ROM LOCATION 9-E70

PIN

FLA3 CLEARIN3

Reset

<<<<

Auto

E(ternal hardware !nterrupt <

<<<'

P' 2 -=2/

Auto

' F

Timers < interrupt -T*</ E(ternal hardware !nterrupt =-!8T=/

<<<B <<=' P' ' -='/

Auto Auto

> E

Timers = interrupt -T*=/ $erial C5& -R! and T!/

<<=B <<2'

Auto Programmer clears it

Si> Interr&!t in t,e (4*1/ !n reality, only fi"e interrupts are a"ailable to the user in the ;<>=, but many manufacturersN data sheets state that there are si( interrupts since they include reset the si( interrupts in the ;<>= are allocated as abo"e = 2 Reset 1hen the reset pin is acti"ated, the ;<>= 6umps to address location <<<< this is the power-up reset Two interrupts are set aside for the timersG one for Timer < and one for Timer = &emory location <<<BH and <<=BH in the interrupt "ector table belong to Timer < and Timer =, respecti"ely ' Two interrupts are set aside for hardware e(ternal harder interrupts Pin number =2-P' 2/ and ='-P' '/ in port ' are for the e(ternal hardware interrupts !8T< and !8T=,respecti"ely These e(ternal interrupts are also referred to as E2= and E22 &emory location <<<'H and <<='H in the interrupt "ector table are assigned to !8T< and !8T=, respecti"ely F $erial communication has a single interrupt that belongs to both recei"e and transmit The interrupt "ector table location <<2'H belongs to this interrupt

8otice that a limited number of bytes are set aside for each interrupt *or e(ample, a total of ; bytes from location <<<' to <<<A is set aside for !8T<, e(ternal hardware interrupt < similarly,a total of ; bytes from location <<BH to <<=2H is reser"ed for T*<, Timer < interrupt !f the ser"ice routine for a gi"en interrupt is short enough to fit in the memory space allocated to it, it is placed in the "ector table7 otherwise, and an ?0&P instruction is placed in the "ector table to point to the address of the !$R !n that rest of the bytes allocated to that interrupt are unused *rom the abo"e table also notice that only three bytes of R5& space are assigned to the reset pin They are R5& address location <,= and2 address location ' belongs to e(ternal hardware interrupt < for this reason, in our program we put the ?0&P as the first instruction and redirect the processor away from the interrupt "ector table, as shown below

Ste! in e>e"&tin8 an interr&!t Cpon acti"ation of an interrupt, the microcontroller goes through the following steps = 2 ' F !t finishes the instruction it is e(ecuting and sa"es the address of the ne(t instruction -PC/ on the stac# !t also sa"es the current status of all the interrupts internally -i e , not on the stac#/ !t 6umps to a fi(ed location in memory called the interrupt "ector table that holds the address of the interrupts ser"ice routine The microcontroller gets the address of the !$R from the interrupt "ector table and 6umps to it !t starts to e(ecute the interrupt ser"ice subroutine until it reaches the last instruction of the subroutine, which is RET! -return from interrupt/ > Cpon e(ecuting the RET! instruction, the microcontroller returns to the place where it was interrupted *irst, it gets the program counter -PC/ address from the stac# by popping the top two bytes of the stac# into the PC Then it starts to e(ecute from that address 8otice from step > the critical role of the stac# *or this reason, we must be careful in manipulating the stac# contents in the !$R $pecifically, in the !$R, 6ust as in any CA?? subroutine, the number of pushes and pops must be e,ual Ena1lin8 and di a1lin8 an interr&!t/

Cpon reset, all interrupt are disabled -mas#ed/, meaning that none will be responded to by the microcontroller if they are acti"ated The interrupt must be enabled by software in order for the microcontroller to respond to them There is a register called !E -interrupt enable/ that is responsible for enabling -unmas#ing/ and disabling -mas#ing/ the interrupts 8otice that !E is a bit-addressable register Ste! in ena1lin8 an interr&!t/ To enable an interrupt, we ta#e the following stepsG = Bit .A of the !E register -EA/ must be set to high to allow the reset to ta#e effect

!f EAT=, interrupts are enabled and will be responded to if their corresponding bit in !E are high !f EAT<, no interrupt will be responded to, e"en if the associated bit in the !E register is high Interr&!t Ena1le Re8i ter .A EA .E -.> ET2 .F E$ .' ET= .2 E2= .= ET< .< E2<

EA

!E A

disables all interrupts !f EAT<, no interrupts is ac#nowledged !f EAT=, each interrupt source is indi"idually enabled disabled By setting or clearing its enable bit

-ET2 E$ ET= E2= ET< E2<

!E E !E > !E F !E ' !E 2 !E = !E <

8ot implemented, reser"ed for future use V Enables or disables Timer 2 o"erflow or capture interrupt -;<>2 5nly/ Enables or disables the serial port interrupts Enables or disables Timers = o"erflow interrupt Enables or disables e(ternal interrupt = Enables or disables Timer < o"erflow interrupt Enables or disables e(ternal interrupt

CHAPTER F P51ER $CPP?4

PO+ER SUPPLY
All digital circuits re,uire regulated power supply !n this article we are going to learn how to get a regulated positi"e supply from the mains supply

*igure = shows the basic bloc# diagram of a fi(ed regulated power supply ?et us go through each bloc# TRANSFORMER

A transformer consists of two coils also called as J1!8.!8L$K namely PR!&AR4 O $EC58.AR4 They are lin#ed together through inducti"ely coupled electrical conductors also called as C5RE A changing current in the primary causes a change in the &agnetic *ield in the core O this in turn induces an alternating "oltage in the secondary coil !f load is applied to the secondary then an alternating current will flow through the load !f we consider an ideal condition then all the energy from the primary circuit will be transferred to the secondary circuit through the magnetic field

$o

The secondary "oltage of the transformer depends on the number of turns in the Primary as well as in the secondary

Re"ti#ier

A rectifier is a de"ice that con"erts an AC signal into .C signal *or rectification purpose we use a diode, a diode is a de"ice that allows current to pass only in one direction i e when the anode of the diode is positi"e with respect to the cathode also called as forward biased condition O bloc#s current in the re"ersed biased condition

Rectifier can be classified as followsG

10

-al# +a'e re"ti#ier.

This is the simplest type of rectifier as you can see in the diagram a half wa"e rectifier consists of only one diode 1hen an AC signal is applied to it during the positi"e half cycle the diode is forward biased O current flows through it But during the negati"e half cycle diode is re"erse biased O no current flows through it $ince only one half of the input reaches the output, it is "ery inefficient to be used in power supplies 20

F&ll $a'e re"ti#ier.

Half wa"e rectifier is ,uite simple but it is "ery inefficient, for greater efficiency we would li#e to use both the half cycles of the AC signal This can be achie"ed by using a center tapped transformer i e we would ha"e to double the si%e of secondary winding O pro"ide connection to the center $o during the positi"e half cycle diode .= conducts O .2 is in re"erse biased condition .uring the negati"e half cycle diode .2 conducts O .= is re"erse biased Thus we get both the half cycles across the load 5ne of the disad"antages of *ull 1a"e Rectifier design is the necessity of using a center tapped transformer, thus increasing the si%e O cost of the circuit This can be a"oided by using the *ull 1a"e Bridge Rectifier

50

Brid8e Re"ti#ier.

As the name suggests it con"erts the full wa"e i e both the positi"e O the negati"e half cycle into .C thus it is much more efficient than Half 1a"e Rectifier O that too without using a center tapped transformer thus much more cost effecti"e than *ull 1a"e Rectifier *ull Bridge 1a"e Rectifier consists of four diodes namely .=, .2, .' and .F .uring the positi"e half cycle diodes .= O .F conduct whereas in the negati"e half cycle diodes .2 O .' conduct thus the diodes #eep switching the transformer connections so we get positi"e half cycles in the output

!f we use a center tapped transformer for a bridge rectifier we can get both positi"e O negati"e half cycles which can thus be used for generating fi(ed positi"e O fi(ed negati"e "oltages FILTER CAPACITOR E"en though half wa"e O full wa"e rectifier gi"e .C output, none of them pro"ides a constant output "oltage *or this we re,uire to smoothen the wa"eform recei"ed from the rectifier This can be done by using a capacitor at the output of the rectifier this capacitor is also called as J*!?TER CAPAC!T5RK or J$&55TH!8L CAPAC!T5RK or JRE$ERM5!R CAPAC!T5RK E"en after using this capacitor a small amount of ripple will remain 1e place the *ilter Capacitor at the output of the rectifier the capacitor will charge to the pea# "oltage during each half cycle then will discharge its stored energy slowly through the load while the rectified "oltage drops to %ero, thus trying to #eep the "oltage as constant as possible

!f we go on increasing the "alue of the filter capacitor then the Ripple will decrease But then the costing will increase The "alue of the *ilter capacitor depends on the current consumed by the circuit, the fre,uency of the wa"eform O the accepted ripple

1here, MrT accepted ripple "oltage - should not be more than =<W of the "oltage/ !T current consumed by the circuit in Amperes *T fre,uency of the wa"eform A half wa"e rectifier has only one pea# in one cycle so *T2>h% 1hereas a full wa"e rectifier has Two pea#s in one cycle so *T=<<h% 2OLTA3E RE3ULATOR A Moltage regulator is a de"ice which con"erts "arying input "oltage into a constant regulated output "oltage Moltage regulator can be of two types =/ ?inear Moltage Regulator Also called as Resisti"e Moltage regulator because they

dissipate the e(cessi"e "oltage resisti"ely as heat 2/ $witching Regulators They regulate the output "oltage by switching the Current 58:5** "ery rapidly $ince their output is either 58 or 5** it dissipates "ery low power thus achie"ing higher efficiency as compared to linear "oltage regulators But they are more comple( O generate high noise due to their switching action *or low le"el of output power switching regulators tend to be costly but for higher output wattage they are much cheaper than linear regulators The most commonly a"ailable ?inear Positi"e Moltage Regulators are the A;22 series where the 22 indicates the output "oltage And AD22 series is for 8egati"e Moltage Regulators

After filtering the rectifier output the signal is gi"en to a "oltage regulator The ma(imum input "oltage that can be applied at the input is '>M 8ormally there is a 2-' Molts drop across the regulator so the input "oltage should be at least 2-' Molts higher than the output "oltage !f the input "oltage gets below the Mmin of the regulator due to the ripple "oltage or due to any other reason the "oltage regulator will not be able to produce the correct regulated "oltage

3 Circuit diagram:

Fi8 2.5. Cir"&it Dia8ra% o# !o$er &!!ly

IC 7805:

A;<> is an integrated three-terminal positi"e fi(ed linear "oltage regulator !t supports an input "oltage of =< "olts to '> "olts and output "oltage of > "olts !t has a current rating of = amp although lower current models are a"ailable !ts output "oltage is fi(ed at > <M The A;<> also has a built-in current limiter as a safety feature A;<> is manufactured by many companies, including 8ational $emiconductors and *airchild $emiconductors The A;<> will automatically reduce output current if it gets too hot The last two digits represent the "oltage7 for instance, the A;=2 is a =2-"olt regulator The A;(( series of regulators is designed to wor# in complement with the AD(( series of negati"e "oltage regulators in systems

that pro"ide both positi"e and negati"e regulated "oltages, since the A;(( series can3t regulate negati"e "oltages in such a system The A;<> O A; is one of the most common and well-#nown of the A;(( series regulators, as it3s small component count and medium-power regulated >M ma#e it useful for powering TT? de"ices Ta1le 2.1. S!e"i#i"ation o# IC;(4* SPECIFICATIONS Mout Mein - Mout .ifference 5peration Ambient Temp 5utput !ma( IC ;(4* >M >M - 2<M < - =2>XC =A

CHAPTER > $PEC!*!E. TECH85?5L4

L293D MOTOR DRIVE


Features
The L293D is a popular motor driver IC that is usable from 6 to12V, at up to 1A total output curre t! "# itself, the IC is some$hat diffcult to $ire a d use, but the Compact L293D %otor Driver ma&es it much more co ve ie t to use!

Board Special Features 'our motor directio i dicator L(D) )chott&# (%'*protectio diodes )oc&et pi co ectors for eas# lo+ic i terfaci +

( able pi s are user accessible!

L298 Features

DC MOTOR

DC (%"%r 're ,%!-#.0re& #! ('!* "*pe '!& #5e 4 #!,)0&#!. /r0 h )e 4 er$%4 '!& .e'r (%"%r "*pe . A (%"%r ,%! # " %- ' r%"%r '!& ' per('!e!" ('.!e"#, -#e)& "'"%r. The ('.!e"#, -#e)& # ('#!"'#!e& 0 #!. e#"her per('!e!" ('.!e" %r e)e,"r%('.!e"#, +#!&#!. . DC (%"%r 're (% " ,%((%!)* 0 e& #! $'r#'/)e pee& '!& "%r80e. M%"#%! '!& ,%!"r%) ,%$er ' +#&e r'!.e %- ,%(p%!e!" "h'" #! %(e +'* 're 0 e& "% .e!er'"e '!&7%r ,%!"r%) (%"#%!. Are' +#"h#! "h# ,'"e.%r* #!,)0&e /e'r#!. '!& /0 h#!. 4 ,)0",he '!& /r'3e 4 ,%!"r%) '!& &r#$e 4 &r#$e ,%(p%!e!" 4 e!,%&er '!& re %)$e 4 I!"e.r'"e& (%"#%! ,%!"r%)4 )#(#" +#",he 4 )#!e'r ',"0'"%r 4 )#!e'r '!& r%"'r* (%"#%! ,%(p%!e!" 4 )#!e'r p% #"#%! e! #!.4 (%"%r D/%"h AC '!& DC (%"%r E4 %r#e!"'"#%! p% #"#%! e! #!.4 p!e0('"#, '!& p!e0('"#, ,%(p%!e!" 4 p% #"#%!#!. "'.e 4 )#&e '!& .0#&e 4 p%+er "r'! (# #%! D(e,h'!#,')E4 e') 4 )#p r#!. 4 %)e!%#& 4 pr#!. . M%"%r 're "he &e$#,e "h'" pr%$#&e "he ',"0') pee& '!& "%r80e #! ' &r#$e * "e(. Th# -'(#)* #!,)0&e AC (%"%r "*pe D #!.)e '!& (0)"#ph' e (%"%r 4 0!#$er ')4 er$% (%"%r 4 #!&0,"#%!4 *!,hr%!%0 4 '!& .e'r (%"%rE '!& DC (%"%r D/r0 h )e 4 er$% (%"%r4 '!& .e'r (%"%rE ' +e)) ' )#!e'r4 "epper '!& '#r (%"%r 4 '!& (%"%r ,%!"',"%r '!& "'r"er . I! '!* e)e,"r#, (%"%r4 %per'"#%! # /' e& %! #(p)e e)e,"r%('.!e"# (. A ,0rre!"9,'rr*#!. ,%!&0,"%r .e!er'"e ' ('.!e"#, -#e)&K +he! "h# # "he! p)',e& #! '! e2"er!') ('.!e"#, -#e)&4 #" +#)) e2per#e!,e ' -%r,e pr%p%r"#%!') "% "he ,0rre!" #! "he ,%!&0,"%r4 '!& "% "he "re!."h %- "he e2"er!') ('.!e"#, -#e)&. A *%0 're +e)) '+'re %- -r%( p)'*#!. +#"h ('.!e" ' ' 3#&4 %pp% #"e DN%r"h '!& S%0"hE p%)'r#"#e '""r',"4 +h#)e )#3e p%)'r#"#e DN%r"h '!& N%r"h4 S%0"h '!& S%0"hE repe). The #!"er!') ,%!-#.0r'"#%! %- ' DC (%"%r # &e #.!e& "% h'r!e "he ('.!e"#,

#!"er',"#%! /e"+ee! ' ,0rre!"9,'rr*#!. ,%!&0,"%r '!& '! e2"er!') ('.!e"#, -#e)& "% .e!er'"e r%"'"#%!') (%"#%!. Le"P "'r" /* )%%3#!. '" ' #(p)e 29p%)e DC e)e,"r#, (%"%r Dhere re& repre e!" ' ('.!e"

%r +#!&#!. +#"h ' QN%r"hQ p%)'r#5'"#%!4 +h#)e .ree! repre e!" ' ('.!e" %r +#!&#!. +#"h ' QS%0"hQ p%)'r#5'"#%!E.

E$er* DC (%"%r h'

#2 /' #, p'r" 99 '2)e4 r%"%r D'.3.'.4 'r('"0reE4 "'"%r4 ,%((0"'"%r4 -#e)&

('.!e"D E4 '!& /r0 he . I! (% " ,%((%! DC (%"%r D'!& ')) "h'" Be'(er +#)) eeE4 "he e2"er!') ('.!e"#, -#e)& # pr%&0,e& /* h#.h9 "re!."h per('!e!" ('.!e" 1. The "'"%r # "he "'"#%!'r* p'r" %- "he (%"%r 99 "h# #!,)0&e "he (%"%r ,' #!.4 ' +e)) ' "+% %r (%re per('!e!" ('.!e" p%)e p#e,e . The r%"%r D"%.e"her +#"h "he '2)e '!& '""',he& ,%((0"'"%rE r%"'"e +#"h re pe," "% "he "'"%r. The r%"%r ,%! # " %- +#!&#!. D.e!er'))* %! ' ,%reE4 "he +#!&#!. /e#!. e)e,"r#,'))* ,%!!e,"e& "% "he ,%((0"'"%r. The '/%$e &#'.r'( h%+ ' ,%((%! (%"%r )'*%0" 99 +#"h "he r%"%r #! #&e "he "'"%r D-#e)&E ('.!e" . The geometry of the brushes, commutator contacts, and rotor windings are such that when power is applied, the polarities of the energi%ed winding and the stator magnet-s/ are misaligned, and the rotor will rotate until it is almost aligned with the stator3s field magnets As the rotor reaches alignment, the brushes mo"e to the ne(t commutator contacts, and energi%e the ne(t winding Li"en our e(ample twopole motor, the rotation re"erses the direction of current through the rotor winding, leading to a )flip) of the rotor3s magnetic field, and dri"ing it to continue rotating I! re') )#-e4 "h%0.h4 DC (%"%r +#)) ')+'* h'$e (%re "h'! "+% p%)e D"hree # ' $er* ,%((%! !0(/erE. I! p'r"#,0)'r4 "h# '$%#& Q&e'& p%" Q #! "he ,%((0"'"%r. Y%0 ,'! #('.#!e h%+ +#"h %0r e2'(p)e "+%9p%)e (%"%r4 #- "he r%"%r # e2',")* '" "he (#&&)e %- #" r%"'"#%! Dper-e,")* ')#.!e& +#"h "he -#e)& ('.!e" E4 #" +#)) .e" Q "0,3Q "here. Me'!+h#)e4 +#"h ' "+%9p%)e (%"%r4 "here # ' (%(e!" +here "he ,%((0"'"%r h%r" %0" "he p%+er 0pp)* D#.e.4

/%"h /r0 he "%0,h /%"h ,%((0"'"%r ,%!"'," p%+er

#(0)"'!e%0 )*E. Th# +%0)& /e /'& -%r "he ' +e)). Ye" '!%"her

0pp)*4 +' "e e!er.*4 '!& &'('.e (%"%r ,%(p%!e!"

&# '&$'!"'.e %- 0,h ' #(p)e (%"%r # "h'" #" +%0)& e2h#/#" ' h#.h '(%0!" %- "%r80eM r#pp)eQ D"he '(%0!" %- "%r80e #" ,%0)& pr%&0,e # ,*,)#, +#"h "he p% #"#%! %- "he r%"%rE.

$o since most small .C motors are of a three-pole design, let3s tin#er with the wor#ings of one "ia an interacti"e animation -0a"a$cript re,uired/G

Y%0P)) !%"#,e ' -e+ "h#!. -r%( "h# 99 !'(e)*4 %!e p%)e # -0))* e!er.#5e& '" ' "#(e D/0" "+% %"her 're Qp'r"#'))*Q e!er.#5e&E. A e',h /r0 h "r'! #"#%! -r%( %!e ,%((0"'"%r ,%!"'," "% "he !e2"4 %!e ,%#)P -#e)& +#)) r'p#&)* ,%))'p e4 ' "he !e2" ,%#)P -#e)& +#)) r'p#&)* ,h'r.e 0p D"h# %,,0r +#"h#! ' -e+ (#,r% e,%!&E. CeP)) ee (%re '/%0" "he e--e," %- "h# )'"er4 /0" #! "he (e'!"#(e *%0 ,'! ee "h'" "h# # ' &#re," re 0)" %- "he ,%#) +#!&#!. P er#e +#r#!.:

ThereP pr%/'/)* !% /e""er +'* "% ee h%+ '! '$er'.e &, (%"%r # p0" "%.e"her4 "h'! /* 10 " %pe!#!. %!e 0p. U!-%r"0!'"e)* "h# # "e&#%0 +%r34 ' +e)) ' re80#r#!. "he &e "r0,"#%! %- ' per-e,")* .%%& (%"%r.

CHAPTER6 SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT

SOFT+ARE
AV-)-!03
YMision' is an !.E -!ntegrated .e"elopment En"ironment/ that helps you write, compile, and debug embedded programs !t encapsulates the following componentsG A pro6ect manager A ma#e facility Tool configuration Editor A powerful debugger

To help you get started, se"eral e(ample programs -located in the ?C*1?E>a%!le , ?C2*1?E>a%!le , ?C1@@?E>a%!le , and ?ARM?...?E>a%!le / are pro"ided

-ELLO is a simple program that prints the string )Hello 1orld) using the $erial !nterface

B1-(*-0. %0 A55(-+%#-!0 -0 AV-)-!02


To build -compile, assemble, and lin#/ an application in YMision2, you mustG = 2 $elect Pro6ect - -for e(ample, 1@@?E7AMPLES?-ELLO?-ELLO.U22/ $elect Pro6ect - Rebuild all target files or Build target YMision2 compiles, assembles, and lin#s the files in your pro6ect

C&'%#-0. Y!1& O$0 A55(-+%#-!0 -0 AV-)-!02


To "reate a ne$ !roAe"t in B2i ion2< yo& %& tG = 2 ' F > E $elect Pro6ect - 8ew Pro6ect $elect a directory and enter the name of the pro6ect file $elect Pro6ect - $elect .e"ice and select an ;<>=, 2>=, or C=E(:$T=< de"ice from the .e"ice .atabaseZ Create source files to add to the pro6ect $elect Pro6ect - Targets, Lroups, *iles, Add:*iles, select $ource Lroup=, and add the source files to the pro6ect $elect Pro6ect - 5ptions and set the tool options 8ote when you select the target de"ice from the .e"ice .atabaseZ all special options are set automatically 4ou typically only need to configure the memory map of your target hardware .efault memory model settings are optimal for most applications A $elect Pro6ect - Rebuild all target files or Build target

D';1..-0. %0 A55(-+%#-!0 -0 AV-)-!02


To debug an application created using YMision2, you mustG = 2 ' $elect .ebug - $tart:$top .ebug $ession Cse the $tep toolbar buttons to single-step through your program 4ou may enter 3< %ain in the 5utput 1indow to e(ecute to the main C function 5pen the $erial 1indow using the Serial C1 button on the toolbar .ebug your program using standard options li#e $tep, Lo, Brea#, and so on Startin8 B2i ion2 and "reatin8 a ProAe"t

YMision2 is a standard 1indows application and started by clic#ing on the program icon To create a new pro6ect file select from the YMision2 menu ProAe"t H 8ew Pro6ect[ This opens a standard 1indows dialog that as#s you for the new pro6ect file name 1e suggest that you use a separate folder for each pro6ect 4ou can simply use the icon Create 8ew *older in this dialog to get a new empty folder Then select this folder and enter the file name for the new pro6ect, i e Pro6ect= YMision2 creates a new pro6ect file with the name PR50ECT= CM2 which contains a default target and file group name 4ou can see these names in the Pro6ect +indo$ = File . 8ow use from the menu Pro6ect H $elect .e"ice for Target and select a CPC for your pro6ect The $elect .e"ice dialog bo( shows the YMision2 de"ice database 0ust select the microcontroller you use 1e are using for our e(amples the Philips ;<C>=R.Q CPC This selection sets necessary tool options for the ;<C>=R.Q de"ice and simplifies in this way the tool Configuration B&ildin8 ProAe"t and Creatin8 a -E7 File Typical, the tool settings under 5ptions H Target are all you need to start a new application 4ou may translate all source files and line the application with a clic# on the Build Target toolbar icon 1hen you build an application with synta( errors, YMision2 will display errors and warning messages in the 5utput 1indow H Build page A double clic# on a message line opens the source file on the correct location in a YMision2 editor window 5nce you ha"e successfully generated your application you can start debugging

After you ha"e tested your application, it is re,uired to create an !ntel HE2 file to download the software into an EPR5& programmer or simulator YMision2 creates HE2 files with each build process when Create HE2 files under 5ptions for Target H 5utput is enabled

4ou may start your PR5& programming utility after the ma#e process when you specify the program under the option Run Cser Program S=

CPU Si%&lation YMision2 simulates up to =E &bytes of memory from which areas can be mapped for read, write, or code e(ecution access The YMision2 simulator traps and reports illegal memory accesses being done !n addition to memory mapping, the simulator also pro"ides support for the integrated peripherals of the "arious ;<>= deri"ati"es The on-chip peripherals of the CPC you ha"e selected are configured from the .e"ice Data1a e ele"tion 4ou ha"e made when you create your pro6ect target Refer to page >; for more !nformation about selecting a de"ice 4ou may select and display the on-chip peripheral components using the .ebug menu 4ou can also change the aspects of each peripheral using the controls in the dialog bo(es

Start De1&88in8 4ou start the debug mode of YMision2 with the .ebug H $tart:$top .ebug $ession command .epending on the 5ptions for Target H .ebug Configuration, YMision2 will load the application program and run the startup code YMision2 sa"es the editor screen layout and restores the screen layout of the last debug session !f the program e(ecution stops, YMision2 opens an editor window with the source te(t or shows CPC instructions in the disassembly window The ne(t e(ecutable statement is mar#ed with a yellow arrow .uring debugging, most editor features are still a"ailable *or e(ample, you can use the find command or correct program errors Program source te(t of your application is shown in the same windows The YMision2 debug mode differs from the edit mode in the following aspectsG

\ The J.ebug &enu and .ebug CommandsK described on page 2; are A"ailable The additional debug windows are discussed in the following \ The pro6ect structure or tool parameters cannot be modified All build Commands are disabled Di a e%1ly +indo$ The .isassembly window shows your target program as mi(ed source and assembly program or 6ust assembly code A trace history of pre"iously e(ecuted instructions may be displayed with .ebug H Miew Trace Records To enable the trace history, set .ebug H Enable:.isable Trace Recording !f you select the .isassembly 1indow as the acti"e window all program step commands wor# on CPC instruction le"el rather than program source lines 4ou can select a te(t line and set or modify code brea#points using toolbar buttons or the conte(t menu commands 4ou may use the dialog .ebug H !nline Assembly[ to modify the CPC instructions That allows you to correct mista#es or to ma#e temporary changes to the target program you are debugging

SOURCE CODE

1. 2.

Clic# on the Ieil uMision !con on .es#top The following fig will appear

*ig '2G pro6ect

5. D.

Clic# on the Pro6ect menu from the title bar Then Clic# on 8ew Pro6ect

*ig ''G new pro6ect

*.

$a"e the Pro6ect by typing suitable pro6ect name with no e(tension in u r own folder sited in either CG] or .G]

@. ;. (.

Then Clic# on a'e button abo"e $elect the component for u r pro6ect i e Atmel[[ Clic# on the Q $ymbol beside of Atmel

*ig 'F G select target de"ice

).

$elect AT;DC>= as shown below

*ig '>G select de"ice foer target

14. 11.

Then Clic# on J5IK The *ollowing fig will appear

*ig 'EG Copy ;<>= startup code

12. 15. 1D.

Then Clic# either 4E$ or 85[[[mostly J85K 8ow your pro6ect is ready to C$E 8ow double clic# on the Target=, you would get another option J$ource group =K as shown in ne(t page

*ig 'AG $ource group =

1*.

Clic# on the file option from menu bar and select JnewK

*ig '; new file

1@.

The ne(t screen will be as shown in ne(t page, and 6ust ma(imi%e it by double clic#ing on its blue boarder

*ig 'DG 5pened new file

1;.

8ow start writing program in either in JCK or JA$&K

1(.

*or a program written in Assembly, then sa"e it with e(tension J asmK and for JCK based program sa"e it with e(tension J CK

*ig F<G *ile $a"e

1B.

N%+ r#.h" ,)#,3 %! S%0r,e .r%0p 1 '!& ,)#,3 %! LA** "-(') #! G&!15 S!1&+'M

F#. 41: A&& -#)e "% "he %0r,e .r%0p

2>.

N%+ *%0 +#)) .e" '!%"her +#!&%+4 %! +h#,h /* &e-'0)" LCM -#)e +#)) 'ppe'r.

F#. 42: A&&#!. -#)e "% "he %0r,e .r%0p

21. 22. 23.

N%+ e)e," ' per *%0r -#)e e2"e! #%! .#$e! +h#)e '$#!. "he -#)e C)#,3 %!)* %!e "#(e %! %p"#%! LADDM N%+ Pre -0!,"#%! 3e* F7 "% ,%(p#)e. A!* err%r +#)) 'ppe'r #- % h'ppe!.

*ig F' Compilation

24.

I- "he -#)e ,%!"'#! !% err%r4 "he! pre

C%!"r%)JF5 #(0)"'!e%0 )*.

25.

The !e+ +#!&%+ # ' -%))%+

F#. 44: /0#)&#!.

26.

The! C)#,3 LO6M

27.

N%+ C)#,3 %! "he Per#pher') -r%( (e!0 /'r4 '!& ,he,3 *%0r re80#re& p%r" ' h%+! #! -#. /e)%+

*ig F> G $electing the Ports to be "isuali%ed

2@.

Dr'. "he p%r" ' #&e '!& ,)#,3 #! "he pr%.r'( -#)e.

F#. 4B: "'r" &e/0..#!.

2B. 3>.

N%+ 3eep Pre #!. -0!,"#%! 3e* LF11M )%+)* '!& %/ er$e. Y%0 're r0!!#!. *%0r pr%.r'( 0,,e -0))*.

C-APTER ; CONCLUSION

The pro6ect JBOMB DETECTION ROBOT E has been successfully designed and tested !ntegrating features of all the hardware components used ha"e de"eloped it Presence of e"ery

module has been reasoned out and placed carefully thus contributing to the best wor#ing of the unit

$econdly, using highly ad"anced !CNs and with the help of growing technology the pro6ect has been successfully implemented

REFERENCES

;<>=-&!CR5C58TR5??ER A8. E&BE..E. $4$TE&$ &ohd &a%idi

The 8;51 M#,r% ,%!"r%))er Ar,h#"e,"0re4 Pr%.r'((#!. R App)#,'"#%! <C'00'#2 D.A:%(% F0!&'(e!"') O- M#,r% pr%,e %r '!& M#,r% ,%(p0"er <B.R%/ M#,r% pr%,e %r Ar,h#"e,"0re4 Pr%.r'((#!. R App)#,'"#%! <R%/')2 S. G%!0,%& E)e,"r%!#, C%(p%!e!" 9D.V. P&%)%*