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Suiform Soundings

ISSN: 1446-991X

Newsletter of the WPSG, PSG and HSG


Volume 10(2) February 2011

Suiform Soundings is the newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Wild Pig, Peccary, and Hippo Specialist Groups. This newsletter is electronically available at: http://data.iucn.org/themes/ssc/sgs/pphsg/Suiform%20soundings/Newsletter.htm

Photo front page: Pygmy hippo photo courtesy of ZSL. Read more about the Pygmy Hippo Conservation Strategy Workshop, held last November in Monrovia, Liberia, on page 3.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
EDITORIAL by Anne-Marie Stewart 3 Developing a Conservation Strategy for the Pygmy Hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) by Andrew Taber 3 PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS Importancia biolgica, socioeconmica y cultural de la cacera del pecar de collar ( Pecari tajacu) (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae) en Tzucacab, Yucatn Mxico. Biological, socio-economical, and cultural importance of the hunting of the collared peccary ( Pecari tajacu) (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae) in Tzucacab, Yucatan, Mexico by Marcos Alberto Briceo M, Rubn Cornelio Montes P and Wilian Aguilar C. 8 Human-wildlife Conflicts in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest by rico de S Petit Lobo and Srgio Luiz Gama Nogueira-Filho 14 Comparative testis structure and spermatogenic efficiency in three suiforms species: the domestic pig (Sus domesticus), the wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) and the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) by Guilherme M.J. Costa, Paulo H.A. Campos-Junior, Samyra M.S.N. Lacerda, Jos V. Resende-Neto, Diva A. Guimares and Luiz R. Frana 23 Uso de trampas cmara digitales para estudiar al Jabal (Tayassu pecari) en el Biotopo Protegido Dos Lagunas, Reserva de Biosfera Maya. Use of digital camera-traps to study white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) in the Maya Biosphere Reserve in Guatemala by Jos Moreira Ramrez and Rony Garca Anleu 32 CURRENT RESEARCH Behavioural regulation in peccaries (Pecari tajacu): the effect of social structure on reproductive function of females in captivity by Suleima Silva 37 NEWS IN BRIEF 38 NEW LITERATURE ON SUIFORMES 41

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Editorial
Two very interesting articles have recently been brought to my attention, and I have included them both under the Ecology and Conservation section of New Literature in this newsletter. Both articles, published in Animal Genetic Resources (47), focus on the often ignored relationship between domestic livestock, such as pigs, and their wild relatives, and the importance of conserving wildlife and wild areas to fulfil mutually beneficial objectives. Give the articles a read ignoring the link between domestic and wild species can have far-reaching consequences. Once again I received many interesting articles for inclusion in Suiform Soundings (at this stage I must say a huge thank you to Rafael Reyna-Hurtado, our new associate editor, who was a big help in encouraging contributions), and I hope you will enjoy reading them as much as I did. In this issue, we hear about a strategic conservation workshop held in Liberia, to formulate a regional conservation strategy for the pygmy hippo. Having just participated in the same process for a different endangered species, I was heartened to read about the success of the pygmy hippo workshop and the support the organisers achieved from the various stakeholders that attended. Lets hope this enthusiasm is carried forward and translates into visible actions and conservation measures being implemented at all levels, to ensure the survival of this highly endangered species. This newsletter also contains articles about human-wildlife conflict in the Brazilian Atlantic forest, as well the use of digital camera-traps to study white-lipped peccaries in the Maya Biosphere Reserve in Guatemala. Happy reading! Anne-Marie Stewart, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. amistewart@yahoo.co.uk

Developing a Conservation Strategy for the Pygmy Hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis)


The pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) is a highly endangered, evolutionarily distinct mammal endemic to the Upper Guinea Forests of Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea and Cte dIvoire. Featuring prominently in local folklore, the pygmy hippo is so secretive that its very existence was regarded as a myth by western zoologists until the mid 1800s. Now, less than 200 years later, the species is at risk of disappearing completely. Its forest habitat is being lost due to logging, mining and agriculture and what remains is increasingly fragmented. Both commercial and subsistence hunting are impacting upon this species across its range.
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However, despite this the pygmy hippo had, until recently, received little conservation attention. This changed in 2007 when the Zoological Society of Londons EDGE (Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered) of Existence Programme (see www.edgeofexistence.org) prioritised the pygmy hippo for conservation action and drew attention to the plight of this species. This increased attention and concern for the species resulted, in 2009, in the creation of a pygmy hippo subgroup to the IUCN SSC Hippo Specialist Group. Mr Chris Ransom and Dr Monique Paris, from the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) and the Institute for Breeding of Rare and Endangered Mammals (IBREAM) respectively, were appointed co-Chairs. Once created, the group identified the need to bring together all the stakeholders in pygmy hippo conservation and research to develop a Pygmy Hippo Conservation Strategy, through a review of its current status and the identification of priority actions for its conservation. Funds were therefore sourced to hold a regional workshop. The Pygmy Hippo Conservation Strategy Workshop was hosted on 22 nd-24th November 2010 at the Krystal Oceanview Hotel in Monrovia, Liberia by the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) and the Pygmy Hippo sub-group of the IUCN SSC Hippo Specialist Group. Support for the workshop was provided by Attica Zoo in Greece, the Ecosystem Grants Programme of the IUCN National Committee of the Netherlands, the IUCN Save our Species (SOS) Programme, the Mohammed bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund, the SeaWorld and Busch Gardens Conservation Fund, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and the Zoological Society of London. In preparation for the workshop a status review was compiled through an exhaustive literature review and correspondence with researchers, conservation practitioners and other people active in the field, pulling together all the available information relevant to the pygmy hippos current conservation status. This included information on the species description, its functions and values, the species history, current and historical distribution, population estimates and trends, threats and ongoing conservation initiatives. Maps were produced of the current and historical distributions of the pygmy hippo through the collation of all locations referred to in the literature and from location points provided by field workers. This included records from as far back as the 19 th century, through the earliest scientific expeditions right up to the latest ongoing field studies. Records were categorized as either historical (> 10 years old) or recent (<10 years old) to provide us with both the best possible current distribution and an indication of how the range and distribution of the pygmy hippo has changed over time. Thirty three people attended the meeting including representatives from the four pygmy hippo range states and international experts. These participants represented a range of government bodies, national and international NGOs and research institutions including: Cte dIvoires Ministre de l'Environnement, des Eaux et Forts; the Office Ivoirien de Parcs et Rerserves; Liberias Forestry Development Authority; the Conservation and Wildlife Management Unit of Sierra Leones Forestry Division; Guines Direction National des Eaux et Forts; the Centre Forestier N'Zerekore in Guinea; the University of Njala, Sierra Leone; the Cocody University, Cte dIvoire; the Sierra Leone Conservation Society; the Society for Conservation of Nature in Liberia; Environmental Foundation for Africa; the Centre Scientifique Research Swiss in Cte dIvoire; the Zoological Society of London; Conservation International -Liberia; Fauna and Flora International; IUCN; the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds; and the University of Georgia.
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The workshop was facilitated by Dr David Mallon, the co-Chair of the IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group, a member of the IUCN SSC Species Planning Sub-committee, following the IUCN SSC Guidelines for Strategic Planning for Species Conservation. The workshop was opened by Hon. Moses Worgbeh, the Managing Director of Liberias Forestry Development Authority, the agency responsible for protected area management and wildlife conservation in Liberia. Following his welcoming remarks, Mr Chris Ransom, the co-Chair of the pygmy hippo sub group of the IUCN SSC Hippo Specialist Group, made an introductory presentation emphasising the importance of this unique species and the overall aims of the workshop. This was followed by Dr David Mallon who outlined the programme for the three day workshop and more details on the strategic planning process. The first day of the meeting was spent discussing and reviewing the status review prepared prior to the meeting. This commenced with a series of presentations from the representatives of the institutions directly involved in ongoing pygmy hippo conservation initiatives. Each presenter gave a short report on activities, results and future plans both to set the scene and to provide information about their project sites relevant to the status review. Following these presentations, the historical and current distribution maps were reviewed and amendments made. The resulting information was fed back into a GIS to produce updated map records. Information was also gathered on population estimates for different sites and the status of these individual populations. Day two was spent conducting a threat assessment and prioritising the direct and indirect threats to the species. This was followed by the drafting of a Vision and Goal for the strategy and a set of objectives to achieve the goal. These objectives were discussed further on day three and a series of actions for each objective were drafted. The final afternoon was spent carrying out a stakeholder assessment and highlighting which stakeholders were required to implement each action. Finally, a resolution to be sent to the Heads of State of each of the pygmy hippo range countries was drafted and agreed upon by the participants of the meeting. This resolution calls for the national governments to embrace the pygmy hippo as a flagship for conservation of biodiversity in the region and to do more to enforce national laws on the poaching of endangered species. Participants mapping historical and current distribution Chrissie Wightman, ZSL
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The workshop was very successful, resulting in a complete drafting of a regional strategy for conservation of the pygmy hippo which lays out a Vision, Goal and 11 objectives with the necessary actions required to achieve the objectives. The final document will be completed and circulated in early 2011 and will be a roadmap for the conservation of the pygmy hippo in the wild. This workshop, the first of its kind in West Africa, was extremely well received by all participants including the representatives of the four range state governments, all of whom pledged their governments support for the strategy and to cooperate on transboundry initiatives in order to achieve the objectives. The workshop provided the much needed opportunity for stakeholders to gather together to meet and share experiences which we hope will enable future collaborations to develop and communications to be maintained so individual pygmy hippo conservation initiatives are able to benefit from the materials, methodologies and experiences of one another rather than operating in isolation. All the participants were very keen to stay in contact and have a central database to share current information, from location data to methodologies to educational materials.

Working together for pygmy hippo conservation Chrissie Wightman, ZSL The status review produced by the meeting has been vital in pulling together the disparate information on the pygmy hippo and has enabled us to identify data gaps and the priorities for future research. We hope to use this status review to update the IUCN Red List listing for the species. The meeting achieved extensive coverage in the national media with articles about the workshop published in the three national Liberian newspapers and a news piece on the national radio station. This publicity raises the profile of the pygmy hippo in the region and we hope it will assist us in
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gaining support for the conservation of the pygmy hippo and the Upper Guinea rainforest from the governments, the donors, the private sector and the general public. The workshop participants from the Upper Guinea Forest area were very enthusiastic to promote the pygmy hippo as a flagship species for the region and were keen to inspire national pride in this extraordinary animal. If you would like any additional information please contact Chris Ransom - chris.ransom@zsl.org

Participants at the Pygmy Hippo Conservation Strategy Workshop Paul De Ornellas, ZSL

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Papers and communications


Importancia biolgica, socioeconmica y cultural de la cacera del pecar de collar (Pecari tajacu) (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae) en Tzucacab, Yucatn Mxico. Biological, socio-economical, and cultural importance of the hunting of the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae) in Tzucacab, Yucatan, Mexico
Marcos Alberto Briceo M, Rubn Cornelio Montes P and Wilian Aguilar C. Campus de Ciencias Biolgicas y Agropecuarias, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autnoma de Yucatn, Carretera Mrida-Xmatkuil km 15.5, s/n, Mrida, Yucatn, Fax: 999 942 32 05- ext. 32; marc12_87@hotmail.com Departamento de Conservacin y Manejo de Fauna Silvestre, Campus de Ciencias Biolgicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad Autnoma de Yucatn, Carretera Mrida-Xmatkuil km 15.5, s/n, Mrida, Yucatn, Fax: 999 942 32 05- ext. 32; rmontes@uady.com Cuerpo Acadmico de Manejo y Conservacin de Recursos Naturales Tropicales, Campus de Ciencias Biolgicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad Autnoma de Yucatn, Carretera Mrida-Xmatkuil km 15.5, s/ n, Mrida, Yucatn, Fax: 999 942 32 05- ext. 32; acordero@uady.com Abstract The use of native fauna in the diet of rural people is a common practice in many communities of the Mexican republic. The aim of this study was to describe the extractive use of collared peccaries in a municipality named Tzucacab in the Mexican state of Yucatan. Data collection included field trips to the hunting grounds and performing hunter interviews. A total of 22 peccaries were killed and a total of 17 were only injured - this is one of the first studies that record animals wounded but not killed. We estimated that annually a total of 294 animals are wounded only in this municipality. Of the animals killed, nine were females and 13 males. X test indicates no evidence of hunting preference by gender. The total animal biomass product of the hunt was 374 kg. A total of 93 hunting events were recorded in the three communities studied. Of the 30 hunters who practice hunting, 32% perform daily trips while 28% and 40 % once per week and per month respectively. Hunters in the area use three hunting techniques of which batida (when some hunters push animals toward a site where other hunters are hiding) is the most common and the one that provides more peccaries to the huntSUIFORM SOUNDINGS VOL 10(2) PAGE 8

ers. Hunting collared peccaries provides income and food for the families of the hunters. Current hunting techniques used by hunters of the area could harm the collared peccary populations, so they must be evaluated and alternatives must be provided that respect the animals and their populations. We performed two workshops with the communities, and the stakeholders provided management alternatives for sustainable use of the wildlife in the region. Resumen La utilizacin de la fauna nativa en la dieta de la poblacin rural es una prctica comn en muchas comunidades de la Repblica Mexicana. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir el uso extractivo de los pecares de collar en tres localidades del municipio de Tzucacab en estado mexicano de Yucatn. La Recoleccin de datos incluy visitas a los sitios de caza y entrevistas con los cazadores. Un total de 22 jabales fueron cazados y un total de 17 jabales heridos, este es el primer registro de los animales heridos, pero no obtenidos para el municipio. Al estimar la cantidad de animales heridos para cada comisaria que conforman al municipio se proyecta una cantidad hipottica de 294.32 animales perdidos anualmente. Se cazaron un total de 13 machos y 9 hembras. La prueba de X2 indica que no hay evidencia significativa en la preferencia de caza por sexos. El total de biomasa producto de la cacera fue de 374 kg. Se registraron un total de 93 eventos de caza en las tres comunidades de estudio, de los 30 cazadores que practican la caza, el 32 % sale diario, el 28% cada semana y un 40% cada mes. Se diferenciaron tres tcnicas de caza, donde la batida es la tcnica ms utilizada y con la que se caza el mayor numero de animales. La cacera de pecar de collar esta asociada con aspectos culturales y sociales y es una actividad que otorga beneficios econmicos a los campesinos cazadores mas all de proporcionar alimento. La batida es la tcnica tradicional de caza, pero esta tiene un efecto perjudicial sobre estas poblaciones de animales, por lo que deben evaluarse alternativas de extraccin sustentables para esta especie. En el desarrollo de talleres de accin participativa se obtuvieron propuestas que los mismos actores involucrados en esta actividad plantearon para que se realice un aprovechamiento sustentable de este recurso, establecer unidades de manejo y aprovechamiento en su modalidad intensiva (UMA) seria una alternativa para el manejo sustentable del recurso en el municipio. Introduccin La cacera de subsistencia es una prctica arraigada en las comunidades rurales de Mxico as como de varias partes del mundo tropical cuyo propsito es principalmente de autoconsumo, y para la convivencia entre los hombres y la socializacin de los jvenes, donde gusto y necesidad son las dos ideas bsicas de cazar. (Montiel et al., 1999). En tiempos recientes y debido a cambios socioculturales, la incorporacin de armas de fuego y la creciente necesidad de satisfacer carencias bsicas como la alimentacin, la cacera se ha incrementado con un incremento en la presin sobre la fauna silvestre, al grado tal que se ha documentado la disminucin o extincin local de algunas especies importantes en la caza (March, 1995). En Mxico la cacera se ha practicado desde tiempos prehispnicos. Esta actividad forma parte de las ceremonias tradicionales y del folklore de los pueblos indgenas y campesinos de los diferentes estados de la republica. Son pocos los trabajos que han abordado con profundidad el impacto de la caza
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sobre poblaciones silvestres. En la pennsula de Yucatn este tema ha sido poco estudiado y se desconoce cmo los habitantes rurales utilizan la fauna silvestre y que factores culturales y biolgicos de las propias poblaciones animales, influyen en la cacera de subsistencia (Jorgerson, 1995). Debido a esto, es necesario analizar y evaluar el impacto de la cacera sobre la fauna silvestre, y particularmente en este estudio nos enfocamos en la cacera del pecar de collar (Pecari tajacu). En el presente trabajo se reportan por vez primera, datos de pecares heridos pero no cazados en la cacera en el municipio de Tzucacab, Yucatn, Mxico en un periodo de un ao. Materiales y Mtodos El estudio se realiz en el municipio de Tzucacab (19 38 y 20 09 N y 88 59 y 89 14 W) que se ubica, en la regin sur de Yucatn a una distancia de 111 Km de la ciudad de Mrida. La temperatura media anual es de 25.8C y la precipitacin media anual alcanza los 1061.2 mm (CNA, 2005). La coleccin de datos incluy la aplicacin de entrevistas, cuestionarios y salidas a cacera que se realizaron desde septiembre del 2009 a julio de 2010 durante la poca de secas y poca de lluvia. Planteamiento del trabajo a los campesinos cazadores: En cada comunidad de estudio se platic con cada uno de los comisarios ejidales y municipales con la finalidad de plantearles el estudio e identificar a informantes claves para llevar a cabo la aplicacin de las encuestas y salidas con los campesinos cazadores. La relacin que tiene la Universidad de Yucatn con las autoridades del municipio nos permiti tener un acercamiento directo y generar un ambiente de confianza con los campesinos cazadores. Aplicacin de encuestas y cuestionarios: Los cuestionarios y encuestas fueron aplicados a campesinos cazadores activos. Esta metodologa es inductiva, humanista, considera escenarios y actores de manera holstica, tratando siempre de comprender a los actores dentro de su propio marco de referencia. Registro de la cacera: El seguimiento y anlisis de cacera se realizo durante las estancias de 15 das al mes durante el periodo de estudio (septiembre 2009 a julio 2010) en cada comunidad de estudio y salidas para cacera, se registraron y se revisaron visualmente todos los pecares cazados. Los parmetros de caza recopilados incluyeron peso del animal, sexo, talla y etapa reproductiva, se registr el nmero de animales heridos por armas de fuego pero que no murieron en presencia del cazador y de los cuales se desconoce su suerte. Los indicadores de cacera fueron la frecuencia de viajes de cacera y el nmero de cazadores participantes, as como la tcnica que utilizan. Se registro el nmero de individuos cazados por comunidad vegetal existentes en el municipio, que son: selva baja caducifolia, selva baja inundable, selva mediana subcaducifolia, y vegetacin secundaria, as campos de cultivos (localmente llamados milpas), reas ganaderas (llamadas potreros). Desarrollo de talleres participativos en las comunidades de estudio: Se realizaron dos talleres en cada comunidad de estudio, en el primer taller se dialog con los campesinos cazadores y se les present los resultados preliminares del estudio. En el segundo taller se recopilaron las propuestas de los campesinos cazadores, dirigidas a la conservacin y el aprovechamiento sustentable del pecar de collar por medio de accin participativa.
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Anlisis estadstico: Los datos fueron analizados en Microsoft Excel 2007 para obtener el promedio y desviacin estndar de animales heridos y animales cazados en total registrados. Se us la prueba de Chi cuadrado para determinar la relacin entre la preferencia de caza por sexos de cada individuo registrado.

Registro de cacera y medidas del pecar collar ; Registro de peso del pecar de collar (Tzucacab, Yucatn Mxico). Pedro Ek May. Resultados Se registr un total de 22 pecares de collar cazados. Asimismo el nmero de animales heridos fue de 17 (10 machos y 7 hembras adultos). El sexo de animales cazados, fueron 9 hembras, y 13 machos. No hubo diferencia significativa entre el nivel de preferencia de caza y sexo del pecar ( X2= 2.3). El total de biomasa obtenida a travs de la cacera fue de 374 Kg. Se registr un total de 93 salidas de cacera, de los 30 cazadores que practican la cacera un 32% sale diario, un 28% cada semana y el 40% cada mes. Se diferenciaron tres tcnicas de caza que se utilizan, de las cuales la batida (donde un grupo de personas cubren un rea grande y dirigen animales hacia cazadores escondidos en un lugar determinado) es la tcnica ms utilizada. En esta actividad participaron hasta 18 cazadores (cuadro 1). Se registr el nmero de individuos cazados por comunidad vegetal donde el mayor nmero de individuos cazados se encontr en vegetacin secundaria con un total de 12 individuos cazados. La selva baja inundable present el menor nmero de individuos cazados con 2, mientras que en las milpas y en los potreros se aprovecharon 4 individuos en cada uno. No se registraron individuos cazados en la selva baja inundable y la selva mediana subcaducifolia. Los campesinos cazadores propusieron estrategias de conservacin y manejo sustentable del pecar de collar, entre las cuales el establecer UMAs (Unidad de Manejo y Aprovechamiento Sustentable de acuerdo con la legislacin mexicana, SEMARNAT, 1997) de modalidad intensiva y extensiva se consider como una estrategia adecuada para el municipio.

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Cuadro 1. Frecuencia de salidas para cacera de pecares de collar en el municipio de Tzucacab, Yucatn, Mxico
Tcnica de caza. No. viajes de cacera 12 73 8 93 % de la tcnica utilizada 12.9 78.4 8.6 100 No. de cazadores por tcnica de caza 8 18 4 30 % de cazadores por tcnica 26.6 60 13.3 100 Tamao de los grupos de cacera 1a3 4 a 18 1a2

Espa Batida Lampareo Total general

Nota: Espa: Tcnica donde el cazador espera a su presa en un lugar determinado ya se arriba de un rbol o en una plataforma expresamente construida para cazar. Batida: Tcnica donde un grupo de cazadores revisan un rea grande frecuentemente acompaados con perros con la intencin de dirigir a la presa a un sitio determinado donde mas cazadores esperan. Lampareo: Tcnica que consiste en cazar de noche con ayuda de linternas para distinguir los brillos de los ojos de los animales.

Discusin El pecar es apreciado por su carne y piel en todo su rango de distribucin (desde Mxico hasta Argentina) y presenta una elevada capacidad reproductiva (Sowls, 1997). En este estudio se registraron 22 pecares cazados en el municipio de Tzucacab, mientras que Segovia (2001) report solamente 17 animales cazados por ao en el mismo lugar. De acuerdo a el anlisis de los individuos cazados en Tzucacab, no se registraron individuos juveniles o cras lo cual indica que los campesinos cazadores evitan cazar animales que no tiene la talla suficiente como para ser aprovechados como consumo o comercializados. En un estudio realizado en este mismo municipio se encontr que el pecar de collar representa un 10.55% del total anual de especies aprovechadas. Esto lo ubica detrs del venado cola blanca Odocoileus virginianus con un 22.22%, y del venado temazate gris Mazama pandora con un 44.4 % de aprovechamiento anual (Segovia, 2001). Muchos de los estudios que se realizan sobre cacera solo reportan las especies de caza, el peso, el nmero de individuos aprovechados y patrones de caza por las comunidades (Vickers, 1984). Aqu presentamos tambin el nmero de pecares heridos y evaluamos que el impacto que tiene esta consecuencia de la actividad de la cacera representa una prdida anual de hasta cerca del 77% del total de animales extrados de la poblacin y no aprovechados (1.88/2.44) animales/comunidad/mes. Las diferencias encontradas en sexo, donde ms machos fueron cazados que hembras pueden deberse, a la territorialidad, a la diferencia del uso del hbitat y al comportamiento de defensa de la especie. Esto contrasta con la caza de venados, una especie donde los campesinos prefieren cazar machos debido al tamao del animal y por que consideran que al dejar a las hembras siempre habr reproduccin y consecuentemente el recurso estar siempre disponible. El hecho de que se obtuvieran un total de 374 Kg de carne de pecar en Tzucacab confirma que es una especie cazada generalmente para consumo humano. La carne de animales silvestres es
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un recurso de gran importancia para la poblacin humana rural de las regiones tropicales del mundo. Para Tzucacab en el 2001 se registraron un total de 238 Kg de biomasa animal correspondiente nicamente al pecar de collar (Segovia, 2001). En este estudio se registraron un total de 93 salidas para cacera y se evidenci a travs de salidas donde se practic la tcnica de batida, que esta es una actividad ilegal y que la gente se cuida de no ser vistos por las autoridades, sobretodo ante los funcionarios de las instituciones encargadas de la regulacin, lo que provoca que las actividades tradicionales de consumo y venta local de animales sean vistas como prcticas clandestinas y sin control aparente. Esta visin es contraria a la que tienen los habitantes locales, adems de que existen pocas vas de dilogo y negociacin para que ambas visiones sean compatibles. Pese a ello, dentro de las comunidades la prctica de la cacera no slo es un mecanismo de subsistencia, sino tambin una actividad tradicional que protege contra los daos causados por los animales de monte a sus huertos o milpas (Jorgenson, 1993). La batida es el mtodo ms practicado por los cazadores del sur de Yucatn. En el ejido de Tixcacaltuyub, Yucatn se reportaron 5 tcnicas para la caza, tres son similares a lo registrado en este trabajo, los otros dos, la sorpresa y la espera que son variantes del acecho y lampareo (Mandujo & Rico-Gray, 1991). En Yaxcaba, Yucatn, se reconocen tres tipos de caza: la batida, la espa y cazar al caminar el monte. Los tipos de vegetacin y los terrenos de caza pueden ser invaluables para la interpretacin de los patrones y dinmica de la caza humana y valorar el efecto de ella sobre las poblaciones presa. As mismo, esos terrenos permiten determinar el uso del hbitat de la fauna de caza (Redford & Robinson, 1997). Se analizaron los sitios de caza y tipo de comunidad vegetal de donde fueron cazados los individuos reportados, existe una diferencia en cuanto a la preferencia del hbitat y comunidad vegetal para el pecar de collar en Tzucacab, la mayor cantidad de individuos cazados se registr en vegetacin secundaria. La vegetacin secundaria ofrece variadas etapas succesionales, sirve como refugio por la densidad de los arbustos y herbceas presentes, diversas especies entre ellas el pecar de collar se favorecen con la amplitud de efecto borde provocado por actividades como el desmonte, apertura de tierras para cultivos diversos y la milpa (Sowls, 1997; Reyna Hurtado & Tanner, 2005). Es necesario que dependencias gubernamentales y organizaciones no gubernamentales cumplan con la funcin de resguardar los recursos faunsticos y lleven a cabo programas de manejo y conservacin de especies que tienen un potencial elevado de reproduccin y adaptacin como el pecar de collar, sobre todo en poblaciones rurales donde la necesidad de alimentacin son difciles de cubrir y por lo cual en ocasiones se hace uso irracional de los recursos disponibles, lo que provoca la vulnerabilidad a la extincin de los mismos. Agradecimientos Agradecemos a don Rubn Estrella por su incondicional apoyo en el trabajo de campo, a doa Rosita por su amabilidad y confianza que otorgo al primer autor durante su estancia en el rancho Hobonil, a Pedro Pablo por su apoyo y compaa en salida a cacera, a todos los campesinos cazadores del municipio de Tzucacab, Yucatn que nos dieron la oportunidad de conocer y ser parte de esta actividad. Referencias C.N.A. (Comisin Nacional del Agua). 2005. Registro de precipitacin y temperatura mensuales de 2004- 2005. Mrida, Yucatn, Mxico. Jorgenson JP. 1993. Gardens wildlife, and subsistence hunting by maya indians in Quintana Roo, Mexico. PhD Thesis. University of Florida.
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Jorgenson JP. 1995. Maya subsistence hunters in Quintana Roo, Mxico. Oryx 29: 49-57. Montiel S, Arias L and Dickinson F. 1999. La cacera tradicional en el norte de Yucatn: Una prctica comunitaria. Revista de Geografa Agrcola 29: 43-52. March IJ. 1995. Cacera de subsistencia, Usos locales e importancia cultural de la fauna silvestre en Mxico. In: La fauna silvestre de Mxico: necesidad de una nueva legislacin. Asociacin de Abogados de la Ciudad de Mxico A. C. Fac. de Derecho, UNAM. Mandujano S and Rico VG. 1991. Hunting, use, and knowledge of the biology of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) by the Maya of Central Yucatan. Journal of Ethnobiology 11: 175-183. Redford KH and Robinson J. 1997. Usos comerciales y de subsistencia de la vida silvestre en America Latina. Pp. 612 in Robinson J and Redford K (Eds.) Usos y conservacin de la vida silvestre neotropical. Fondo de cultura Econmica. Reyna-Hurtado R and Tanner GW. 2005. Habitat preferences of an ungulate community in Calakmul Forest, Campeche, Mexico. Biotropica 37: 676-685. Segovia CA. 2001. La cacera de subsistencia en Tzucacab, Yucatn, Tesis de maestra. Universidad Autnoma de Yucatn, Mrida, Yucatn. pp. 5-16. Secretara del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales y Pesca. 1997. Programa de conservacin de la vida silvestre y diversificacin productiva del sector rural: 19972000. Mxico City, Mxico. Sowls LK. 1997. Javelinas & other peccaries. Their biology & management . 2nd Ed, Texas A&M University Press. Pp. 5-6. Vickers WT. 1984. The faunal components of lowland South American hunting kills. Interciencia 9: 366 -376.

Human-wildlife Conflicts in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest


rico de S Petit Lobo and Srgio Luiz Gama Nogueira-Filho1 Laboratrio de Manejo de Fauna Silvestre, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz - UESC, Rod. Ilhus Itabuna km 16, Ilhus, Bahia, Brazil 45662-900
1

Corresponding author e-mail: sergio.luiz@pq.cnpq.br; Fax: +55 73 36805254

Abstract Crop damage caused by wildlife represents a serious problem to conservation efforts. The aim of this study was to determine the perception of local producers towards wild mammal species, focusing on the collared peccary (Peccary tajacu) and the damage caused to agricultural productions, resulting in human-wildlife conflict at the southern Bahia Atlantic Forest. We interviewed farmers and farm workers about affected agricultural activity, the species responsible for economic losses, and the frequency and intensity of damage caused by wild animals. We also determined the harmfulness of each wild animal species using a damage index. The most affected crops were cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and cassava (Manihot esculenta), while free-range poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) was also affected. The cacao-rat (Oryzomys laticeps) was the species with the highest number of complaints and
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the highest score on the damage index. Nearly all interviewers complained about armadillos and the paca, Cuniculus paca. Despite receiving fewer complaints, the collared peccary, which affects cassava crops, achieved the same harmfulness score as the cacao-rat. To control such damage, the farmers pursue and kill these wild animals. However, most of these species are frugivores and play an important role in the recruitment, distribution, and species richness of plants thus affecting both the community composition and diversity of this ecosystem. Therefore an environmental educational program as well as management efforts must be developed for wild species damage control, to avoid the indiscriminate hunting of these species and to promote biodiversity conservation in this threatened biome. Keywords: crop damage, damage control, damage index, wild mammals, wildlife management. Introduction Over the last decade, damage by wildlife has become a major problem for farmers in many areas, resulting in agricultural production losses in Africa, North America and Europe (Conover & Decker, 1991; Spitz & Lek, 1999; Marker et al., 2003; Schley & Roper, 2003; Muruthi, 2005; Sitati et al., 2005). Conflict between wildlife and humans has always occurred, but only in the last decades has this issue been studied seriously (Conover & Decker, 1991; Putman & Moore, 1998; Wilkie et al., 1998; Spitz & Lek, 1999; Schley, 2003; Treves & Karanth, 2003; Amano et al., 2004; Fragoso et al., 2004; Muruthi 2005; Sitati et al,. 2005; Maruyama, 2006; Linkie et al., 2007). Few studies have been carried out to describe crop damage by wildlife in Brazil, and there is no practice or qualification relating to problem species management and control (Moreira & Piovezan, 2005), specially in the south-eastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia, Brazil. This region is one of the few remaining forest areas of the Atlantic Forest in north-eastern Brazil and is considered as a highpriority area for biodiversity due to high levels of endemism and species richness. The main agricultural activity is cocoa (Theobroma cacao) production using a traditional crop system, whereby the forest is thinned as the cocoa shrubs replace the original forest understory (Alves, 1990). There are some accounts of crop damage on cocoa by rodents (Encarnao, 2001), on pupunha palm ( Bactris gasipaes) by the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) by the collaredpeccary (Pecari tajacu) (Santos et al., 2009). However, despite the associated economic losses, the presence of such wild species has a profound effect on vegetation structure, abundance, distribution and diversity (Bleher et al., 2002; Schupp et al., 2002; Levine & Murrell, 2003; Dennis & Westcott, 2006; Farwig et al., 2006; Link & Di Fiore, 2006). The aim of this study was therefore to determine the species causing the most damage, and the agricultural productions they target, which leads to human-wildlife conflict situations in this Brazilian Atlantic Forest domain. Materials and Methods Study area We conducted this study by randomly choosing 27 farmers and farm workers to interview, from six
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municipal districts: Arataca (3924W; 1515S), Buerarema (3917W; 1457S), Ilhus (39 02W; 14 47S), Itabuna (3916W; 1447S), So Jos da Vitria (3920W; 1505S) and Una (3904W; 1517S). The total area of these six municipal districts is 43 km2 (IBGE 2004), where nearly half a million people live, 18.7% of them in the rural area, mainly producing cassava flour, cocoa and bananas (IBGE 2000). The region comprises three different climatic areas: the sub-humid to dry area, with an annual rainfall ranging from 800 to 1,100 mm; the humid to sub-humid area with annual rainfall from 1,100 mm to 2,000 mm; and the humid area with an annual rainfall above 2,000 mm. The average temperature in this region is between 18.4 and 25.4C (SEI 1997). The regional vegetation is characterized by dense ombrofile forest and belongs to the Neotropical zone (Velloso et al. 1991), but is also classified as tropical rainforest (Ricklefs 2003). Beyond the forest ecosystem, there are habitats such as mangrove swamps and coastal forests or restinga. Data collection and analysis During each interview, we applied a semi-structured questionnaire to identify target agricultural activities, as well as the wild species considered as pests and their harm intensity. To set up the questionnaires we followed Babbie (1999) and Oliveira-Juniors (2005) survey techniques. We evaluated the damage caused by each species through the number of complaints recorded in the questionnaires and the damage index. To determine this index, we first ranked the degree of damage stated in the surveys for each species and crop type: level one for low intensity damage (less than 10% of economic loss), level two for medium damage (between 10% and 20% of economic loss), and level three for high intensity damage (accounting for more than 20% of economic loss). We then determined the average obtained for each species, and obtained the ratio of these averages by the total number of complaints to find the damage index for each species. Results Target crops and harmful species The main agricultural land usage in the region is cocoa and cassava crops. Nevertheless, we identified ten different farming activities that were affected by wild mammals in this region (Table 1). The cocoa -rat leads the total damage complaints followed by the paca (Cuniculus paca). The three armadillo species (Euphractus sexcinctus, Dasypus novencinctus and Cabassous unicinctus) and the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) received the same score, followed by the rainforest fox (Cerdocyon thous), and the capybara (Fig. 1). The capybara was also responsible for impacting on the widest variety of agricultural activities (Table 1). To control damage, the farmers and the farm workers used illegal methods. They often used traps to kill the perceived problem species, sometimes paying hunters to eradicate them. They were seldom recorded using explosive pyrotechnic devices and shot-guns to scare away the animals.

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PAGE 16

Table 1. Answers of farmers and farm workers (n = 27) regarding wild mammals considered as pests, and the crop types damaged by each species in the Southern Bahia Brazilian Atlantic Forest.
Crop type Harmful species (Family) Cuniculus paca (n=11) Oryzomys laticeps (n=8) Metachirus nudicaudatus (n=6) Nectomys squamipes (n=2) Armadillo* (n=2) Sciurus aestuans (n=1) Pecari tajacu (n=11) Armadillo (n=10) Armadillo (n=1) Dasyprocta aguti (n=1) Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (n=1) Nasua nasua (n=1) Oryzomys laticeps (n=1) Cerdocyon thous (n=10) Leopardus sp. (n=4) Eira barbara (n=3) Didelphis aurita (n=2) Callistomys pictus (n=2) Leontopithecus chrysomelas (n=1) Nasua nasua (n=1) Pecari tajacu (n=1) Procyon cancrivorus (n=1) Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (n=3) Pecari tajacu (n=1) Armadillo (n=1) Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (n=3) Pecari tajacu (n=2) Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (n=2) Pecari tajacu (n=1) Nasua nasua (n=1) Didelphis aurita (n=1) Lontra longicaudis (n=1)

Cocoa (n=21)

Cassava (n=11)

Country hen breeding (n=10)

Banana (n=7)

Common bean (n=3)

Corn (n=3)

Pupunha palm (n=2) Papaya (n=1) Palm oil (n=1) Fishery (n=1)

* Includes three armadillo species (Euphractus sexcinctus, Dasypus novencinctus and Cabassous unicinctus) that occur in the region.
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30

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Figure 1. The total complaints and the damage index obtained from the answers of farmers and farm workers (n=27) on wild mammals considered as pest in the Southern Bahia Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

Discussion The results obtained are in agreement with previous studies that point towards rodent species as being responsible for the highest levels of economic losses on cocoa crops, which account for up to 30% of production in the South of Bahia (Encarnao, 2001). This region, named the Cocoa Coast, is the main cocoa production area in Brazil occupying 485,988 ha and producing 116,349 tons per year, with an annual profit close to 600 million dollars. Cassava profits are close to 100 million dollars, with a production of 479,224 ton from an area occupying 39,803ha (IBGE, 2004). In the study area, cocoa production occupies more than 60 thousands hectares of agricultural land, whilst the cassava occupies nearly 2,000 ha. Due to the large production area occupied by these crops and their great economic significance, most of the complaints recorded were on the economic losses caused by wild mammals to these crops. With regards to animal production, the rainforest fox was noted as the biggest problem, as it affected the farming of free-range hens, the main animal production activity in the study region (IBGE 2004).
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Damage intensity index

20
Total complaints

The forest-like structure of cocoa crops almost simulates the native Atlantic rainforest ecosystem, because the cocoa trees are planted under native tree species, a system locally known as cacao-cabruca (Saatchi et al. 2001). This agro-forest system is adjacent to fragments of natural forest and provides a natural corridor to forest-dwelling species moving among forest fragments (Alves, 1990; Faria et al., 2006). Additionally, several exotic plants were introduced in this agro-forestry system to provide shade to cocoa trees and produce fruits, such as jack-fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) and buri (Polyandrococus caudensis). After nearly a century since their introduction, these species have become naturalized in the region and can be found in secondary growth forest (Sambuichi 2002). Such environmental conditions therefore support frugivore species, such as the collared peccary and the paca. The jack-fruit, for instance, has become the main fruit species consumed by collared peccaries in this region (Santos, 2006). From the interviewees perspective, the cocoa-rat is the most important species when it comes to damage to the cocoa-crop and causes most of the economic losses. Introduction of cocoa trees almost a century ago increased the food available to the cocoa-rat. Moreover, during the last decade the introduction of the pupunha palm crops on a large scale in the study area (IBGE, 2004) attracted more rats that feed on the palm heart. In addition, the population of snakes, the natural predator of these rodents, has decreased since farmers and farm workers have started actively killing them, especially the larger species such as the surucucu or bushmaster (Lachesis muta) that occurs in the region (Campbell & Lamar, 2004). This survey was the first time that the paca was pointed out as a harmful species to cocoa crops. Several wildlife surveys show its numbers in the wild are dwindling, due to extensive hunting and habitat destruction by humans (Eisenberg & Redford, 1999; Perez 1999). Hunting within Neotropical forests has also severely decreased the populations of the collared peccary (Sowls, 1997; Cullen Jr et al., 2001). In contrast to other regions, however, the paca and the collared peccary were able to persist within the mosaic of primary forest, secondary forest, and cocoa cabruca agro-forest systems of Southern Bahia (Santos, 2006). The increase in these wild mammal populations might have happened after the cocoa crisis. At the end of the 1980s, a low international cocoa price and the witches broom disease lead to a rural population exodus of more than 200,000 people from these rural areas and a resultant decrease in hunting pressure (Saatchi et al., 2001; Chomitz et al., 2005; Faria et al., 2006). With the decrease in hunting pressure and availability of new introduced food resources, the populations of collared peccary, paca, and other wild species could thrive, increasing their presence and impact on cocoa, cassava and other agricultural crops. The resulting action taken by the interviewees was to hunt these species that they see as agricultural pests. These wild frugivores, however, could influence recruitment, distribution, and species richness of plant communities thus affecting both the community composition and diversity of this ecosystem. Endozoochory is considered as the most common mechanism for plant species dispersal in the Atlantic Forest (Howe & Smallwood, 1982). Indeed, species such as the collared peccary could be a crucial force for the JanzenConnell effect, thereby affecting seed survival, seedling recruitment, and distribution underneath and in close proximity to parent trees (Beck, 2006). Peccaries can disperse seeds of numerous plant species and generate seed shadows, especially those seeds with small width and
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high cell-wall contents like guava seeds (Motta et al., 2008). The paca appears to play a critical part in some tree species regeneration ecology, such that the loss of the rodent may ultimately precipitate the local extinction of trees such as the Attalea oleifera palm in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Asquith et al., 1999; Pimentel & Tabarelli, 2004). There is currently little to no information on abundance of these problem species and no population monitoring occurs in the South Bahia cocoa region. However, due to the important ecological role of some of these species, an environmental education programme and management efforts must be developed for wild species damage control, to avoid their indiscriminate hunting and to promote biodiversity conservation in this threatened biome. Acknowledgements We are grateful to Dr. Rodiney Mauro (EMBRAPA) for important comments on this paper. We would also like to thank the European Union (Research for the Development, INCO-DEV; Fifth Framework Programme; contract # ICA4-CT-2001-10045) and the Fundao de Amparo Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia FAPESB for supporting the project. References Alves MC. 1990. The role of cacao plantations in the conservation of the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil. PhD. Dissertation, University of Florida. Amano T, Ushiyama K, Fujita G et al. 2004. Alleviating grazing damage by white-fronted geese: an optimal foraging approach. Journal of Applied Ecology 41: 675688. Asquith NM, Terborgh J, Arnold AE et al. 1999. The fruits the agouti ate: Hymenaea courbaril seed fate when its disperser is absent. Journal of Tropical Ecology 15: 229235. Babbie E. 1999. Mtodos de Pesquisas de Survey. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Beck H. 2005. Predation and dispersal by peccaries throughout the Neotropics and its consequences: a review and synthesis. Pp 77116 in: Forget PM, Lambert JE, Hulme PE and Vander Wall SB (eds) Seed fate predation, dispersal and seedling establishment. CAB Publishing, Massachusetts. Bleher B, Oberrath R and Bohnin-Gaese K. 2002. Seed dispersal, breeding system, tree density and the spatial pattern of trees - a simulation approach. Basic Applied Ecology 3: 115123. Campbell JA and Lamar WW. 2004. Bushmasters, Genus Lachesis Daudin, 1803. Pp 436449 in: Campbell JA and Lamar WW (eds) The venomous reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. Chomitz KM, Alger K, Thomas TS, Orlando H and Vila Nova P. 2005. Opportunity Costs of Conservation in a Biodiversity Hotspot: The Case of Southern Bahia. Environment and Development Economics 10: 293312. Conover MR and Decker DJ. 1991. Wildlife damage to crops: perceptions of agricultural and wildlife professionals in 1957 and 1987. Wildlife Society Bulletin 19: 4652. Cullen Jr. L, Bodmer RE and Padua CV. 2001. Ecological consequences of hunting in Atlantic Forest patches, So Paulo, Brazil. Oryx 35: 137144. Dennis AJ and Westcott DA. 2006. Reducing complexity when studying seed dispersal at community scales: a functional classification of vertebrate seed dispersers in tropical forests. Oecologia 149:
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Ricklefs RE. 2003. A Economia da Natureza. Ed. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York; Fifth edn. Editora Guanabara Koogan S.A. Rio de Janeiro. Saatchi S, Agosti D, Alger K, Delabie J and Musinsky J. 2001. Examining fragmentation and loss of primary forest in Southern Bahian Atlantic Forest of Brazil with radar imagery. Conservation Biology 15: 867875. Sambuichi RHR. 2002. Fitossociologia e diversidade de espcies arbreas em cabruca (Mata Atlntica raleada sobre plantao de cacau), na regio Sul da Bahia, Brasil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 16: 89 101. Santos CAB. 2006. Disponibilidade de frutos para caititus (Pecari tajacu) na regio cacaueira do sul da Bahia. M.Sc. dissertation, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Brazil. Santos DO, Mendes A, Nogueira SSC and Nogueira-Filho SLG. 2009. Criao comercial de caititus (Pecari tajacu): uma alternativa para o agronegcio. Revista Brasileira de Sade e Produo Animal 10: 1218. Schley L and Roper T. 2003. Diet of wild boar Sus scrofa in Western Europe, with particular reference to consumption of agricultural crops. Mammal Review 33: 4356. Schupp EW, Milleron T and Russo S. 2002. Dispersal limitation and the origin and maintenance of species-rich tropical forests. Pp1934 in: Levey DJ, Silva WR and Galetti M (eds.) Seed Dispersal and Frugivory: Ecology, Evolution and Conservation. CAB International Press, Cambridge. SEI Superintendncia de Estudos Econmicos e Sociais da Bahia. 1997. Uso da terra e cobertura vegetal - Litoral Sul da Bahia. Salvador, Brazil. Sitati NW, Walpole MJ and Leader-Williams N. 2005. Factors affecting susceptibility of farms to crop raiding by African elephants: using a predictive model to mitigate conflict. Journal of Applied Ecology 42: 11751182. Sowls LK. 1997. Javelinas and other peccaries: their biology, management and use. 2nd edn. Texas A&M University Press, Tucson. Spitz F and Lek S. 1999. Environmental impact prediction using neural network modeling. An example in wildlife damage. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 317326. Treves A and Karanth KU. 2003. Human-Carnivore Conflict and Perspectives on Carnivore Management Worldwide. Conservation Biology 17: 14911499. Veloso HP, Rangel-Filho ALR and Lima JCA. 1991. Classificao da Vegetao Brasileira, Adaptada a um Sistema Universal. IBGE, Rio de Janeiro Wilkie DS, Curran B, Tshombe D et al. 1998. Modeling the Sustainability of Subsistence Farming and Hunting in the Ituri Forest of Zaire. Conservation Biology 12: 137147.

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Comparative testis structure and spermatogenic efficiency in three suiforms species: the domestic pig (Sus domesticus), the wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) and the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu)
Guilherme M.J. Costa1, Paulo H.A. Campos-Junior1, Samyra M.S.N. Lacerda1, Jos V. Resende-Neto1, Diva A. Guimares2 and Luiz R. Frana1*
1

Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Morphology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil 31270-901. 2 Laboratory of Animal Reproduction, Biological Sciences Center, Federal University of Par, Belm, PA, Brazil. *Correspondence author: Dr. Luiz Renato de Frana, Phone: 55 -31-34092816; fax: 55-31-34092780 email: lrfranca@icb.ufmg.br Financial support: CAPES, CNPq and FAPEMIG Abstract Over the past twenty years, our laboratory has been developing studies related to the testis structure and spermatogenesis in the domestic pig (Sus domesticus), wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) and, more recently, in the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu). Therefore, our main objectives in the present minireview are to compare several important testis parameters already investigated for these three species. Supporting the established knowledge that spermatogenesis is highly conserved during evolution, the germ cell morphology and the organization of the different stages of spermatogenesis in these species are very similar. However, illustrating that the study of new species could represent the discovery of a novel model to better understand reproductive biology, peccaries presented a unique testicular cyto-architecture that might help elucidating unsolved questions related to the spermatogonial stem cell biology and niche, providing an eventual paradigm for other well studied mammalian or even vertebrate species. The distinctive distribution of Leydig cells in the collared peccary testis parenchyma also opens a new scenario for the investigation of the interactions among the testis somatic elements and the seminiferous cord/tubules development during fetal and postnatal life. In addition, besides furnishing important data about the knowledge of the reproductive biology of suiforms, our results could be very useful for the development of new reproductive and animal genetics improvement programs. Keywords: Male reproductive biology, domestic pig, wild boar, collared peccary, testis, Leydig cell, Sertoli cell, spermatogenesis, daily sperm production. Introduction Knowledge of male reproductive biology and physiology - especially aspects related to spermatogenesis - is fundamental to preventing species extinction as well as improving species management and enhancing male reproductive capacity in natural and artificial breeding programs (Comizzoli et al., 2000). Although testis structure and organization are very similar in mammals, each species may exSUIFORM SOUNDINGS VOL 10(2) PAGE 23

hibit particular morphofunctional characteristics, such as those related to phylogenetic aspects and reproductive strategy/behavior (Kerr et al., 2006; Setchell & Breed, 2006). In most vertebrates, including mammals, the testicular parenchyma is morpho-functionally divided into tubular and intertubular compartments (Russell et al., 1990; Hess & Frana, 2007). The tubular compartment comprises the seminiferous tubules, which extend in a convoluted network that connects with the rete testis located in the mediastinum testis (Frana & Russell, 1998). From the base to the center, the seminiferous tubules constitute tunica propria, seminiferous epithelium (Sertoli cell and germ cells) and lumen. The tunica propria is formed by the smooth muscle-like peritubular myoid cells and extracellular matrix. The intertubular compartment consists of blood and lymphatic vessels, macrophages, connective tissue and Leydig cells, which are the principal component of this compartment that is the main source of androgens that are directly related to the regulation of spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis is a process of differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells into spermatozoa over an extended period of time (characteristic for each species) within seminiferous tubule boundaries of the testis. Therefore, the seminiferous epithelium consists of germ cells that form numerous concentric layers penetrated by a single type of somatic cell known as Sertoli cell. The cytoplasm of Sertoli cells extends as thin arms around all the germ cells to nurture and maintain their cellular associations throughout the process of spermatogenesis. Germ cells multiply by repeated mitotic divisions and then by meiosis, which involves the duplication of chromosomes, genetic recombination, and reduction of chromosomes through two cell divisions to produce spherical haploid spermatids that differentiate into highly compacted spermatozoa (Frana et al., 2005; Hess & Frana, 2007). Peccaries and pigs belong to the Suiform infraorder and respectively to the Tayassuidae and Suidae families, having diverged approximately 40 million years ago from a common ancestor (Adega et al., 2008). Over the past twenty years, our laboratory has been developing studies related to the testis structure and spermatogenesis in the domestic pig - Sus domesticus - (Frana, 1992; Frana & Cardoso, 1998; Frana et al., 2000; Frana et al., 2005; Avelar et al., 2010), wild boar - Sus scrofa scrofa (Almeida et al., 2006) and, more recently, in the collared peccary - Tayassu tajacu - (Costa et al., 2010). Because it determines the strategy of each species to support high hunting pressures and is also useful in improvement programs aimed at their commercial exploitation, the precise knowledge of reproductive biology is critical for the development of wildlife management strategies. In this regard, our main objectives in the present mini-review are to compare several important testis parameters already investigated for the collared peccary and both domestic and wild boars. Testis weight and gonadosomatic index Sperm production is highly correlated with testicular weight (Frana & Russell, 1998; Frana et al., 2000; Hess & Frana, 2007; Johnson et al., 2008). Variations in the relative size of the components of the testis are due to variation in relative masses of the tubular and intertubular compartments of the testes. However, it appears that the relative size of the testis is largely a reflection of variation in requirements for sperm production. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) is the calculation of the gonad mass as a proportion of the total body mass and it seems that smaller mammals must allocate a greater proportion of body mass and energy expenditure to testicular tissue than larger mammals. However,
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the three species evaluated here do not follow this trend. Therefore, when the collared peccary and domestic and wild boars are compared, both body and testis weights show high variation and are much smaller in the collared peccary and wild pigs (Table 1). Particularly, the value found for the GSI in the peccary is 50% lower than that observed for the domestic pig and is probably the result of extensive reproductive selection to which most domestic pig breeds have been submitted over the centuries. This might also explain why the GSI value obtained for the wild boar occupies an intermediate position, as shown in Table 1. Table 1. Comparative parameters related to the biometric and testis morphometric data and spermatogenic events, in the sexually mature collared peccary, domestic pig and wild boar. Parameters Body weight (Kg) Testis weight (g) Gonadosomatic index (%) Seminiferous tubule (%) Sertoli cells per gram of testis (million) Sertoli cell efficiency (spermatids per Sertoli cell) Meiotic index (%)d Leydig cells (%) Leydig cell individual size (m3) Leydig cells per gram of testis (millions) Spermatogenic cycle length (days) Total duration of spermatogenesis (days) Spermatogenic efficiency (DSP per gram of testis) Combined Stages Frequencies (total = 100%) Pre-meiotic phase (%)e Meiotic phase (%)f Post-meiotic phase (%)g
a b

Collared Peccarya 23 24 0.2 77 28 11.1 3.2 (20) 13 1200 120 12.3 55.1 23

Domestic Pigb 35-234 50-470 0.4 83-85 20 12.4 3.2 (20) 10 1100 2200 60 -120 8.6 - 9 38.7 - 40.5 24 - 27

Wild Boarc 40 64 0.3 87 42 6.6 2.7 (33) 6 400 157 9 40.5 29

38 11 51

31 12 57

35 14 51

Costa et al. (2010) Wettemann and Desjardins (1979); Godinho et al. (1979); Frana (1992); Frana et al. (2000); Avelar et al. (2010) c Almeida et al. (2006) d Ratio of spermatids per primary spermatocytes (presumptive germ cell loss during meiosis in parentheses). e After spermiation and prior to methaphase. f Meiosis I through meiosis II. g After completion of meiosis until spermiation.
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Stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and duration of spermatogenesis Spermatogenesis is a cyclic, complex and highly organized process in which diploid spermatogonia differentiate into mature haploid spermatozoa. This process is composed of cellular associations called stages, which may be characterized according to the changes in the shape of the spermatid nucleus, the occurrence of meiotic divisions, and the arrangement of spermatids within the germinal epithelium (Frana et al., 2005). These stages can also be identified based on the development of the acrosomic system and the morphology of developing spermatids (Frana et al., 2005; Hess & Frana, 2007). The arrangement of the stages of the spermatogenic cycle in the seminiferous tubules is segmental in all investigated domestic mammals and usually there is only one stage per seminiferous tubule cross-section (Frana et al., 2005). When grouped in premeiotic and postmeiotic phases of spermatogenesis (Table 1), the frequencies of the eight different stages characterized for the collared peccary (Costa et al., 2010), wild boar (Almeida et al., 2006), and domestic pigs (Frana & Cardoso, 1998), are very similar. This observation is in agreement with several reports in the literature (Frana & Russell, 1998; Neves et al., 2002; Almeida et al., 2006; Costa et al., 2008), suggesting that phylogeny is strongly related to stage frequencies when the stages are grouped in premeiotic and postmeiotic phases. The total duration of spermatogenesis, from spermatogonial stem cell to sperm formation, requires approximately 4.5 cycles of the seminiferous epithelium and lasts from 30 to 75 days in mammals (Frana et al., 2005; Hess & Frana, 2007). This important event has generally been considered constant for a species (Frana & Russell, 1998) and is under the control of the germ cell genotype (Frana et al., 1998). Knowledge of spermatogenic cycle length is fundamental for determining spermatogenic efficiency [daily sperm production (DSP) per gram of testis], which is useful for comparisons among species (Frana et al., 2005; Hess & Frana, 2007). As shown in Table 1, the time spent for spermatozoa production in the collared peccary is much higher (~30%) than that required in the domestic and wild boar that are species (subspecies) closely related. This result is in accordance with the literature and reinforces that the spermatogenic cycle length is not phylogenetically determined. Germ cell morphology and apoptosis Although the morphology of germ cells in collared peccaries was very similar to those described for domestic pig (Swierstra, 1968; Frana & Cardoso, 1998) and wild boar (Almeida et al., 2006), the germ cell associations in peccaries more closely resembled those observed for the wild boar. For instance, the most advanced labeled germ cells a few hours postthymidine injection were preleptotene/ leptotene, present in stage 1 in the domestic pig (Swierstra, 1968; Frana & Cardoso, 1998), whereas these labeled cells were located at the end of stage 2 in peccaries (Costa et al., 2010) and wild boar (Almeida et al., 2006). In another aspect, germ cell loss (apoptosis), which occurs normally during spermatogenesis, plays an important role in establishing sperm production (Hess & Frana, 2007). Table 1 shows that germ cell loss during meiosis is similar in the collared peccary and in the domestic pig (20%). However, in comparison to the two other species apoptosis is almost 70% higher in wild pigs, indicating that chromosomal abnormalities are more severe in the wild boar. Testis compartments, Sertoli cell number and Sertoli cell efficiency The relative mass of seminiferous tissue determines how much space is devoted to sperm production.
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In general, species with testes that have a high proportion of seminiferous tubules produce more sperm per unit mass, mainly when this aspect is associated with a higher number of Sertoli cells per testis and a higher number of germ cells per Sertoli cell (Sertoli cell efficiency) (Frana & Russell, 1998; Frana et al., 2000; Hess & Frana, 2007; Johnson et al., 2008). Thus, species with more Sertoli cells usually have more germ cells per testis, and the number of spermatids per Sertoli cells is positively correlated with sperm production per gram of testis. The ability to accommodate more germ cells is probably dependent on the size of Sertoli cells and also to a certain degree on the size and/or shape of the elongated spermatids. Compared to the domestic and the wild pig, the seminiferous tubule volume density (%) is about 10-15% lower in the collared peccary (Table 1); however, the Sertoli efficiency (number of spermatids per one Sertoli cell) in this species is similar to the domestic pig, whereas this efficiency is much lower (~50%) in the wild boar that presents 50-110% more Sertoli cells per gram of testis (Table 1). Sperm production Daily sperm production per gram of decapsulated testis is useful in species comparisons as it is a measure of the spermatogenic efficiency. The higher efficiency of spermatogenesis results mainly from various parameters already described above, such as testis size, seminiferous tubule volume density (%), Sertoli cell number per testis gram and Sertoli cell efficiency, duration of spermatogenesis and germ cell loss (Hess & Frana, 2007). Despite the much lower Sertoli cell efficiency in the wild boar, the spermatogenic efficiency found for this species was not very different from the value obtained for the domestic boars and approximately 15% higher than that found for the collared peccary. It is likely that the lower Sertoli cell efficiency in the wild pig is compensated by the higher number of Sertoli cells per gram of testis and more seminiferous tubules per unit of testis (Table 1). Leydig cells Leydig cells are crucial to quantitatively normal spermatogenesis (Ewing & Zirkin, 1983; Deslypere & Vermeulen, 1984) and other important functional aspects such as the male accessory organs/glands function and sexual behavior/strategy (Kerr et al., 2006; Setchell & Breed, 2006). As already described by Fawcett (1973), in domestic boars the interstitial space or intertubular compartment is completely and uniformly filled by large polygonal Leydig cells. However, as shown in Table 1, both the volume density and the Leydig cell size in the wild boar are significantly reduced, whereas, probably due to the small size of this cell, its number per testis gram is the highest in the wild boar when the three species investigated here are compared. In peccaries, we observed that the testis cyto-architecture is unique among the mammalian species that have been investigated to date (Costa et al., 2010). Particularly, it was noted that the Leydig cells in collared peccary form cords of cells that surround the seminiferous tubules lobes (Fig. 1a). In this way, in comparison to the domestic (Fig. 1b, e, and h) and the wild boar (Fig. 1c, f, and i), these very important steroidogenic cells are not present in all areas of the collared peccary interstitial compartment (Fig. 1d and g). Thus, considering this unique feature of Leydig cells distribution in the peccary testicular parenchyma, this species may be considered as a very interesting experimental model to investigate the role of these cells and their products in the constitution and regulation of spermatogonial stem cell niches (microenvironment provided by somatic Sertoli cell, basement membrane, and cellular components of the intertubular space) in mammals. This is an issue that is now considered very important for spermatogonial stem cell biology, and
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that has been relatively well investigated in recent years (Hofmann et al., 2005). From this unique Leydig cell cyto-architecture found in the collared peccary it now becomes possible to categorize different sections of seminiferous tubules in the testis parenchyma as follows: seminiferous tubules that are in close contact with another seminiferous tubule (i); touching the interstitial compartment containing (ii), or not containing (iii) Leydig cells. Moreover, this peculiar cyto-architecture makes the peccary a suitable experimental model to investigate different cellular interactions in the testis. In this regard, we are further evaluating the cyto-architecture of the collared peccary testis with emphasis on Leydig cells and their influence on the spermatogonial kinetics and establishment of spermatogonial stem cell niche, using morphofunctional, stereological and immunocytochemistry approaches (Fig. 2; unpublished data).

Figure 1. Comparative testicular histology in the sexually mature collared peccary (a, d, g), domestic pig (b, e, h), and wild boar (c, f, i). Observe at lower magnification that, in comparison to the domestic pig (b) and wild boar (c), the collared peccary testis (a) present a different cyto-architecture (a), particularly in relation to the intertubular compartment where the Leydig cells (Lc) are surrounding the seminiferous tubules (St) lobes. Therefore, at higher magnification it is possible to note that, in the collared peccary, Leydig cells (cord-like structures) are more concentrated in some specific areas of the testis parenchyma (d), whereas some other areas of the intertubular compartment (Int) are devoid of these cells (g). However, in the domestic pig (e, h) and in the wild boar (f, i) Leydig cells are more homogeneously distributed. bar = 250 m in a, b, and c; 50 m in d, e, and f; 25 m in g, h, and i.
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Figure 2. Leydig cells distribution in the collared peccary testis parenchyma. This panoramic picture depicts immunofluorescence for 3-HSD (specific-marker for Leydig cells) conjugated with CY3 fluorophore (red) and DAPI (nuclear staining, blue), nicely illustrating the peculiar arrangement of Leydig cells in the collared peccary. In this unpublished data it is also possible to observe more clearly the Leydig cells forming cord-like structures in the intertubular compartment, surrounding externally a seminiferous tubules lobe. Bar = 200m.

Conclusions and perspectives In the past two decades, our research group has been developing several important studies related to male reproductive biology in domestic and wild boars and, more recently, in the collared peccary. As expected, the results obtained for the germ cell morphology and organization of the different stages of spermatogenesis in these species are very similar, supporting the established knowledge that spermatogenesis is highly conserved during evolution, particularly for closely-related species, even though the germ cells pace (duration of spermatogenesis) may vary among them. Different species might also present distinctive characteristics related, for instance, to the testicular components volume densities, Leydig cell size, number of spermatogonial generations, and Sertoli cell and spermatogenic efficiencies, and these eventual particularities are probably a reflection of their reproductive biology and/or strategies. Therefore, the study of new species could represent the discovery of a novel model to better understand reproductive biology. Due to the fact that peccaries have a unique testicular cyto-architecture among the mammalian species already investigated, the investigation of this aspect in this species could help to elucidate many questions regarding the spermatogonial stem cell niche. In this scenario, we are morphologically and phenotypically characterizing the collared peccary sperSUIFORM SOUNDINGS VOL 10(2) PAGE 29

matogonial stem cells and the possible cellular factors that regulate their self-renewal and differentiation. This important investigation might be a paradigm for other well-studied mammalian or even vertebrate species in general. Our research group also described how before puberty the domestic pig testis develops asynchronously, showing a distinctive regionalization pattern for the seminiferous tubule maturation and somatic cells development, particularly Leydig cells, which may play a pivotal role in postnatal testis development in this species (Avelar et al., 2010). These findings are functionally relevant providing a new perspective regarding the investigation of the testis development in wild boar and collared peccaries and even other mammalian species. Particularly, the distinctive distribution of Leydig cells in the collared peccary testis parenchyma opens a new scenario for the investigation of the interactions among the testis somatic elements and the seminiferous cord/tubules development during fetal and postnatal life. In summary, besides providing important data about the knowledge of the reproductive biology of suiforms, the studies developed in our laboratory involving the testis structure and function in the collared peccary, domestic and wild boar, species with high commercial value, are very useful for the development of new reproductive and animal genetic improvement programs. References Adega F, Chaves R and Guedes-Pinto H. 2008. Suiformes orthologous satellite DNAs as a hallmark of Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari (Tayassuidae) evolutionary rearrangements. Micron. 39: 1281 1287. Almeida FF, Leal MC and Frana LR. 2006. Testis morphometry, duration of spermatogenesis, and spermatogenic efficiency in the wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa). Biological Reproduction 75: 792 799. Avelar GF, Oliveira CFA, Soares JM, Silva IJ, Dobrinski I, Hess RA and Frana LR. 2010. Postnatal somatic cell proliferation and seminiferous tubule maturation in pigs: A non-random event. Theriogenology 74: 1123. Comizzoli P, Mermillod P and Mauget R. 2000. Reproductive biotechnologies for endangered mammalian species. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 40: 493504. Costa GMJ, Chiarini-Garcia H, Morato RG, Alvarenga RLLS and Frana LR. 2008. Duration of spermatogenesis and daily sperm production in the jaguar (Panthera onca). Theriogenology 70: 1136 1146. Costa GMJ, Leal MC, Silva JV, Ferreira AC, Guimares DA and Frana LR. 2010. Spermatogenic cycle length and sperm production in a feral pig species (collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu). J. Androl. 31(2): 221-30. Deslypere JP and Vermeulen A. 1984. Leydig cell function in normal men: effect of age, life-style, residence, diet, and activity. J. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 59: 955962. Ewing LL and Zirkin B. 1983. Leydig cell structure and steroidogenic function. Recent Prog Horm Res. 39: 599635. Frana LR. 1992. Daily sperm production in Piau boars estimated from Sertoli cell population and Sertoli cell index. Pp. 1716-1718 in: Dieleman SJ (ed.) Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction and Artificial Insemination. Vol. 4. Amsterdam, The Netherlands:
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Elsevier. Frana LR and Cardoso FM. 1998. Duration of spermatogenesis and sperm transit time through the epididymis in the Piau boar. Tissue Cell 30: 573582. Frana LR and Russell LD. 1998. The testis of domestic animals. Pp. 197-219 in: Martynez F and Regadera J (eds.) Male Reproduction: A Multidisciplinary Overview. Madrid, Spain: Churchill Livingston. Frana LR, Avelar GF and Almeida FF. 2005. Spermatogenesis and sperm transit through the epididymis in mammals with emphasis on pigs. Theriogenology 63: 300318. Frana LR, Silva VA, Jr, Chiarini-Garcia H, Garcia SK and Debeljuk L. 2000. Cell proliferation and hormonal changes during postnatal development of the testis in the pig. Biological Reproduction 63: 16291636. Godinho HP and Cardoso FM. 1979. Desenvolvimento sexual de porcos Yorkshire. II. Estabelecimento e evoluo da espermatognese. Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. 32: 351-361. Hess RA and Frana LR. 2007. Spermatogenesis. Cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. Pp. 1-15 in: Cheng CY (ed.) Molecular Mechanisms in Spermatogenesis. Austin, TX: Landes Bioscience. Hofmann MC, Braydich-Stolle L and Dym M. 2005. Isolation of male germ-line stem cells; influence of GDNF. Developmental Biology 279: 114-124. Johnson L, Thompson DLJ and Varner DD. 2008. Role of Sertoli cell number and function on regulation of spermatogenesis. Animal Reproduction Science 105: 2351. Kerr JB, Loveland KL, OBryan MK and Kretser DM. 2006. Cytology of the testis and intrinsic control mechanisms. Pp. 827-947 in: Neill JD (ed.) Physiology of Reproduction. Birmingham, AL: Elsevier. Neves ES, Chiarini-Garcia H and Frana LR. 2002. Comparative testis morphometry and seminiferous epithelium cycle length in donkeys and mules. Biological Reproduction 67: 247255. Russell LD, Ettlin RA, Sinha Hikim AP and Clegg ED. 1990. Histological and Histopathological evaluation of the testis. Cache River Press, Clearwater, Florida. Sertoli, E. 1865. Dell' esistenza di particolari cellule ramificate nei canalicoli seminiferi del testicolo umano. Morgagni 7: 31-40. Setchell BP and Breed WG. 2006. Anatomy, vasculature and innervation of the male reproductive tract. Pp. 771-825 in: Neill JD (ed.) Physiology of Reproduction. Birmingham, AL: Elsevier. Swierstra EE. 1968. A comparison of spermatozoa production and spermatozoa output of Yorkshire and Lacombe boars. Journal of Reproductive Fertility 17: 459469. Wettemann RP and Desjardins C. 1979. Testicular function in boars exposed to elevate ambient temperature. Biological Reproduction 20: 235-241.

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Uso de trampas cmara digitales para estudiar al Jabal (Tayassu pecari) en el Biotopo Protegido Dos Lagunas, Reserva de Biosfera Maya. Use of digital camera-traps to study white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) in the Maya Biosphere Reserve in Guatemala.
Jos Moreira Ramrez* and Rony Garca Anleu Wildlife Conservation Society, Programa para Guatemala. Flores, Peten, Guatemala * jmoreira@wcs.org Abstract We report on the use of digital automated camera-traps to monitor wildlife associated with ephemeral ponds in the Biotopo Dos Lagunas, a tropical protected, part of the Maya Biosphere Reserve of Guatemala. We used 15 RECONYX digital camera-traps (model RM-45 RapidFire) during 20 days of July 2009 to monitor five selected ponds. Twenty species of wildlife were photographed. The whitelipped peccary (locally known as: Jabal) was the species with the highest number of photos with 1137 photos. Group size was estimated at 27.47 (20.62) individuals, with an activity peak between 12 to 16 hours. 90 % of the individuals were adults and 10 % juveniles. The digital cameras were a very useful tool to monitor wildlife in this protected area Introduccin La familia Tayassuidae est representada por tres especies que habitan nicamente el continente Americano (Sowls, 1984; Grubb, 2005). En Guatemala se distribuyen dos especies, el pecar labios blancos, localmente conocido como jabal (Tayassu pecari) y el pecar de collar, localmente conocido como coche de monte (Pecari tajacu) (Taibel, 1977; Reid, 1997). El jabal es el nico mamfero mayor social del Neotrpico que se desplaza en manadas de 20 hasta ms de 300 individuos. Ecolgicamente funge como importante dispersor y depredador de semillas, pero es altamente susceptible a enfermedades infecciosas transmitidas por animales domsticos, a la presencia humana por ser una fuente importante de protena para las comunidades rurales y a la fragmentacin de su hbitat (Morales, 1993; Bodmer et al., 1997; Sowls, 1997; Fragoso, 1997; Reyna-Hurtado, 2002; Altrichter & Boaglio, 2004; Beck, 2006; Reyna-Hurtado et al., 2010). Las aguadas son depresiones del suelo que almacenan agua y se forman en los sitios donde el suelo es principalmente compacto y arcilloso. Son importantes reservorios de agua, sobre todo durante la poca seca cuando este recurso es escaso. Las aguadas brindan refugio a peces, invertebrados y plantas que son alimento de especies importantes como el jabal (Garca & Radachowsky, 2004; Moreira, 2009).
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Mtodos rea de estudio. La investigacin se realiz en el Biotopo Protegido Dos Lagunas (BPDL de aqu en adelante) que se ubica dentro de la Reserva de Biosfera Maya (Fig. 1) en Guatemala. El BPDL est constituido por Bosque Hmedo Subtropical basado en la clasificacin de Holdridge (De la Cruz, 1982). Presenta una altitud que vara entre los 250 msnm al oeste y 100 msnm al este. Anualmente, la temperatura vara de 22 C a 34 C, la precipitacin promedio anual es de 1,323 mm (Novack, 2003). Existen dos pocas marcadas, la poca seca abarca los meses de febrero a mayo y la poca lluviosa los meses de junio a enero.

Figura 1. Mapa con la ubicacin en rojo del Biotopo Protegido Dos Lagunas, Reserva de Biosfera Maya. Para medir la abundancia relativa de fauna asociada a las aguadas utilizamos 5 aguadas como estaciones de muestreo, cada aguada fue muestreada con tres trampa-cmara digitales con flash Infra-Rojo (un total de 15 trampas-cmara RECONYX modelo RM-45 RapidFire). Las trampas-cmaras RECONYX fueron programadas para tomar fotografas durante 24 horas, y estas registraron la fecha, hora, temperatura y fase lunar en que fue tomada. El esfuerzo de muestreo fue de 20 das, realizando el muestreo del 5 al 25 de Julio del ao 2009. La informacin de las memorias de almacenamiento de las trampas cmaras fueron descargadas a una computadora porttil (Acer Modelo Aspire One) para analizar las fotografas.

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Resultados Se registr un total de 1,267 eventos de capturas fotogrficas. Se registraron 20 especies de vertebrados, 10 mamferos y 10 aves (Fig. 2)
A B

Figura 2. Algunas especies fotocapturadas durante el estudio. a) Jabal Tayassu pecari; b) Jaguar Panthera onca; c) Venado cola blanca Odocoileus virginianus; d) Tapir Tapirus bairdii; e) Puma Puma concolor; f) Faisan Crax rubra. Biotopo Dos Lagunas, Reserva de la Biosfera Maya, Peten, Guatemala.
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Frecuencias de fotocaptura de fauna. El jabal, faisn (Crax rubra), cotuza (Dasyprocta punctata), pavo ocelado (Meleagris ocellata) y jaguar (Panthera onca) fueron las especies que presentaron mayores frecuencias de fotocaptura (Cuadro 1). Cuadro 1. Especies fotocapturadas durante el estudio. Biotopo Protegido Dos Lagunas, Reserva de Biosfera Maya, Peten, Guatemala.
No. 1 Tayassu pecari 2 Crax rubra 3 Dasyprocta punctata 4 Meleagris ocellata 5 Panthera onca 6 Pecari tajacu 7 Leptotila sp. 8 Aramides cajanea 9 Tigrosoma mexicanum 10 Agouti paca 11 Nasua narica 12 Odocoileus virginianus 13 Tapirus bairdii 14 Tinamus major 15 Aramus guarauna 16 Buteo sp. 17 Columba sp. 18 Mazama temama 19 Philander opossum 20 Puma concolor Especie Eventos de Captura 1137 68 17 8 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Frecuencia de fotocaptura 379.00 22.67 5.67 2.67 2.00 1.67 1.33 1.00 1.00 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33

Tamao, composicin y patrones de actividad de manadas de jabal. El tamao promedio de las manadas de jabal fue de 27.47 (20.62) individuos. El nmero mnimo y mximo de individuos por manada fue de 5 y 81 respectivamente. Ms del 90% de las manadas estuvo constituido por adultos. Los juveniles y las cras representaron menos del 10%. El pico de actividad se dio entre las 12 y 16 horas. Discusin El uso de trampas cmaras en aguadas en el Biotopo Protegido Dos Lagunas es un mtodo adecuado para estimar la frecuencia de fotocaptura de manadas de jabal. El uso de trampas cmaras digitales permite obtener mejores estimaciones sobre el nmero de individuos que componen una manada. La estimacin del tamao de manada obtenida en este estudio (27.4720.62) es similar a la estimacin realizada por medio de observaciones directas durante la poca lluviosa en el sector este del Parque Nacional Mirador-Ro Azul (24.178.4) (Moreira, 2009). La utilizacin de este mtodo podr ser til
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para medir tendencias a lo largo del tiempo, sobre todo en estudios que se realicen durante todo el ao, abarcando la poca seca y la lluviosa. Gracias a la alta capacidad de almacenaje de las trampas cmaras digitales RECONYX, se puede obtener informacin del comportamiento de las especies, registro de pocas de nacimiento, especialmente en jabals, donde se puede diferenciar entre cras, juveniles y adultos. Adems se puede obtener informacin sobre pocas de celo y patrones de actividad. Especies como faisn y pavo ocelado presentan diferentes actividades en aguadas y caminos. El faisn utiliza con mayor frecuencia las aguadas, por el contrario, el pavo ocelado prefiere utilizar los caminos con mayor frecuencia. El Biotopo Protegido Dos Lagunas se encuentra en una ubicacin estratgica en la Selva Maya, conectando la Reserva de Biosfera de Calakmul, Mxico con la Reserva de Ro Bravo en Belice. Esto es de suma importancia para el intercambio de individuos de varias especies que se encuentran amenazadas como el jabal. Su monitoreo a largo plazo ser vital para proponer medidas de conservacin, no solo en Guatemala sino para toda la Selva Maya trinacional. Referencias Altrichter M and Boaglio G. 2004. Distribution and relative abundance of peccaries in the Argentine Chaco: associations with human factors. Biological Conservation 116: 217225. Beck H. 2006. A review of peccary-palm interactions and their ecological ramifications across the Neotropics. Journal of Mammalogy 87: 519-530. Bodmer R, Aquino R, Puertas P, Reyes C, Fang T, and Gottdenker N. 1997. Manejo y Uso Sustentable de Pecares en la Amazona Peruana. Ocassional Paper of the UICN Species Survival Comisin No. 18. UICN-Sur, Quito, Ecuador y Secretara CITES, Ginebra, Suiza. 102 pp. De la Cruz J. 1982. Clasificacin de zonas de vida de Guatemala a nivel de reconocimiento. Instituto Nacional Forestal, Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadera y Alimentacin. Guatemala, C.A. 42 pp. Fragoso J. 1997. Desapariciones locales del baquiro labiado (Tayassu pecari) en la Amazona: migracin, sobre-cosecha o epidemia? Pp. 309-312 in Fang T, Bodmer R, Aquino R and Valqui M (Eds.). Manejo de fauna silvestre en la Amazona. UNAP, Universidad de Florida UNDP/GEF e Instituto de Ecologa. La Paz, Bolivia. Garca R and Radachowsky J. 2004. Evaluacin ecolgica rpida del Parque Nacional Mirador Ro Azul, Petn, Guatemala. Informe interno, Wildlife Conservation Society, Programa para Guatemala. 95 pp. Morales J. 1993. Caracterizacin Etnozoolgica de la Actividad de Cacera de la Comunidad de Uaxactn, Flores, El Petn. Tesis de Licenciatura. Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala. 114 pp. Moreira J. 2009. Patrones diarios de actividad, composicin, tamao y abundancia relativa de manadas de jabal Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795), en el Parque Nacional Mirador Ro Azul, Petn, Guatemala. Tesis de Licenciatura. Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Escuela de Biologa. 70 pp. Novack A. 2003. Impacts of subsistence hunting on the foraging ecology of jaguar and puma in the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala. Tesis de Maestra. Universidad de Florida. 38 pp. Reid F. 1997. A field guide to the mammals of Central Amrica & Southeast Mxico Oxford University Press. New York. 334 pp. Reyna-Hurtado R. 2002. Hunting effects on the ungulate species in Calakmul forest, Mxico. Tesis de
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Maestra. Universidad de Florida. 81 pp. Reyna-Hurtado R, Naranjo E, Chapman CA and Tanner GW. 2010. Hunting patterns, population density, group size, and conservation of the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) in the Calakmul region of Mexico. Oryx 44: 88-96. Sowls L. 1997. The peccaries. Universidad de Arizona. Press, Tucson. 251 pp. Taibel A. 1977. Mammiferi del Guatemala, con speciale riguardo alla regione del Petn, raccolti dal Maggio al Settembre 1932. Atti Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali, Museo Cvico di Storia Naturale di Milano 118: 379-401.

Research currently underway:

Behavioural regulation in peccaries (Pecari tajacu): the effect of social structure on reproductive function of females in captivity
Suleima Silva, Doctoral student, Animal Science Program, Federal University of Par. suleima_silva@yahoo.com.br. "The estrous cycle is regulated by the interaction between various hormones, and infertility can be induced by social dominance, which in species in captivity can compromise animal welfare and production. To understand how social structure affects the reproductive function of female peccaries (Pecari tajacu) kept in captivity, the relative dominance, reproductive behavior and hormonal profile of eight groups of scientific breeding, EMBRAPA Amaznia Oriental, Belm, Par, will be monitored from September 2010 to December 2011 through behavioral observations, hormonal studies and colpocitology."

A male from the study group.

Nursing female from the study group.

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News in Brief
Rare pygmy hippo makes zoo debut
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-11161286 2 September 2010 A rare male pygmy hippopotamus born in a Polish zoo two weeks ago has appeared in public for the first time. The baby hippo is yet to be named, and is the offspring of Elpunia and Carlos. The pygmy hippo is an endangered species native to western Africa, and there are thought to be only 3,000 left in the world. Wroclaw Zoo says only four cubs have been born in European zoos this year, which were all female, making the birth of a male in captivity a significant event.

How the overlooked peccary engineers the Amazon, an interview with Harald Beck
Jeremy Hance mongabay.com September 20, 2010 When people think of the Amazon rainforest, they likely think of roaring jaguars, jumping monkeys, marching ants, and squeezing anacondas. The humble peccary would hardly be among the first animals to cross their mind, if they even know such pig-like animals exists! Yet new research on the peccary is proving just how vital these species are to the world's greatest rainforest. As seed dispersers and seed destroyers, engineers of freshwater habitats and forest gaps, peccaries play an immense, long overlooked, role in the rainforest. "Peccaries have the highest density and biomass of any Neotropical mammal species. Obviously these fellows have quite an appetite for almost anything, but primarily they consume fruits and seeds. Their specialized jaws allow them to crush very hard seeds. The cracking sounds can be heard through the thick vegetation long before we could see them. As peccary herds bulldoze through the leaf litter in search for insects, frogs, seeds, and fruits, they destroy (i.e. snap and trample) many seedlings and saplings, sometimes leaving only the bare ground behind," Harald Beck, assistant professor at Towson University in Maryland, told mongabay.com in an interview. While such a description makes peccaries sound wholly destructive, Beck has identified that the species are closely linked to the survival of a
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wide-variety of tropical species from frogs to insects to plants. Beck says that his research shows that peccaries are 'ecosystem engineers', like more widely known species such as beavers. In a September 2010 interview with mongabay.com Harald Beck spoke about the importance of peccaries as 'ecosystem engineers', their role in seed dispersal and destruction, and the threats, including being long overlooked, to the conservation of abundant peccary populations. Read more at http:// news.mongabay.com/2010/0920-hance_beck.html

GM pigs: Green ham with your eggs?


By Jeremy Cooke Environment correspondent, BBC News 4 January 2011 The BBC's Jeremy Cooke has had rare access to some genetically modified Enviropigs in Canada. In a small complex of nondescript barns set in the flat, snow-covered fields of Ontario is a scientific project which, some argue, represents the new frontier of a technology that could benefit millions of people around the world. For others what is happening here is weird, dangerous science. The pigs they are breeding could be among the first genetically modified farm animal to be approved for human consumption. "I am very worried and I think people around the world should be worried about what's happening in North America Lucy Sharratt Anti-GM campaigner The huge controversy over the introduction of genetically modified crops is well documented, but this seems to take that debate a step further, and into even more troubled waters. The project here is called Enviropig. The animals inside the clean, warm barns look like normal pigs and behave like normal pigs, but they are living, breathing wonders of modern science. Each one contains genes from mice and E.coli bacteria, which have been inserted into their DNA with absolute precision. Those genes make a small but important difference to the way these pigs process their food. Ordinarily, pigs cannot easily digest chemicals called phosphates. That means that the stuff that comes out of the back end can be toxic and damaging to the environment. The phosphates are easily washed into waterways, where they can produce a hugely fertile environment for plants. But the plants grow so rapidly that they choke the stream or river and cause huge damage to the ecosystem. The Enviropig Between 50% and 75% of the phosphorus present in cereal grains including corn, soybeans, barley and wheat is present in an indigestible compound called phytate that passes through the pig's digestive tract. The Enviropig is a genetically enhanced line of Yorkshire pigs with the capability of digesting
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plant phosphorus more efficiently than conventional Yorkshire pigs. (Source: University of Guelph) The genetic modification enables these pigs to digest phosphates, which means they are less polluting and cheaper to feed. Controversial Professor Rich Moccia of the University of Guelph is proud of what has been achieved. "It's the forefront of discovery in the scientific community. It's one of only two animals right now using this kind of technology. It really is mind-boggling when you think of it." But it is controversial. To those who have campaigned so long and hard against the introduction of Genetically Modified (GM) crops, the notion of genetically engineered animals, such as Enviropig and fast-growing GM salmon, is a new front in a long war. In Toronto, the Big Carrot supermarket is among the few GM-free outposts in North America. They have been fighting for years to hold back the tidal wave of genetically modified produce. For anti-GM campaigner Lucy Sharratt, the very notion of transgenic animals is a nightmare. Lucy Sharratt, of the Canadian Biotechnology Action Network, discusses her concerns "This is an absolutely critical time when North America is at the very centre of the global conflict over genetically engineered animals - to break open a whole new area of application of this technology, which we had never imagined would be possible. "I am very worried and I think people around the world should be worried about what's happening in North America," she says. Clearly the debate remains deeply polarised. But there are also some indications that the debate may be slowly shifting. Dr Mart Gross, of the University of Toronto, used to oppose the idea of GM crops and animals. Now he has changed his mind. Feeding the human population, he says, must come first, and GM animals and plants may help. "We need to double food production," he says. "We currently have a global population of almost seven billion and we are looking at nine, 10 or 11 billion by 2050. "Where is that food going to come from? We have to produce more from less." The inventors of Enviropig know that it is by no means certain that government regulators will ever approve GM animals for human consumption. But the massive challenge of feeding a rocketing global population, and doing it in a sustainable way, could shift the debate and ultimately dictate whether Enviropigs end up on our dinner plates.

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New Literature on Suiformes


Abstracts of new papers from our regular contributors and members
The spatial and agricultural basis of crop raiding by the Vulnerable hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius in Ruaha National Park, Tanzania Corinne Kendall, Princeton University, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology ckendall@Princeton.EDU Abstract: (to be published in January issue of Oryx) Categorized as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, the common hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius is under considerable pressure from habitat degradation and hunting. Although human hippopotamus conflict is known to increase retaliatory killing and culling of hippopotamuses, the issue has been little examined. Using interviews I investigated various spatial, ecological and agricultural factors that influence the vulnerability of farms to crop raiding by hippopotamuses in three villages surrounding Ruaha National Park, Tanzania. Findings show a positive correlation between these crop-raiding events and a farms proximity to the river and hippopotamus access points (places where hippopotamuses leave and enter the river). Results from this study provide insights for management and conservation of hippopotamuses, including a need to identify key habitat areas to mitigate future conflict.

Desbiez, ALJ, Keuroghlian, A, Piovezan, U and Bodmer, RE. 2011. Invasive species and bushmeat hunting contributing to wildlife conservation: the case of feral pigs in a Neotropical wetland. Oryx 45(1): 78 83. An unusual combination of two major conservation threats, invasive species and bushmeat hunting, has had a positive outcome for wildlife conservation in the Brazilian Pantanal. The Pantanal is a wetland and one of the few non-protected areas in the Neotropics where people live but rarely hunt native wildlife. To understand why wildlife hunting is not a major conservation issue in the Pantanal an exploratory survey, semi-structured interviews, skull collection and tooth wear analysis of feral pig Sus scrofa, white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari and collared peccary Pecari tajacu were conducted, and hunting registers distributed, in the central region of the Pantanal. The results showed that feral pigs are the main hunting target. Feral pigs are effectively acting as a replacement species for hunting of native wildlife because the pigs provide a constant, culturally acceptable, readily available and free
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source of meat and oil to remote ranches. We cannot evaluate, however, if the buffer from hunting that feral pigs provide to native wildlife outweigh this species potential negative ecological impacts. Keywords: Brazil, Bushmeat, feral pig, hunting, invasive species, Pantanal, Sus scrofa

Veterinary, Genetic and Physiological Studies


Alves PC, Pinheiro I, Godinho R, Vicente J, Gortazar C and Scandura M. 2010. Genetic diversity of wild boar populations and domestic pig breeds (Sus scrofa) in South-western Europe. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 101(4): 797-822. The Eurasian wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an important game species and is widely distributed in Eurasia. The recent demographic expansions allied to man mediated translocations and reintroductions, reshaped the genetic variability of wild boar populations, and gave rise to management problems. Genetic variability and the population structure of the European populations are not well-known, in particular in the Iberian Peninsula. In the present study, we assessed the phylogenetic relationship among 17 Iberian wild boar populations and several Eurasian wild and domestic pigs by sequencing 660 bp of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA control region. This analysis was extended to the two autochthonous Portuguese pig breeds, Bisaro and Alentejano, and their relationship with Eurasian pigs was also established. High levels of gene diversity were found in Iberian wild boar and Portuguese domestic pigs, as well as a significant genetic difference among and within populations. Iberian wild boar and Portuguese pig breeds belong to the main European clade but diverge with animals from Central Europe, showing a high proportion of private (Iberian) haplotypes. These results suggest the existence of glacial refugia for Sus scrofa in the Iberian Peninsula during the Last Glacial Maximum. No signs of Asian mtDNA introgression from Asian populations were found in the present survey.

Amici A, Serrani F and Adriani S. 2010. Somatic variability in wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) in different areas of Central Italy. Italian Journal of Animal Science 9(1): 39-44. A survey of wild boar shot during two consecutive years (hunting seasons 2002-2004) was carried out in order to evaluate which somatic measurements are most significant in identifying and discriminating among different morphotypes in central Italy. Biometric data from 688 wild boars was collected in three different areas of central Italy, two in Viterbo and one in the Province of Rieti. The following somatic measurements were individually recorded for each specimen: head-body length, height at withers, hind-foot length, ear length, ear-snout distance and ear-shoulder distance. Body weight was registered, and age was estimated from tooth eruption and wear. The animals were divided into three age classes; young (aged less then 12 months), sub-adults (aged between 12 and 36 months), and adults (36 months and older). After a preliminary ANOVA procedure, which did not give satisfactory results, a statistical analysis was performed using a canonical discriminant procedure, given an a priori classification (geographical area) and several quantitative variables (somatic measurements and weight). The separation between areas was estimated calculating the squared distance of Mahalanobis. The data referring to all 688 specimens was subjected to factor analysis. The results of the canonical discriminant analysis highlight the existence of two distinct groups within all three age classes. There is a statistically significant difference between the southern-Maremma (SM) vs the Apennine
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(A) and sub-Apennine (SA) areas, for young (P<0.0001), sub-adults (P<0.001) and adults (P<0.001). The difference between the A and SA areas was significant only for sub-adults (P<0.05). The first canonical variable account for 92.5, 92.7 and 89.9% of the total variance for the three age classes respectively, but this is unequally correlated with the original variables suggesting that the separation between the two areas is due to differences in conformation rather than in body size. On the basis of the discriminant analysis large part of the animals were correctly categorised in the sampling areas. As regards the factor analysis results for the adult group, the first three common factors are able to explain 78, 92, and 64% of the covariance for the data of the SM, A and SA groups respectively. These results suggest that, for the SM group, a differentiation among morphotypes may be possible on the basis of a few somatic measurements. These results confirm the need for biochemical and genetic studies to identify if the different morphotypes refer to the autochthonous wild boar strain.

Ballesteros C, Camarero PR, Cristofol C, Vicente J, Gortazar C, de la Fuente J and Mateo R. 2010. Analysis by LC/ESI-MS of iophenoxic acid derivatives and evaluation as markers of oral baits to deliver pharmaceuticals to wildlife. Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical & Life Sciences 878(22): 1997-2002. Iophenoxic acid and its derivatives (methyl, ethyl, and propyl) are organic chemicals used as markers in baiting campaigns to deliver vaccines, pharmaceuticals, contraceptives or poisons to wildlife. In this study we develop a method of detection of IPA derivatives by LC/ESI-MS (using butyl-IPA as internal standard) obtaining a limit of detection and quantification in wild boar ( Sus scrofa) serum of 0.037 mu g/ml and 0.123 mu g/ml, respectively. The average recovery of IPA derivatives was 88% at levels >0.2 mu g/ml, with coefficients of variation <15%. Wild boars in captivity were orally treated with 5 mg/kg b.w. (three adults) or 15 mg/kg b.w (two piglets and three adults) of methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-IPA and the serum levels of these were monitored during 18 months after dosing. Ethyl- and propyl-IPA were detected up to 18 months after a single oral dose in wild boar, especially at 15 mg/kg. MethylIPA was detected until 9 months after dosing. Half-lives of methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-IPA were (mean +/- SD) 41 +/- 5, 183 +/- 85 and 165 +/- 45 days, respectively. One control piglet not exposed to IPA, but housed in the same facility than treated animals showed detectable IPA levels in serum. Piglets born from mothers exposed to marked baits also showed detectable IPA levels in serum. The high persistence of Et- and Pr-IPA must be considered in the field trials, because the presence of the product at low levels in one animal may not reflect a real ingestion of the marked bait.

Castelo TS, Bezerra FSB, Lima GL, Alves HM, Oliveira IRS, Santos EAA, Peixoto GCX and Silva AR. 2010. Effect of centrifugation and sugar supplementation on the semen cryopreservation of captive collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu). Cryobiology 61(3): 275-279. The present study is aimed at evaluating the effect of centrifugation for seminal plasma removal and the supplementation of fructose or glucose to the Tris-based extender on the kinematic patterns of the motility parameters of frozen-thawed semen obtained from captive collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu). Semen samples (n = 14) were collected from 10 sexually mature male collared peccaries by electroejaculation. These samples were further evaluated for parameters such as motility, vigor, sperm viability, membrane integrity, and sperm morphology. The samples were divided into four aliquots, and only two of these aliquots were centrifuged. The semen aliquots (centrifuged and raw semen samples) were diluted in Tris-based extenders supplemented with fructose or glucose. Egg yolk
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(20%) and glycerol (3%) were added to all the samples which were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen and thawed at 37 degrees C/1 min. The frozen-thawed semen was evaluated for the same parameters described for the fresh semen. On the other hand, the kinematic motility patterns were evaluated by a computer-aided system. After thawing, it was observed that the values for the total sperm motility were around 30% for all the samples. A negative effect of centrifugation was verified for parameters such as sperm morphology, linearity, straightness, and beat cross frequency (P < 0.05). However, no differences between fructose and glucose were verified for any semen end point (P > 0.05). In conclusion, it is not recommended to centrifuge the ejaculates from collared peccaries prior to conducting the cryopreservative procedures using a Tris-based extender supplemented with fructose or glucose.

Kaba M, Davoust B, Marie JL and Colson P. 2010. Detection of hepatitis E virus in wild boar ( Sus scrofa) livers. Veterinary Journal 186(2): 259-261. The routes of transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in industrialised countries are largely unknown but several studies suggest that HEV can be a porcine zoonosis The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of HEV in the wild boar (Sus scrofa) and to determine the genetic relationships between HEV sequences recovered from wild boars and from domestic pigs and humans HEV RNA was detected by real time reverse transcriptase PCR in 7/285 (2 5%) liver samples from wild boars hunted in South-Eastern France HEV sequences were recovered from five wild boars and belonged to genotype 3f These sequences shared 89-100% nucleotide identity with each other and were genetically close to HEV sequences recovered from humans in Southern France Wild boars in SouthEastern France may be a source of HEV transmission to humans.

Mayor PG, Bodmer RE and Bejar ML. 2010. Reproductive performance of the wild collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) female in the Peruvian Amazon. European Journal of Wildlife Research 56(4): 681684. Based on the gross anatomic examination of 218 adult female reproductive tracts, we characterised the reproductive biology of the wild collared peccary in the Northeastern Peruvian Amazon. Collared peccary apparently breed year round in the Northeastern Peruvian Amazon and the number of pregnant females was 92 (42.2%). Estimations suggest 1.12 births/year and a yearly reproductive production of 1.98 piglets per pregnant female. Collared peccary females presented a mean ovulation rate of 2.25 +/- 0.58 CLs, a litter size of 1.77 +/- 0.48 embryos or foetuses and a reproductive wastage of 0.45 +/- 0.65 (21.3%) oocytes or embryos per pregnant female. A phenomenon of embryo migration was observed in 31.8% of pregnant females. This study provides reproductive information that should be taken into account in management plans.

Muller T, Klupp BG, Freuling C, Hoffmann B, Mojcicz M, Capua I, Palfi V, Toma B, Lutz W, Ruiz-Fon F, Gortarzar C, Hlinak A, Schaarschmidt U, Zimmer K, Conraths FJ, Hahn EC and Mettenleiter TC. 2010. Characterization of pseudorabies virus of wild boar origin from Europe. Epidemiology & Infection 138 (11): 1590-1600. Pseudorabies virus (PrV) infections appear to be more widely distributed in the European wild boar (Sus scrofa) population than assumed. In Europe, attempts to isolate and characterize the causative agents have been limited so far. We therefore collected and examined a total of 35 PrV isolates obSUIFORM SOUNDINGS VOL 10(2) PAGE 44

tained from wild boar or hunting dogs in Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Slovakia and Hungary between 1993 and 2008. Restriction enzyme analysis of genomic DNA using BamHI showed that all isolates, except one, belonged to genogroup I but different subtypes were evident. For further investigations of the phylogenetic relationships, a 732-bp fragment of the glycoprotein C (gC) gene was amplified by PCR. Sequence analysis revealed about 40 variant positions within this fragment. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences supported the separation into a clade containing isolates from North-Rhine Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), France and Spain (clade B) and an apparently more variable clade comprising isolates from Brandenburg, Baden-Wurttemberg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt (Germany), Slovakia, Hungary, Italy and France (clade A).

Murtaugh MP, Stadejek T, Abrahante JE, Lam TTY and Leung FCC. 2010. The ever-expanding diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Virus Research 154(1-2 Special Issue SI): 1830. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus appeared 20 years ago as the cause of a new disease in swine. Today PRRS is the most significant swine disease worldwide in spite of intensive immunological interventions. The virus showed remarkable genetic variation with two geographically distinct genotypes at the time of its discovery, indicating the possibility of prolonged evolutionary divergence prior to its appearance as a swine pathogen. Since then, both type 1 and type 2 have spread geographically, radiated genetically, and acquired new phenotypic characteristics, especially increased virulence. Here, we explore various hypotheses that might account for rapid expansion and diversification of PRRSV, including mechanisms specific to PRRSV and other arteriviruses, cellular modification processes, and immunological selection. Phylogenetic analysis of PRRSV has provided a broadly applicable means to relate diverse isolates, but it does not explain biological variation in virulence or immunological cross-protection. We present other methods of classification and review their limitations. Major questions about PRRSV remain unanswered despite intensive investigation, suggesting that the interaction of PRRSV with pigs involves novel biological processes that may be relevant to other RNA virus and host interactions.

Musilova P, Kubickova S, Hornak M, Cernohorska H, Vahala J and Rubes J. 2010. Different Fusion Configurations of Evolutionarily Conserved Segments in Karyotypes of Potamochoerus porcus and Phacochoerus africanus. Cytogenetic & Genome Research 129(4): 305-309. The karyotype of the red river hog Potamochoerus porcus (2n = 34) differs from that of the domestic pig by the presence of 2 fusion chromosomes homologous to pig chromosomes 13/16 and 15/17. Moreover, chromosomes corresponding to pig chromosomes 13/16 and 1 are both acrocentric. Hybridization with region-specific painting probes confirmed tandem fusion of pig chromosomes 13 and 16, and a pericentric inversion of the pig chromosome 1p equivalent in P. porcus. The chromosome complement of the warthog Phacochoerus africanus (2n = 34) differs from the pig karyotype in 2 centric fusions, 13/16 and 15/17. Karyotypic relationships among different Suidae species are discussed in the article. Besides fusions 13/16 and 15/17, which are common to several suids, another fusion of pig chromosomes 14 and 18 is suggested to exist in the karyotype of Sus cebifrons.

Nosal P, Kowal J and Nowosad B. 2010. Structure of Metastrongylidae in wild boars from southern
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Poland. Helminthologia 47(4): 212-218. Of 25 wild boars (Sus scrofa) collected in southern Poland during the winter season of 2009/2010 and examined for lung nematodes, 20 (80.0 %) were concominantly infected, and the mean +/- SD intensity reached 84.8 +/- 67.6 (range 7-250) parasites. From the whole of 1695 gathered Metastrongylidae specimens, 1121 (66.1 %) were distinguished to five species: Metastrongylus pudendotectus, M. salmi, M. asymmetricus, M. elongatus and M. confusus. The species ratios were 3.4:2.7:1.5:1.1:1.0, respectively, with the average male to female worms proportion of 1:2.7. M. pudendotectus and M. confusus affected most (76.0 %) of animals, followed by M. salmi (72.0 %), M. elongatus (64.0 %) and M. asymmetricus (40.0 %). Compared to juveniles under 1 year and females, adults and male hosts tended to be more infected, and wild boars inhabiting primeval forest were more affected by lung nematodes than those living in the arable land, all the differences being however not significant. Possible factors structuring Metastrongylidae communities are discussed.

Owolodun OA, Bastos ADS, Antiabong JF, Ogedengbe ME, Ekong PS and Yakubu B. 2010. Molecular characterisation of African swine fever viruses from Nigeria (2003-2006) recovers multiple virus variants and reaffirms CVR epidemiological utility. Virus Genes 41(3): 361-368. Samples collected from wild and domestic suids in Nigeria, over a 3-year period (2003-2006), were evaluated for African swine fever (ASF) virus genome presence by targeting three discrete genome regions, namely the 478-bp C-terminal p72 gene region advocated for genotype assignment, a 780-bp region spanning the 5'-ends of the pB125R and pB646L (p72) genes and the hypervariable central variable region (CVR) encoded within the 9RL ORF (pB602L). ASF virus (ASFV) presence was confirmed in 23 of the 26 wild and domestic pigs evaluated. No evidence of ASF infection was found in two warthogs from Adamawa State; however, one bushpig from Plateau State was positive. Nucleotide sequences of the 478-bp and 780-bp amplicons were identical across all ASFV-positive samples sequenced. However, five discrete CVR variants were recovered, bringing the total number identified to date, from Nigeria, to six. The largest of the CVR variants, termed 'Tet-36' was identical to a virus causing outbreaks in neighbouring Benin in 1997, indicating a prolonged persistence of this virus type in Nigeria. Co-circulation of three tetramer types (Tet-36, Tet-27 and Tet-20) was found in Plateau State in July 2004, whilst in Benue State, two tetramer types (Tet-20 and Tet-21) were present in August 2005. Despite simultaneous field presence, individual co-infection was not observed. This study has reaffirmed the epidemiological utility of the CVR genome region for distinguishing between geographically and temporally constrained genotype I viruses, and has revealed the presence of multiple ASFV variants in Nigeria.

Richomme C, Afonso E, Tolon V, Ducrot C, Halos L, Alliot A, Perret C, Thomas M, Boireau P and GilotFromont E. 2010. Seroprevalence and factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in a Mediterranean island. Epidemiology & Infection 138(9): 1257-1266. Knowledge of the factors affecting the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in wildlife is limited. Here we analyse which local landscape characteristics are associated with the presence of toxoplasmosis in wild boar, Sus scrofa, on the island of Corsica, France. Meat juice samples from 1399 wild boars collected during two hunting seasons were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (titre 1:4). The overall seroprevalence was 0.55 (95% CI 0.50-0.59) for the first year and 0.33 (95% CI 0.29-0.35) for the second year. Seroprevalence varied according to age and county. At the
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county level, seropositivity in adults was related to farm density during year 1, and to habitat fragmentation, farm density and altitude during year 2. The exposure of wild boar to T. gondii is thus variable according to landscape characteristics and probably results in a variable risk of transmission of toxoplasmosis to humans.

Saragusty J, Hildebrandt TB, Bouts T, Goritz F and Hermes R. 2010. Collection and preservation of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) semen. Theriogenology 74(4): 652-657. Knowledge about the reproduction of the endangered pygmy hippopotamus is almost non-existent. This study takes the first step toward changing this by devising a protocol for the collection, evaluation, and short-term preservation of semen of this endangered species. Semen was collected successfully from seven bulls by electroejaculation, using a specially designed rectal probe. Mean +/- SEM values of native sperm parameters from combined best fractions were: motility-80.0 +/- 4.1%, concentration-2421 +/- 1530 x 10(6) cells/mL, total collected cell number-759 +/- 261 x 10(6) cells, intact acrosome-87.8 +/- 1.2%, intact morphology-52.7 +/- 4.3%, and, for some, hypoosmotic swelling test79.3 +/- 4.4% and seminal plasma osmolarity-297.5 +/- 3.3 mOsm. Seven different extenders were tested for sperm storage under chilling conditions: Berliner Cryomedium (BC), Biladyl (R), modification of Kenney modified Tyrode's medium (KMT), MES medium, Androhep (R), boar M III (TM) extender and Human Sperm Refrigeration Medium. While differences between males were apparent, the BC was consistently superior to all other extenders in sperm motility and facilitated storage for 7 d with up to 30% motility and some motility even after 3 weeks. With this knowledge in hand, the obvious two directions for future research are to conduct artificial insemination and to develop a technique for sperm cryopreservation.

Saragusty J, Walzer C, Petit T, Stalder G, Horowitz I and Hermes R. 2010. Cooling and freezing of epididymal sperm in the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius). Theriogenology 74(7): 12561263. Knowledge concerning reproduction in common hippopotamus is scarce and in particular very little is known about male reproductive physiology and sperm cryopreservation. Testes were obtained from nine castrated bulls and sperm extracted from the epididymides of eight of these individuals. Mean +/ - SEM values of reproductive parameters were: testicular weight (including epididymis and tunicas)275.9 +/- 54.1 g, total sperm motility-88.1 +/- 4.2%, total cells extracted-11.0 +/- 3.6 X 10(9), intact acrosome-87.7 +/- 1.8%, intact sperm morphology-51.6 +/- 4.1%, and, for 3 individuals, hypoosmotic swelling test for membrane integrity-83.3 1.8%. Chilled storage extenders tested were Berliner Cryomedium (BC), Biladyl (R), modification of Kenney modified Tyrode's medium (KMT), and Human Sperm Refrigeration Medium (HSRM). Extender had significant effect on post-dilution motility and motility and intact morphology after 4h and 24h at 4 degrees C (P <= 0.007 for all). Berliner Cryomedium and HSRM were superior to Biladyl and KMT. Freezing extenders tested were BC with either 6% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), or 5%, 7%, or 10% glycerol. Post-thaw motility was < 5% in 3/7 bulls in all extenders. When frozen in BC with 6% Me2SO, one bull had 15% post-thaw motility and 3/7 had 20 to 60%. In glycerol, 3/7 had 15-30% post-thaw motility in 5%, 2/7 in 7%, and 1/7 in 10%. The extender had significant effect on post-chilling motility (P = 0.008), post-thaw morphology (P = 0.016), and motility 30 min after thawing (P = 0.015). Berliner Cryomedium with 6% Me2SO or 7% glycerol were the freezing extenders of choice. Information obtained in this study allows initiation of cryobanking of
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sperm from the common hippopotamus which is of particular importance for genetically valuable individuals.

Schwarm A, Ortmann S, Rietschel W, Kuhne R, Wibbelt G and Clauss M. 2010. Function, size and form of the gastrointestinal tract of the collared Pecari tajacu (Linnaeus 1758) and white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari (Link 1795). European Journal of Wildlife Research 56(4): 569-576. The peccary digestive tract is characterised by an elaborate forestomach. In order to further characterise the digestive function of peccaries, we report body mass, digestive organ mass, content mass of the gastrointestinal tract compartments and their length and width, as well as liver, parotis and mandibular gland mass. Our data on eleven collared and four white-lipped peccaries suggest that peccaries have a small relative stomach volume compared to other foregut fermenters, which implies a comparatively lower fermentative capacity and thus forage digestibility. The forestomach could enable peccaries to deal, in conjunction with their large parotis glands, with certain plant toxins (e.g. oxalic acid). The finding of sand being trapped in the forestomach blindsacs could indicate a disadvantage of the peccary forestomach design. The relevance of the forestomach to peccaries remains enigmatic.

Thomsen PD, Schauser K, Bertelsen MF, Vejlsted M, Grondahl C and Christensen K. 2010. Meiotic studies in infertile domestic pig-babirusa hybrids. Cytogenetic & Genome Research 132(1-2): 124-128. Mating of a babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) boar and a domestic sow (Sus scrofa) resulted in the birth of 5 live domestic pig-babirusa hybrid piglets. Chromosome analysis of one of the surviving males confirmed that they were domestic pig-babirusa hybrids by revealing the presence of a complete haploid set of 19 porcine chromosomes as well as a complete haploid set of 19 babirusa chromosomes in the karyotype. None of the surviving piglets, two males and one female, had shown signs of sexual maturity at age 27 months. Histological examination of gonadal biopsies from the 2 males revealed that both were azoospermatic. Immunostaining revealed SCP3-positive axial elements in the nuclei of primary spermatocytes, indicating that they were progressing through leptotene and zygotene of meiotic prophase. However, the presence of multiple short stretches of axial elements in pachytene nuclei indicated that this phase was blocked, probably due to aberrant chromosome pairing. Histological examination of the ovaries revealed follicular structures, but oocytes within them were generally degenerated. We conclude that both male and female pig-babirusa hybrids were infertile, most likely due to germ cell death resulting from abnormalities of chromosome pairing during meiotic prophase.

Ziehmer B, Ogle S, Signorella A, Knorr C and Macdonald AA. 2010. Anatomy and histology of the reproductive tract of the female Babirusa (Babyrousa celebensis). Theriogenology 74(2): 184-193. The anatomy and histology of the female reproductive tract of the Indonesian wild pig Babyrousa celebensis was studied by means of reproductive tracts obtained from seven animals aged between two and 22 years of age The ovary appeared to have the ability to ovulate up to four ova at one time However, the combined ovarian output seemed to average I 86 ova Ovulation can take place at any time from puberty to old age (22 years) The opening to the uterine tube was indicated by a 'flower-like' array of tall, broad epithelial 'petals' arising from the luminal surface of the funnel The mucosal surfaces of these structures were covered in a mixture of prominent ciliated cells and bulbous secretory
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cells The uterine tube followed a tightly convoluted path to the up of the uterine horn The uterus was proportionately short The anatomical construction of the uterus was similar to those of other in that the columnar endometrium was heavily folded, there was a rich supply of uterine glands in the lamina propria, and the uterus was provided with a good blood supply The cervix was thick walled and had a spiral lumen.

Taxonomic, Morphological, Biogeographic and Evolutionary Studies


Cucchi T, Hulme-Beaman A, Yuan J and Dobney K. 2011. Early Neolithic pig domestication at Jiahu, Henan Province, China: clues from molar shape analyses using geometric morphometric approaches. Journal of Archaeological Science 38(1): 11-22. The zooarchaeology of pig domestication in China is a challenging task due to its wild boar ancestors being widespread throughout Eurasia. However using geometric morphometric approaches on molar tooth (M-2), shape and size variations, from modern and Neolithic suids, using Yangshao pigs as a surrogate for the Neolithic domestic form, we have addressed the identification of morphological change during the early step of domestication in three early Neolithic sites where claims of pig domestication have been made. Phenetic relationships here have revealed clear and interpretable phenotypic signatures in the samples of modern and Neolithic pigs; which provide evidence for pig domestication at the site of Jiahu from at least 6600 BC cal., re-establishing the Yellow River region as one of the earliest centre of independent Chinese pig domestication.

Ermolli ER, Sardella R, Di Maio G, Petronio C and Santangelo N. 2010. Pollen and mammals from the late Early Pleistocene site of Saticula (Sant'Agata de' Goti, Benevento, Italy). Quaternary International 225(1): 128-137. A fluvio-lacustrine succession was discovered in 1995 at Saticula, near Sant'Agata de' Goti (Benevento), below a thick volcaniclastic deposit sealed by the "Ignimbrite Campana" formation (39 ka). Vertebrate fossil remains and pollen were recovered in the excavated sections. Pollen analysis allowed recognition of two pollen zones, the first being characterised by a Quercus-Catya mixed deciduous forest which was probably present in the plain and on the slopes surrounding the Caudina valley basin. The following samples record a drastic decrease in Carya pollen grains and the contemporary increase in herbs and Pinus. A more open environment established around the river shores due to a climate shift towards dryer conditions. Most of the vertebrate remains were found in the upper portion of the succession corresponding to the zone with reduced Carya pollen. The fossil mammal assemblage includes Hippopotamus antiquus, Axis eurygonos, Megacerini indet., Equus suessenbornensis and Stephanorhinus cf. S. hund-sheimensis. In addition, a partial unerupted molar of an elephantid, two hyena coprolites and fragments of rodent teeth were identified. The high amount of Carya at the base of the succession represents the most peculiar feature of the Saticula floral record and was used as a reference for its chronological constraint. Comparison with other Italian pollen successions allowed the Saticula record to be tentatively ascribed to the late Early Pleistocene. After that period. Carya was never recorded in such high amounts and gradually disappeared from the Italian flora following a heterochronous latitudinal gradient. The Saticula mammal assemblage is in agreeSUIFORM SOUNDINGS VOL 10(2) PAGE 49

ment with the chronological framework suggested by pollen data.

Magri D, Di Rita F and Palombo MR. 2010. An Early Pleistocene interglacial record from an intermontane basin of central Italy (Scoppito, L'Aquila). Quaternary International 225(1): 106-113. Interdisciplinary investigations in the Early Pleistocene site of Madonna della Strada, near Scoppito (L'Aquila, central Italy) are presented, complementing the information on large mammal remains recovered in the 1950s (Mammuthus meridionalis, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, suid and small deer). New fragmentary remains of an old rhinoceros individual are examined and discussed. Pollen analysis documents an interglacial forest phase with considerable frequencies of taxa presently extinct in the Italian peninsula (Tsuga, Carya, Pterocarya, and Zelkova), starting with an expansion of conifers, progressively replaced by a mixed deciduous forest, followed by an increase of mediterranean vegetation. The abundance of extinct elements suggests an Early Pleistocene age older than the Jaramillo Subchron (1.07 Ma). The scarcity of Picea and Cedrus and the absence of Liquidambar suggest that the record should be younger than MIS 40 (approx.1.3 Ma). This chronological setting indicates that Hippopotamus antiquus was already present in Italy before the Jaramillo palaeomagnetic inversion.

Rosvold J, Halley DJ, Hufthammer AK, Andersen R and Minagawa M. 2010. The rise and fall of wild boar in a northern environment: Evidence from stable isotopes and subfossil finds. Holocene 20(7): 1113-1121. Here we use long-term data from Holocene archaeological bone assemblages in order to investigate how changes in climate, vegetation and human land use might have influenced the distribution of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Norway during the Holocene. We combine four lines of evidence: an analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in a time series of subfossil teeth, distribution data of bone finds from 31 archaeological sites, changes in the relative abundance of wild ungulates from four of these sites and historical documents. A significant change in Sus diet, indicated by delta N-15 levels, was found. This coincided with the spread of agriculture and indicates a change from wild boar to domestic pigs. Based on this finding the distributional data show that the Norwegian wild boar was limited to the coastal broadleaved forests even during the most optimal climatic period. A reduction in the relative abundance of wild boar, and later extinction, seems to coincide with a reduction in such habitat, caused partly by climatic change but more pronouncedly by human habitat alterations, and competition with domestic animals. The data indicate that the primary factor limiting the northern distribution of wild boar is the availability of food resources.

Zinoviev AV. 2010. A Supernumerary Permanent Mandibular Premolar of Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa L.) from the Early Medieval Novgorod, Russia. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 20(5): 586-590. The aim of this study was to investigate a unique case of polydonty in wild boar from the early medieval Novgorod (second half of 11th century AD). The only preserved distal part of the right mandibular branch shows a rotated transitional permanent extra premolar between P-3 and P-4. This abnormality has the potential to serve as a territorially-based indicator of past wild boar populations.

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Ecology and Conservation Studies


Bengsen AJ, Leung LKP, Lapidge SJ and Gordon IJ. 2010. Artificial illumination reduces bait-take by small rainforest mammals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 127(1-2): 66-72. Small mammals often moderate their foraging behaviour in response to cues indicating a high local predation risk. We assessed the ability of cues associated with a high predation risk to reduce the consumption of bait by non-target small mammal species in a tropical rainforest, without inhibiting bait-take by feral pigs (Sus scrofa). The illumination of feeding stations with a low power light source caused small mammals to reduce their foraging intensity on sunflower seeds mixed through sand by 25% (P<0.001) and on unprocessed corn-based feral pig bait by 80% (P<0.001). Illumination also reduced the intensity with which small mammals fed on commercially manufactured baits (odds ratio = 6.17, P = 0.009). Illumination did not cause pigs to reduce their intake of corn bait (P = 0.43). Neither pig nor dingo (Canis lupus dingo) vocalisations had any detectable effect on the foraging intensity of small mammals (P > 0.05 for all treatments). We conclude that site illumination was an effective method of selectively deterring small mammals from consuming feral pig baits in our study region, but had no effect on consumption of those baits by pigs.

Bueno CG, Barrio IC, Garcia-Gonzalez R, Alados CL and Gomez-Garcia D. 2010. Does wild boar rooting affect livestock grazing areas in alpine grasslands? European Journal of Wildlife Research 56(5): 765770. Interactions between traditional livestock management practices and wildlife activities are important in the conservation of many mountain ecosystems including the summer rangelands in the Spanish Central Pyrenees, where rooting by wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a large disturbance that can reduce the amount of area available to grazing livestock. This study explored the likely impact of wild boar rooting on Pyrenean grasslands. It quantified the extent of wild boar rooting in livestock grazing areas and determined whether wild boars selected or avoided areas depending on the type of livestock and stocking rates. Wild boar rooting affected 16% of livestock grazing area and occurred in sites that were grazed by cattle, rather than by sheep. In addition, a preference for areas that had intermediate stocking rates was found. The relationship between the increase in the number of wild boars and trends in livestock management suggests that the extent of wild boar rooting will increase especially in cattle grazing areas, and therefore, the area available for cattle grazing in Pyrenean mountain rangelands would decrease significantly.

Bywater KA, Apollonio M, Cappai N and Stephens PA. 2010. Litter size and latitude in a large mammal: the wild boar Sus scrofa. Mammal Review 40(3): 212-220. A positive relationship between clutch size or litter size and latitude exists in birds and many species of small mammal. Hitherto, however, analyses for large mammals have failed to provide evidence that litter sizes increase with latitude. We collated data from published studies of wild boar in Europe, to analyse the relationship between litter size and latitude in this widely distributed terrestrial mammal. Depending on the specific data set (whether only the most reliable data or all available data were included), latitude explained 58% to 72% of the variation in mean litter sizes across studies. On
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average, litter size increases by approximately 0.15 piglets per degree of latitude. A strong correlation between litter size and latitude for wild boar in Europe provides a starting point for demographic modelling of this species of both ecological and economic importance. The pattern for wild boar is consistent with Ashmole's explanation for the effects of latitude on reproduction. The contrast between our results and those generated for other large mammals may result from our focus on an herbivore in contrast to previous work which was focused on carnivores. Further work could usefully examine the extent of seasonality in the availability of resources for species of different dietary types.

Cuevas MF, Novillo A, Campos C, Dacar MA and Ojeda RA. 2010. Food habits and impact of rooting behaviour of the invasive wild boar, Sus scrofa, in a protected area of the Monte Desert, Argentina. Journal of Arid Environments 74(11): 1582-1585. The wild boar, Sus scrofa, was introduced in the central region of Argentina in the early 20th century. A small feral population invaded the western area of the Man and Biosphere Reserve of Nacunan, Argentina in the early 1980's. The purpose of our study was to provide information about the diet of wild boars in the semiarid region of Argentina and to assess their potential effect on vegetation through soil rooting. We analyzed 41 faecal samples and compared cover plant composition between rooted and non-rooted soil. Ninety-five percent of the wild boar diet consisted of different parts (leaves, stems, glumes, fruits, seeds, and bulbs) of 36 plant species, while arthropods and animal tissue represented only 5% of the diet. Two plant species ( Sphaeralcea miniata and Pitraea cuneatoovata) composed the bulk of the diet, representing almost 50% of the total items found in the faeces. Plant cover was significantly different between rooted and non-rooted areas. Rooted areas were dominated by Pitraea cuneato-ovata, whereas the cover of Lycium sp was higher in non-rooted areas. This is the first study addressing the ecology of the wild boar in a protected area of the Monte Desert biome of Argentina.

Delgado-Acevedo J, Zamorano A, DeYoung RW, Campbell TA, Hewitt DG and Long DB. 2010. Promiscuous mating in feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Texas, USA. Wildlife Research 37(7): 539-546. Context. Feral pigs represent a significant threat to agriculture and ecosystems and are disease reservoirs for pathogens affecting humans, livestock and other wildlife. Information on the behavioural ecology of feral pigs might increase the efficiency and effectiveness of management strategies. Aims. We assessed the frequency of promiscuous mating in relation to oestrous synchrony in feral pigs from southern Texas, USA, an agroecosystem with a widespread and well established population of feral pigs. An association between multiple paternity of single litters and synchrony of oestrous may indicate alternative mating strategies, such as mateguarding. Methods. We collected gravid sows at nine sites in southern Texas during 2005-07. We used a panel of DNA microsatellite markers to estimate frequency of multiple paternity and the distribution of male mating among litters of feral pigs. Conception dates were determined by fitting average fetal crown-rump measurements within litters to expected fetal development relative to gestation time. Key results. We found evidence of multiple paternity in 21 of 64 litters (33%) from seven of nine sites sampled. Synchrony of oestrous did not influence promiscuous mating, as we found multiple paternity at sites with synchronous and asynchronous oestrous. Males sired from 8 to 11 offspring at three sites where >10 litters were sampled. Mean litter size (5.4) was less than the best-fit value for the number of offspring, indicating that some males sired offspring with >= 2 females.
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Key conclusions. Feral pigs in Texas appear to be promiscuous under a range of demographic conditions, unlike wild boar and feral pigs in other regions. The ecological and behavioural factors affecting multiple paternity are not clear, but may include male-male competition, harassment avoidance, genetic benefits for offspring, response to macro-habitat conditions, or selection. Implications. A high incidence of sexual contact among individuals may increase the opportunity for diseases transmitted by oral or venereal routes, such as swine brucellosis and pseudorabies. In addition, fertility-control methods targeting males only are likely to be inefficient if female promiscuity is high; methods targeting females or both sexes jointly may be more effective.

Desbiez ALJ, Rocha FL and Keuroghlian A. 2010. Interspecific association between an ungulate and a carnivore or a primate. Acta Ethologica 13(2): 137-139. In the Brazilian Pantanal, we observed collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) associating with South American coatis (Nasua nasua) 13 times and three times with black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya). The scansorial coati drop fruit whilst feeding that both collared peccaries and other coatis consume. Young coatis were also observed chewing on the pulp left over from seeds spat out by collared peccaries who had removed the hard exocarp. Both species react to each other's alarm calls. Peccaries also benefited from the fruits dropped by black howler monkeys. Ecologically, coatis are omnivores; but taxonomically, they are carnivores. To our knowledge, the collared peccary/coati association is the first report of an interspecific association between an ungulate and a carnivore.

Ebert C, Huckschlag D, Schulz HK and Hohmann U. 2010. Can hair traps sample wild boar ( Sus scrofa) randomly for the purpose of non-invasive population estimation? European Journal of Wildlife Research 56(4): 583-590. Reliable estimation of population size remains a major challenge in wildlife ecology and management. Lately, genotyping of non-invasively obtained tissue samples integrated in a modified capturerecapture approach provides new perspectives. Faeces, moulted feathers, or hairs can be easily sampled in the field. However, an important assumption is homogeneity of sampling across the population. In this pilot study, we tested the suitability of baited barbed wire hair sampling stations ('hair traps') for homogeneous genetic sampling for population estimation. A video system based on a new network internet protocol was used to observe the behaviour of wild boar visiting baited hair traps for gaining information about potential heterogeneities in the individual sampling probability. Within 92 monitoring nights at two sampling stations, 216 wild boar visits were recorded and 142 hair samples containing 2,124 single hairs were collected. Video analysis revealed distinct differences in the behaviour of wild boar with respect to the sampling station which are most likely to result in heterogeneous individual sampling probabilities. Adult and subadult animals differed in their behaviour dependent on their group status. This result indicates that hair sampling with baited hair traps is not suitable for representative non-invasive sampling of free ranging wild boar populations.

Grunewald C, Breitbach N and Bohning-Gaese K. 2010. Tree visitation and seed dispersal of wild cherries by terrestrial mammals along a human land-use gradient. Basic & Applied Ecology 11(6): 532-541. The role of terrestrial mammals as seed dispersers of fleshy-fruited plants has only rarely been investigated in temperate regions although recent studies underline the importance of these animals for
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long-distance seed dispersal Here we examine the potential role of mammals as seed dispersers of wild cherry (Prunus avium L) along a gradient of human land-use intensity We placed camera traps at 21 wild cherry trees to identify the mammal species that visited the trees We conducted feeding trials to test if the recorded species were legitimate seed dispersers or seed predators and to assess gut passage times We tested the influence of human land-use intensity by quantifying habitat and landscape structure around the study trees at different spatial scales and analyzing its influence on visitation rates of tree visitors Red fox (Vulpes vulpes), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), marten (Martes spp) and badger (Meles meles) were identified as seed dispersers of wild cherry, of which wild boar was largely a seed predator Habitat and landscape structure at local spatial scales (70 m, 500 m radius) had no effect on the total visitation rates of mammals At larger spatial scales (10-100 km radius) total visitation rates increased with increasing proportion of extensively used farmland and seminatural habitat in the area The proportion of forest had no influence on visitation rates The results suggest that high proportions of extensively used farmland and seminatural habitat increase the visitation and seed dispersal rates of large mammals Comparing gut passage times with home range sizes and daily travel distances suggests that these mammals have the potential to disperse seeds over long distances and can provide gene flow in fragmented agricultural landscapes.

Mangas JG and Rodriguez-Estival J. 2010. Logging and livestock influence the abundance of common mammal species in Mediterranean forested environments. Forest Ecology & Management 260(8): 1274-1281. Forest and livestock management puts pressure on forests and the wildlife they support. Although many species may be negatively affected by these human activities, the abundance of other species may be promoted, although this has perhaps received less attention in livestock, logging, and conservation management plans. Wild boar and red fox, two common mammals distributed throughout Europe, occupy a wide variety of Mediterranean environments. Little is known about how increases in logging and livestock management have changed their status. This work models the response of wild boar and red fox to these pressures in the human-altered Mediterranean forest landscapes of the central Iberian Peninsula (NHR), where the predominant land uses in the last hundred years have focused on livestock and logging (thinning and selective cutting). We collapsed land use and habitat structure variables into independent habitat vectors using principle component analysis (PCA) and then used a general linear model (GLM) to explain the relationships between red fox and wild boar abundance and the independent habitat vectors observed in human-altered forests. Livestock and logging activity was positively correlated with wild boar abundance, and negatively correlated with red fox abundance, although red fox tolerated open scrubland that had been logged. Red fox abundance remained negatively correlated with the same variables when boar abundance was added as an environmental predictor in the model, but some additional variance was explained, demonstrating the need to include indirect interspecific relationships in the habitat-species models. The combined effects of wild boar, logging and livestock are indirectly important factors which modify habitat structure and negatively affect red fox. Therefore, common mammal species are influenced by livestock and logging in different ways which necessarily may be taken into account in management and conservation decisions in Mediterranean human-altered forests.

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Matias L, Zamora R, Mendoza I and Hodar JA. 2010. Seed Dispersal Patterns by Large Frugivorous Mammals in a Degraded Mosaic Landscape. Restoration Ecology 18(5): 619-627. Seed dispersal by Red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Stone marten (Martes foina), and Wild boar (Sus scrofa) was analyzed in an extensively degraded mosaic landscape in Sierra Nevada (SE Spain). The main objective was to determine whether seed dispersal by mammals was related to habitat degradation within a mosaic of adjacent degraded patches mixed with native forest and thereby to determine the potential role of mammals as seed dispersers in degraded landscape units. For three consecutive years, mammal feces were collected in the fruit production period, extracting all seeds of woody species found therein and analyzing their viability. Feces were collected in three different plots for each of five different landscape units: shrubland, native forest, and dense, cleared, and fenced reforestation stands. Seeds from 16 woody species (which represent more than a half of the total fleshy-fruited woody species available) were recorded, although some agrarian species are also introduced in a low percentage of the scats. Seeds showed a high viability rate for all dispersed species, irrespective of the mammal disperser. No differences in species composition appeared in the overall landscape units or in the seed density between degraded habitats. Due to the small patch size, the high viability of dispersed seeds, and the large home range of the large mammals, these three animal species act as efficient seed dispersers for a diverse assemblage of woody plant species regardless of the habitat type within this degradation framework. This fact has important consequences for the biodiversity recuperation in these degraded habitats, principally in pine plantations.

McGowan, PJK. 2010. Conservation status of wild relatives of animals used for food. Animal Genetic Resources 47: 115118 The Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources calls for action to conserve the wild species that are related to livestock. The global conservation status of wild species is monitored through the IUCN Red List. This shows that at present 21 percent of the worlds 5 488 mammal species and 12 percent of its 9 990 bird species are threatened with extinction. In contrast, a greater proportion of wild relatives of the major mammal livestock species are at risk of extinction: 44 percent of sheep and goats, 50 percent of pigs and 83 percent of cattle. More wild relatives of the chicken are also at risk (25 percent) than bird species overall. These figures indicate the need to pay much more attention to the relationship between the conservation of biological diversity and human well-being. Therefore, there is an urgent need to coordinate responses to the loss of biodiversity and the reduction in variation that may prove vital for animal genetic resources in the future. Intergovernmental meetings being held this autumn offer the prospect of beginning this process.

Nogueira SSD, Silva MG, Dias CTD, Pompeia S, Cetra M and Nogueira SLG. 2010. Social behaviour of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) under three space allowances. Animal Welfare 19(3): 243-248. Captive breeding of peccaries is on the increase in neotropical countries. Few studies, however, have reported behavioural responses of wild animals under farmed conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of space allowance on the occurrence of social behaviour patterns on farmed collared peccary (Pecari tajacu). We observed three herds of collared peccaries each containing eight acquainted individuals. Using a 3 x 3 Latin square design, herds were allocated, in a random order, to one of the three experimental enclosures, each with a different size. 375, 750 and 1,500 m2 of total available area, each with three wooden shelters. We recorded all the occurrences of
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selected positive and agonistic behavioural patterns that occurred 90 min before and during feeding Enclosure size had a significant effect on agonistic patterns of peccaries during feeding, in that more agonistic behaviour was observed in smaller spaces We also found that shelter usage increased as space decreased. Differing space allowances, however, did not have an effect on the occurrence of positive interactions that were more frequent before compared to during feeding. We concluded that enclosure size had an effect on the expression of agonistic be and the use of shelters by collared peccaries Thus, animal welfare can be improved by adopting at least 187 5 m 2 per peccary. In addition, our study also confirmed the importance of shelter areas in collared peccary husbandry.

Risch AC, Wirthner S, Busse MD, Page-Dumroese DS and Schutz M. 2010. Grubbing by wild boars ( Sus scrofa L.) and its impact on hardwood forest soil carbon dioxide emissions in Switzerland. Oecologia 164(3): 773-784. Interest in soil C storage and release has increased in recent years. In addition to factors such as climate/land-use change, vertebrate animals can have a considerable impact on soil CO2 emissions. To date, most research has considered herbivores, while the impact of omnivorous animals has rarely been investigated. Our goal was to determine how European wild boars ( Sus scrofa L.), large omnivores that consume soil-inhabiting animals and belowground plant parts by grubbing in the soil, affect soil C dynamics. We measured soil respiration (CO2), temperature, and moisture on paired grubbed and non-grubbed plots in six hardwood forest stands for a 3-year period and sampled fine root and microbial biomass at the beginning and after 2 years of the study. We also measured the percentage of freshly disturbed forest soil within the larger surroundings of each stand and used this information together with hunting statistics and forest cover data to model the total amount of CO2 released from Swiss forest soils due to grubbing during 1 year. Soil CO2 emissions were significantly higher on grubbed compared to non-grubbed plots during the study. On average 23.1% more CO2 was released from these plots, which we associated with potential alterations in CO2 diffusion rates, incorporation of litter into the mineral soil and higher fine root/microbial biomass. Thus, wild boars considerably increased the small-scale heterogeneity of soil properties. Roughly 1% of Switzerland's surface area is similar to our sites (boar density/forest cover). Given the range of forest soil disturbance of 27-54% at our sites, the geographic information system model predicted that boar grubbing would lead to the release of an additional 49,731.10-98,454.74 t CO2 year(-1). These values are relatively small compared to total soil emissions estimated for Swiss hardwood forests and suggest that boars will have little effect on large-scale emissions unless their numbers increase and their range expands dramatically.

Rosenthal, JS. 2010. A review of the role of protected areas in conserving global domestic animal diversity. Animal Genetic Resources 47: 101113. A content analysis of 167 country reports submitted for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organizations State of the Worlds Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture was conducted to determine the extent to which protected areas are recognized as means of conserving domestic animal diversity. For countries in which protected areas were reported to help conserve the diversity of domesticated animals, additional details were sought from a review of related literature. Protected areas were seldom discussed in country reports and were most often mentioned as means to protect biodiversity in general, wild relatives of domesticated animals or wild game species. The most freSUIFORM SOUNDINGS VOL 10(2) PAGE 56

quently mentioned way in which protected areas conserve domestic animal diversity is through initiatives that utilize indigenous breeds of livestock in nature conservation programmes. By offering farmers financial incentives for these ecological services, protected areas help offset potential economic disadvantages of raising indigenous breeds that may be less productive in industrial environments. Additional incentives to raise indigenous breeds are supported by protected areas such as niche marketing of organic food and fibre, establishing seed herd programmes and tourism promotion. Many opportunities exist for protected area managers and authorities responsible for conserving animal genetic resources for food and agriculture to fulfil mutually compatible objectives.

Sheppard DJ, Moehrenschlager A, Mcpherson JM and Mason JJ. 2010. Ten years of adaptive community-governed conservation: evaluating biodiversity protection and poverty alleviation in a West African hippopotamus reserve. Environmental Conservation 37(3): 270-282. Community-based natural resource management has been accused of failing on social, economic or ecological grounds. Balanced assessments are rare, however, particularly in West Africa. This paper examines the first 10 years of Ghana's Wechiau Community Hippo Sanctuary using an evaluation framework that considers socioeconomic and ecological outcomes, as well as resilience mechanisms. Building upon traditional taboos against the killing of hippopotami, this initiative has attempted to conserve an imperilled large mammal, protect biodiversity and alleviate abject poverty amidst a bush meat crisis and complex ethnic diversity. Findings show that the Sanctuary has improved local livelihoods by spurring economic diversification and infrastructure development rates 2-8 times higher than in surrounding communities. Simultaneously, threats to biodiversity have subsided, hippopotamus numbers have remained stable and the Sanctuary's riparian habitats now harbour more bird species than comparable areas nearby. Improved social capital, true empowerment, an equitable distribution of benefits, ecological awareness among children and support for the Sanctuary, even amongst community members who were disadvantaged by its creation, speak to good long-term prospects. Risks remain, some of which are beyond the community's control, but evidence of socioecological resilience suggests that capacity exists to buffer risks and foster sustainability. Lessons learnt at Wechiau translate into recommendations for the planning, implementation and evaluation of future community-based conservation initiatives, including greater interdisciplinary integration and the use of adaptive co-management approaches.

Wang SW. 2010. Estimating population densities and biomass of ungulates in the temperate ecosystem of Bhutan. Oryx 44(3): 376-382. In this study I estimate population densities and biomass of the major prey species of tiger Panthera tigris, leopard Panthera pardus and dhole Cuon alpinus in Bhutan's temperate ecosystem and recommend measures for reducing crop damage whilst simultaneously protecting ungulate populations. Thirty-two transects totalling 849 km were walked to estimate densities and biomass of ungulates and primates in Bhutan's Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park during 2005-2006. Adequate detections (>40 sightings) for analysis using Distance were obtained for wild pig Sus scrofa (n=54), muntjac Munticus muntjac (n=102) and sambar Cervus unicolor (n=48). Because of similarity in morphology and habitat use, density of serow Capricornis sumatraensis was estimated using the detection probability for sambar. Detections for langur Trachypithecus geei and macaque Macca mulatta were combined (n=39) to estimate primate density. Mean estimated densities were 3.68 wild pig, 2.17 muntjac, 1.19
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sambar, 2.37 primates and 0.36 serow km(-2). The three primary prey species of large predators, wild pig, sambar and muntjac, provided a biomass of 379 kg km(-2), which could support up to 1.2 tigers per 100 km(2). However, the presence of other sympatric carnivores competing for prey in the same area suggests that the actual number of tigers that could be supported is lower. Livestock (density, 6.0 km(-2); biomass, 615 kg km(-2)) apparently supplement prey availability. Ungulate density in the study area is generally low compared to other areas in the Indian sub-continent, and this may be due to conflicts with farmers, excessive grazing of livestock in the forest and the rugged terrain.

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DISCLAIMER with respect to content: IUCN encourages meetings, workshops and other fora for the consideration and analysis of issues related to conservation, and believes that reports of these meetings are most useful when broadly disseminated. The opinions and views expressed by the authors may not necessarily reflect the formal policies of IUCN, its Commissions, its Secretariat or its members. with respect to geography: The designation of geographical entities in this book, and the presentation of the material, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IUCN concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

The newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Wild Pigs, Peccaries and Hippos Specialist Groups (previously Asian Wild Pig News) Contact address: Anne-Marie E. Stewart Ethiopian Wolf Conservation Programme P.O.Box 23400 Addis Ababa Ethiopia Email: amistewart@yahoo.co.uk Editor-in-Chief: Anne-Marie Stewart Associate Editors Chris H. Gordon Dr. Kristin Leus Dr Rafael Angel Reyna Hurtado Edsel Amorim Moraes, Jr. Editorial board: William L.R. Oliver Dr. Rebecca Lewison The IUCN/SSC Wild Pigs, Peccaries and Hippos Specialist Groups (WPSG, PSG and HSG) are three of several Specialist Groups of the Species Survival Commission (SSC) developed by the IUCN to foster conservation, research and dissemination of information for species of conservation concern. These groups consist of technical experts focusing on the conservation and management of wild pigs, peccaries and hippos. The broad aim of the these groups is to promote the longterm conservation of wild pigs, peccaries and hippos and, where possible, the recovery of their populations to viable levels. Pigs, peccaries and hippopotamuses are non-ruminant ungulates belonging to the Suborder Suiformes of the Order Artiodactyla (the even-toed ungulates). Within the Suborder Suiformes, pigs belong to the Family Suidae, peccaries to the Family Dicotylidae and hippopotamuses to the Family Hippopotamidae. This newsletter is electronically available at: http://data.iucn.org/themes/ssc/sgs/pphsg/Suiform% 20soundings/Newsletter.htm
Please email all contributions to future issues to amistewart@yahoo.co.uk Articles, photos and comments are all welcome and appreciated. Please follow the guidelines for authors, which can be found on the website listed above.
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