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A group of words that contains (at least) a subject

and a verb. A clause may form part of a sentence or it may be a complete sentence in itself
He was eating a bacon sandwich.
[clause]

She had a long career, but she is remembered for one early work.
[clause] [clause]

has a subject and a verb; expresses a complete thought; can stand alone on its own.

The sun rose. Water evaporates rapidly in warm climate zones.

does not express a complete thought; cannot stand on its own; is formed by a subordinator (when, while, if, because, etc.), a subject and a verb. . . . when the sun rose. . . . . . because water evaporates rapidly in warm

climate zones . . .

after although as as if as soon as because before even though if

since so that that though unless until what when whenever

where wherever whether which while who whom whose

1.

Jet lag affects most long distance travellers

2.
3.

Which is simply the urge to sleep at innapropriate times


During long journeys through several time zones, the bodys inner clock is disrupted

4. 5. 6. 7.

Also, changes in work schedules can cause jet leg Although there is no sure way to prevent jet lag

There are some ways to minimize it


Then the traveler should strat to live in the new time zone immediately

8.

Even when the traveler arrives early in the morning and cannot go to bed
immediately

1. 2.

3.
4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

ind. Jet lag affects most long distance travellers dep. Which is simply the urge to sleep at innapropriate times ind. During long journeys through several time zones, the bodys inner clock is disrupted ind. Also, changes in work schedules can cause jet leg dep. Although there is no sure way to prevent jet lag ind. There are some ways to minimize it ind. Then the traveler should strat to live in the new time zone immediately dep. Even when the traveler arrives early in the morning and cannot go to bed immediately

A sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense, contains a main verb, and begins with a capital letter. It is used:
to make statements to ask questions or make requests to give orders to express exclamations

o
o o

Ham and eggs. And onions. Too much information! which Rob shook if it ever became public

is an independent clause has a subject and a verb


subject verb

Freshwater boils at 100 degrees Celsius at sea level.

can have a compound subject and/or a compound verb


subject subject verb verb

Freshwater boils at 100 C and freezes at 0 C.


subject verb verb

Freshwater and salt water do not boil and do not freeze at the same temperatures.

A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses There are three ways to join the clauses:

1.

with a coordinator (so, and, but, etc.)


and
[conjunction]

Joe became bored with teaching


[independent clause]

he looked for a new career.


[independent clause]

FAN BOYS For And Nor But independent clause ,

Or Yet So

coordinator + independent clause

Jane decided to try the home-made steak pie, and Andrew ordered the fried fish with boiled potatoes.

Jane had pie and Andrew had fish.


They do not eat a lot of red meat , nor do they eat many dairy products.

Diet is one factor in how long people live, but its not the only factor.
Cigarette smoking is a factor in longevity, yet Japanese and other long-lived Asians have a very high rate of tobacco use.

1. 2.

Too much sun damages the skin, _____ many people still do not use sunscreen. Too much sun damages the skin, _____ too little sun also causes health problems. The companys sales increased last year, ____ its profits declined. The company moved its marketing division to Phoenix, _____ the operations division stayed in Boston Population growth has slowed in most developing countries, _____ it has not slowed enough to avoid serious problems The fertility rate in India has decreased from 6 to 3 births per female, _____ Indias population is expanding at the rate of 18 million per year.

1. 2.

1. 2.

1. 2.

Too much sun damages the skin, yet many people still do not use sunscreen. Too much sun damages the skin, but too little sun also causes health problems. The companys sales increased last year, yet its profits declined. The company moved its marketing division to Phoenix, but the operations division stayed in Boston Population growth has slowed in most developing countries, but it has not slowed enough to avoid serious problems The fertility rate in India has decreased from 6 to 3 births per female, yet Indias population is expanding at the rate of 18 million per year.

1. 2.

1.

2.

A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses The second way to join the clauses is:

2. with a conjunctive adverb


Salt water boils at a higher temperature than freshwater; therefore, food cooks faster in salt water.

Also Besides Furthermore In addition Moreover

However Nevertheless Nonetheless Still

Otherwise As a result Consequently Hence Therefore Thus

For example For instance

As well Too

On the other hand In contrast

Independent clause ; conjunctive adverb, + independent clause

The campus is not located in the centre of the city; therefore, it is not very easy to get there by public transportation.

Scientists predict that intelligent life exists somewhere in the universe however . . . My roommate scored high on the English placement test as a result . . . Our class thought the professor would give a test last Friday instead . . .

Nuclear accidents can happen. Nuclear power plants must have strict safety controls.

Solar heating systems are economical to operate. The cost of installation is very high. Burning fossil fuels causes serious damage to our planet. We need to develop other sources of energy.
Ecologists know that burning fossil fuels causes holes in the ozone layer. People continue to do it.

A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses The third way to join the clauses is:

3. with a semicolon: Motherhood causes some women to quit their jobs; others continue working despite having young children to care for.

contains one independent clause and


dependent adverb clause(s): (when, while, although, because, so, etc.) You can get a drivers license when you are 18.
1.

2.

dependent adjective clause(s): (relative pronouns: who, whom, which, whose, etc.) Men who are not married are called bachelors. 3. dependent noun clause(s): (wh-question word, whether, if, etc.) I didnt do what you told me.

has at least three clauses = one dependent clause and independent clauses in any order

I wanted to travel after I graduated from college; however, I had to go to work immediately.

I wanted to travel after I graduated from college, but I had to go to work immediately
I wanted to travel after I graduated from college, but I had to go to work immediately because I had to support my family.

Independent clause Indep. clause + indep. clause Indep. clause + dep. clause Indep. clause + dep. clause + indep. clause

simple sentence compound sentence complex sentence compound-complex sentence

The story of Helen Keller is the story of a

normal child who, at the age of 18 months, was suddenly shut off from the world...
What

do you think shut off from the world means in this text? do you think might have happened to
her?

What

Read Kellers biography and answer:


What How Who

kind of problems did she have?

did she cope with them?

was Annie Sullivan? What kind of influence did she have on her?

When What

and how did she begin her writing career? other interests did she have?