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Satish Sharma*, V.V. Arora*, Adarsh Kumar N S*

Centre for Construction Development & Research National Council for Cement and Building Materials

In coal based thermal power stations large quantity of bottom ash is generated as by product. Bottom ash is collected at the bottom of boiler furnace – characterized by better geotechnical properties and good material for fill, embankment construction etc. Bottom Ash consists of about 20% of total ash produced in a thermal power station. There is need to develop alternative for sand for use in concrete works in India. Studies have been carried out (1-6) to evolve bottom ash as alternative to sand for use in concrete. With this objective, bottom ash containing fines of flyash have been tried for manufacturing concrete blocks. In the present investigation, laboratory studies have been carried out at NCB laboratory to utilize bottom ash as part replacement of sand in concrete. This study covers manufacturing of concrete blocks without flyash & with bottom ash for making solid blocks as per specification laid down in IS: 2185 using vibro compaction machine available in NCB. Three different sources of bottom ash were used in concrete mix each @ 30%, 40% & 50% replacement by weight of sand for making concrete blocks. Comparative study of compressive strength of concrete at different age of curing, wet density, drying shrinkage is reported in this study. Wet density is found to be lower in blocks containing bottom ash & dry shrinkage values are found well within the limits of specifications. Concrete Blocks having bottom ash @ 30% by weight of sand are found suitable for use in the manufacture of concrete blocks.



The paper shows the experimental investigation about bottom ash replacement in different percentage of fine aggregate. P. Aggarwal, et al have investigated the replacement of bottom ash upto 50% replacement by using the superplasticizer. The study of replacement of bottom ash is done by using high range water reducing admixture because as the replacement of fine aggregate increases the water demand rapidly increases which also enhances due to high specific surface area bottom ash due to high fine content. Hence by this, all mechanical properties get affected due to less cementitious material available in per cubic meter content in early age of concrete mix. Detailed studies done are reported in references. Bottom Ash (BA) is a combination of heavier particulate matter and molten slag, which forms on the walls and the bottom of the combustion chamber of power station boiler fired with pulverized fuel. In appearance it usually ranges from a highly verified, glossy and heavy material to a lightweight, open textured and more friable type. Sometimes it is found mixed with fly ash in stockpiles. Its precise nature depends on the boiler plant and the coal type but higher fines of fly ash in bottom ash are generally a part of bottom ash (BA).

very little pozzolonic activity. compressive strength and drying shrinkage of concrete are reported in this paper. structural filling materials etc. Method of mix design by .This study utilized bottom ash of Unchahar Super Thermal Power Plant (NTPC) currently there are two boiler systems – wet and dry. high performance and environmentally friendly concrete. highway sub-base materials.25 for mix proportion corresponding to W/C ratio 0. The main purpose was to study the possibility of using BA to make a lightweight. Each system produces a uniquely different BA – wet BA and dry BA. Its particles usually are angular to sub angular in shape. 2. previous studies are mainly focused on using it in blocks. Therefore. owing to the construction boom in both developed and developing countries. Furthermore. Details of trials are given below.50 was selected on the basis of these initial trials on mouldability in Vibro compaction machine.125:6. Dry BA has quite angular particles and a highly porous surface texture. The effect of BA on the workability. have a smooth surface texture and looked much like crushed glass. Compared with fly ash. Selection of W/C ratio & Ratio of concrete mix W/C Ratio 0. there is a critical shortage of good quality sand in many areas throughout the world. to replace part of sand in concrete.45 0. Therefore. Direct replacement of bottom ash (by weight of coarse sand in percentage) was adopted to determine the suitability of the mix for manufacture of concrete blocks.55 Ratio of Cement : Sand : Aggregate by Weight 1:3:6 1:3.50 0.1 TRIALS CONDUCTED Selection of Mix Proportion With Different W/C Ratio Trial mixes were prepared by using bottom ash obtained from three different boilers of NTPC’s Unchahar Thermal Power Plant (U.5:5 Seems more water required Blocks cast but did not give Block cast successfully but for casting to block in vibro clear dimensions.P) to optimize the mixes at different water – cement ratio.25 1:2.125:6. 3). BA usually has no cementitious properties. so the mix did not give cost-effective machine was rejected option Less sand & less water Block cast successfully Block cast successfully content observed Less sand content observed Block cast successfully Block cast successfully Ratio of 1:3. This study was carried out by using BA from a thermal power plant. This has led to little recycling and large dumping of BA in landfill sites. there is a need for reducing the use of natural aggregate by recycling industrial by products. higher carbon content and higher water demand. usually has the appearance similar to fine sand and lighter in weight per unit volume and colour than bottom ash (2. which has gradually become a serious environmental problem in both developed and developing countries. Wet BA has a relatively low melting point and coalesces into large molten masses known as slag. coarse particle size.0 2.

replacing the ratio by weight was found suitable. % BA Cement.125 10 mm Aggregate (Crushed Stone) 6. Now remove the batch to a non-water absorbing surface and fill the mould to cast the block in vibro compaction machine. BA – Bottom Ash & CA – Coarse Aggregate) 2. vibrate for 60 seconds and remove from mould.92 BA II 30 8 17.25 Free W/C 0.95 (Bottom Ash) 40 8 15 7. Kg 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 Free Water 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Procedure for Making Concrete Blocks without Bottom Ash & also using three sources of Bottom Ash using Vibro Compaction Technique Take all the material as per batch given above. Kg Replacement 0 8 25 Nil 30 8 17.5 Replacement of Sand with Bottom Ash Optimized mix proportion for three types of Bottom Ash collected and identified as BA – I.5 5.25 (Note: FA – Fine Aggregates.95 40 8 15 7. When blocks are filled to total mould volume.5 9. Kg BA. Now add all the quantity (except aggregate) and mix it for 60 seconds. Water demand was found higher due to higher water absorption by bottom ash.92 BA III 30 8 17.20 50 8 12. Kg FA.5 9. Step I Step II Step III Step IV Step V Step VI Step VII .5 6. Make a dummy trial batch (around 10% quantity with same proportion) and remove from concrete mixture so that a thin layer of mix can adhere with surface of mixture for simulating the continuous batch mix. Optimised Mix Proportion for Trials without using Bottom Ash: Ingredient in Mix Mix proportion Cement 1 Coarse Sand (Natural) 3. Now add aggregate and mix the total batch for 120 seconds.15 (Bottom Ash) 40 8 15 8.94 50 8 12. Lift the cast block for drying (in shaded area) for 24 hours. The mix proportions thus optimized are given as under.5 5. BA – II and BA – III were selected for the trials. Cure the block for 3 days with gunny bags/in moist environment and then cure for 7 days in submerged condition & there after cure the block stacks in air by sprinkling water.2 Type of Mix using BA Control Mix BA I (Bottom Ash) CA.94 50 8 12.5 10.

2 Coarse sand The coarse sand confirm to Zone II as per the provisions laid down in IS: 383-1970.. 1 2 3 4 Blain’s Fineness.5 126 206 1 0.69 1.3.3 2.45 5.18 5.3.05 22.36 5 6 2. . 3 days 7 days 28 days Loss on Ignition Silica (SiO2) Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) Aluminium (Al2O3) Calcium Oxide (CaO) Sulphate (SO3) Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Alkalies : Na2O K2O 2 Test Results Obtained 299. N/mm2.44 59. Table 2 gives the physical properties of sand used in this study.082 32 40 48 2.1989. m /kg Setting Time. % Compressive Strength. Table 1 highlights physical and chemical properties of 43 grade Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) used in this study.2. Table 1: Physical and Chemical Characteristics of 43 Grade Ordinary Portland Cement Sl No.80 0. minutes: Initial Final Soundness : Le Chatlier Exp. mm Autoclave Exp.26 2..1 Material Test Results Cement The results of cement are found complying with the Codal provision laid down in IS: 8112 .57 0.

35 Nil Test Value 2.Table 2: Physical Characteristics of Fine Aggregates Sl No.34 19.65 54. Table 3: Physical Characteristics of Coarse Aggregates Sl No.3.90% The coarse aggregate is found to comply with the single size grading as per IS: 383 -1970.36mm Percent Passing 96.40% 24.06% 16.36 mm 1.75 mm 2.30% 29% 32.33% Nil Nil 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Parameter/tests Specific gravity Water absorption Crushing value Impact value Abrasion value Soundness Flakiness Index (< 10 mm) Elongation Index (<10 mm) Sieve analysis Sieve Size 10 mm 4.75mm 2.73% 18. Physical characteristics of coarse aggregate are shown in Table 3.76% . Gravity Water absorption Sieve analysis Sieve Size 10 mm 4.18 mm 600 micron 300 micron 150 micron Pan 2.40% Nil Test Results 2.04 0.3 Coarse aggregate Percent Passing 100. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameter/Tests Silt content Clay lumps Organic impurities Sp.69 0.60 40.00 90.60 78.15 10.15 23.67 0.

80 2.63 82. . II & III are shown in Table 4.76 58.12 66.50 41.46 BA I BA II BA III 3.16 22.00 98.36 1.45 7.2 100.00 95.75 14.74 33.41 19.63 58.18 600micron 300micron 150micron Pan 1 2 3 4 5 6 Loss on Ignition Silica (SiO2) Iron oxide Aluminum oxide Calcium oxide (CaO) Magnesium oxide (MgO) BA I=Bottom Ash I BA II=Bottom Ash II BA III=Bottom Ash III 2.00 99.28 0.81 24. We also see that the compressive strength of concrete blocks using bottom ash decreases at early age but slightly increases further at 56 day & 90 day.17 1.58 4.10 0. Table 4: Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Bottom Ash Sl No.2 Sieve Analysis % Passing 100.48 3. we conclude that 30% replacement of bottom ash I.61 0. From these results.98 7. Gravity Lime reactivity (Kg/cm2) 4.00 98.11 19.12 16.69 1. 1 2 3 4 Test Physical Test Water absorption (%) Sp.75 94.3.e.0 3.00 2. II and III is shown in Table 5.00 95. there is further no substantial increase in compressive strength.75 2.2.80 62.90 2.70 92.62 90. When we see the results of higher replacement of bottom ash (i.00 1.00 100. >30%).19 21.34 0.0 100.40 72.81 1. II & III gives results of compressive strength almost similar to control concrete.29 0.00 0.00 Chemical Test 2.20 2.1 TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Compressive Strength The compressive strength of concrete blocks made with bottom ash I.4 Bottom Ash Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Bottom Ash I.00 46.

02 11.35 0.85 1.24 11.96 2.11 11.74 7. The density of concrete block is found to decrease with increase in percentage of bottom ash.01 10.23 3.02 3.0413 % 0. The drying shrinkage of all the three bottom ash samples using 30 %.26 3.50 4.44 3.12 3.76 4.01 2.53 10.0692 0.95 1.24 11.85 6.0720 0.2.57 0.74 Percentage Replacement of Bottom Ash with Sand 30% 40% 50% 7.98 10.0712 0.92 10.02 11.99 9. Unchahar (Source III) 3 7 28 56 3 7 28 56 3 7 28 56 Control Mix 7.24 11.47 2.12 2.74 4.0692 0.69 6.96 10.01 10.12 4.36 4.2.86 4. Table 6: Wet Density of Concrete Blocks (in Kg/m3) Bottom Ash BA-I BA-II BA-III 3.50 11.34 1.27 2.0413% 0.01 10.38 11.0746 Replacement Percentage 40% 0.0770 50% 0.2 30% 1925 1915 1954 Replacement Percentage 40% 1886 1868 1854 50% 1815 1794 1787 Control Mix 2000 2000 2000 Drying shrinkage of concrete block Drying Shrinkage tests on control mix and mix using bottom ash was conducted after 28 days of curing as per IS 2185 (Part II) – 1983.0817 0.02 11.Table 5: Compressive Strength of Concrete Blocks Compressive Strength at Different Age (Day) Using Bottom Ash–I for NTPC.0413 % .46 10.24 3.0714 0.02 2. The test results are shown in Table 7. 40 % & 50 % replacement by weight of sand is found to be higher than the control mix.0890 Control Mix 0.1 Wet Density & Drying Shrinkage of Concrete Block Wet density of concrete blocks Wet density of concrete blocks obtained on control mix (without bottom ash) and those obtained on mixes by replacement of sand with bottom ash is shown in Table 6. Unchahar (Source I) Using Bottom Ash–II for NTPC.89 2.2 3.74 7.47 3. Unchahar (Source II) Using Bottom Ash–III for NTPC. Table 7: Drying Shrinkage of Concrete Blocks Bottom Ash BA-I BA-II BA-III 30% 0. The drying shrinkage of course is found within the permissible limits of IS code.

4. BA – II & BA – III gives results of 28 days compressive strength almost similar to control concrete. 40% & 50% of bottom ash as compared to control concrete blocks without bottom ash. 8. REFERENCES P Aggarwal. Kurukshetra. IS: 8112 – 1989 Indian Standard Specification for 43 grade Ordinary Portland Cement IS:2185(Part II) – 1983 Indian Standard Specification for Concrete Masonry Units – Hollow and Solid Lightweight Concrete Blocks . N Utilisation of Type C Bottom Ash in Cement Based Concrete Mixtures. Wet Density of concrete blocks using bottom ash BA – I. 1999. Slug and Natural Pozzolana in Concrete. July 22-27. National Institute of Technology. pp. Pozzolanic Properties of Pulverized Coal Combustion Bottom ash. Natural sources for concrete”. pp 1387-1391. pp 121-130. 7. March – April 1998. Further R&D efforts are required on bottom ash after removal of fines to optimize the usage of bottom ash as alternative to sand for usage in different grades of concrete. Cavalcante R J and Pera J. 4. Cheriaf M. 1 (2007) Pages 49-62. Effect of Bottom Ash as Replacement of Fine Aggregates in Concrete. This is in line with the findings of the other authors as outlined in the literature survey carried out in NCB. Compressive Strength and Durability of Concrete Supplementary Papers. Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (Building and Housing) Vol. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Bottom Ash generally has higher fine particle content and higher water absorption. Ghafoori. 3. V95. Civil Engineering Department. Y Aggarwal. Chennai (Madras). 8. 5. Seventh CANMET/ACI International Conference on Fly Ash. IS: 383 – 1970 “Indian Standard Specification for coarse and fine aggregates from 2.0 1. For all the three sources of bottom ash. 40% & 50% replacement of sand with bottom ash is found to be lower than the concrete blocks without bottom ash.0 i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) 5. Drying shrinkage is found to be slightly higher in bottom ash samples prepared by cutting the concrete blocks samples using 30%. India. 30% replacement of sand with bottom ash is found meeting the strength requirement of IS: 2185. Annual Report. N and Cai &. Silica Fume. 2. No. Cement and Concrete Research 29. ACI Materials Journal. No. 55-76. 6. Test results of Compressive Strength of these concrete blocks shows that with 30% replacement of sand with bottom ash BA – I. Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. S M Gupta. BA – II and BA – III using 30%. Bai Y and Barheer P A M “Influence of Furnace Ash on Workability. May 1992. Material Technology Center. Laboratory – Made Roller Compacted Concretes Containing Dry Bottom Ash : Part I – Mechnical Properties. 2001 Ghafoori.