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Supurvised by:

Dr. Insaf

Done by:
Dina

K.S.A
Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty that
mainly affects reading and spelling. (1)

It's often associated with similar conditions


such as dyspraxia (difficulty coordinating
and organising thoughts and movements)
and dyscalculia (difficulty handling
numbers).(2)
It is characterized by difficulties in:
• processing word-sounds
• weaknesses in short-term verbal memory
• mathematics ability
• concentration
• personal organisation
• speed of processing information
• coordination and ability to think or do things in the
right order (sequencing).
• its effects may be seen in spoken language as well as
written language (2)
Dyslexic children's difficulties may become
apparent when they begin to learn to read.
However, many children show signs of
dyslexia before they learn to read. They
may be unexpectedly clumsy, or have
problems concentrating. There may also
be dyslexia in the family. (3)
• Clear differences in the way the brain is
wired up during development have been
found in dyslexics.
 These may result from abnormalities in a
particular class of ‘magnocellular’ nerve cell;
due to inheriting genes that make them
vulnerable to immune factors during
development of the brain and to deficiency of
essential 'omega-3' fatty acids. (4)
• have hearing problems (like an ear infection)
during learning time:
 could affect their language abilities.
 Could affect their ability to pick up reading
skills.
• visual problems (such as unstable or blurred
vision) can confuse children and make
reading very difficult.
• some children have problems
translating letters into the sounds they stand
for, and thence into their meaning.(4)
The central nervous system is highly enriched in
long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of
the omega-6 and omega-3 series.
The presence of these fatty acids as structural
components of neuronal membranes influences
cellular function both directly, through :
 effects on membrane properties
 and by acting as a precursor pool for lipid-
derived messengers.
An adequate intake of omega-3 PUFA is essential for
optimal visual function and neural development. (5)
Studies:
A 5-month
open study
with long-
chain
polyunsatu
rated fatty
acids in
dyslexia.(6)

Lindmark et al, 2007


pilot study investigated effects of a (DHA)-
rich supplement on learning ability in a
group of 20 dyslexic children in Sweden.
• Children formally diagnosed as dyslexic took
eight capsules per day of (LC-PUFA)
supplement containing high-DHA fish oil
and evening primrose oil.
• Subjective assessments by the children and
their parents were completed at baseline and
6, 12, and 20 weeks after supplementation.
Quantitative evaluation by word-chain test
was completed before and after 4 months of
supplementation to measure (speed of
reading) & (motoric-perceptual speed).
Significant improvements were observed in reading
speed and motor-perceptual velocity.
• Thirteen of 17 children had a significant
improvement on the word-chain test (P < .04).
• Reading speed improved by 60% from 1.76 +/-
0.29 before the study to 2.82 +/- 0.36 after
supplementation (P < .01).
• Motoric-perceptual velocity improved by 23%
from a stanine value of 3.76 +/- 0.42 to 4.65 +/-
0.66 after supplementation (P < .05 by).
A Randomized,
Controlled Trial
of Dietary
Supplementatio
n With Fatty
Acids in
Children With
Developmental
Coordination
Disorder (7)

Alexandra J. et al, 2005


• A randomized, controlled trial of dietary
supplementation with -3 and -6 fatty acids,
compared with placebo, was conducted
with 117 children with DCD (5–12 years of
age).
• Treatment for 3 months in parallel groups
was followed by a 1-way crossover from
placebo to active treatment for an
additional 3 months.
• No effect of treatment on motor skills was
apparent
• but significant improvements for active
treatment versus placebo were found in
reading, spelling, and behavior over 3
months of treatment in parallel groups.
• After the crossover, similar changes were
seen in the placebo-active group, whereas
children continuing with active treatment
maintained or improved their progress.
Fatty acid supplementation may offer a safe
efficacious treatment option for
educational and behavioral problems
among children with DCD.
As a matter of fact dyslexics are very
intelligent and talented
individuals. Here are just a few to
consider.

• Albert Einstein : 1921 Nobel Peace


Prize winner in Physics for Theoretical
Physics and Relativity
• Leonardo de vinci
• Muhammad ali : World Heavyweight
Champion Boxer
• Walt Disney : Cartoonist and creator of
the Disney theme parks. (8)
(1) http://www.dyslexiaaction.org.uk/Page.aspx?PageId=26
(2) http://hcd2.bupa.co.uk/fact_sheets/html/Dyslexia.html#3
(3)Dyslexia reaserch trust. http://www.dyslexic.org.uk/aboutdyslexia4.htm
(4)Dyslexia reaserch trust. http://www.dyslexic.org.uk/aboutdyslexia2.htm
(5)British nutrition fundation.
http://www.nutrition.org.uk/home.asp?siteId=43&sectionId=1432&subSu
bSectionId=1421&subSectionId=336&parentSection=302&which=9#1935
(6)Lindmark et al, A 5-month open study with long-chain polyunsaturated
fatty acids in dyslexia. Journal of midicinal
food.2007 Dec;10(4):662-6
(7)Alexandra J et al, A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Dietary
Supplementation With Fatty Acids in Children With Developmental
Coordination Disorder. PEDIATRICS . 2005; 115 (5):1360-1366
(8) http://www.dyslexia.com/qafame.htm