11 views

Uploaded by Mark Lu

cs

- AOP T2
- 08np Complete
- Google Technical Interview Prep _ Trello
- Assignment4_ 1819
- Mit Exercise paper 1
- Theory of Comp
- My Battle City Version
- Dr. R. Shanmugam
- ALG1.1
- Parametric LP
- Class 3.2 - SandyPrati - C#.NET - Programs - Console Applications
- Csa Brochure
- Pricing
- Lesson Plan DAA
- If
- Tree Traversal
- Dynamic Recovery over Large Scale Graph-Structured Data with Subgraphs
- thrilokproject2
- MELJUN CORTES Automata Theory 12
- 12312311213123

You are on page 1of 5

Theorem: Every regular language is accepted by some nite automaton. Proof: We proceed by induction on the (length of/structure of) the description of the regular language. We need to show that is accepted by a nite automaton Easy: build an automaton where no input ever reaches a nal state is accepted by a nite automaton Easy: an automaton where the initial state accepts each x I is accepted by a nite automaton Easy: an automaton with two states, where x leads from s0 to a nal state. if A and B are accepted, so is AB Proof: Suppose that MA = (SA, I, fA, sA, FA) accepts A and MB = (SB , I, fB , sB , FB ) accepts B . Suppose that MA and MB and NFAs, and SA and SB are disjoint (without loss of generality). Idea: We hook MA and MB together.

1

+ Let NFS MAB = (SA SB , I, fAB , sA, FB ), where FB FA if B ; + FB = F otherwise B t fAB (s, i) if either s SA and t fA(s), or s SB and t fB (s), or s FA and t fB (sB ).

Idea: given input xy AB , the machine guesses when to switch from running MA to running MB . MAB accepts AB . if A and B are accepted, so is A B . MAB = (SASB {s0}, I, fAB , s0, FAB ), where s0 is a new state, not in SA SB fA(s) if s SA f ( s ) if s SB fAB (s) = B f (s ) f (s ) if s = s A A B B 0 FA FB {s0 } if A B FAB = F otherwise. A FB MAB accepts A B .

if A is accepted, so is A. MA = (SA {s0}, I, fA , s0, FA {s0}), where s0 is a new state, not in SA; f (s) if s SA FA; A f ( s ) f ( s ) if s FA; fA (s) = A A A f (s ) if s = s0 A A MA accepts A .

A Non-Regular Language

Not every language is regular (which means that not every language can be accepted by a nite automaton). Theorem: L = {0n1n : n = 0, 1, 2, . . .} is not regular. Proof: Suppose, by way of contradiction, that L is regular. Then there is a DFA M = (S, {0, 1}, f, s0, F ) that accepts L. Suppose that M has N states. Let s0, . . . , s2N be the set of states that M goes through on input 0N 1N Thus f (si, 0) = si+1 for i = 0, . . . , N . Since M has N states, by the pigeonhole principle (remember that?), at least two of s0, . . . , sN must be the same. Suppose its si and sj , where i < j , and j i = t. Claim: M accepts 0N 0t1N , and 0N 02t1N , ON 03t1N . Proof: Starting in s0, Oi brings the machine to si; another 0t bring the machine back to si (since sj = si+t = si); another 0t bring machine back to si again. After going around the loop for a while, the can continue to sN and accept.

The techniques of the previous proof generalize. If M is a DFA and x is a string accepted by M such that |x| |S | |S | is the number of states; |x| is the length of x then there are strings u, v , w such that x = uvw, |uv | |S |, |v | 1, uv iw is accepted by M , for i = 0, 1, 2, . . .. The proof is the same as on the previous slide. x was 0n1n, u = 0i, v = 0t, w = 0N ti1N . We can use the Pumping Lemma to show that many langauges are not regular {1

n2

Finite automata are very simple machines. They have no memory Roughly speaking, they cant count beyond the number of states they have. Pushdown automata have states and a stack which provides unlimited memory. They can recognize all languages generated by contextfree grammars (CFGs) CFGs are typically used to characterize the syntax of programming languages They can recognize the language {0n1n : n = 0, 1, 2, . . .}, but not the language L = {0n1n2n : n = 0, 1, 2, . . .} Linear bounded automata can recognize L . More generally, they can recognize context-sensitive grammars (CSGs) CSGs are (almost) good enough to characterize the grammar of real langugaes (like English)

: n = 0, 1, 2, . . .}: homework

Most general of all: Turing machine (TM) Given a computable language, there is a TM that accepts it. This is essentially how we dene computability. If youre interested in these issues, take CS 3810!

Coverage of Final

everything covered by the rst prelim emphasis on more recent material Chapter 4: Fundamental Counting Methods Permutations and combinations Combinatorial identities Pascals triangle Binomial Theorem (but not multinomial theorem) Balls and urns Inclusion-exclusion Pigeonhole principle Chapter 6: Probability: 6.16.5 (but not inverse binomial distribution) basic denitions: probability space, events conditional probability, independence, Bayes Thm. random variables uniform and binomial distribution expected value and variance

Chapter 7: Logic: 7.17.4, 7.6, 7.7; *not* 7.5 translating from English to propositional (or rstorder) logic truth tables and axiomatic proofs algorithm verication rst-order logic Chapter 3: Graphs and Trees basic terminology: digraph, dag, degree, multigraph, path, connected component, clique Eulerian and Hamiltonian paths algorithm for telling if graph has Eulerian path BFS and DFS bipartite graphs graph coloring and chromatic number graph isomorphism Finite State Automata describing nite state automata regular langauges and nite state automata nondeterministic vs. deterministic automata pumping lemma (understand what its saying)

9

Some Bureuacracy

The nal is on Friday, May 15, 2-4:30 PM, in Olin 155 If you have a conict and havent told me, let me know now Also tell me the courses and professors involved (with emails) Also tell the other professors Oce hours go on as usual during study week, but check the course web site soon. There may be small changes to accommodate the TAs exams There will be two review sessions: May 12 (7 PM) and May 13 (4:45)

10

Optimization: Understand which improvements are worth it. Probabilistic methods: Flipping a coin can be surprisingly helpful!

Counting: Count without counting (combinatorics) Induction: Recognize it in all its guises. Exemplication: Find a sense in which you can try out a problem or solution on small examples. Abstraction: Abstract away the inessential features of a problem. One possible way: represent it as a graph Modularity: Decompose a complex problem into simpler subproblems. Representation: Understand the relationships between dierent possible representations of the same information or idea. Graphs vs. matrices vs. relations Renement: The best solutions come from a process of repeatedly rening and inventing alternative solutions. Toolbox: Build up your vocabulary of abstract structures.

11

12

Suppose we have a random graph with n vertices. How likely is it to be connected? What is a random graph? If it has n vertices, there are C (n, 2) possible edges, and 2C (n,2) possible graphs. What fraction of them is connected? One way of thinking about this. Build a graph using a random process, that puts each edge in with probability 1/2. Given three vertices a, b, and c, whats the probability that there is an edge between a and b and between b and c? 1/4 What is the probability that there is no path of length 2 between a and c? (3/4)n2 What is the probability that there is a path of length 2 between a and c? 1 (3/4)n2 What is the probability that there is a path of length 2 between a and every other vertex? > (1(3/4)n2)n1

13

Now use the binomial theorem to compute (1(3/4)n2)n1 (1 (3/4)n2)n1 = 1 (n 1)(3/4)n2 + C (n 1, 2)(3/4)2(n2) + For suciently large n, this will be (just about) 1. Bottom line: If n is large, then it is almost certain that a random graph will be connected. Theorem: [Fagin, 1976] If P is any property expressible in rst-order logic, it is either true in almost all graphs, or false in almost all graphs. This is called a 0-1 law.

14

Suppose you wanted to query a database. How do you do it? Modern database query language date back to SQL (structured query language), and are all based on rst-order logic. The idea goes back to Ted Codd, who invented the notion of relational databases. Suppose youre a travel agent and want to query the airline database about whether there are ights from Ithaca to Santa Fe. How are cities and ights between them represented? How do we form this query? Youre actually asking whether there is a path from Ithaca to Santa Fe in the graph. This fact cannot be expressed in rst-order logic!

(No details here; just a rough sketch of the ideas. Take CS 3810/4820 if you want more.) NP = nondeterministic polynomial time a language (set of strings) L is in NP if, for each x L, you can guess a witness y showing that x L and quickly (in polynomial time) verify that its correct. Examples: Does a graph have a Hamiltonian path? guess a Hamiltonian path Is a formula satisable? guess a satisfying assignment Is there a schedule that satises certain constraints? ... Formally, L is in NP if there exists a language L such that 1. x L i there exists a y such that (x, y ) L , and 2. checking if (x, y ) L can be done in polynomial time

15

16

NP-completeness

A problem is NP-hard if every NP problem can be reduced to it. A problem is NP-complete if it is in NP and NP-hard Intuitively, if it is one of the hardest problems in NP. There are lots of problems known to be NP-complete If any NP complete problem is doable in polynomial time, then they all are. Hamiltonian path satisability scheduling ... If you can prove P = NP, youll get a Turing award.

17

- AOP T2Uploaded byHelen Chou
- 08np CompleteUploaded byHusna Rosli
- Google Technical Interview Prep _ TrelloUploaded bySiddharth Tiwari
- Assignment4_ 1819Uploaded byHanif Kelate
- Mit Exercise paper 1Uploaded byCălin Gabriel
- Theory of CompUploaded byRavi BizVision
- My Battle City VersionUploaded byJohn Paul A. Balagolan
- Dr. R. ShanmugamUploaded byilasundaram
- ALG1.1Uploaded byraw.junk
- Parametric LPUploaded byAjay Kumar Agarwal
- Class 3.2 - SandyPrati - C#.NET - Programs - Console ApplicationsUploaded byranjithgottimukkala
- Csa BrochureUploaded byRohitGupta
- PricingUploaded bysudhikushwah
- Lesson Plan DAAUploaded byNithyasri Arumugam
- IfUploaded bysudhaa
- Tree TraversalUploaded byapi-3741719
- Dynamic Recovery over Large Scale Graph-Structured Data with SubgraphsUploaded byIRJET Journal
- thrilokproject2Uploaded bypreetham
- MELJUN CORTES Automata Theory 12Uploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA
- 12312311213123Uploaded byteh
- Lecture 11Uploaded byDuaa Al-Hasan
- COS3751-201-2-2017.pdfUploaded byFreePDFs
- Tutorial 3 SolutionUploaded byChongZiShan
- HR Date Wise Leave Report ProgramUploaded byMukesh Sharma
- codeLibrary-MadhattansUploaded byee12b056
- Fortram Example CodeUploaded bySam Hardey
- hw2.psUploaded bySoham Panigrahi
- Floorplan design of VLSIUploaded byAtul Prakash Dwivedi
- Machine Learning in Complex NetworksUploaded byShahbaz MOgal
- 1. What Are ANNs? What Are Their Characteristics, Applications, AdvantagesUploaded byJustin Cook

- 22 November-16-18Uploaded byMark Lu
- 24 November 30Uploaded byMark Lu
- 28 Exam SolutionsUploaded byMark Lu
- cs2800 notes14Uploaded byMark Lu
- 27 December 09Uploaded byMark Lu
- Homework 5Uploaded byMark Lu
- FirstUploaded byMark Lu
- Homework 3Uploaded byMark Lu
- 26 December 07Uploaded byMark Lu
- Tensor TransformationsUploaded byMark Lu
- 23 November 20Uploaded byMark Lu
- Homework 2Uploaded byMark Lu
- 25 December 02Uploaded byMark Lu
- Homework 1Uploaded byMark Lu
- Homework 4Uploaded byMark Lu
- 15 October 28Uploaded byMark Lu
- 12 October 16Uploaded byMark Lu
- 20 November 11Uploaded byMark Lu
- 17 November 04Uploaded byMark Lu
- 13 October 19Uploaded byMark Lu
- 10 October 09Uploaded byMark Lu
- 8 October 2Uploaded byMark Lu
- 21 November 13Uploaded byMark Lu
- 14 October 23Uploaded byMark Lu
- 19 November 09Uploaded byMark Lu
- 9 October 5Uploaded byMark Lu
- 18 November 06Uploaded byMark Lu
- 16 November 02Uploaded byMark Lu
- 11 October 14Uploaded byMark Lu

- CCNA 4 Chapter 7 V4.0 AnswersUploaded byccnadiscovery4
- Lista KIP Wide FormatUploaded byTécnico Impresoras
- 1657615686xii_computer_sc.docUploaded byPragya Pandya
- MFMP Vs ECMP Under RED Queue ManagementUploaded byAI Coordinator - CSC Journals
- University Admission System AbstractUploaded byTelika Ramu
- 89 Sample SchemaUploaded byapi-3702030
- SAS _IntegrationGuide Apache HTTP Server SAMLUploaded byWalter Blok
- Nvcc Tutorial Opnet It GuruUploaded byAshish Srivastav
- Creacion Disco WifislaxUploaded byRaul
- Lost Saga Edition Computer Rules! _ GMSarli GamesUploaded byCaleb Reinhardt
- Dm 1310datastage PDFUploaded byrajeshdatastage
- Kcpe Reg Manual 2012Uploaded byKimutai Kirui Alphonce
- ASP.NET(faqs).docUploaded bySrinivas Malliboina
- Interbase 6.0 and Firebird Pre 1.0 Language ReferenceUploaded byMarius Popa
- Cse 3290 Programming in Java.docx(Modified)Uploaded byAbhijan Carter Biswas
- Best Practices for Repository Migration From SAP Netweaver MDM 5.5 to SAP NetWeaver MDM 7.1Uploaded byBruno Oliveira
- CE Specializations (02 Jun 2016)Uploaded byJordanMuselemaSichalwe
- CP R75 QOS AdminGuideUploaded byAlvaro Auza Barrios
- FlexLDPC-FEC-White-Paper-from-Datum-Systems.pdfUploaded bySyste Desig
- The Role of Computers in Different FieldsUploaded byreemarifkhan
- ACCPRIN Assignment for ThursdayUploaded byKioshi Na
- Windows 2008R2 Server Hardening ChecklistUploaded byEdgar Godoy
- DATA MINING EXAMPLE(USING WEKA)Uploaded byHeenaAggarwal
- UNITwise IASQUploaded byAjay Krish
- HP ML.pdfUploaded bywing4411
- Any Path RoutingUploaded byNeha Shrivastava
- SAP HANA Database SQL Command Network Protocol EnUploaded bynotmelbrooks
- Scikit Learn DocsUploaded bygabbu_
- Selfcare Portal GuideUploaded bysure2k
- IS-U Add Further Fields BAUploaded byBuram Jaya Chandra