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Faraday's Law of Induction and Lenz' Law

Faradays law of induction states that the EMF induced by a change in magnetic flux is EMF = - dI!dt " when flux changes by #$ in a time #t%

Lenz' Law
(a) When this bar magnet is thrust into the coil, the strength of the magnetic field increases in the coil. The current induced in the coil creates another field, in the opposite direction of the bar magnets to oppose the increase. This is one aspect of Lenzs lawinduction opposes any change in flu . (b) and (c) are two other situations. !erify for yourself that the direction of the induced "coil shown indeed opposes the change in flu and that the current direction shown is consistent with the right hand rule.

&ey 'oints

The minus in the #araday$s law means that the %&# creates a current ' and magnetic field " that oppose the change in flu ()this is *nown as Lenz law. #araday$s law of induction is the fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators, and solenoids. #aradays law states that the %&# induced by a change in magnetic flu depends on the change in flu (), time (t, and number of turns of coils.

(erms

electromoti+e force (%&#)The +oltage generated by a battery or by the magnetic force according to #araday$s Law. 't is measured in units of +olts, not newtons, and thus, is not actually a force.

solenoid , coil of wire that acts as a magnet when an electric current flows through it.

flu The rate of transfer of energy (or another physical -uantity) through a gi+en surface, specifically electric flu or magnetic flu .

Faraday's Law of Induction


#araday$s law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism that predicts how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromoti+e force (%&#). 't is the fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators, and solenoids. #aradays e periments showed that the %&# induced by a change in magnetic flu depends on only a few factors. #irst, %&# is directly proportional to the change in flux #$. .econd, %&# is greatest when the change in time #t is smallestthat is, %&# is in+ersely proportional to (t. #inally, if a coil has turns, an %&# will be produced that is / times greater than for a single coil, so that %&# is directly proportional to /. The e-uation for the %&# induced by a change in magnetic flu is %&# 0 1/ d'2dt This relationship is *nown as Faradays law of induction. The units for %&# are +olts, as is usual.

Lenz' Law
The minus sign in #aradays law of induction is +ery important. The minus means that the %&# creates a current ' and magnetic field " that oppose the change in flu ()this is *nown as Lenz law. The direction (gi+en by the minus sign) of the %&# is so important that it is called Lenz law after the 3ussian 4einrich Lenz (5678956:;), who, li*e #araday and 4enry, independently in+estigated aspects of induction. #araday was aware of the direction, but Lenz stated it, so he is credited for its disco+ery (#igure 5).

Energy Conservation
Lenz law is a manifestation of the conser+ation of energy. The induced %&# produces a current that opposes the change in flu , because a change in flu means a change in energy. %nergy can enter or lea+e, but not instantaneously. Lenz law is a conse-uence. ,s the change begins, the law says induction opposes and, thus, slows the change. 'n fact, if the induced %&# were in the same direction as the change in flu , there would be a positi+e feedbac* that would gi+e us free energy from no apparent sourceconser+ation of energy would be +iolated.