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TRAINING PROGRAMME ON DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION LINES, STRUCTURES AND FOUNDATIONS CEB ENGINEERS By

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Steps are required to perform tower spotting using PLS CADD Software f installation ll Setting preferences Defining Feature codes Generating cable files Generating criteria files Generating structure files getting data from site and generating XYZ file Defining line alignment Adding structures Adding section (stringing wire) Plotting files Generating stringing files

Software installation

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Setting Preferences

Defining feature codes

Before generating a terrain file, one should decide on broad categories of terrain or obstacle points which have unique requirements. These requirements include minimum code clearances to be met above or to the side of the points as well as symbols to be used to display these points on the screen or on the final drawings. Code clearances depend on the voltage of particular conductors. A separate feature code must be created for each category of terrain or obstacle points. These feature codes must be defined in the project feature code file before they can be used in a terrain file. Feature code files use the .fea extension.

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Defining feature codes Terrain / Feature Code Data / Edit command or loaded from existing feature code tables with Terrain / Feature Code Data / Load FEA File. The feature code used to define the ground clearance line is specified in the Terrain / Feature Code Data / Ground Clearance Feature Code dialog.

Creating or editing cable files

This is done in the g Cable Data dialog box (see Figure 97 and 9.10) which you reach with Sections / Edit Cable Data. For example, the data for a Drake conductor is permanently stored in the file named Drake.

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Cables in bundles

Design criteria

Design criteria that can be used and checked with PLSCADD. The design criteria are selected in the Criteria menus. A set of criteria can be saved in a single file, file which has the .cri extension.

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Design criteria

Weather cases

Criteria file can be developed in standard libraries to be shared among various projects. or they can be developed only for a specific project. When you save a project, the criteria in use at the time of saving are saved in the file Project.cri. If standard criteria already exist in a file Standard.cri, all you need to do to use them in a new project is to load St d d i with Standard.cri ith Criteria C it i / Load L d CRI. CRI This action will copy all the data in Standard.cri into the new project criteria file project.cri. If, after having developed some criteria, you want to save them to become part of a permanent library; you can do so with the Criteria / Save CRI command.

Many strength and serviceability (clearances) criteria assume that the line is subjected to a given combination of wind, ice (or snow) and temperature. temperature Such a combination is defined herein as a "weather case". In PLS-CADD, all cable sags and tensions calculations, and consequently all loads and clearance calculations, are made for designated weather cases. All weather cases which will be used in a particular design must be described in the Weather Cases table which you reach with Criteria / Weather.

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Weather cases

Weather cases There are usually a number of conditions for checking vertical, lateral and galloping clearances. For checking the cables, the conditions may include: 1) the NESC combination, 2) no ice and no wind at an everyday temperature, etc. Therefore, for a given project, the Project.cri file may contain a substantial number of weather cases. Note: The weather cases, which come from the Demo.cri file, are provided for illustration purposes only and should not be used in connection with actual projects.

A weather cases table typically includes a group of weather cases for checking the strength of the structures, a group for g various g geometric clearances ( (to g ground, , blow out , checking between phases, swings, etc.), and a group for checking ground wires and conductors tensions. It also includes the weather case assumed to cause creep, the heavy load case which potentially causes permanent stretch of the various cables, and various weather cases needed for displaying the cables at various temperatures. For example, the conditions for checking structures may include: 1) an NESC combination 2) an extreme wind condition, 3) an extreme ice condition with some reduced wind, and 4) an extreme cold condition.

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STRUCTURES

One of the very powerful and unique features of PLS-CADD is its ability to treat structures as "objects" which can be located, deleted or moved on the terrain at the click of the mouse. mouse The "structure object" contains not only the information necessary to locate in 3D, all the cable attachment points, but also some pointers to the algorithms or programs which will check the structure strength at its particular location. PLS-CADD currently structure strength. supports four methods of checking

STRUCTURES The structure file also contains data on its insulators and its various parts and sub-assemblies.

The "structure object" is described in a structure file. The structure file therefore concentrates in a single location all the geometric and mechanical design information that pertains to a given structure type and height.

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Structure strength There are four different methods for describing the strength of a structure in PLS-CADD. The particular method which should be used is specified in the structure file. Therefore, when a structure is selected from the library of available a a ab structures, u u , the method by which the structure will be analyzed for strength adequacy is already prescribed.

XYZ Terrain Model

PLS-CADD uses two terrain models. The XYZ model includes points described by their global coordinates X X, Y, Y and Z. Z The PFL model includes points described by their Station (cumulative distance from an arbitrary reference point along the centerline of the line), Offset (lateral distance from the centerline) and elevation, Z.

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XYZ Terrain Model

XYZ Terrain Model You can create a new XYZ file manually by going through the following steps: 1) Go to the Open PLS-CADD Project dialog box with File / New and type in the name of the XYZ file for your new project, for example Newproj.xyz, 2) Associate a feature code table to the project by loading an existing feature code list with Terrain / Feature Code Data/ Load FEA File or enter your own list with Terrain / Feature Code Data/ Edit, and 3) Go to the Edit XYZ Data dialog shown in Figure D-2 with Terrain / Edit / Edit XYZ.

PLS-CADD can create a PFL model from an XYZ input and a defined Alignment or an XYZ model from a PFL input. A typical ground point "P" and the top of an obstacle "O" in an XYZ model. The data for a ground point in the XYZ model include the feature code, an optional point label or description, the point global coordinates X, Y, Z, and a zero obstacle height (h = 0). For an obstacle described by its height above a ground point (Obstacle Option 1) the data include the obstacle feature code, the optional obstacle label or description, the global coordinates X, Y, Z of the ground point directly below the obstacle, and the height of the obstacle top above the ground.

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Alignment

Spotting structures Once you have defined an alignment for a new project, you should use Windows / New Window / Profile View to open a Profile view where you will do the structure spotting. Whether you select a new structure or modify an existing one, you will be taken to the Structure Selection box as shown here.

The alignment of a line needs to be defined before any engineering can be performed. In the plan view, the alignment consists of straight line segments between PI points (Points of Inflection). If you start with an XYZ terrain model, the alignment is defined in the plan view by selecting the alignment points or corners. This is not required when using a PFL t terrain i model d l since i th the alignment li ti is implied. All functions necessary to create or edit an alignment are available under the Terrain / Alignment menu.

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Spotting structures To spot a structure on the profile, select Structures / Add and then click where you want to place the structure. A black stick tracking the mouse cursor shows the spotting location with the corresponding station displayed in the lower status bar. Do not try to select an exact station with the mouse as there is a much easier and precise way to do it in the Structure Modify dialog box. Once you have selected a structure in the Structure File Selection box, you are taken to the Structure Modify dialog box. You can also get to the Structure Modify dialog box at any time using structures / Modify.

Spotting structures Structures / Move let you move a structure on the centerline. Select the structure to be moved with the mouse and you drag it to its you move a structure, , the wind span p of the structure new location. As y immediately to its left, that of the structure you are moving, and that of the structure immediately to its right are indicated in the bottom status bar. If the structure is a Method 1 structure, then the percent of wind span used, i.e. the ratio of actual wind span to allowable is also shown. This is an extremely useful feature for interactive spotting. Click on the right h mouse button b to get out of f Move mode. d As mentioned before, you can fine tune the structure station at any time in the Structure Modify dialog box. If you want to move a structure exactly at the location of a terrain point you should use Structures / Move On. This is the best option for locating structures at line angles.

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Ground wires and conductors installation

Ground wires and conductors installation

Once structures are spotted on the alignment, they can potentially be used to support as many cables (or bundles of ) as they y have cable attachment p points. cables) Since the line model generally includes all cables in all spans, PLS-CADD offers a series of commands for efficiently stringing and sagging cables. Because all the cables within one cable set have identical properties and tensions, the set, but not individual cables, is strung t and d sagged. d Cable sets are part of tension sections. Each tension section is strung and sagged separately.

A tension section must have a beginning (at a structure deadend attachment point), an end (at a dead-end attachment point ), and it may y be supported pp by y of another structure down the line), intermediate structures at non-dead-end attachment points. A tension section can pass over an intermediate structure, for example a high voltage circuit can pass over a short mid-span distribution pole. Stringing is the operation that establishes the structure connections ti f all for ll the th cables bl i a set in t from f b i i beginning t end to d of f the tension section. Sagging is the operation of tensioning the section to a prescribed value. Both stringing and sagging are fully described below.

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Ground wires and conductors installation Click on Sections / Add to start stringing. Then click on the leftmost structure (Structure #6) of the new section that you wish to create. The Section Stringing dialog box will appear.

Ground wires and conductors installation You should then pick from the list of still available structure Attachment sets the set from which you want to string. For example, example select Attachment Set No. No 5 to start stringing the lowest phase of the right circuit (a "kiwi" conductor). Since the silhouette of Structure #6 in the box of Figure 10.3-1 is displayed as it appears to an observer marching down the line before he reaches that structure, you are able to select attachment points without ambiguity, even if a structure is rotated as is the case with Structure #6. Then click on the Next button at the bottom of the dialog to bring the kiwi conductors to Structure #7. Had you selected "None" in the Attachment set field, the conductors would not be connected to Structure #7. This is the way to bypass an intermediate structure along the alignment. Then click on the Next button three more time and select Attachment set No. 8 to connect to Structures #8, #9 and #10.

It will initially y be displayed p y with a small size, , but you y can increase its size by clicking repeatedly on the maximizing button at the top right of the dialog box. If the structure where you start stringing is a Method 4 structure (or other types with models initially prepared by our PLS-POLE or TOWER programs), a sketch of that structure will appear in the right portion of the Section Stringing box (see Figure 10.3-1) with each attachment point displayed with its set and phase number.

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PLAN & PROFILE DRAWINGS Plan and Profile sheets (P&P) are produced automatically by PLS-CADD, according to user specified parameters. You have complete flexibility in choosing scales and page appearance as demonstrated here. The drawings can be sent directly to printer, or exported as DXF files readable by most CAD systems (AutoCAD, Micro Station) for further enhancements., or can be converted to PDF on your web site as a truly universal way to share them with all interested parties.

As you click on Next while at Structure #10, the program senses that you have connected the conductor to a dead-end attachment point, g the end of the tension section. indicating A small Create box appears where you click on Yes to complete the stringing. You are taken to library of cables where you select the type "kiwi". Once the cable type is selected, selected your newly strung section appears & are taken directly to the Section Modify dialog box where you can sag the section and select parameters for its display.

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PLAN & PROFILE DRAWINGS

PLAN & PROFILE DRAWINGS

P&P sheets can be printed directly, sent to a CAD system for further work or sent to a web site with other design documents for immediate sharing with others in your design / construction team. To print drawings, select File / Print. You ave two choices. A printout of the current picture on the screen can be obtained by selecting yes in the Screen Dump dialog or you can print any number of scaled plan and profile sheets by selecting No and choosing the proper parameters in the subsequent dialogs.

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PLAN & PROFILE DRAWINGS

Our connection with CAD systems is exclusively through the DXF format. To export your drawing to a CAD system, select File / Export / DXF. After specifying a file name, you will be asked about your destination CAD system (AutoCAD (R) or Micro station (R)) and about whether you want to export a 2- dimensional or a 3dimensional file. A 3-d file export is only applicable to a 3-d view or a structure view. Therefore you should select 2-dimensional. You will also be asked whether to include all sheets in a single CAD drawing or to have one separate CAD drawing for each sheet.

T H A N K S
B. B. SHAH SUJAL SHAH KAUSHAL bbshah@kalpatarupower.com sujal@kalpatarupower.com kaushal.thakkar@kalpatarupower.com