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Multivariable calculus tutorial solution 2

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You are on page 1of 5

AY2013/2014

SOLUTION SET 2

(Q1) (i) The inversions of are

(1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 5), (1, 6), (2, 3), (2, 6), (4, 5), (4, 6).

Thus N () = 8 and sgn() = (1)N () = 1.

(ii) See Example 2.4.

1 2 3

1 2 3

1 =

,

2 =

,

1 2 3

1 3 2

1 2 3

1 2 3

4 =

,

5 =

,

2 3 1

3 1 2

3 =

6 =

1 2 3

2 1 3

1 2 3

3 2 1

,

.

det(A) = sgn(1 )A1,1 (1) A2,1 (2) A3,1 (3) + sgn(2 )A1,2 (1) A2,2 (2) A3,2 (3) +

+ sgn(6 )A1,6 (1) A2,6 (2) A3,6 (3)

=A1,1 A2,2 A3,3 A1,1 A2,3 A3,2 A1,2 A2,1 A3,3 + A1,2 A2,3 A3,1 + A1,3 A2,1 A3,2 A1,3 A2,2 A3,1

=aei af h bdi + bf g + cdh ceg.

(Q2) (i) It is just a routine application of elementary row operations.

2 1 0 E3,2 ( 1 ) 2 1

0

2 1 0 E3,1 ( 1 ) 2 1 0

E2,1 (1)

2

8

A = 2 5 2 2 5 2 0 4 2 0 4 2 = A0

1 1 0

0 21 0

0 21 0

0

0 14

Applying Exercise 2.10 (i) and 2.13 (ii) gives us

1

1

0

det (E2,1 (1)) det E3,1

det(A) = det(A).

2 = det(A ) = det E3,2

8

2

(ii) We may, first, do

in part (i) to get

2 1 0

2 5 2

B=

1 1 0

0

0 0

0

0 0

2 1

0

0

4

2

E3,2 ( 18 )E2,1 (1)E3,1 ( 12 )

0

0 14

0

2 1

0

0

1 1

0

0

0

2 1

0

0

4

2

E5,4 ( 21 )

0

0 14

0

=B

0

0

0 2 1

0

0

0 0 32

1

2 1

1 1

1

1

1

6 = det(B ) = det E5,4

det E3,2

det (E2,1 (1)) det E3,1

det(B) = det(B).

2

8

2

0

A1 . . .

0 A2

A=

.

.

..

..

0 0 Ak

(iii) Same as part (i) and (ii), it is left to you.

(Q3) We may either use the multi-linear property of determinant or definition. By multi-linear

property, in each step, you factor out the constant factor r from a particular row and there

are n rows of them. By definition, (rA)ij = rAij ,

det(rA) =

Sn

Sn

= rn

Sn

= rn det(A).

(Q4) The easiest example I can probably think of is

A=

1 0

0 0

, B=

0 0

0 1

.

(Q5) For this question, you have to know what a reduced row echelon form is. Since everyone

knows row operations pretty well, I will combine some operations together.

1

2 1 0

1 2 1 0

1 0 5 6

E2,1 (1)E3,2 (1)

E3,2 (1)E1,3 (1)

A = 1 0 3 5 0 2 4 5 0 2 4 5

1 2 1 1

0 2 4 6

0 0 8 11

1 0 5

T3 (1/8)T2 (1/2)

0 1 2

0 0 1

1 0 0 87

5 E1,3 (1)E2,3 (1)

0 1 0 41 = R.

2

11

0 0 1 11

8

8

6

The matrix E is the product of the elementary matrices involved above (yes, it is tedious...).

((AB)> )ij = (AB)ji

m

X

=

Ajk Bki

=

k=1

m

X

>

A>

kj Bik

k=1

m

X

> >

Bik

Akj

k=1

>

= (B A> )ij .

(AB Y Z)> = ((AB Y )Z)> = Z > (AB Y )> = = Z > Y > B > A> .

(Q7) (i) Since BB 1 = In , we have 1 = det(In ) = det(BB 1 ) = det(B) det(B 1 ). Thus

det(B 1 ) = det(B)1 .

(ii) Use Question 6 to get

In = In> = (BB 1 )> = (B 1 )> B > .

This show that (B 1 )> is the inverse of B > ; namely (B > )1 = (B 1 )> .

(iii) Use part (i).

det(BAB 1 ) = det(B) det(A) det(B 1 ) = det(B) det(A) det(B)1 = det(A),

det(ZY BAB 1 Y 1 Z 1 ) = det(Z(Y BAB 1 Y 1 )Z 1 )

= det(Y BAB 1 Y 1 )

..

.

= det(A).

(Q8) This is a routine exercise. We only compute adj(A) and A1 . Let us make sure that A is

invertible by showing that det(A) 6= 0. Using Laplace expansion of the determinant of A

along third column, we have

2 1

(2,3)

2+3

det(A) = 2 A

= 2(1) det

= 2 6= 0.

1 1

Recall that A(i,j) = (1)i+j Mij and adj(A)ij = A(j,i) . For instance,

1 0

(2,1)

2+1

adj(A)1,2 = A

= (1) det

= 0,

1 0

1 0

(3,1)

3+1

adj(A)1,3 = A

= (1) det

= 2.

5 2

Once you have obtained the adjugate matrix adj(A) of A. Then, since det(A) 6= 0, we have

1 0 1

2 0 2

1

1

2 0 4 = 1 0 2 .

adj(A) =

A1 =

det(A)

2 3 1 8

3 1 4

2

(1, 2), (1, 4), (1, 5), (2, 4), (3, 4), (3, 5), (3, 6).

Thus N () = 7 and sgn() = 1.

(2.10 (i)) Ea,b (r) and Ta (r) are triangular matrices. Thus det(Ea,b (r)) = 1 and det(Ta (r)) = r. The

determinant of Sa,b is 1.

(2.13) (i) The fact that det(Sa,b ) = 1 is because after swapping the ath and bth row of Sa,b we

obtain the identity matrix. According to the skew-symmetric property, we have

a b

det(Sa,b ) = sgn

det(In ) = (1)1 1 = 1.

b a

(ii)

R1

R1

.

.

..

.

.

det(Ea,b (r)A) = det Ra + r Rb = det Ra + r det Rb = det(A) + r 0 = det(A)

.

.

..

..

..

.

Rn

Rn

Rn

R1

..

.

Since also det(Ea,b (r)) = 1, we have det(Ea,b (r)A) = det(A) = det(Ea,b (r)) det(A).

Let

R1

..

.

Ra

.

A = det

.. .

R

b

.

..

Rn

R1

R1

..

..

.

.

Rb

Ra

.

a b

1

.

det(Sa,b A) = det

.. = sgn b a .. = (1) det(A) = det(A).

R

R

a

b

.

.

.

.

..

Rn

Rn

On the other hand, we also have det(Sa,b ) = 1. So det(Sa,b A) = det(A) =

det(Sa,b ) det(A).

R1

R1

..

..

.

.

det(Ta (r)A) = det rRa = r det Ra = r det(A) = det(Ta (r)) det(A).

.

.

..

..

Rn

Rn

All the above give us det(EA) = det(E) det(A) whenever E is an elementary matrix.

(2.15) We

2

1

A=

2

0

2 3

0

0 2 2

0

0 0 8 4

E3,2 (2)E1,3 (1) 1 1

E2,4 (1)E3,4 (2)E1,4 (2) 1 0

1 3 1

3 1

6 3

0 1 0

0 2 5 2

0 0 11 6

1 3 2

0 1 3 2

0 1 3 2

1 0 6 3

1 0 6 3

E4,3 ( 118 ) 0 1 3 2

S2,4 S1,2 0

1

3

2

0 0 11 6 0 0 11 6 = B

4

0 0 8 4

0 0 0

11

From the calculation above, we see that det(A) = det(B) = 4.

(2.17) If A is invertible, let B be its inverse, then AB = In . Taking determinant, we have

det(A) det(B) = det(AB) = det(In ) = 1. Thus det(A) 6= 0.

Conversely, suppose that det(A) 6= 0. Let R be the reduced row echelon form of A. Thus

EA = R for some E as a product of elementary matrices. If R has a row of zero entries then

det(R) = 0 and we get det(E) det(A) = det(R) = 0. But det(E) = det(E1 ) det(Ek ) 6= 0.

So det(A) = 0. This contradicts to our original assumption that det(A) 6= 0. Thus R cannot

have a row of zero entries. Since R is also a square matrix, we must have R = In and hence

EA = In . This shows that A is invertible whose inverse is E.

(2.19 (iii)) The equations

Ea,b (r)> = Eb,a (r)

Sa,b > = Sb,a

Ta (r)> = Ta (r)

are easy to obtain. The determinant of an elementary matrix E depends only on the form

of E whether it is E , S or T . After taking transpose of E, we have seen that its form

doesnt change (E remains E and so on). Thus we must get det(E > ) = det(E).

(2.27) Expand along certain row or column with the most number of zero entries. In this example,

we choose the fourth column.

2 2 3

0

2 2 3

2 2 3

1 1 3 1

2+4

4+4

det

2 0 1 0 =(1)(1) det 2 0 1 + 2(1) det 1 1 3

0 1 3

2 0 1

0 1 3 2

0 1

2 3

1+1

2+1

= 2(1) det

+ 2(1) det

(along first column)

1 3

1 3

2 3

2 2

3+1

3+3

+ 2 2(1) det

+ (1)(1) det

(along third row)

1 3

1 1

= ((2) 1 2 (9)) + 2 (2 3 1 0)

= 4.

1 2

1 2

2+3

3+3

(2.32) det(A) = 1 (1) det

+ 3(1)

= 9. The (i, j)-entry of adj(A) is

1 2

1 1

A(j,i) . These can be easily computed. Once you have obtained A1 , it is a good habit

to check that you actually get AA1 = In .

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