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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

On-the-Job Training and job performance as


perceived by Non-Academicians in Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor.

MAZUIN OSMAN

October 2009
On-the-Job Training on job performance as
perceived by Non-Academicians in Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor.

Master In Office System Management (Hons) - Om771


Faculty Of Office Management And Technology
Universiti Teknologi Mara

Supervisor:

Prof. Madya Khainizam Mohamed

Researcher:

Mazuin Osman

October 2009
1.0 INTRODUCTION

This chapter particularly focused on the discovering whether or not there is any

statistically significantly relationship between on-the-job training (OJT) effectiveness and

the performance at their work among non-academician in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

(UTM). The concept of effectiveness has long been a very difficult problem for the

human-computer interaction community, even if not always addressed directly. The

"Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction" (Helander, 1988) does not even index

"effectiveness" or "efficiency."

Some low-level aspects of interaction have been relatively easier to model. For

example, there is an extensive literature of the efficiency of pointing, captured by Fitts'

Law (see, e.g., Fitts, 1954; MacKenzie, 1992). But for higher-level, non-motor activitives,

reasonable approaches to effectiveness are difficult to come by. For task-based

interaction, typical measures of effectiveness are time-to-completion and task outcome

(Marshall & Novick, 1995). But this approach has fundamental limitations, particularly

where the quality of interaction is at issue.

Time-to-completion measures are poor choices for a task in which the use of the

interface has little effect on the task completion rate. Likewise, interaction with interfaces

to flight systems produces (or should produce) extremely low effective error rates, so

task outcome is a poor measure of effectiveness. For example, research in improving

the flight interfaces used by crews in new-generation aircraft is paradoxically hindered by

the happy fact that most flights result in no incidents or accidents.

Thus under current approaches to effectiveness, direct measures of

effectiveness are unhelpful because (a) better than 99.99 percent of crews land their
planes safely and (b) time of completion is generally a consequence of factors other than

the interface, such as weather and air-traffic control.

Current approaches to measurement of effectiveness thus tend to be indirect:

they measure elements associated with effectiveness rather than effectiveness itself. In

the aircraft interface domain, for example, the cockpit management attitudes

questionnaire (CMAQ) has been valuable because it assessed attitudes that have been

linked to output factors like performance (Helmreich & Foushee, 1993). Similarly, the

aircrew coordination observation/coordination scale (ACO/E) measured crew behaviors

that were later related causally to mishaps, although different skills were found to be

important for different crews and tasks (Prince & Salas, 1993).

Therefore, managing knowledge or training is important to maximize the potential

of knowledge workers in an organization to increase productivity, output skills, and

intellectual capital. There are two major flaws in these approaches. Consequently, it may

end up maximizing possibly ineffective inputs instead of output effectiveness.

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2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

ON-THE-JOB TRAINING DEFINITION

According to Carl James, 2000 “as a preliminary action, training greatly

compresses the time to acquire skills over earlier methods, such as apprenticeship. It

achieves this condensation through a process involving the careful analysis of job

requirements, the determination of skill needs, the specification of objectives, the design,

delivery and evaluation of an instructional programme. Over the past 60 years or so,

each of these components has been critically examined with the result that a substantial

literature base now exists – and evaluation is no exception.

Other than that, On the Job Training (OJT) is a method of providing

individualized occupational skills training for Dislocated Workers and Low Income Adults.

The goal of the OJT program is to place participants in occupations that will enhance

their prospects for long-term employment and will ultimately permit them to become self-

sufficient. OJT involves the acquisition of specific skills and employment competencies,

through exposure in an actual work setting, to the processes, work tasks, tools and

methods of a specific job or group of jobs. It is a “hire-first” program in which the

employer, either public or private, enters into an agreement with the Career Center to

hire, train, and retains the individual upon successful completion of the training program.

Through this program, businesses may be reimbursed up to 50% of the new employee’s

wages while they are in training. Because it is a “hire-first” program, OJT is only

available to participants whose goal is immediate employment.


But even with this great corpus of knowledge and experience, intriguing

questions still remain. Why, for instance, on the basis of North American studies, is the

transfer of learning in the workplace so low (Baldwin and Ford, 1988)? A puzzle that has

heightened the attention to studies on the effectiveness of learning transfer (Broad and

Newstrom, 1992; Brinkerhoff and Montesino, 1995), and at least in part, spurred the

movement for performance improvement (Robinson and Robinson, 1989; 1995;

Rummler and Brache, 1992; 1995). The quest for answers to the value of training has

stimulated researchers, trainers, managers and practitioners systematically to determine

the real return on investment in corporate training. These approaches have generally

been derived from traditional “goal-based” training, in which explicit training objectives

are specified during design and before delivery.

ON-THE-JOB TRAINING METHODS

The authors examine the crucial management and organizational issues that aid in the

process of improving performance and increasing profitability. Once the researcher

started reading was included pre-test helps determine if an organization has established

a foundation for an OJT program before wasting money on a training method that is not

right for the employees’ needs. As suggested by Kazanas & Rothwell, 1994 those

questions in the pre-test include:

Have the program goals been outlined?

• Have incentives/rewards been determined for those who conduct the OJT

program?

• Have the means to evaluate the results of the training been created?

• Has a procedure for selecting alternatives or supplementing for the planned OJT

program been put into place?

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Moreover, they also mentioned that in determining an OJT program will work for the

company, the next step is putting the right program in place. In order to help the

company create a successful program, the authors use the DAPPER model:

• Discover needs: How to decide when and if OJT is needed

• Analyze work, worker, and workplace for OJT: Customizing training to fit the

employee’s needs

• Prepare planned OJT: Developing the proper sequence of training actions

• Present planned OJT: Conducting the training

• Evaluate the results: Assessing job performance subsequent to training

• Review and determine whether alternative aids are needed: Are programs other

than OJT needed by the organization

There are plenty of useful tables, figures, and exhibits provided in aiding own program

creation, such as:

1. A task-training checklist that outlines the training strategy and training to be

performed before the program begins.

2. A learning contract to be completed by both the trainer and trainee, which helps

to put the goals and objectives into perspective for both sides.

3. Skill-Based Job Analysis Taxonomy that helps you effectively work with

managers to decide which employees would be good candidates for OJT, as well

as establish goals for the employees’ training.

4. An OJT Reaction Worksheet that is an evaluation specific to the OJT training

method.

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OJT IMPLEMENTATION

How to make OJT as one of the company's practices therefore before implementing OJT

practices Jacobs and Jones, 2001 states that it is necessary to determine if training on

the job is the best option. They identify five overarching factors that should be assessed

to determine if a given training need is best met by this method:

• Nature of the task: four sub-factors must be taken into consideration when

assessing the task:

• Immediacy - Determine if staff requires information immediately or if they can

wait without harming production or service delivery. OJT can be effective for

immediate training needs.

• Frequency - if a task is performed regularly OJT may be easier to schedule and

implement;

• Difficulty - OJT may be suitable for difficult tasks as it makes the information

more concrete. It may not be suitable for tasks that involve speed of performance

or safety hazards; and

• Consequences - the consequences of error in performance of a task must be

considered. Where a task is difficult simulations or practice areas could be used.

• Available resources: three kinds of resources must be considered; people, time,

and equipment. An assessment should be made to determine if the staff required

to be trained (and the experienced staff to conduct the training) will be available,

if there is time in the work schedule, and if the equipment necessary for the

training is readily accessible and available for use.

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• Constraints: Two constraints must always be considered - location and

distractions. A suitable location should be found - this could be a training station,

an office, an assembly line, and will be dependant on the skill or task to be

taught. Distractions that could inhibit learning, induce stress or place staff in

hazardous situations should be assessed and minimised.

• Financial considerations: OJT is suitable when the number of people who need

training at a given time is low. Off-site training may be more appropriate if the

number to be trained is high as the cost per person may be reduced by having

larger numbers attend a course at one time.

• Individual differences: Personal learning styles may make some staff more

receptive to hands-on OJT than others who may prefer more class-room based

lecture content. Staff may also require the prerequisite knowledge and skills to be

able to undertake the training.

Jacobs and Jones also note that "In practice, some selection factors may be more

relevant than others, and some may not apply at all. A final decision is also strongly

influenced by subjective factors such as management preferences and the organisations

commitment to training".

In addition, it is important to make an assessment of the people that are available to

conduct the training to ensure that the person conducting the training is the best person

for this role. Some key questions to answer in determining the best person include:

• Who has the level of expertise, knowledge and skill in the area to be taught?

Who stands out as an expert or a highly skilled practitioner in the area to be

taught?

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• Who would be an effective trainer/instructor or who has received training in how

to train others?

• Who has been a mentor/coach or would be able to fill this role most effectively?

• Who knows and is able to effectively pass on the key values of the organization?

• Who has the motivation, enthusiasm and time for training others?

T he best person for this role would be someone who is considered an expert (or

highly practiced) in the training area required, who has the motivation and training skills

to pass their knowledge on, and who is able to do this in a way that also conveys the key

values of the organization.

OJT WORK TEAMS

Diane Walter, author of 'Training on the Job' advocates using work teams as a

means of implementing OJT. She suggests that teams should be used to assess jobs

and the skills required in the workplace, develop the training materials, and deliver the

training. In this way everyone is involved in the process, accuracy of needs and training

is enhanced, and the human factors of ownership and buy-in are increased. She

explains that "Because of the team aspect, people discussing the task, writing the

modules, the procedures - it's a dynamic system and you end up solving a lot of

performance issues other than just training".

Walter also suggests that seven prerequisites are required for successful (team) OJT.

These are:

• A structured on-the-job training system;

• Skill, knowledge, and attitude;

• Targeting the correct job tasks;

• Training materials (including performance objectives) that are written specifically


for OJT;

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• Certified trainers;

• Involvement of all employees;

• A systems approach to OJT.

Once a decision has been made that a training need exists and that OJT is the best

method for meeting this need, and an appropriate trainer is chosen, the skill or

knowledge area needs to be conveyed to the training recipient(s). Many models exist

that explain how best to teach others and what steps should be taken. Some are very

detailed, others short and simple. However, there do appear to be some key themes.

Gary Sisson (2002), founder of Paradigm Corporation suggests that the use of a six-step

sequence (using the acronym POPPER) can assist in implementing OJT and make both

the teaching and learning of new skills more effective. This model covers the main key

themes evident in other models:

• Prepare for training - prior to the training the instructor should review any training

notes, think about what he/she will say and how best to demonstrate the correct

methodology for the skill being taught, become mentally ready, and make sure

everything is 'ready to go' in the work area. In addition it is suggested that any

company policies and procedures are reviewed to ensure the correct process is

being taught. All required materials such as machinery or models should be

assembled;

• Open the session - within this part of the session the instructor introduces

himself/herself and the subject being taught, explains its importance and

determines what the staff member already knows;

• Present the subject - the instructor shows and explains the correct way to carry

out the task, repeating instructions or demonstrations as necessary, two-way

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feedback and clarity is sought through questioning. The staff member being

trained may be given documents to read that apply to the area being taught.

• Practice the skills - the staff member practices the skill, and the instructor gives

feedback on performance relating to areas completed well and areas requiring

improvement or further practice. The instructor should allow time for the staff

member to practice as often as needed to gain competency;

• Evaluate the performance - practice of the skill and evaluation may occur

simultaneously as the skill is practiced and feedback given. The instructor can

check understanding through questioning, having the staff member explain each

step, or through a full demonstration;

• Review the subject - to finalise the teaching session final questions are asked

and answers given. A summary of both the steps of the task and the staff

member's performance should be given. A work assignment may be given to

assist in cementing the learning and ongoing coaching may be scheduled.

EFFECTIVENESS OF OJT

Time-to-completion measures are poor choices for a task in which the use of the

interface has little effect on the task completion rate. Likewise, interaction with interfaces

to flight systems produces (or should produce) extremely low effective error rates, so

task outcome is a poor measure of effectiveness. For example, research in improving

the flight interfaces used by crews in new-generation aircraft is paradoxically hindered by

the happy fact that most flights result in no incidents or accidents.

12
Thus under current approaches to effectiveness, direct measures of

effectiveness are unhelpful because (a) better than 99.99 percent of crews land their

planes safely and (b) time of completion is generally a consequence of factors other than

the interface, such as weather and air-traffic control.

Current approaches to measurement of effectiveness thus tend to be indirect:

they measure elements associated with effectiveness rather than effectiveness itself. In

the aircraft interface domain, for example, the cockpit management attitudes

questionnaire (CMAQ) has been valuable because it assessed attitudes that have been

linked to output factors like performance (Helmreich & Foushee, 1993). Similarly, the

aircrew coordination observation/coordination scale (ACO/E) measured crew behaviors

that were later related causally to mishaps, although different skills were found to be

important for different crews and tasks (Prince & Salas, 1993).

Therefore, managing knowledge or training is important to maximize the potential of

knowledge workers in an organization to increase productivity, output skills, and

intellectual capital. There are two major flaws in these approaches. First, they usually

depend on expert ratings of performance rather than direct empirical measurement.

Second, they measure process inputs instead of process outputs; this is indirect and

unhelpful when trying to determine what the inputs should be. In particular, this presents

a problem because the effectiveness measures will presumably be used to evaluate new

procedures and interfaces that will be characterized by these indirect "input" factors and

the validity of the relationship between the inputs and the outputs may simply be a

function of the procedures and interfaces which formed the basis for the study.

Consequently, it may end up maximizing possibly ineffective inputs instead of output

effectiveness.

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MEASURE AND EVALUATE

In order to fully evaluate the impact of OJT it is necessary to undertake, where possible,

a qualitative assessment of the impact and assign a quantifiable value to it. Measuring

the positive impact on the business will help to determine whether the methods used

have been effective, what still needs improving, further training needs that exist, training

savings made, enhancements in quality of work practices and outputs etc.. More

subjective assessments of the value of OJT will be necessary as it is acknowledged that

it is not always easy to collect data - for instance, recipients opinions on the value to

them of the OJT, how it has affected their enjoyment or sense of fulfilment (satisfaction)

relating to their role in the organisation and other similar measures of OJT success.

As with all measurement systems, one focusing upon OJT should be designed to

manage and measure OJT and be aligned with the culture, mission, and strategy of the

organisation. The following provide some ideas on how OJT practices can be assessed:

• OJT Hours or days training per employee e.g. average number of hours or days

of on the job training per employee or, % employees undergoing OJT per period.

This measure assesses the amount of on the job training given to employees and

can be tailored to assess specific employee groups e.g. new employees existing

employees and specific employee groups. The type of training given could also

be segmented e.g. OJT Vs classroom style training.

• Training enrolments e.g. the number of employees who have enrolled in a

company training and development program, or number of employees who have

enrolled as a % of the total number of employees.

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• Training attendance e.g. the number of employees who have attended or

received training as compared to the number enrolled, or as a % of total no. of

employees.

Training enrolment and attendance measures can be important for monitoring employee

development and the skill base within the organisation. They can provide useful

information for training budget considerations and for planning when relief workers are

required.

• Training awareness e.g. the % of employees that are given training to make them

aware of a current initiative(s). Such data can provide an indication of the level of

communication of strategies and or initiatives throughout the organisation.

• Training courses delivered e.g. the number of training courses delivered per

period. This measure indicates the frequency with which training is given to

employees and can be tailored to assess different types of training (e.g. OJT v's

off-site) or those offered/delivered to different employee groups.

• Training Costs e.g. average cost of training per employee per period. Overall,

this measure assesses the average cost of training per employee, but can be

tailored to assess the training given to new employees, existing employees and

specific employee groups. The type of training given could also be segmented

e.g. OJT Vs classroom style training.

• Employee skill set increase e.g. the increase in skill level over the last year. A

framework for assessing the general skill levels of individual employees would

need to be designed to most adequately collect meaningful and useable data for

such a measure. However, it could be based on performance appraisal and

training needs assessment documentation/systems.

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• Training methods - budget share e.g. the % of training budget allocated to

different methods of training delivery, or the % of budget used for specific

delivery methods. Data from this measure will provide and indication of the

amount of money used, allocated or needed for the future for specific training

delivery methods e.g. OJT v's off-site training.

• Training impact e.g. the % difference in the rate of productivity before and after

training or, the % difference in the defects rate before and after training or,

proportion of training programmes resulting in productivity improvements or,

proportion of training programmes resulting in quality improvements (reduction in

defects) or, number of employees indirectly benefited from a single participant

etc.. Measures such as these provide an indication of the impact of training

programmes in terms of both quality and productivity.

• Training Satisfaction - e.g. the impact that the OJT has had on the recipient from

his/her perspective in terms of factors such as clarity, usefulness, relevance, and

effectiveness. The approach and quality of training practices can impact strongly

on employee satisfaction and therefore retention, so this is an important

consideration.

LEARN VALUABLE LESSONS FROM THESE ORGANISATIONS:

National City Corp

Major bank commits to support and training programs for new hires.

National City Corp. knew it had to face reality. It was earning a reputation as a revolving

door, and something dramatic had to be done to keep good people from fleeing.

Realising that it is nearly impossible to win customer loyalty and provide excellent

service if you cannot even keep your own workers, National City in 2000 developed a

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department called the National City Institute. Its purpose was to find a way to thoroughly

engage and assimilate new hires from their first day on the job, so they would be less

likely to quickly quit. A "buddy system" which matches a new employee with an

employee peer, has become the most effective and popular component of the program.

To ensure that mentoring "buddies" have the right stuff to effectively support new

workers, they attend workshops to learn coaching skills. "The buddy system bridges the

gap between what new employees learn in training and what they need to know on the

job, and provides a support network and someone to answer questions. As a result of

the programmes offered by the Institute, new employees are 50% less likely to resign in

the first three months and are 25% less likely to be absent.

Tesco

A commitment to staff development.

The Tesco chain of stores has developed a state-of the-art academy featuring a virtual

supermarket and equipment which will train all staff. Using such initiatives as 360o

feedback to identify individualised training needs, the Academy, the virtual supermarket,

and a bronze, silver and gold level programme (of basic to highly focused training

modules for specific skills), Tesco is aiming to improve overall company performance.

OJT is a form of development that is given to people at their place of work usually by

other experienced or knowledgeable staff members. OJT is an effective training method

among a number of training methods that can be used.

When implementing OJT an organisation should:

• Assess training needs;

• Determine if OJT is the best delivery method;

• Find a suitable trainer;

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• Use a systematic process or model to facilitate knowledge and skill transfer;

• Measure success and areas for improvement.

IMPLICATION OF OJT

The use of assessment data to systematically improve programmes is facilitated when:

• learner performance goals are defined clearly

• effective assessment methods are in place to measure progress towards learning

goals

• achievement information is aggregated and analysed regularly

• tutors work collaboratively to reflect on achievement data and modify teaching

approaches appropriately, and

• instructional programmes and organisational practices are adapted on the basis of

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3.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Learning in the workplace is something that already takes place and very often

we are not really aware of it. Furthermore, it can be considered that 80% of what is

learned during action is remembered, whereas it is commonly accepted that only 20% is

remembered with “just in case” learning. Unfortunately, many companies today see

workplace learning not (yet) as a valuable aspect of knowledge management, or at least

they do not act upon it (Baets, 2005). It was found that new employees whose training

expectations were unsatisfied left training with lower levels of self-efficacy and lower

subsequent work performance compared with trainees whose expectations were

satisfied through training.

Conversely, if an organization fails to incorporate the skills necessary, the

performance will deteriorate (Gorelick & Monsou, 2005). According to Priti Jain, 1999

the findings that have been showed the analysis of the data gathered from library users

indicated that the majority of 45 (70 per cent) customers were students, and 19 (30 per

cent) were general readers. Out of a total 64 participants, a majority of 39 (61 per cent)

did not receive what they expected, while 25 (39 per cent) did.

A majority of 48 (75 per cent) was not satisfied with the library services, and 16

(25 per cent) had been satisfied. A total of 33 (52 per cent) library users gave the main

reason for their dissatisfaction as poor customer service. Although no direct question

was asked as to whether OJT was necessary or not, as soon as the researcher finished

introducing the study, a majority of the participants welcomed the research topic and

said that it was a very important area which should be addressed seriously. After

analysing the data, responses above 25 per cent were considered to be significant and

will be followed by discussion; those below 25 per cent were considered to be

insignificant and therefore will not be discussed.

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Medium sized organizations also face tougher competition for necessary

competences and skills in local labor markets partly due to a poor supply of such skills

and partly to intensified competition from larger firms. The medium sized organizations

also have constraint on financial to invest in implementing OJT, since it is expensive and

require large budget (Quah, 2008). Nowadays, it can be seen company or organization

notices a significant decline in productivity, high employee turnover or cannot reach its

goals successfully. It may need to consider the effective training among its superior.

The definition of effectiveness that is used in the project is in line with

Kirkpatrick's (1994) body of ideas. This author identifies four levels of effectiveness:

reactions of trainees, learning results, job behaviour and returns for the organisation.

Previous research in the field of corporate training showed that it is particularly tricky to

measure the last two levels of effectiveness in practice. The fact is that behaviour on the

job and organisational returns (for example, an increase in sales) are influenced by a

great number of factors. Hence, it is difficult to determine to what extent the training

contributed to both these levels of effectiveness.

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3.1 THEORETICAL MODEL

Figure 1: the Baldwin and Ford Model

The theoretical framework was primarily based on the work of Baldwin and Ford (1988).

The authors developed a model, based on an extensive review of literature, wherein

they distinguished three clusters of factors that impact the effectiveness of training: the

trainee, the training and the workplace. The use of this model is advocated to gain more

insight into the various factors that contribute to the explanation of training effectiveness

(Gielen, 1995). Although the Baldwin and Ford Model proved to be useful, an update

was necessary to assure the model reflects the latest research insights. This was done

by the analysis of recent studies into the effectiveness of in-company and vocational

training (see Van der Klink, 1999).

Longstanding research indicates that in the average organization the vast

majority of training that is carried out is in fact on-the-job related training, and that such

training in the workplace when highly targeted at specific tasks provides more valuable

outcomes than if held in a classroom. Research by the Gallup Organization to determine

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if training employees increased job satisfaction has found that OJT does increase

employee satisfaction. Of the 1012 people surveyed 23% of those who had received no

training said they were dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with their jobs. 16% of those who

received five or less days of training still claimed they were dissatisfied with their jobs

and only 8% who had received six or more days of training claimed similarly. The types

of on-the-job training requested were:

• 27% technology;

• 16% communication skills;

• 15% job skills; and

• 14% management skill.

Therefore, this study attempted to find out the effectiveness of on the job training

practices on employees’ performance among medium sized organization in service

industry at Klang Valley area.

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3.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Independent variables (IV) Dependent variables (DV)

Factors:
Effectiveness on- Job Performance
the-job training

facilities
technology
work scope

Work
Environment

nature of work
experience
Psychological factors
Social persuasions

Moderator (M)

Figure 2.1 : Schematic diagram

Referring to the conceptual framework above, the independent variable is the

Effectiveness on-the-job training (OJT). Hence, this focused on facilities, technology,

work scope of OJT. Besides that, this study also has job performance as the dependent

variable. Basically, this study explored on OJT towards job performance in which the

selected local university will be more competitive in global marketplace and more

capable to increase performance or desired outcome.

The outcomes are believed to be better if the organization utilized the application

of OJT. Therefore, this research emphasized on the significance of OJT towards

improving job performance.


3.2 Research Objectives

The objectives of this study are to:

1. investigate the contributing factors to the effectiveness of on-the-job training

among non academician at work in the organization

2. identify the strategies that have been taken by the trainers towards the

implementation of OTJ training among academician and non academician

3. measure the controlling effect of work environment on the relationship between

on the job training and job performance

4. determine the skills that have been learned by the trainees after undergone on

the job training.

3.3 Research Questions

1. What are the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of on-the-job training

in an organization among the academician?

2. How on-the-job training improves trainees’ performance?

3. Does the organization provide facilities for the employees to do on-the-job


training program?
4. What are the skills that learned by the trainees after undergone on-the-job
training?

3.4 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses are formulated to answer research questions:

Ho1 : There is no significant relationship between effectiveness of on the job training

Job performance as perceived among non academician staff in Universiti

Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor.

HA1 : There is significant relationship between effectiveness of on the job training

Job performance as perceived among non academician staff in Universiti

Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor.

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Ho2 : There is no significant relationship between effectiveness of on the job training

Job performance after controlling the work environment among non academician

staff in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor.

HA2 : There is significant relationship between effectiveness of on the job training

Job performance after controlling the work environment among non academician

staff in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor.

Glossary of Terms

Competency The knowledge, cognitive and practical skills, and


the attitudes (including motivation) needed to meet
demands or carry out tasks successfully.

Context, contextualise Contextualising literacy and numeracy learning


means
using topics, tasks or situations from the contexts
learners are in (for example, a vocational course, a
workplace) as the basis for literacy or numeracy
instruction.

Course A specific and prescribed series of instructional or


study
tasks or sessions. Several courses may together
form a
programme of study.

Curriculum The content of a course or programme; the topics,


tasks
and activities that, together, form the teaching and
learning within a course.
Demands Requirements or needs for a task, for example, the
reading skill required to read and interpret a
document

Diagnostic Used to identify, indicate or characterise


something. For
example, a diagnostic assessment is used to
identify
specific skills.

Embedded teaching and learning Teaching and learning of one subject or skill (for
example, literacy) within the context and tasks of
another subject or skill (for example, panel
beating).

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OJT On-the-job training is defined as Custom designed
programs to meet the needs of an individual
employer. These training programs may be set up
in the same manner as apprenticeship programs.

Literacy Literacy is the written and oral language people use in


everyday life and work. A person’s literacy refers to the
extent of their oral and written language skills and
knowledge and their ability to apply these to meet the
varied demands of their personal, study and work lives.

Needs
ability to use their mathematical knowledge to meet the
varied demands of their personal, study and work lives.

Outcomes The knowledge, skills and abilities that are necessary in


order to perform particular tasks or to carry out particular
activities.

Programme A planned and coordinated sequence of study to


achieve a specified aim. A programme is often made up
of separate or linked courses.

Outcome Results. The achievement of the goals set for a


particular programme, course or learners.

Strengths Abilities, skills or knowledge.

Teaching team The group of people who, together, are responsible for
instruction within a programme. In a tertiary
organisation, teaching teams may comprise a mix of
tutors who are specialists in subject, discipline,
vocational or work areas as well as tutors who are
specialists in teaching literacy and/or numeracy.

4.0 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study will be conducted to develop an understanding on the effectiveness of on the

job training as a prediction of the non academician staff performance in the local

universities. The results and findings of the study would benefit the following groups of

people. First, it is hoped that the non academician staff in the Universiti Teknologi

Malaysia, Skudai could improve their overall job performance through better

understanding on the issues of effectiveness on the job training.

26
5.0 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

6.0 METHODOLOGY

This chapter describes and explains the sampling plan as well as the instruments

used to generate data, which assists to answer research questions as outlined in

chapter one. It also explains in detail regarding the sampling frame, the sampling

techniques used, sample size, unit of analysis, data collection procedures, survey

instruments, validity of survey instruments, and data analysis.

The purpose of this study was to find out the effectiveness of on-the-job training

on the job performance experiences as perceived by non academicians in UTM, Skudai

Johor Bahru. It is hoped that the results of this study could provide the information about

the advantages of implementing knowledge management which can benefit the

employees as well as the organization.

6.1 Research Design and Methods

According to Trochim, (2004) a design is used to structure the research into

major parts such as the sample or group, measures, treatment or programs to assist in

obtaining findings to answer fundamental research questions. In addition, Burns (2004)

noted that research design is a plan or strategy intended at enabling answers to be

acquired for the research questions. Thus, the descriptive and correlational research

method will be used for this study. This is because correlational research is appropriate

to describe the relationship of OJT and Job performance in education field. According to

Salkind (2006) correlation research is a method which is suitable for determining the

27
relationship between two or more variables, as it is able to point towards how two or

more things are related to one another.

Meanwhile, according to Sekaran (2006) a descriptive study is undertaken in

order to ascertain and be able to describe the of the characteristics variables of interest

in a situation. In addition, according to Gall (2004), descriptive research provides “a

clear, accurate description of individuals, events, or processes”. A descriptive study also

determines and reports the way things are. Gay (2003) pointed out that descriptive

research involves collecting data in order to answer questions concerning the current

status of the subject of the study. The goal of a descriptive study is to offer researcher a

profile or to describe the relevant aspects of the phenomena of interest from individual,

organizational, industry-oriented, or other perspectives.

The study was conducted in a cross-sectional study where data were gathered

just once from the respondents. A quantitative method was used for this study. The

quantitative method would involve the measurement of the degree to which an element

is present (Marina, 2007). Besides that, Clarence (2007) stated that quantitative

research methods are characterized by collecting hard data in which the information is

represented in the form of numbers.

6.2 Sampling Frame

The sample was selected from the list of respondents will be provided by human

resource of UTM. A list of samples of non academician in UTM, Skudai will be

identified as a sampling frame.

28
6.3 Population

Population refers to the target people, events, or thing of interest that researcher

wants to investigate (Sekaran, 2006). The populations of this study focused on the non

academician in local university at Skudai, Johor Bahru.

6.4 Sample size

According to Sekaran (2006), a study of a sample rather than the entire population

will sometimes likely to produce more reliable results. In determining the sample size in

descriptive surveys, the general rule is to obtain at least 10 percent (10%) of the

population. According to Sekaran (2006) sample size must not be less than 30 and no

more than 500. The sample size for this study was taken from the service industry.

According to SMIDEC (2008), there are 4977 service companies that are registered under

SMIDEC throughout Malaysia. However, the researcher attempted to get the

respondents from Klang Valley area only.

6.5 Sample size of Respondents

Table 3.1

Sample Size of Respondents

Professional Services No of organization


Bank/ Financial Institution 43

Telecommunication 67

Hotel/Tours 30

Transportation 35

29
Education/Training 44

Advertizing 50

Food/Beverages 61

Health/Beauty 55

Leisure/Entertainment 10

Total 395

Table 3.1 shows the service industry and number of organizations in Klang Valley

area that was selected by the researcher in order to distribute the questionnaire. The total

number of service organizations in Klang Valley area is 395. However, the researcher

only selected five main service industries which were advertising, education/training,

hotel/tours, telecommunication, and transportation industry to distribute the

questionnaire. The number of organization was selected randomly as sample size for this

study.

6.6 Unit of analysis

Unit of analysis may be individuals, groups, organizations, or social artifacts

(Babbie, 2000). The unit of analysis for this study will be non academician staff in UTM,

Skudai of on of the local university in Johor, Malaysia. The respondents for this study

will be the middle level management.

6.7 Survey Instrument

The questionnaire is often used in sociological, opinion, psychological as well as in

marketing research. The advantages of using this type of questionnaire are that it is faster

30
in collecting data and analyzing it. It can also cover a wide area of study and can reach a

large number of respondents at the same time. Therefore, the instrument used for data

collection will be a survey questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed and named

“Questionnaire on Effects of On-the-Job Training Practices” by past research and will be

added and have related information to this research.

6.8 Validity of Instrument

The questionnaires used for this study were adapted from past research questionnaires

which had been previously used. The validity of instrument is to ensure that the item in

the questionnaire will measure what it is suppose to measure. In developing a survey, the

researcher composes questions for each of the variables being studied. Validity is

measuring whether a survey truly measures the study variables.

The questionnaire was tested for both face and content validity by a group of

experts who will check for errors and ambiguity, other than also ensuring the items are

aligned to the research objectives and research questions. The feedback from the panel of

experts was used to make necessary changes to the questionnaire. The purpose of content

validity was to ensure that the instrument comply with the research objectives and

research questions. After the questionnaire was approved by the expert, a pilot test was

conducted to see whether the questionnaire was appropriate for the respondents, and also

to see whether the level of language used was appropriate for the respondents. A pilot test

must be done before the researcher proceeds with the actual study (Salkind, 2006).

According to Myers and Well (2002), a pilot test is a small-scale methodological

test intended to ensure that proposed methods and procedures will work in practice before

being applied in a large and expensive investigation. Furthermore, Bowerman, O’Connel

31
and Koehler (2005) stated that a pilot test gives the researcher an opportunity to make

amendments before involving in a large study which needs a large investment.

Therefore, a pilot test will be conducted before questionnaires were distributed

among the non academician UTM, Skudai Johor.. The sample of the pilot test will be

categorized as only a convenient sample in this research study. Out of hundred, only

thirty will be sent to the respondents. Thus, content validity examines whether the

questions representing the topics were measured in order for a survey to be valid in

appropriate, meaningful, and useful information.

6.9 Reliability of instrument

According to Sekaran (2006), an alpha value of more than 0.6 shows that the

research instrument is a reliable means for the purpose of the study. Furthermore,

Sekaran (2006) also stated that the closer Cronbach’s alpha is to 1, the higher the internal

consistency reliability. Alpha coefficients ranging in value from 0 to 1 are used to

describe the reliability of factors extracted from multi-point formatted questionnaires or

scales (i.e., interval scale: 1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree), as applied in this

study. The higher the score, the more reliable the generated scale is. Sekaran (2006) has

indicated that an alpha value of 0.6 shows the acceptance of a reliability coefficient

6.10 Data Analysis

The Statistical Package in the Social Sciences Software (SPSS) version 16 was used to

conduct data analysis after the questionnaires was collected from the respondents. A list

of descriptive statistics was evaluated and reported. Data was interpreted by using the

32
descriptive statistics such as mean, median, mode, range and percentages. Besides that,

Pearson correlation was used to interpret data. From the SPSS output, the relevant charts

were produced when necessary.

Table 3.4

Data Analysis

Matrix Showing Data Analysis

Research Variables/ Measurement Scale Statistics


Objectives Dimensions
Q.1 What are the Pearson
To identify the Effects are Interval
effects of KM Correlation
effects of defined as a
practices on
knowledge result or an
employees’
management outcome of
performance
practices toward employees’
among medium
employees’ performance
sized
performance
organizations
in service
industry
Q.2 What are the Descriptive
To identify the Advantages is Interval
advantages of statistics
advantages of defined as
KMP among
knowledge something that
medium sized
management helps the
organizations in
when being employees’
service
deployed by being better and
industry
service industry more
competitive
Q.3. What are the Descriptive
To identify the Challenges is Interval
challenges in statistics
challenges in defined as
implementing
implementing something
KMP among
KMP among difficult to do
medium sized
medium sized and needs the
organizations in
organization in appropriate skills
service
service industry and efforts by
industry
the people in the
organization

33
Q.4. What is the Descriptive
To identify the Level is a Interval
level of KM statistics
level of KM relative position
implementation
implementation or rank on a
among
among medium scale
sized organization
sized
in service
organization in
industry
service industry

34
References

Baets W. (2005), Knowledge Management and Management Learning: Extending the

Horizons of Knowledge-Based Management, Springer, 177-180.

Fitts, P. (1954). The information capacity of the human motor system in controlling the

amplitude of movement. Journal of Experimental Psychological, 47, 381-391.

Helander, M. (ed.) (1988). Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction. Amsterdam:

North-Holland.

Helmreich, R., and Foushee, H. (1993). Why crew resource management? Empirical and

theoretical bases of human factors training in aviation. In Wiener, E., Kanki, B.,

and Helmreich, R. (eds.) (1993). Cockpit resource management. London:

Academic Press, 3-45.

MacKenzie, I. (1992). Fitts' law as a research and design tool in human-computer.

Human-Computer Interaction, 7, 91-139.

Marshall, C., and Novick, D. (1995). Conversational effectiveness in multimedia

communications. Information Technology & People, 8(1), 54-79.

Prince, C., and Salas, E. (1993). Training and research for teamwork for the military

aircrew. In Wiener, E., Kanki, B., and Helmreich, R. (eds.) (1993). Cockpit

resource management. London: Academic Press, 337-398.


APPENDICES

36
Effective On-The-Job Training

This programme uses experiential learning approach in order to enhance the retention of
learning. Participants will be able to equip themselves with better on-the-job training and
coaching skills, understand the role and responsibilities of a coach, provide proper feedback on
job performance, conduct proper on-the-job training techniques, understand how to evaluate the
effectiveness of employees' performance, create a proper climate for coaching and training and
conduct proper post training evaluation.
• Coaching and Instructional Techniques
Objectives • The Coaching Skills

At the end of this programme, you will be able to:


• Modeling: Do as I Do

• Equip yourself with better on-the-job training


and coaching skills Elements of Facilitating
• Understand the role and responsibilities of a
Coaching
coach
• Physical set up
• Provide proper feedback on job performance
• Keeping the focus
• Conduct proper on-the-job training techniques
• Interpreting and over interpreting
• Understand how to evaluate the effectiveness
of employees' performances • How to maintain a lively climate

• Create a proper climate for coaching and • Reinforcement


training

• Conduct proper post training evaluation Appraising Performance


• How do we conduct performance appraisal
Who Should Attend
• The Work Performance
• First Level Manager
• The Specific Job Functions
Course Topics
• The Records of Outcome from OTJ and
Coaching
On-The-Job (OTJ) Training
• What is OTJ?
Post training evaluation and
feedback
• One to One Training
• The value of feedback
• Transaction Analysis for Supervisors as
Trainers • Positive versus negative feedback

• Developing Subordinates • What we know about providing feedback

The Characteristic of a Coach • Basic feedback techniques

• The Job Functions of a Coach • Observation and Interviewing techniques

• Measuring techniques

Acquiring Counselling Skills


• The 4-Base In Counselling

• The Counselling Process Listening

• Being non-judgmental

38
Fees: Follow-on programmes:
• Developing Managerial Skills
MIM Member: RM1,000
• Effective Negotiation
Non-Member: RM1,150
• Emotional Intelligence @ Work
Administrative Details

• Interpersonal Skills: Developing Effective Relationships @ Work


* 3 - 4 May 2006

• Skills for Managerial Success


* 16 - 17 October 2006

• Time Management & Personal Effectiveness

PSMB Scheme: • Assertiveness Skills for Managers

• SBL • Professional Image Development - Image Builds Business


Success

• Train-The-Trainer Programme

According to http://www.doi.gov/hrm/pmanager/ed6b.html, It is the responsibility of


supervisors and managers to utilize available resources to train, qualify, and develop their
employees.

On-the-job training (OJT) is one of the best training methods because it is planned,
organized, and conducted at the employee's worksite. OJT will generally be the primary
method used for broadening employee skills and increasing productivity. It is particularly
appropriate for developing proficiency skills unique to an employee's job - especially
jobs that are relatively easy to learn and require locally-owned equipment and facilities.

Morale, productivity, and professionalism will normally be high in those organizations


that employ a sound OJT program.

An analysis of the major job requirements (identified in the position description and
performance plan) and related knowledges, skills, and abilities form the basis for setting
up an OJT plan. To be most effective, an OJT plan should include:

• The subject to be covered;


• Number of hours;
• Estimated completion date; and
• Method by which the training will be evaluated

To have a successful OJT program, supervisors need to assign a coach to each employee
involved in OJT. It is the responsibility of the coach to plan training carefully and
conduct it effectively.

39
Training On the Job. Authors:
Walter, Diane Descriptors:
Delivery Systems; Instructional Development; Job Analysis; Learning Modules; Needs
Assessment; On the Job Training; Postsecondary Education; Task Analysis; Team
Training; Teamwork; Training Methods Source:
N/A More Info:
Help Peer-Reviewed:
More Info:
Help N/A Publisher:
American Society for Training and Development, 1640 King Street, Box 1443
Alexandria, Virginia, 22313-2043 ($42.95). Tel: 703-683-8100 or 800-628-2783 (Toll
free); Fax: 703-683-8103; Web site: http://www.astd.org/. Publication Date:
2002-00-00 Pages:
199 Pub Types:
Books; Guides - Non-Classroom Abstract:

This book provides training and development professionals with step-by-step guidelines
for developing and delivering comprehensive structured the on-the-job training (OJT).
Chapter 1 introduces the concept of team-driven structured OJT and discusses its
philosophy and basic components in the context of fundamental concepts of human
behavior and job-related conditions affecting task performance. Chapter 2 explains the
eight-step OJT model underpinning the book, which are as follows: (1) perform a needs
identification; (2) conduct a team job task analysis; (3) develop a project plan; (4) write
training module and cover sheets; (5) create a training implementation plan; (6) try out,
evaluate, and modify training modules and cover sheets; (7) set up maintenance and
evaluation plans; and (8) conduct OJT. Chapter 2 also outlines the roles and
responsibilities of the following key personnel in development and implementation of
team-driven structured OJT: design teams; design team facilitators; approval teams;
administrators; on-the-job trainers; in-house advocates; trainees; and supervisors and
managers. Chapters 3-10 each focus on one of the model's eight steps and each end with a
summary training module focused on implementing the process presented in the chapter.
Additional guidelines for writing training modules are appended. Numerous worksheets,
checklists, and case examples are included throughout the book. Twenty-six
tables/figures are presented, and 70 suggestions for further reading are listed. (MN)

Diane Walter, author of 'Training on the Job' advocates using work teams as a means of
implementing OJT. She suggests that teams should be used to assess jobs and the skills
required in the workplace, develop the training materials, and deliver the training. In this
way everyone is involved in the process, accuracy of needs and training is enhanced, and
the human factors of ownership and buy-in are increased. She explains that "Because of
the team aspect , people discussing the task, writing the modules, the procedures - it's a
dynamic system and you end up solving a lot of performance issues other than just
training".

40
In the traditional model of On the Job Training (OJT), to promote new work methods,
managers would send workers to a pre-prepared course in the new regulations,
procedures, or processes that were required (often at a different location from their place
of work). The staff member would then be expected to apply this abstracted knowledge
later in their workplace.

Freelance writer Russell Gerbman (2000), states "On the job training has changed over
the years, but never so drastically as in the past 5 years. Business is moving at the speed
of light, thanks to technology and a booming economy. Corporations and even small
businesses not only have a vested interest in recruiting the best for their companies, they
also need to keep employees working at the top of their games once they are hired".

More commonly now, OJT is being used as a means of:

• Using the workplace as the training venue;

• Using experienced employees to train others;

• Providing first-time, refresher and recurrent training on-site;

• Skilling and training staff while maintaining work outputs;

• Saving on training costs;

• Ensuring organisational consistency in training, workplace practices, methods,


values etc.;

• Providing training based on real-life work experiences and needs;

• Quickly and cost efficiently provide new skills and information as the need arises
e.g. the introduction of new computer programmes.

Using this method, training or instruction is given to individuals within the work setting,
usually by other staff members who are more experienced in a particular process, skill, or
knowledge area. The training is usually undertaken during work hours and aims to assist
individuals in developing the skills and knowledge necessary to carry out their daily
work. It is noted to be a very effective method for transferring knowledge and skills
within an organisation and for ensuring consistency in how work is completed.

To obtain the most benefit from OJT the practice should be based on:

• A training needs analysis;

• The performance objectives of the individual;

• The strategic goals of the organisation;

• The values and culture of the organisation.

41
Ronald Jacobs (Associate Professor of HR at Ohio State University) and Michael Jones
(Adjunct Professor of HR) (1997) identify four on the job training methods. These are:

• Single training programmes - the most commonly used method of the four, this is
used to address specific sets of skills on the job and when there is a need to gain
defined knowledge or skills.

• Multiple programmes - Using this method, several topics may be developed, each
addressing a specific job competency. There may be a specific sequence to the
training and together the topics may be thought of as a curriculum.

• Work process programmes - this method involves training staff in tasks related to
a work process as opposed to an entire job. Often the tasks are related to a
complete process and may be performed across different work areas.

• Combined training - using this method, on the job training may be used in
conjunction with off-site programmes.

OJT may also take the form of:

• Mentoring or 'buddying-up' with a more practiced staff member;

• Undertaking work under close supervision of another person and receiving


specific feedback on performance.

The aim of all these OJT initiatives is to ensure that the individual being trained has the
skills and knowledge necessary to complete the required work effectively, or to develop
these if they do not exist.

However, some pitfalls to this method have been identified. These include:

• Having two people do the work of one while the training is being conducted (50%
productivity);

• The use of instructors who have not been adequately trained in how to conduct
OJTP effectively;

• Instructors training others in 'how they would' complete a task rather than what
the company policy or procedure requires;

• Work outputs taking priority over the need for training;

• Not having the required resources, time, or people to conduct the training.

42
n-the-job training (OJT) is a training method that is planned, organized, and conducted
at the employee's worksite. OJT will generally be the primary method used for
broadening employee skills and increasing productivity. It is particularly appropriate for
developing proficiency skills unique to an employee's job - especially jobs that are
relatively easy to learn and require locally-owned equipment and facilities.

On-the-job training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work.

Compared to classroom or e-Learning, OJT provides deeper context and more cognitive
triggers for questions from the trainee as they struggle to perform a new task in the actual
work environment. e-Learning, in general, should be more scalable with its minimal
delivery cost. Like, OJT, classroom has the potential for one-to-one real-time interaction
with a subject matter expert; and should also be more scalable as it has a more favorable
instructor-to-student ratio. OJT on the other hand has a scalability plus in that it is
relatively easier to schedule, including “just in time” scenarios.

Links

• Training on the Job (http://books.google.com/books?id=wHjgg05dtUcC&dq=


%22training+on+the+job%22+walter) A book by Diane Walter for anyone who
wants to set up a successful on-the-job training program. This book includes an
eight-step model for setting up a structured, team-driven, on-the-job training
program, plus easy-to-understand templates, instructions, and checklists, and case
studies any size organization can apply. (224 pages)

• Unraveling the Five Myths about OJT


(http://www.ojttracker.com/myths2.pdf)Working paper, Charles Levine (4 pages)

• Tips for Structured On Job Training - Technical Training Tips


(http://www.peteblair.com/tips4.htm)On Line Resource For Designers,
Developers, and Training Managers

43