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# source: D.C.

pb.4

## The following data are direct solar intensity measurements on different

days at a location in southern Spain:
562
856
768
898
939

869
655
870
935
955

708
806
918
952
960

775
878
940
957
498

775
909
946
693
653

704
918
661
835
730

809
558
820
905
753

Calculate the sample mean and sample standard deviation. Prepare a dot diagram of
these data. Indicate where the sample mean falls on this diagram. Provide a practical
interpretation of the sample mean.
Construct a cumulative frequency plot and histogram for the solar intensity data. Use
6 bins
(a) Compute the sample mean, variance, and standard deviation.
(b) Find the sample upper and lower quartiles.
(c) Find the sample median.
(d) Construct a box plot of the data.
(e) Find the 5th and 95th percentiles.
Date reprezinta masuratori ale intensitatii razelor solare in diferite zile intr-o zona din
sudul Spaniei.
Calculati media si deviatia standard. Trasati diagrama prin puncte ale acestor valori.
Indicati unde este apare media pe aceste grafic. Oferiti o interpretare practica a mediei
Trasati histograma valorilor intensitatii solare si diagrama fercventelor cumulate. Folosind
6, respectiv 12 bin-uri
a) calculati media, variatia si deviatia standard; b) gasiti cuartila superioara si cea inferioara
c) calculati mediana; d) trasati graficul tip box-plot; e) gasiti percentilele 5 si 95

min
max
amplitude

498
960
462

1st quartile
3rd quartile

719
918

sample mean

810,51

variance
15995,2
median
835
mode
775

measurements

490

590

690

790

890

990

Cumulative
frequency
490
570
650
730
810
890
970

0
3
3
10
16
22
35

## before finish your

command press key
Ctrl+Shift+Enter
This will become an
array function

Frequencies
Bin
490
570
650
730
810
890
970
More

Frequency
0
3
0
7
6
6
13
0

490-570
570-650
650-730
730-810
810-890
890-970

## This table use Data Analysis from Data menu

Activate first Data Analysis option from Excel options
the press Go
After that should be appear in Data Analysis in Data
Use now Data -> Data Analysis -> Histogram
Input range: C5:I9
Bin Range: O5:O11
Output range: select area for display results

1
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
0,3

14

0,2

12

0,1

frequency

10
505
525
545
565
585
605
625
645
665
685
705
725
745
765
785
805
825
845
865
885
905
925
945
965
985

8
6
4

## Probability mass function

2
0

0,0035

490-570

0,003
0,0025
0,002
0,0015
0,001
0,0005
505
525
545
565
585
605
625
645
665
685
705
725
745
765
785
805
825
845
865
885
905
925
945
965
985

570-650

650-730

730-810

810-890

890-970

=NORMDIST(P15;\$M
\$12;\$M\$13;TRUE)

=NORMDIST(P15;\$
M\$12;\$M\$13;
FALSE)

490
495
500
505
510

Cumulative
distribution function
0,006248251
0,006969353
0,007762953
0,008635013
0,009591838

Probability mass
function
0,000137351
0,000151277
0,000166362
0,000182673
0,000200279

515

0,010640074

0,000219249

520

0,011786712

0,000239651

525

0,013039086

0,000261555

530

0,014404873

0,000285027

535
540
545
550
555
560
565
570
575
580
585
590
595
600
605
610
615
620
625
630
635
640
645
650

0,015892083
0,017509054
0,019264441
0,021167203
0,023226583
0,025452091
0,027853481
0,030440722
0,033223968
0,036213528
0,039419822
0,042853347
0,04652463
0,05044418
0,054622436
0,059069719
0,063796169
0,06881169
0,074125888
0,079748009
0,085686871
0,091950803
0,098547575
0,105484334

0,000310135
0,000336942
0,000365511
0,000395901
0,000428168
0,000462361
0,000498527
0,000536707
0,000576935
0,000619236
0,000663631
0,00071013
0,000758734
0,000809434
0,000862213
0,000917039
0,000973872
0,001032657
0,00109333
0,001155812
0,001220011
0,001285821
0,001353126
0,001421793

655

0,112767537

0,001491678

660
665
670
675
680
685

0,120402887
0,128395268
0,136748682
0,145466195
0,154549876
0,164000747

0,001562625
0,001634461
0,001707007
0,001780068
0,001853439
0,001926907

690

0,173818734

0,002000248

695
700
705
710
715
720
725
730
735
740
745
750
755
760
765
770
775
780
785
790
795
800
805
810
815
820
825
830
835
840
845
850
855
860
865
870
875
880
885
890
895
900
905
910
915
920
925
930
935
940
945
950
955
960
965

0,184002626
0,194550035
0,205457366
0,21671979
0,228331226
0,24028433
0,25257049
0,265179828
0,278101214
0,291322284
0,304829468
0,318608023
0,332642081
0,346914695
0,361407901
0,376102782
0,390979544
0,40601759
0,42119561
0,436491666
0,451883294
0,467347595
0,482861344
0,498401088
0,51394326
0,529464277
0,544940657
0,560349118
0,575666686
0,590870798
0,605939402
0,62085105
0,635584991
0,65012126
0,664440753
0,678525304
0,692357752
0,705922003
0,719203079
0,732187164
0,744861645
0,757215136
0,769237499
0,780919863
0,792254622
0,803235436
0,81385722
0,824116127
0,834009523
0,843535958
0,852695126
0,86148783
0,869915926
0,87798228
0,885690705

0,00207323
0,002145614
0,002217157
0,00228761
0,00235672
0,002424235
0,0024899
0,002553464
0,002614678
0,002673298
0,002729084
0,002781809
0,002831249
0,002877197
0,002919454
0,002957838
0,00299218
0,003022328
0,003048148
0,003069525
0,003086362
0,003098584
0,003106134
0,003108978
0,003107104
0,00310052
0,003089256
0,003073363
0,003052912
0,003027997
0,002998729
0,002965238
0,002927673
0,002886198
0,002840994
0,002792255
0,002740188
0,002685013
0,002626957
0,002566257
0,002503156
0,002437902
0,002370747
0,002301945
0,002231748
0,002160409
0,002088177
0,002015298
0,001942012
0,001868552
0,001795143
0,001722001
0,001649333
0,001577335
0,001506192

970
975
980
985
990
995
1000

0,89304591
0,900053433
0,906719583
0,91305137
0,91905644
0,924743014
0,930119814

0,001436075
0,001367145
0,001299549
0,001233421
0,001168882
0,001106039
0,001044987

skewness
kurtosis

-0,75223
-0,29608

Skewness: indicator used in distribution analysis as a sign of asymmetry and deviation from a normal distribution.
Interpretation:
Skewness > 0 - Right skewed distribution - most values are concentrated on left of the mean, with extreme values to the right.
Skewness < 0 - Left skewed distribution - most values are concentrated on the right of the mean, with extreme values to the
left.
Skewness = 0 - mean = median, the distribution is symmetrical around the mean.

## Kurtosis - indicator used in distribution analysis as a sign of flattening or "peakedness" of a distribution.

Interpretation:
Kurtosis > 3 - Leptokurtic distribution, sharper than a normal distribution, with values concentrated around the mean and
thicker tails. This means high probability for extreme values.
Kurtosis < 3 - Platykurtic distribution, flatter than a normal distribution with a wider peak. The probability for extreme values is
less than for a normal distribution, and the values are wider spread around the mean.
Kurtosis = 3 - Mesokurtic distribution - normal distribution for example.